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  • Blackwell Science Ltd  (720)
  • 2010-2014
  • 1990-1994  (720)
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  • 1994  (631)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Tryptamine dose-dependently increased phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis by approximately fourfold in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells (EC50 = 56 µM). The PI response stimulated by tryptamine was dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ and Na+. Tryptamine-induced PI breakdown could be partially inhibited by pretreatment with 4β-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate but not pertussis toxin. The presence of tryptamine markedly attenuated PI responses induced by norepinephrine (NE) and carbachol, with no apparent effect on the responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine and glutamate. The inhibition of NE- and carbachol-induced PI turnover by tryptamine was dose dependent with IC50 values of ∼0.4 and ∼2.5 mM, respectively. Pretreatment of cells with tryptamine (0.5 mM) also attenuated NE- and carbachol-induced PI turnover, but failed to affect 5-hydroxytryptamine- and glutamate-induced responses. Furthermore, ketanserin, atropine, and prazosin did not have any effect on inositol phosphate formation induced by tryptamine. These observations indicate that tryptamine markedly increased Ca2+- and Na+-dependent PI turnover in cerebellar neurons and selectively inhibited NE- and carbachol-induced PI hydrolysis.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Effects of ascorbic acid (AA) on 125I-SCH 23982 binding to D1 dopaminergic receptors in membrane preparations from rat striatum were investigated. AA in the range of 0.03 µM–0.33 mM inhibited 75% of specific binding of 125I-SCH 23982 in a dose-dependent manner. At higher concentrations, this inhibition of binding activity by AA was less potent, and 3.3 mM AA inhibited only 30% of specific binding. Reduced glutathione did not alter the inhibition of binding by 0.33 mM AA, but reduced the inhibition by 3.3 mM AA to 8% of specific binding. The loss of specific binding by AA was rescued by 1 mM EDTA, an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. In the absence of AA, competition experiments with the agonist, dopamine, revealed the presence of high-affinity (Kh = 224.9 ± 48.9 nM) and low-affinity (Kl = 21,100 ± 2,400 nM) binding sites. Although the maximum binding of 125I-SCH 23982 decreased to 40% without affecting the KD value in the presence of 1.67 mM AA, the value of the high-affinity site for dopamine was increased (Kh = 23.3 ± 9.4 nM) and that of the low-affinity site was decreased (Kl = 136,800 ± 40,900 nM). These results suggest that AA may affect D1 dopamine receptor function by lipid peroxidation, competition with dopamine for low-affinity sites, and reduced oxidation of dopamine.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Previous research has shown that systemically administered antipsychotic drugs enhance dopamine release from the nigrostriatal and mesocortical dopamine pathways. However, the degree of enhancement differs as a function of the drug used (atypical versus typical antipsychotic) and the dopamine pathway examined. The present studies examined whether these differences result from differential actions of these drugs on dopamine terminal regions. Clozapine or haloperidol was infused locally into the caudate-putamen or prefrontal cortex through reverse microdialysis. Although both drugs increased extracellular dopamine levels, clozapine produced greater effects than haloperidol in the prefrontal cortex, whereas haloperidol produced greater effects in the caudate-putamen. These results suggest that neurochemical differences within dopamine terminal regions may explain the differential actions of antipsychotic drugs on striatal and cortical dopamine release.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Production and metabolism of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the fetal rat brain under normal and under ischemic stress conditions were examined. Endogenous PAF levels, determined by a bioassay using PAF-stimulated platelet release of [3H]serotonin, averaged 2.32 ± 2.14 pg/mg in control brains and was reduced to 1.10 ± 1.06 pg/mg after 20 min of maternal-fetal blood flow occlusion. [3H]PAF administered intracranially into the fetuses in utero was removed in a biphasic, time-dependent manner: a rapid component with an estimated elimination rate constant of 0.067 min−1 and t1/2 of 10 min and a slower component with an elimination rate of 0.017 min−1 and t1/2 of 41 min. In fetal brains subjected to ischemia a delayed elimination of [3H]PAF was noticed in the slow component (t1/2 = 59 min), indicating a possible difference between the clearance of exogenous and endogenous PAF. The disappearance of [3H]PAF was accompanied by an increase in the radioactivity associated with lyso-PAF that reached a plateau after 2.5 min, possibly indicating the degradation of the fast component. A steady increase in the alkyl-acyl-glycerophosphorylcholine radioactivity commenced after 5 min and continued up to 30 min. The endogenous production of PAF and the rapid degradation due to maternal-fetal blood flow occlusion indicate an additional target for therapeutic intervention in the pathology of intrauterine ischemia. Addition of the calcium ionophore A23187 stimulated in vitro formation of PAF and lyso-PAF from [3H]-choline-labeled fetal brain phospholipids, suggesting that intracellular calcium may play a major stimulatory role in PAF production. Degradation of polyphosphoinositides by a phospholipase C may constitute a major target for PAF generated either by decapitation or after blood flow occlusion, as evident from the protective effect of the in vivo administered BN52021 PAF antagonist.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: In vivo brain microdialysis experiments were performed in the gerbil to evaluate the origin of accumulation of extracellular glutamate under transient ischemia. Microdialysis probes were positioned in the CA1 field of the hippocampus in which proliferation of astrocytes, death of CA1 pyramidal neurons, and damage of presynaptic terminals had been induced by 5-min ischemia 10–14 days before the microdialysis experiment; in the white matter of the cerebral cortex, which contained few neurons, few presynaptic terminals, and many astrocytes; or in the histologically normal CA1 field of the hippocampus, and then 5- or 20-min ischemia was induced. When 5-min ischemia was induced, no significant increase in glutamate content was observed in the CA1 field that showed proliferation of astrocytes, death of CA1 pyramidal neurons, and damage of presynaptic terminals and in the white matter of the cerebral cortex, whereas a significant increase in glutamate (15-fold) was observed in the histologically normal CA1 field. When 20-min ischemia was induced, no significant increase in glutamate content was observed in the CA1 field that showed proliferation of astrocytes, death of CA1 pyramidal neurons, and damage of presynaptic terminals and in the white matter during the first 10 min after the onset of 20-min ischemia, but remarkable ischemia-induced increases in glutamate were observed during the last 10 min of 20-min ischemia in both areas. An excessive increase in glutamate (100-fold) was observed during 20-min ischemia in the normal CA1 field of the hippocampus. When a probe was positioned in the CA1 field of the hippocampus in which presynaptic terminals of Schaffer collaterals and commissural fibers had been eliminated by bilateral kainate injections into the lateral ventricles 4–7 days before the microdialysis experiment and then 5-min ischemia was induced, a significant increase in glutamate was observed during the last half of 5-min ischemia. These results suggest that the efflux of glutamate from astrocytes does not contribute to the large ischemia-induced glutamate accumulation in the CA1 field of the hippocampus during 5-min ischemia but contributes to the ischemia-induced increase in glutamate level during ischemia with a longer duration and that ischemia-induced efflux of glutamate in the CA1 field during 5-min ischemia originates mainly from neuronal elements: presynaptic terminals and postsynaptic neurons.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: A defect in energy metabolism may play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we examined the activities of the enzymes that catalyze oxidative phosphorylation in frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital cortex from Alzheimer's disease patients and age-matched controls. Complex I and complex II–III activities showed a small decrease in occipital cortex, but were unaffected in the other cortical areas. The most consistent change was a significant decrease of cytochrome oxidase (complex IV) activity of 25–30% in the four cortical regions examined. These results provide further evidence of a cytochrome oxidase defect in Alzheimer's disease postmortem brain tissue. A deficiency in this key energy-metabolizing enzyme could lead to a reduction in energy stores and thereby contribute to the neurodegenerative process.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Injection of large doses of ammonia into rats leads to depletion of brain ATP. However, the molecular mechanism leading to ATP depletion is not clear. The aim of the present work was to assess whether ammonium-induced depletion of ATP is mediated by activation of the NMDA receptor. It is shown that injection of MK-801, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor, prevented ammonia-induced ATP depletion but did not prevent changes in glutamine, glutamate, glycogen, glucose, and ketone bodies. Ammonia injection increased Na+,K+-ATPase activity by 76%. This increase was also prevented by previous injection of MK-801. The molecular mechanism leading to activation of the ATPase was further studied. Na+,K+-ATPase activity in samples from ammonia-injected rats was normalized by “in vitro” incubation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, an activator of protein kinase C. The results obtained suggest that ammonia-induced ATP depletion is mediated by activation of the NMDA receptor, which results in decreased protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of Na+,K+-ATPase and, therefore, increased activity of the ATPase and increased consumption of ATP.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: GABAA and benzodiazepine receptors are allosterically coupled, and occupation of either receptor site increases the affinity of the other. Chronic exposure of primary neuronal cultures to benzodiazepine agonists reduces these allosteric interactions. Neurons express multiple GABAA receptor subunits, and it has been suggested that uncoupling is due to changes in the subunit composition of the receptor. To determine if uncoupling could be observed with expression of defined subunits, mouse Ltk− cells stably transfected with GABAA receptors (bovine α1, β1, and γ2L subunits) were treated with flunitrazepam (Flu) or clonazepam. The increase in [3H]Flu binding affinity caused by GABA (GABA shift or coupling) was significantly reduced in cells treated chronically with the benzodiazepines, whereas the KD and Bmax of [3H]Flu binding were unaffected. The uncoupling caused by clonazepam treatment occurred rapidly with a t1/2 of ∼30 min. The EC50 for clonazepam treatment was ∼0.3 µM, and cotreatment with the benzodiazepine antagonist Ro 15-1788 (5.6 µM) prevented the effect of clonazepam. The uncoupling observed in this system was not accompanied by receptor internalization, is unlikely to be due to changes in receptor subunit composition, and probably represents posttranslational changes. The rapid regulation of allosteric coupling by benzodiazepine treatment of the stably transfected cells should provide insights to the mechanisms of coupling between GABAA and benzodiazepine receptors as well as benzodiazepine tolerance.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We report here the characterization of a full-length cDNA encoding the human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). The sequence of the coding region of the human MOG cDNA is highly homologous to that of other previously cloned mouse, rat, and bovine MOG cDNAs, but the 3′ untranslated region differs by an insertion of an Alu sequence between nucleotides 1,590 and 1,924. Accordingly, northern blot analyzes with cDNA probes corresponding to the coding region or the 3′ untranslated Alu-containing sequence revealed a single band of 2 kb, rather than the 1.6 kb of bovine, rat, or mouse MOG cDNA(s). Immunocytochemical analysis of HeLa cells transfected with human MOG cDNA, which was performed using a specific antibody raised against whole MOG, clearly indicated that MOG is expressed at the cell surface as an intrinsic protein. These data are in accordance with the predicted amino acid sequence, which contains a signal peptide and two putative transmembrane domains. The knowledge of the human MOG sequence should facilitate further investigations on its potential as a target antigen in autoimmune demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: With the use of the single-cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the GABAA receptor subunit mRNA content was analyzed in granule and Purkinje neurons from rat cerebellar slices. We used an experimental protocol to assess simultaneously the presence of two subunits in each cell while electrophysiological recordings were performed with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Based on a computer alignment of the nucleotide sequence corresponding to α1 and α6 GABAA receptor subunits, homologous regions were identified that allowed coamplification of both mRNAs using a single primer combination. The presence of selective restriction sites within the targeted templates allowed us to identify which receptor subunit mRNAs were coamplified by performing restriction enzyme-mediated cleavage of the amplification products. In all Purkinje neurons assayed, α1 subunit mRNA but not α6 mRNA was detected. In contrast, among individual granule neurons we found a heterogeneous distribution of the mRNA for the α1 and α6 GABAA receptor subunits. A comparison of the results of the PCR amplification and the analysis of GABA-mediated inhibitory synaptic currents does not allow us to identify kinetic characteristics of synaptic currents that clearly correlate with the presence or the absence of α6 subunit mRNA.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Valproic acid (VPA) is a fatty acid antiepileptic with demonstrated antimanic properties, but the molecular mechanism or mechanisms underlying its therapeutic efficacy remain to be elucidated. In view of the increasing evidence demonstrating effects of the first-line antimanic drug, lithium, on protein kinase C (PKC), we investigated the effects of VPA on various aspects of this enzyme. Chronic exposure (6–7 days) of rat C6 glioma cells to “therapeutic” concentrations (0.6 mM) of VPA resulted in decreased PKC activity in both membrane and cytosolic fractions and increased the cytosol/membrane ratio of PKC activity. Western blot analysis revealed isozyme-selective decreases in the levels of PKC α and ε (but not δ or ζ) in both the membrane and cytosolic fractions after chronic VPA exposure; VPA added to reaction mixtures did not alter PKC activity or 3H-phorbol ester binding. Together, these data suggest that chronic VPA indirectly lowers the levels of specific isozymes of PKC in C6 cells. Given the pivotal role of PKC in regulating neuronal signal transduction and modulating intracellular cross-talk between neurotransmitter systems, the specific decreases in PKC α and ε may play a role in the antimanic effects of VPA.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Apoptotic cell death has recently been implicated in diseases involving nonproliferating, terminally differentiated cells such as neurons. Previous experiments have documented that immunoglobulins from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) can kill motoneuron-neuroblastoma hybrid cells [ventral spinal cord 4.1 (VSC 4.1)] by a calcium-dependent process. Here, we studied the mechanism of ALS IgG-induced cell death. In the presence of ALS IgG the VSC 4.1 cells undergo cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing, which are morphological features of apoptotic cell death. The damaged cells can be identified by in situ end labeling of nicked DNA and biochemically show laddering on agarose gel electrophoresis. This ALS IgG-triggered process is prevented by cycloheximide, aurintricarboxylic acid, and zinc sulfate. These data demonstrate that immunoglobulins from patients with ALS are able to induce apoptosis in motoneuron hybrid cells and provide a potential mechanism for motoneuron degeneration in human ALS.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 63 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 63 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The ability of receptors coupled to phosphoinositide turnover to evoke accumulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) over extended incubation periods, and consequently to affect the level of InsP3 receptor expression, was studied in cultured cerebellar granule cells. The cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh; 1 mM) evoked a biphasic accumulation of InsP3, a rapid three- to fourfold peak increase over control levels at ∼10 s, decreasing within 1 min to a long-lasting plateau elevation. Using an antibody against the type I InsP3 receptor, it was demonstrated that 〉50% down-regulation of type I InsP3 receptor expression in cerebellar granule cells occurred within 1 h of incubation with 1 mM CCh. Over 24 h, 1 mM CCh caused an ∼85% decrease in type I InsP3 receptor levels, and significant decreases in immunoreactivity were evident at much lower concentrations of CCh. Direct assessment of total InsP3 receptor expression using a radioligand binding method also detected down-regulation, but to an apparently lesser extent. 1-Aminocyclopentane-1S,3R-dicarboxylic acid (200 µM), an agonist of metabotropic glutamate receptors, evoked a marked decrease in type I InsP3 receptors after 24 h of incubation. These findings demonstrate that a functional consequence of maintained InsP3 production in cerebellar granule cells is the down-regulation of InsP3 receptor expression and that this down-regulation may be a common mechanism of action of phosphoinositide-linked receptors during prolonged stimulation.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 63 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 63 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We have expressed and biochemically characterized the human D2long (D2L) dopamine receptor isoform using the baculovirus/Sf9 cell system. The expressed receptor bound ligands with a pharmacological profile similar to that reported for neuronal and cloned D2L receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines. Dopamine binding to D2L receptor was sensitive to guanine nucleotides, indicating receptor coupling to endogenous G proteins. A D2L receptor-specific antibody identified two major protein species at ∼44 kDa and at ∼93 kDa in immunoblots, suggesting the presence of D2L receptor monomers and dimers. Both species were purified by immunoprecipitation from digitonin-solubilized preparation of cells expressing D2L receptor prelabeled with 32Pi or [3H]-palmitate. These results constitute the first direct evidence for D2L receptor phosphorylation and palmitoylation.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The rat phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) gene was isolated from a genomic library by cross-hybridization with a bovine PNMT cDNA probe. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of a genomic clone showed that this gene contained three exons and spanned about 2.8 kb in length. There were the acute-phase response element, TATA, SP1, and GRE sequences. The physicochemical properties of rat adrenal PNMT were different from those of the brainstem PNMT. However, northern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the rat PNMT gene may not express the multiple forms of mRNA. These results suggest that the rat PNMT gene might produce a single enzyme protein, whose activity may be differentially modulated by tissue-specific environment in the central and peripheral systems.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We have adopted a polymerase chain reaction approach to identify and clone a cDNA that contains the complete coding sequence of a novel fatty acid binding protein (FABP) from a rat brain λgt10 library. Sequencing of the brain FABP (B-FABP) cDNA revealed an open reading frame coding for a protein with 132 amino acids and a predicted size of ∼15,000 Da. This putative protein shares extensive sequence homology with other members of the FABP family. Northern blot analysis using the B-FABP cDNA as a probe established the presence of an abundant mRNA ∼0.8 kb long in rat brain and in the MOCH-1 oligodendrocyte cell line. This transcript was also present in rat liver but not in other tissues examined. A developmental profile of this mRNA in rat brain demonstrated detectable expression in 15-day-old embryos with levels peaking in 1-day postnatal neonates and declining thereafter, reaching a low steady-state level at 3 weeks of age. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed B-FABP mRNA in various brain regions, with the highest levels in fiber tracts. The B-FABP message was also detected at a lower level in several gray matter regions. The cloning approach used in this study would likely be useful in the identification and isolation of FABP-encoding genes from other tissues and species.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 63 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Synapsins are neuron-specific phosphoproteins associated with small synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic nerve terminal. Synapsin I, which has been demonstrated to bundle F-actin in vitro, has been postulated to regulate neurotransmitter release by cross-linking synaptic vesicles to the actin cytoskeleton. To investigate the possible interaction of synapsin II with actin filaments, we expressed synapsin II in Spodoptera frugiperda and High Five insect cells using a recombinant baculovirus. Purified recombinant synapsin IIa was incubated with F-actin, and bundle formation was evaluated by light scattering and electron microscopy. Synapsin IIa was found to bundle actin filaments. Dose-response curves indicated that synapsin IIa was more potent than synapsin I in bundling actin filaments. These data suggest that synapsin IIa may cross-link synaptic vesicles and actin filaments in the nerve terminal.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: (−)-Deprenyl, a monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor, has been shown to increase neuronal survival and to alter protein synthesis and gene expression in astrocytic or PC12 cells independently of MAO-B inhibition. We used serum and nerve growth factor withdrawal to induce apoptotic death in PC12 cells to determine whether (−)-deprenyl increases neuronal survival by reducing apoptosis. (−)-Deprenyl reduced both cell death and internucleosomal DNA degradation in a concentration-dependent manner and was effective at concentrations too low to inhibit MAO (〈10−9M). (+)-Deprenyl did not increase PC12 cell survival, and, with the exception of pargyline, other MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitors did not alter apoptotic death. Transcriptional and translational inhibition showed that the reduction in apoptosis required the induction of new protein synthesis by (−)-deprenyl. Increased survival was induced if transcription was maintained for 4 h and translation for 6 h after (−)-deprenyl addition. The findings suggest that transcriptional induction may underlie the other MAO-independent actions of (−)-deprenyl.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: 3-Methoxytyramine (3-MT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) rates of formation were used, respectively, to assess the dynamics of dopamine (DA) release and turnover in the rat frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and striatum. Assuming total (re)uptake and metabolism of released DA are relatively uniform among the three brain regions, a simplified two pool model was used to assess the metabolic fate of released DA. Under basal conditions, 3-MT formation was found to comprise 〉60% of total DA turnover (sum of 3-MT plus DOPAC rates of formation) in the frontal cortex, and not more than 15% in the nucleus accumbens and striatum. Haloperidol increased the 3-MT rate of formation to a greater extent in the frontal cortex than in the two other regions. Clozapine increased the 3-MT rate of formation in the frontal cortex and decreased it in the striatum. Both drugs increased DOPAC rate of formation in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. It was elevated by haloperidol but not clozapine in the striatum. It is concluded that (1) O-methylation is a prominent step in the catabolism of DA in the frontal cortex under both physiological conditions and after acute treatment with antipsychotics, (2) 3-MT is the major metabolite of released DA in the frontal cortex and possibly also in the nucleus accumbens and striatum, (3) in contrast to the frontal cortex, most of the DOPAC in the nucleus accumbens and striatum appear to originate from intraneuronal deamination of DA that has not been released, (4) because presynaptic uptake and metabolism of DA give rise to DOPAC, whereas postsynaptic uptake and metabolism produced both DOPAC and 3-MT, the ratio of 3-MT to DOPAC rates of formation can be a useful index of reuptake inhibition.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Using the highly sensitive HPLC-fluorophotometry technique, anterograde and retrograde axonal transport of carboxypeptidase H (CPH), a putative pro-hormone processing enzyme that removes a basic amino acid from the C-terminus of a precursor peptide, was measured 12–72 h after double ligations of rat sciatic nerves. CPH-like activity in rat sciatic nerves was 60-fold lower than that in the pituitary gland. CPH-like enzyme activity was rapidly accumulated in the proximal segment and peaked 48 h after ligation. The axonal flow was 100 mm/day, indicating that CPH in rat sciatic nerves is rapidly transported to the nerve terminals as an active form. The properties of the enzyme were similar to those of CPH in the brain: The pH optimum is at 5.5, and the molecular mass is ∼50 kDa. These results suggest that active CPH in the PNS is transported by a rapid anterograde axonal flow and may play a role in converting proneuropeptides to active neuropeptides under the axonal transport.
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 63 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Recent evidence suggests that the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) is elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. IL-6 is produced by reactive glial cells and could potentially affect neuronal survival. Understanding the biochemical mechanism that regulates the production and release of IL-6 by astrocytic cells may help to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention in AD. In the present study, glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive human U373MG astrocytoma cells were used as a model of reactive astrocytes. Production of IL-6 in response to drug treatment was monitored with an ELISA assay. Histamine (1–100 µM), substance P (SP; 1–100 nM), and human interleukin-1β (IL-1β; 1–30 pM) stimulated the release of IL-6 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with EC50 values of 4.5 µM, 8 nM, and 4.5 pM, respectively. The respective effects of histamine, SP, and IL-1β were effectively blocked by the histamine H1, SP, and IL-1 receptor antagonists, supporting a receptor-mediated event for these agents. Both histamine and SP enhanced the formation of inositol phosphates and increase intracellular calcium levels, suggesting that the phosphatidyl-inositol bisphosphate/protein kinase C pathway may be involved in the IL-6 release process. Indeed, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a protein kinase C activator, also evoked IL-6 release from the U373MG cells. On the other hand, IL-1β, which produces a much more robust release of IL-6 than histamine or SP, has no effect on inositol phosphate formation or intracellular calcium levels. The biochemical mechanism of the release of IL-6 in response to IL-1β remains to be elucidated.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We studied the effect of cultured endothelial cells on the secretion of catecholamines by cultured bovine chromaffin cells. Chromaffin cell catecholamine secretion was stimulated by either boluses of potassium (K+) or the nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP). Endothelial cells inhibited the catecholamine release and stimulatory effects of K+ and DMPP. This inhibition increased with time, and in 25 min the initial stimulated secretory response (100%) to 30 mM K+ or 25 μM DMPP dropped to 45 ± 3% and 53.5 ± 2.3%, respectively. This endothelial cell-induced inhibition was blocked by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and N-monoethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), and by the guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue, indicating that the l-arginine/nitric oxide/ cyclic GMP pathway is involved in this endothelial cell-chromaffin cell interaction. In the absence of endothelial cells, incubation of chromaffin cells with l-NAME, l-NMMA, or methylene blue also augmented the secretagogue-induced catecholamine secretion, indicating that nitric oxide from chromaffin cells could be implicated in an autoinhibitory process of catecholamine release. These results provide indirect evidence for the presence of nitric oxide synthase in bovine adrenomedullary chromaffin cells. Our results show that there is an autoinhibitory mechanism of catecholamine release in chromaffin cells and that an additional level of inhibition is observed when cultured vascular endothelial cells are present. These two inhibitory processes may have different origins, but they appear to converge into a common pathway, the l-arginine/nitric oxide synthase/guanylate cyclase pathway.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The time course of changes in extracellular glutamic acid levels and their Ca2+ dependency were studied in the rat striatum during focal cerebral ischaemia, using microdialysis. Ischaemia-induced changes were compared with those produced by high K+-evoked local depolarization. To optimize time resolution, glutamate was analysed continuously as the dialysate emerged from the microdialysis probe by either enzyme fluorimetry or biosensor. The Ca2+ dependency of glutamate changes was examined by perfusing the probe with Ca2+-free medium. With normal artificial CSF, ischaemia produced a biphasic increase in extracellular glutamate, which started from the onset of ischaemia. During the first phase lasting ∼10 min, dialysate glutamate level increased from 5.8 ± 0.9 µM· min−1 to 35.8 ± 6.2 µM where it stabilized for ∼3 min. During the second phase dialysate glutamate increased progressively to its maximum (82 ± 8 µM), reached after 55 min of ischaemia, where it remained for as long as it was recorded (3 h). The overall changes in extracellular glutamate were similar when Ca2+ was omitted from the perfusion medium, except that the first phase was no longer detectable and, early in ischaemia, extracellular glutamate increased at a significantly slower rate than in the control group (2.2 ± 1 µM· min−1; p 〈 0.05). On the basis of these data, we propose that most of the glutamate released in the extracellular space in severe ischaemia is of metabolic origin, probably originating from both neurons and glia, and caused by altered glutamate uptake mechanisms. Comparison with high K+-induced glutamate release did not suggest that glutamate “exocytosis,” early after middle cerebral artery occlusion, was markedly limited by deficient ATP levels.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) was studied in the gerbil hippocampus and striatum after transient ischemia. Western immunoblot analysis shows that there is a significant decrease of MAP-2 in the dorsolateral sector of the striatum and a slight decrease of MAP-2 in the CA1 region of the hippocampus 6–12 h after ischemia in the gerbil forebrain. The immunohistochemical staining pattern of MAP-2 in these two regions also shows a loss of immunostaining of MAP-2. In particular, a beaded MAP-2 immunostaining pattern at the apical dendritic region of the CA1 neurons of the hippocampus was found within 12 h after ischemia compared with the smooth dendritic immunostaining of MAP-2 in normal CA1 neurons. In vitro assays of MAP-2 degradation suggest that dendritic loss of immunoreactivity after ischemia seen on western blots may be due to calpain I degradation of MAP-2. Loss of MAP-2 in both the striatum and hippocampus was found to occur earlier than spectrin degradation by western blot analysis. These results suggest that loss of MAP-2 may participate in the initial phase of neuronal dysfunction and that dendritic breakdown may be a first sign of neurodegeneration.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the survival of dopamine (DA) neurons, enhances expression of DA neuron characteristics, and protects these cells from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxicity in vitro. We tested the ability of BDNF or neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) to exert similar protective effects in vivo during chronic delivery of 6-OHDA to the rat neostriatum. Chronic infusions of BDNF or NT-3 (12 µg/day) above the substantia nigra were started 6 days before and continued during an 8-day chronic intrastriatal infusion of 6-OHDA. In control and neurotrophin-treated animals, 6-OHDA treatment selectively depleted 50–60% of nigrostriatal DA nerve terminals but produced little if any loss of pars compacta DA cell bodies. This partial DA lesion resulted in three rotations per minute toward the lesioned hemisphere after treatment with the DA release-inducing drug d-amphetamine. Compared with supranigral infusions of vehicle, BDNF and NT-3 decreased the number of these ipsiversive rotations by 70 and 48% and increased by 20- and 10-fold, respectively, the number of contraversive rotations observed after amphetamine injection. When challenged with the DA receptor agonist apomorphine, BDNF- and NT-3-treated animals also exhibited a seven- and 3.5-fold increase in the number of contraversive rotations relative to the vehicle group, respectively. Compared with vehicle, BDNF increased striatal levels of homovanillic acid (HVA; 86%), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC; 42%), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA; 32%) and the HVA/DA (43%) and 5-HIAA/serotonin (34%) ratios in the DA-denervated striatum. NT-3 augmented only striatal 5-HIAA levels (24%). Neither factor altered the 6-OHDA-induced decrease in striatal DA levels or high-affinity DA uptake and thus did not protect against the destruction of DA terminals and did not alter striatal D1 or D2 ligand binding. Choline, GABA, and glutamate uptake in the striatum were not altered by the lesion or neurotrophin treatment. Thus, BDNF and to a lesser extent NT-3 reverse rotational behavioral deficits and augment striatal DA and 5-HT metabolism in a partial DA lesion model.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) inhibited synaptosomal respiration in a dose-dependent manner; the degree of inhibition by the same concentration of the compound was greater, however, when respiration was stimulated by concomitant increase in ATP usage. The most rapid event after addition of 3-NPA was a decrease in [creatine phosphate]/[creatine] ([CrP]/[Cr]) and an increase in [lactate]/[pyruvate]. A fall in [ATP]/[ADP] and [GTP]/[GDP] was initially less pronounced but closely followed that in [CrP]/[Cr]. In the absence of glutamine, 3-NPA caused a pronounced decrease in internal aspartate level and a small reduction in glutamate concentration, whereas [GABA] rose; the sum of these three amino acids inside synaptosomes fell, but there were no increases in their external levels. With glutamine in the medium, the reduction in intrasynaptosomal aspartate was accompanied by increases in intrasynaptosomal glutamate and GABA. The external concentration of glutamate rose substantially in the presence of the inhibitor. 3-NPA had no effect on basal release of either glutamate (and GABA) or biogenic amines but increased efflux occurring upon addition of nonsaturating concentrations of the depolarizing agents veratridine and KCI. The results allow the following predictions with respect to the behavior of brain metabolism in neurodegenerative diseases that involve restrictions of mitochondrial function: (1) The extent of inhibition of mitochondrial ATP generation is expected to be greater in cells with high energy demand. The earliest signs of impairment of the respiratory chain function are a fall in [PCr]/[Cr] (or a rise in [Pi]/[CrP]) and an increase in [lactate]/[pyruvate]. (2) A fall in [GTP]/[GDP] can limit protein synthesis. This may be one of the factors that contributes to cell death. (3) An increase in the concentration of inorganic phosphate stimulates neuronal glutaminase activity and leads to a release of glutamate into the external environment; the latter could activate excitatory amino acid receptors. (4) A lowered energy level limits the cell's ability to restore ion gradients. Stimulated release of transmitters from neurons may, therefore, be enhanced and their reuptake delayed.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The inhibition by cocaine of the apparent initial rate of the transport of striatal dopamine was compared with inhibitions produced by cocaethylene, benztropine, GBR-12909, mazindol, and nomifensine. Rotating disk electrode voltammetry was used to measure the kinetically resolved, inwardly directed transport of dopamine in striatal suspensions. Evidence is presented that the primary site of action of cocaine may be at the external face of the transporter. Experiments to determine whether or not the other inhibitors bind to the same site as cocaine were conducted by comparing the inhibitions observed for each of the inhibitors alone with that observed when paired with cocaine. The resulting changes in the velocity of the transport of dopamine induced by the inhibitors were then fit to one of the previously developed models of inhibition by pairs of inhibitors affecting the kinetics of actively transporting systems: a single-site model, a two-site model in which the two binding sites for the inhibitors interact, and a two-site model in which the two binding sites for the two inhibitors act independently. Cocaine inhibited the transport of dopamine competitively with its structural analogues, cocaethylene and benztropine. The structurally dissimilar inhibitor, GBR-12909, was found also to be competitive with cocaine. In contrast, mazindol and nomifensine were found to bind to separate interactive sites when individually paired with cocaine. These results suggest that mazindol and nomifensine may interact with the kinetically active transporter for dopamine in a manner different from that of cocaine. Mazindol was tested and found to inhibit competitively the inward transport of dopamine into striatal suspensions. In contrast, our previous published findings show cocaine to be an uncompetitive inhibitor of the transport of striatal dopamine. These results suggest that cocaine inhibits inward transport of dopamine by reducing the intramembrane turnover of the transporter, whereas mazindol alters the kinetics of the recognition of dopamine by the transporter. Finally, the potential effects of these binding modes of inhibitors on synaptic chemical communication in dopaminergic systems were analyzed. The results of these analyses suggest that different effects on the extracellular concentrations of dopamine can result from the different patterns of inhibition, suggesting that different modulatory influences on pre- and postsynaptic receptor occupation can result from inhibition of the transport of dopamine.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: In this work, we have studied the effects of pure nitric oxide (NO) on the regulation of catecholamine (CA) secretion by chromaffin cells, as well as the possible presence of its synthesizing enzyme l-arginine:NO synthase (NOS) in these cells. Our results show that NO produces a large stimulation of basal CA secretion. This effect was calcium- and concentration-dependent (EC50 = 64 ± 8 µM) and was not due to nonspecific damage of the tissue by NO. NO also modulates the CA secretion evoked by nicotine in a dose-dependent manner. Although it has a stimulatory effect on the CA secretion evoked by low doses of nicotine (〈3 µM; EC50 = 16 ± 3 µM), it produces a dose-dependent inhibition of the CA secretion induced by high doses of nicotine (≥30 µM; IC50 = 52 ± 6 µM). The mechanism by which NO modulates CA secretion seems to be through the increase in the cyclic GMP levels, because there was a close correlation between the CA secretion and the cyclic GMP levels. The presence of a specific activity of NOS in chromaffin cells has been demonstrated by two independent methods: release of [14C]citruiline from [14C]arginine and formation of an NO-hemoglobin complex. NOS activity was about 0.5 pmol/min/mg of protein. It was calcium- and mainly calmodulin-dependent and could be specifically blocked by the NOS inhibitor N-methyl-l-arginine. These results suggest that NO could be an important intracellular messenger in the regulation of neurosecretion in chromaffin cells.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Patients with diabetes are predisposed to microvascular disease. In the retina and brain, this is characterized by neovascularization and new capillary formation. Because of the potential importance of plasmin generation in these processes, we evaluated the effect of elevated glucose concentrations on expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and urokinase (uPA) in cultured bovine brain endothelial cells (BBEC) versus cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). We observed that BBEC PAI-1 mRNA levels were decreased fivefold in cells cultured in media containing 20 mM glucose compared with BBEC cultured in media with 5.5 mM glucose, whereas expression of PAI-1 mRNA in BAEC, bovine mesenteric endothelial cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells was not modulated under these conditions. Expression of PAI-1 protein was also inhibited by growth of BBEC in elevated glucose, but the effect was less marked than at the mRNA level. Elevated glucose did not decrease expression of PAI-1 protein by BAEC. Withdrawal of acidic fibroblast growth factor enhanced expression of PAI-1 mRNA and protein in BBEC. Expression of tPA mRNA was not affected by the glucose concentration of the medium, and uPA mRNA was not detected in our BBEC cultures. A decrease in the local tissue activity of PAI-1 by elevated glucose concentrations, with no effect on tPA or uPA expression, would lead to an increase in the plasmin activity and thereby predispose neural tissues, such as the cerebrum and retina, of diabetic patients to neovascularization.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Glucocorticoids have been shown to exacerbate the damaging effects of a variety of neurotoxic insults in the hippocampus and other brain areas. Evidence suggests that the endangering effects of glucocorticoids may be due to augmenting the cascade of events, such as elevations in intracellular calcium levels, because of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor stimulation. A potential mechanism responsible for EAA-induced neuronal damage is activation of calcium-sensitive proteases, such as calpain, which then proteolytically degrade cytoskeleton structural proteins, such as spectrin. The present study was designed to determine if glucocorticoids can regulate the spectrin proteolysis produced by the EAA agonist, kainic acid. Rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham operated and 7 days later injected with kainic acid (10 mg/kg). Twenty-four hours later rats were killed and tissues obtained for western blot analyses of the intact spectrin molecule and the proteolytically derived breakdown products. Kainic acid produced an approximate sevenfold increase in the 145–155-kDa spectrin breakdown products in the hippocampus relative to ADX or sham rats injected with vehicle. ADX attenuated the kainic acid-induced increase in breakdown products by 43%. In a similar way, kainic acid produced a large 10-fold increase in spectrin breakdown products in the frontal cortex, which was also significantly attenuated (−80%) by ADX. Induction of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) by neurotoxic insults has been suggested to be a sensitive indicator of cellular stress in neurons. Kainic acid induced large amounts of hsp70 in both hippocampus and frontal cortex of sham-operated rats that was markedly attenuated (85–95%) by ADX. There was a strong positive correlation between the amount of spectrin proteolysis and the degree of hsp70 induction in both the hippocampus and frontal cortex. In contrast, kainic acid did not significantly produce spectrin proteolysis and induced only a very modest and inconsistent increase of hsp70 in the hypothalamus. This is consistent with the observation that the hypothalamus is relatively insensitive to the neurotoxic effects of systemically administered kainic acid. The dose of kainic acid (10 mg/kg) used in this experiment produces a 10-fold elevation in circulating corticosterone levels at both 1 and 3 h after administration. These results suggest that part of the endangering effects of glucocorticoids on hippocampal and cortical neurons may be due to augmentation of calpain-induced spectrin proteolysis. The attenuation of kainic acid-induced synthesis of hsp70 by ADX indicates that the cellular stress produced by EAAs is regulated in part by glucocorticoids. In addition, the elevation in endogenous corticosterone levels produced by kainic acid appears to be a significant factor contributing to the neuronal damage produced by this agent.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The Ca2+-independent form of nitric oxide synthase was induced in rat neonatal astrocytes in primary culture by incubation with lipopolysaccharide (1 µg/ml) plus interferon-γ (100 U/ml), and the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain components were assessed. Incubation for 18 h produced 25% inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase activity. NADH-ubiquinone-1 reductase (complex I) and succinate-cytochrome c reductase (complex II–III) activities were not affected. Prolonged incubation for 36 h gave rise to a 56% reduction of cytochrome c oxidase activity and a 35% reduction in succinate-cytochrome c reductase activity, but NADH-ubiquinone-1 reductase activity was unchanged. Citrate synthase activity was not affected by any of these conditions. The inhibition of the activities of these mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes was prevented by incubation in the presence of the specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine. The lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ treatment of the astrocytes produced an increase in glycolysis and lactate formation. These results suggest that inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain after induction of astrocytic nitric oxide synthase may represent a mechanism for nitric oxide-mediated neurotoxicity.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Electrical stimulation of the ascending dorsal tegmental bundle of the locus ceruleus was used to elicit controlled release of norepinephrine. Real-time in vivo monitoring in the brains of urethane-anesthetized rats was observed with high speed chronocoulometry at rapidly responding carbon fiber electrodes. Using modeling similar to that developed for dopamine release, the electrochemical signals were characterized as the balance between norepinephrine release per electrical stimulation pulse and apparent Michaelis-Menten reuptake parameters. Stimulation produced simultaneous overflow release at all terminal fields examined. The release and reuptake characteristics varied considerably in different regions. If the parameters are normalized to endogenous concentration in the terminal fields, release but not reuptake correlates with innervation density in several regions. Stimulated release results in norepinephrine overflow and transport in most brain regions with half-lives of 1–3 s and overflow distances of 25–50 µm at most. A surprising exception occurs in the upper layers of cortex (cingulate and sensory) where half-lives may be in the 10s of seconds and spatial reach may be up to 100 µm. The uptake in the outer cortical layers appears to be minimal and comparable with only nonspecific reuptake.
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  • 37
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 63 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: o-rab3 is an electric ray homologue of low molecular weight GTP-binding proteins thought to be involved in targeting of secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis. The stimulation-dependent association of o-rab3 with synaptic vesicles was compared with that of the membrane-integral synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2). On application of immunoelectron microscopy and the colloidal gold technique, antibodies against either protein labeled the synaptic vesicle membrane compartment. Synaptic vesicles recycled under conditions of low frequency stimulation (0.1 Hz) retained their complement of both SV2 and o-rab3. Isolation of synaptic vesicles by density-gradient centrifugation and subsequent column chromatography yielded no indication of a stimulation-dependent release of o-rab3 from synaptic vesicles. In contrast, multivesicular bodies and vacuoles occasionally observed in the nerve terminals contained SV2 but little if any o-rab3. It is concluded that o-rab3 remains associated with the synaptic vesicle membrane compartment during stimulation-induced cycles of repeated exo- and endocytosis. o-rab3 may be lost once the vesicle enters the prelysosomal pathway.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Displacement of [3H]glutamate by 1S,3R-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid and quisqualate (in the presence of saturating concentrations of ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists) was used to characterize optimal ionic conditions, distribution, and the ontogeny of glutamate receptor binding sites in rat brain. Using rat forebrain membranes or receptor autoradiography, optimal 1S,3R-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid-sensitive [3H]glutamate binding was found in the presence of 100 mM bromide ions and in the absence of calcium ions. Under these conditions, [3H]glutamate binding was relatively quisqualate insensitive. In regions of the neonatal (11-day-old) and adult rat brain, this [3H]glutamate binding was highest in forebrain (striatum, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus) and hypothalamus/midbrain but was lower in the cerebellum, olfactory bulb, and pons/medulla regions. 1S,3R-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid-sensitive and quisqualate-insensitive [3H]glutamate binding was present in the rat forebrain at 1 day of age and gradually increased more than twofold by day 50 (adult). Thus, in the presence of bromide ions and in the absence of calcium ions, [3H]glutamate labels a subpopulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors that are sensitive to 1S,3R-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid but insensitive to quisqualate. Expression of [3H]glutamate binding under these conditions was both regionally and developmentally regulated in rat brain, suggesting that [3H]glutamate is labeling a distinct population of metabotropic glutamate receptors.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Recently, we reported that 6R-l-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin (6R-BH4), a natural cofactor for hydroxylases of tyrosine and tryptophan, has a monoamine-releasing action independent of its cofactor activity. Here we attempted to determine whether 6R-BH4 acts inside the cell or from the outside of the cell by using brain microdialysis in the rat striatum. For this purpose, sepiapterin, an immediate precursor of 6R-BH4 in the salvage pathway, was used to selectively increase the intracellular 6R-BH4 levels. Dialytic perfusion of sepiapterin increased tissue levels of reduced biopterin (mainly 6R-BH4) but not the extracellular levels. Administration of sepiapterin increased the extracellular levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) (an index of in vivo tyrosine hydroxylase activity) and of dopamine (DA) (an index of in vivo DA release). Either of the increases was eliminated after pretreatment with a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor α-methyl-p-tyrosine. Administration of 6R-BH4 increased extracellular levels of reduced biopterin, DOPA, and DA. After pretreatment with α-methyl-p-tyrosine, the increase in DOPA levels was abolished, but most of the increase in DA levels persisted. The increase in DA levels also persisted after pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. These data demonstrate that 6R-BH4 stimulates DA release directly, independent of its cofactor action for tyrosine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase, by acting from the outside of neurons.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), the toxic agent in MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity, is thought to act by inhibiting mitochondrial electron transport at complex I. This study examined this latter action further with a series of 4′-alkylated analogues of MPP+. These derivatives had IC50 values that ranged from 0.5 to 110 µM and from 1.6 to 3,300 µM in mitochondria and electron transport particles (ETPs), respectively. The IC50 values of corresponding 4′-alkylated phenylpyridine derivatives to inhibit NADH-linked oxidation ranged from 10 to 205 µM in mitochondria and from 1.7 to 142 µM in ETPs. The potencies of both classes of inhibitors directly correlated with their ability to partition between 1-octanol and water. In mitochondria, increased hydrophobicity resulted in greater inhibition of NADH dehydrogenase but a smaller dependence on the transmembrane electrochemical gradient for accumulation of the pyridiniums as evidenced by an ∼600-fold, versus only a 36-fold, increase in the IC50 of MPP+ versus 4′-pentyl-MPP+, respectively, in the presence of uncoupler. In ETPs, the analogous increase in potencies of the more hydrophobic analogues was also consistent with an inhibitory mechanism that relied on differential partitioning into the lipid environment surrounding NADH dehydrogenase. However, the pyridinium charge must play a major role in explaining the inhibitory mechanism of the pyridiniums because their potencies are much greater than would be predicted based solely on hydrophobicity. For example, in ETPs, 4′-decyl-MPP+ was nearly 80-fold more potent than phenylpyridine although the latter compound partitions twice as much into 1-octanol. In addition, the lipophilic anion TPB− was a more effective potentiator of inhibition by pyridiniums possessing greater hydrophilicity (0–5 carbons), consistent with facilitation of accumulation of these analogues within the membrane phase of complex I, probably via ion pairing. These studies delineate further the mechanisms by which this class of compounds is able to accumulate in mitochondria, inhibit complex I activity, and thereby, effect neurotoxicity.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: In order to define the membrane topology of the GluR1 glutamate receptor subunit, we have examined the location of epitopes. Antibodies were produced against peptides corresponding to putative extracellular and intracellular segments of the rat brain GluR1 glutamate receptor subunit. Immunocytochemistry at the electron microscopic level in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation showed that epitopes for the antiserum to the N-terminal part of the subunit are located at the extracellular face of the plasma membrane, whereas the antigenic determinants for the antiserum to the C-terminal part are found at the intracellular face of the postsynaptic membrane. Furthermore, antibodies to the N-terminal residues 253–267 reacted similarly with both intact and permeabilized synaptosomes, whereas the binding of antibodies to the C-terminal residues 877–889 increased about 1.6-fold following permeabilization. Our data suggest that the N- and C-terminal regions are located on the opposite side of the membrane and, therefore, the GluR1 subunit probably has an odd number of membrane spanning segments. The antibody cross-reactivities in different species and their effect on ligand binding activity were also established.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: In previous studies evidence has been presented by photoaffinity labeling that a polypeptide of 145–150 kDa represents the cerebral sulfonylurea receptor. However, covalent incorporation of [3H]glibenclamide or a 125I-labeled glibenclamide analogue into the sulfonylurea receptor required high amounts of photoenergy and took place with low yield of photoinsertion. To provide a probe with increased photoreactivity a 4-azido-5-iodosalicyloyl analogue of glibenclamide was synthesized. Binding experiments revealed specific and reversible high-affinity binding of this novel probe to the particulate (KD = 0.13 nM) and solubilized (KD = 0.56 nM) sulfonylurea receptor from cerebral cortex. The novel probe showed 〉100-fold higher sensitivity to irradiation at 356 nm than glibenclamide. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed specific photoincorporation into a cerebral protein of 175 kDa and indicated an efficiency of photoincorporation of 9%. From dissociation binding curves following irradiation photoincorporation was estimated as 28% of specifically bound ligand. Photoincorporation into the 175-kDa protein following saturation binding of the novel probe to particulate sites from cerebral cortex indicated a KD value of 0.38 nM. Inhibition of photoincorporation into this protein by glibenclamide, glipizide, and tolbutamide revealed KD values for these sulfonylureas of 0.06 nM, 1.6 nM, and 1.2 µM, respectively. These results show that the novel photoaffinity ligand can be used as a probe for detection and characterization of the sulfonylurea receptor and suggest that a 175-kDa protein represents the cerebral sulfonylurea receptor.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Na+,K+-ATPase activity in nerve is reduced in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes; three different isoforms of the α (catalytic) subunit of the enzyme are present in nerve. Using western blot to determine subunit isoform polypeptide levels in sciatic nerve, we found a substantial reduction in α1-isoform polypeptide (88% at 3 weeks, 94% at 8 weeks) after induction of diabetes by streptozotocin. Reductions in α2 and α3 polypeptide were smaller and not statistically significant. The reduction in amount of all three isoform polypeptides in the nerve of 3-week diabetic animals was corrected by administration of insulin. Accumulation of α1 polypeptide at a nerve ligature indicated that rapid transport of that polypeptide in nerve occurs with normal kinetics. The results implicate a specific marked deficit in α1, much more than α2 or α3, catalytic subunit isoform of Na+,K+-ATPase in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Prior exposure to a mild thermal stress can protect neuronal cells from a subsequent more severe stress including high temperature, ischemia, glutamate toxicity, or stimuli inducing apoptosis. Although the protective effect of thermal stress correlates with the elevated expression of the heat shock proteins (hsps), the protective effect of individual hsps has never been directly demonstrated in neuronal cells. Here we show that the constitutive overexpression of either of the major hsps, hsp90 or hsp70, can protect neuronal cells from thermal stress but not from stimuli that induce apoptosis. The possible mechanisms by which thermal stress can protect neuronal cells from apoptosis are discussed.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We investigated the relationships among N-methyl-d-aspartate, glycine, L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, and [3H]dopamine release in a canine model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. The binding of [3H]PN200-110 ([3H]isradipine) to L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, that open as a consequence of N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced changes in membrane potential, was approximately doubled in striatal membranes prepared from ischemic animals relative to controls, and remained significantly elevated at 30 min and 2 h of reperfusion. These changes coincided temporally with changes in the ability of the voltage-sensitive calcium channel blocker nitrendipine to inhibit glycine enhancement of N-methyl-d-aspartate-stimulated [3H]dopamine release in striatal slices prepared from the same animals. Compared with nonischemic controls, N-methyl-d-aspartate-stimulated [3H]dopamine release was increased in ischemic animals and remained increased throughout reperfusion up to at least 24 h. Glycine enhanced N-methyl-d-aspartate-stimulated release in all treatment groups. The enhancement of N-methyl-d-aspartate-stimulated dopamine release by glycine was reduced by the inclusion of nitrendipine in striatal slices from ischemic and 30-min reperfused animals. These data suggest that glycine may facilitate opening of the voltage-dependent calcium channels activated by N-methyl-d-aspartate and that this facilitation is blocked by the antagonist nitrendipine.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Activation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors has been shown to result in a rapid desensitization of the receptor in the presence of certain agonists. One effect of AMPA receptor desensitization in the hippocampus may be to decrease the efficacy of AMPA receptor agonists at stimulating the release of norepinephrine from noradrenergic terminals. Recently, cyclothiazide was reported to inhibit AMPA receptor desensitization by acting at a distinct site on AMPA receptors. We have examined the effect of cyclothiazide on AMPA- and kainate (KA)-induced norepinephrine release from rat hippocampal slices to determine whether cyclothiazide would increase the efficacy of AMPA-induced [3H]norepinephrine release by inhibiting AMPA receptor desensitization. Cyclothiazide was observed to potentiate markedly both AMPA- and KA-induced [3H]norepinephrine release. This potentiation is selective for AMPA/KA receptors as cyclothiazide did not potentiate N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced [3H]norepinephrine release or release induced by the nonspecific depolarizing agents veratridine and 4-aminopyridine. These results demonstrate that AMPA receptor-mediated modulation of [3H]norepinephrine release from rat brain slices is a useful approach to studying the cyclothiazide modulatory site on the AMPA receptor complex.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Previous studies have shown that antinociceptive doses of systemic morphine increase extracellular histamine (HA) levels in the rat periaqueductal gray (PAG), although the cellular origin of basal and morphine-induced HA release in the PAG is unknown. Treatment with α-fluoromethylhistidine (FMH; 100 mg/kg, i.p.), the irreversible inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, decreased basal HA release by a maximum of 80% and prevented morphine-induced HA release in the PAG. In addition, perfusion of this area with the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (10−6M) decreased basal HA release by a maximum of 57% from baseline levels. When the perfusion medium was modified by substitution of magnesium for calcium, extracellular HA levels in the PAG decreased by a maximum of 72%, and morphine-induced HA release was prevented. Thioperamide (5 mg/kg, i.p.), an H3 antagonist, increased HA release in the PAG to a maximum of 249% within the first 30–60-min period. Taken together, these results suggest that basal and morphine-induced HA release in the rat PAG have a neuronal origin.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: τ protein kinase I (TPKI) purified from bovine brain extract has been shown to phosphorylate τ and to form paired helical filament (PHF) epitopes and was found recently to be identical to glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Before elucidating a role of TPKI/GSK-3β in PHF formation, it is necessary to investigate the normal function of the enzyme. To study the distribution and developmental changes of the enzyme, specific polyclonal antibodies were prepared against TPKI and GSK-3α. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that TPKI was nearly specifically localized in the brain of adult rats. The level of TPKI in the rat brain was high at gestational day 18, peaked on postnatal day 8, and then decreased rapidly to a low level, which was sustained up to 2 years. Immunohistochemistry indicated primarily neuronal localization of TPKI. Growing axons were stained most intensely in the developing cerebellum, but the immunoreactivity became restricted to the gray matter in the mature tissue. Parallel fibers had a high level of TPKI and also stained intensely for τ. These findings indicate that τ is one of the physiological substrates of TPKI and suggest that the enzyme plays an important role in the growth of axons during development of the brain.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Superoxide production by cultured microglia derived from neonatal rat brains and the cytotoxicity of these cells were evaluated. The chemiluminescence (photon counts) detected in the presence of MCLA, a new chemiluminescence probe, was strongly correlated with the microglial cell count. Chemiluminescence observed in this system was confirmed to originate specifically from superoxide produced by activated microglia. Phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated microglia caused a pronounced reduction of PC12h cell numbers in coculture. The addition of superoxide dismutase with catalase or the addition of deferoxamine mesylate inhibited PC12h cell death, suggesting that active oxygen species derived from superoxide generated by the microglia or iron-oxygen complex formation were responsible for the cytotoxicity. These results imply that activated microglia may participate in the progression of the pathologic process in some neurodegenerative disorders.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: To examine directly in the brain the status of α2-adrenoceptors in major depression, the specific binding of the agonist [3H]UK 14304 was measured by quantitative receptor autoradiography in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of suicide victims (n = 17) with a retrospective diagnosis of depression (n = 7) or other psychiatric disorders (n = 10) as well as of matched control subjects (n = 9). In suicide victims, a significant increase in the number of α2-adrenoceptors was found in the CA1 field (40%) and dentate gyrus (20%) of the hippocampus and in the external layers I (33%) and II (31%) of the frontal cortex, compared with that in matched controls. In depressed suicide victims, the increase in α2-adrenoceptors in the CA1 field (57%) was significantly greater (24%, p 〈 0.05) than that observed in the group of suicide victims with other diagnoses (26%). In the same depressed suicide victims, the increase in cortical α2-adrenoceptors was restricted to layer I (34%) and it was equivalent to that found in layer I (33%) of suicide victims with other diagnoses. The results indicate that suicide is associated with increases in the high-affinity state of brain α2-adrenoceptors and that there is a pronounced localized increase of this inhibitory receptor in the hippocampus of depressed suicide victims.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Fetal cerebral metabolism changes during development. The normal fetal metabolic rate must be known to evaluate pathophysiological changes. Therefore, we determined the regional cerebral glucose consumption in the fetal guinea pig. This required the application of the 2-deoxyglucose method to this species. We measured both the transfer coefficients of deoxyglucose and glucose between the maternal arterial plasma and the fetal brain and the lumped constant in chronically prepared undisturbed guinea pig dams using a three-compartment model. Furthermore, the ratio between the initial clearances of deoxyglucose and glucose between the maternal arterial plasma and the fetal brain and the ratio between the phosphorylation coefficients of these substrates in the fetal brain were determined. The total cerebral glucose consumption measured by the deoxyglucose method (10 ± 1.2 µmol/100 g/min) was similar to that calculated from the glucose concentration and the phosphorylation coefficient of glucose in the cerebrum (10 ± 0.4 µmol/100 g/min). We conclude that the 2-deoxyglucose method is applicable to the guinea pig, and we further conclude that in the fetal guinea pig cerebral glucose consumption is 10 times lower than that in the adult.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: To elucidate the role of neurofilaments in microtubule stabilization in the axon, we studied the effects of β,β′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) on the solubility and transport of tubulin as well as neurofilament phosphorylation in the motor fibers of the rat sciatic nerve. IDPN is known to impair the axonal transport of neurofilaments, causing accumulation of neurofilaments in the proximal axon and segregation of neurofilaments to the peripheral axoplasm throughout the nerve. Administration of IDPN at various intervals after radioactive labeling of the spinal cord with l-[35S]methionine revealed that transport inhibition occurred all along the nerve within 1–2 days. Transport of cold-insoluble tubulin, which accounts for 50% of axonal tubulin, was also affected. A significant increase in the proportion of cold-soluble tubulin was observed, reaching a maximum at 3 days after IDPN treatment and returning to the control level in the following weeks. Preceding this change in tubulin solubility, a transient decrease in the phosphorylation level of the 200-kDa neurofilament protein was detected in the ventral root using phosphorylation-dependent antibodies. These early changes agreed in timing with the onset of segregation and transport inhibition, suggesting that interaction between neurofilaments and microtubules possibly regulated by phosphorylation plays a significant role in microtubule stabilization.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was measured under optimal and suboptimal assay conditions in hippocampal extracts from young (2 month), mature (12 month), and old (24 month) Fischer 344 male rats 72 h after the infusion of 200 µg of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine or vehicle into the lateral ventricle. The lesion resulted in a 45–55% decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase activity measured under optimal conditions (pH 6.1, 3.0 mM 6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin) and an ∼35% decrease in the relative concentration of immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase. When measured under suboptimal conditions (pH 6.6, 0.7 mM 6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin), tyrosine hydroxylase activity in 2- and 12-month-old lesioned animals was twice that measured in vehicle-treated animals. However, in the old lesioned animals, tyrosine hydroxylase activity measured under suboptimal conditions was not different from that measured in age-matched vehicle-treated animals. Isoforms of tyrosine hydroxylase were identified on immunoblots after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using enhanced chemiluminescence. The relative proportion of lower pl isoforms of tyrosine hydroxylase in the 2-month-old lesioned animals was greater than that observed in vehicle-treated controls. In contrast, no difference was seen in the relative proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase isoforms in the 24-month-old lesioned versus control animals. These data indicate that the ability of locus ceruleus neurons to rapidly respond to and compensate for insult is attenuated in 24-month-old Fischer 344 rats due to a deficit in stimulus-evoked enzyme phosphorylation.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Tolerance to and withdrawal from pentobarbital were induced in rats by continuous intracerebroventricular infusion via subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps. In situ hybridization of GABAA receptor α1- and β3-subunit mRNA was conducted using synthetic 3′- end 35S-dATP-labeled oligodeoxynucleotide probes. Results were quantified by film densitometry. In animals that were tolerant to pentobarbital, levels of α1-subunit mRNA were decreased in hippocampus, superior colliculus, and inferior colliculus, but levels of β3-subunit mRNA were not affected. Dramatically increased levels of GABAA receptor subunit mRNA were observed in animals 24 h after withdrawal from chronic pentobarbital treatment. These increases occurred in cerebral cortex and cerebellum for the α1 subunit and in cerebral cortex only for the β3-subunit. These data provide further support to the structural and pharmacological GABAA receptor heterogeneity in discrete brain areas. The observed changes of subunit expression may underlie, at least in part, the receptor up- and down-regulation observed in receptor ligand binding studies.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Administration of l-DOPA (50 mg/kg) elicits a significant increase in extracellular dopamine in striata of rats treated with the catecholaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine but not in striata of intact rats. To assess the role of dopaminergic nerve terminals in determining the effects of exogenous l-DOPA on extracellular dopamine levels in striatum, we examined the relative contributions of monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B to the catabolism of dopamine synthesized from exogenous l-DOPA. Extracellular concentrations of dopamine and its catabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, were monitored with in vivo dialysis in striata of intact rats and of rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of striatal dopamine. Clorgyline (2 mg/kg), an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A, significantly increased dopamine and decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in intact but not in dopamine-depleted striata. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase B with either l-deprenyl (1 mg/kg) or Ro 19-6327 (1 mg/kg) did not significantly affect dopamine or 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in striata of intact or dopamine-depleted rats. In intact rats, administration of clorgyline in conjunction with l-DOPA produced a 〉20-fold increase in dopamine and prevented the l-DOPA-induced increase in 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Although both l-deprenyl and Ro 19-6327 administered in combination with l-DOPA elicited a small but significant increase in dopamine, levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were not affected. In rats pretreated with 6-hydroxydopamine, clorgyline had no significant effect on the increases in dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid elicited by l-DOPA. Furthermore, neither l-deprenyl nor Ro 19-6327 affected l-DOPA-induced increases in dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in dopamine-depleted striata. The present findings indicate that deamination by monoamine oxidase A is the primary mechanism for catabolism of striatal dopamine, both under basal conditions and after administration of exogenous l-DOPA. Loss of dopaminergic terminals eliminates this action of monoamine oxidase A but does not enhance deamination by monoamine oxidase B. These data support a model in which exogenous l-DOPA elicits enhanced extracellular accumulation of dopamine in the dopamine-depleted striatum because some transmitter synthesis occurs at nondopaminergic sites and the dopamine terminals that normally take up and catabolize this pool of transmitter are absent.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are localised at morphologically distinct regions of the postsynaptic membrane by interactions between the receptor subunits and cytoskeletal proteins, such as the 43-kDa protein. We have used Xenopus oocytes to examine the localisation and pharmacological properties of muscle nAChRs associated with 43-kDa protein and to compare them with hybrid muscle nAChRs containing a β subunit derived from a neuronal source. Receptors expressed on the oocyte outer membrane were visualised using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Coexpression of mouse muscle subunit α1β1γδ and 43-kDa protein transcripts produced discrete receptor aggregates with a diameter of 1–5 µm whose function was partially blocked by application of neuronal bungarotoxin (NBT) at 100 nM. Substitution of the β1 subunit by the neuronal β2 protein produced a functioning receptor that did not aggregate in the presence of 43-kDa protein and was substantially blocked by the same concentration of NBT. Hybrid α1β4γδ receptors exhibited a combination of characteristics in that they clustered like normal muscle subunits in the presence of 43-kDa protein, but showed a sensitivity to NBT intermediate between that of muscle receptors and that of hybrids containing β2. These results suggest that the β subunit is an important determinant in receptor localisation and sensitivity to NBT.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Levels of immunoreactive β-amyloid precursor protein and interleukin-1α were found to be elevated in surgically resected human temporal lobe tissue from patients with intractable epilepsy compared with postmortem tissue from neurologically unaffected patients (controls). In tissue from epileptics, the levels of the 135-kDa β-amyloid precursor protein isoform were elevated to fourfold (p 〈 0.05) those of controls and those of the 130-kDa isoform to threefold (p 〈 0.05), whereas those of the 120-kDa isoform (p 〉 0.05) were not different from control values. β-Amyloid precursor protein-immunoreactive neurons were 16 times more numerous, and their cytoplasm and proximal processes were more intensely immunoreactive in tissue sections from epileptics than controls (133 ± 12 vs. 8 ± 3/mm2; p 〈 0.001). However, neither β-amyloid precursor protein-immunoreactive dystrophic neurites nor β-amyloid deposits were found in this tissue. Interleukin-1α-immunoreactive cells (microglia) were three times more numerous in epileptics than in controls (80 ± 8 vs. 25 ± 5/mm2; p 〈 0.001), and these cells were often found adjacent to β-amyloid precursor protein-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies. Our findings, together with functions established in vitro for interleukin-1, suggest that increased expression of this protein contributes to the increased levels of β-amyloid precursor protein in epileptics, thus indicating a potential role for both of these proteins in the neuronal dysfunctions, e.g., hyperexcitability, characteristic of epilepsy.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: LAN-1 is a human neuroblastoma cell line that, in the undifferentiated state, does not respond to membrane depolarization with an elevation of [Ca2+]i, monitored by fura-2 single-cell microfluorimetry. The exposure of LAN-1 cells to the differentiating agent retinoic acid induced the appearance of [Ca2+]i elevation elicited by 55 mM K+. Maitotoxin, a putative activator of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, did not evoke an elevation of [Ca2+]i in undifferentiated LAN-1 cells, but produced a marked and sustained increase in [Ca2+]i when superfused in retinoic acid-treated cells. Both high K+- and maitotoxin-induced [Ca2+]i elevation in retinoic acid-differentiated LAN-1 cells was reversed by the lanthanide Gd3+, an inorganic Ca2+-entry blocker, and by the snail toxin ω-conotoxin GVIA, which interacts with the N sub-type of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels. In contrast, both Bay K 8644 and nimodipine, dihydropyridines that selectively activate or block, respectively, the L-channel sub-type, were completely ineffective. The tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (100 nM), a protein kinase C activator, inhibited the elevation of [Ca2+]i due to Ca2+ influx elicited by membrane depolarization. K+-induced [Ca2+]i elevation appeared 24 h after the addition of retinoic acid and reached the highest magnitude after 72 h. Furthermore, 8 days after the removal of the differentiating agent from the culture medium, the high K+-induced increase of [Ca2+]i was still present. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that retinoic acid-induced differentiation of LAN-1 cells, which lack a high K+-evoked [Ca2+]i increase in the undifferentiated state, induces the functional expression of an ω-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive, dihydropyridine-insensitive N-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel that can be activated by maitotoxin and negatively modulated by protein kinase C.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: In the course of the purification of 14-3-3 protein (14-3-3) we found that 14-3-3 isolated from bovine forebrain activates protein kinase C (PKC), rather than the previously reported protein kinase C inhibitory activity (KCIP). We have characterized the 14-3-3 activation of PKC. The physical properties of purified PKC activator are the same as those previously reported for 14-3-3 and KCIP; i.e., (1) it is composed of subunits of molecular weight 32,000, 30,000, and 29,000; (2) it is homogeneous with respect to molecular weight, as judged by native gradient-gel electrophoresis, with a molecular weight of 53,000; and (3) it is composed of at least six isoforms when analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. The concentration dependence of PKC activation by 14-3-3 is in the same range as that shown previously for KCIP inhibition of PKC, and as that required for 14-3-3 activation of tyrosine hydroxylase; a maximal stimulation of two- to three-fold occurs at 40–100 µg/ml. 14-3-3's activation of PKC is sensitive to α-chymotrypsin digestion but is not heat labile. Activation is specific to PKC; at least two other protein kinases, cyclic AMP- and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, are not activated. The activation of PKC by 14-3-3 is independent of phosphatidylserine and calcium and, as such, is an alternative mechanism for the activation of PKC that obviates its translocation to membranes.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Rotating disk electrode voltammetry was used to measure the inwardly directed Vmax and Km of dopamine with its transporter in striatal suspensions prepared from nonhandled control rats, rats that had been trained to self-administer cocaine for 20 days (at 26 mg/day per rat) via a jugular catheter and subsequently withdrawn for 3 weeks, and rats that had received saline (155 mM NaCl) via a jugular catheter on the same schedule as the rats that had received cocaine. Because a limited number of animals was available from the self-administration procedure, the velocity of dopamine transport as a function of [dopamine] was measured by incremental addition of dopamine to a given striatal preparation. In nonhandled controls the values of Vmax, Km, and turnover, observed in this experimental paradigm, were increased relative to results obtained in studies of the velocity-[dopamine] relationship where dopamine was added to suspensions, one concentration per suspension. The kinetics of the association of dopamine with the transporter were unchanged. The Vmax to Km ratios obtained in the two experiments were statistically indistinguishable, suggesting that the two types of experiments probe the same transporter. Also, the increased velocity observed in the experiment involving sequential additions to the same preparation is evidence of trans acceleration, suggesting that the movement of dopamine across the membrane is carrier mediated as opposed to being mediated via channels or pores and that the rate-limiting step in inwardly directed transport is the reorientation of the unloaded transporter from the inwardly to the outwardly facing forms. Saline-treated rats in the self-administration paradigm exhibited kinetic parameters of transport indistinguishable from those observed in nonhandled controls. In contrast, Vmax and Km of the transporter were increased in suspensions prepared from rats that self-administered cocaine and were withdrawn for 3 weeks, relative to saline-treated and nonhandled animals. Combined, these results suggest that the striatal uptake of dopamine is mediated by a transporter and that it is kinetically up-regulated following withdrawal from repeated cocaine administered in a self-administration paradigm.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: 4-Aminopyridine evokes repetitive firing of synaptosomes and exocytosis of glutamate by inhibiting a dendrotoxin-sensitive K+ channel responsible for stabilizing the membrane potential. We have shown previously that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by high concentrations of phorbol ester (4β-phorbol dibutyrate) can increase release by inhibiting a dendrotoxin-insensitive ion channel, whereas the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylate [(1S,3R)-ACPD] mimics the action of 4β-phorbol dibutyrate, but only in the presence of 2 µM arachidonic acid (AA). In this article, we investigate the role of AA. AA plus (1S,3R)-ACPD is without effect on KCl-induced glutamate exocytosis, indicating that the regulatory pathway acts upstream of the release-coupled Ca2+ channel or Ca2+-secretion coupling. Diacylglycerol concentrations are greatly enhanced by (1S,3R)-ACPD alone, independently of AA, indicating that AA acts downstream of phospholipase C. Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) is the major presynaptic substrate for PKC. mGluR activation by (1S,3R)-ACPD enhances phosphorylation of MARCKS, but only in the presence of AA. These results strongly suggest that AA acts on presynaptic PKC synergistically with diacylglycerol generated by the phospholipase-coupled mGluR, consistent with the known behaviour of certain purified PKC isoforms. The magnitude of the effects observed in a population of rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes suggests that this is a major mechanism regulating the release of the brain's dominant excitatory neurotransmitter and supports the concept that AA, or a related compound with a similar locus of action, may in certain circumstances play a role in synaptic plasticity.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: σ receptors have been identified in many brain areas and are especially abundant in those regions known to be involved in control of movement. σ receptors have been located autoradiographically in the granule cell layer of cerebellum in adult rat brain. In the current study, we identified σ receptors in rat neonatal granule cells in culture using radioligand binding. The tritium labeled form of the putative σ antagonist haloperidol bound with high affinity to membranes prepared from these cells, and ligands selective for σ receptors competed well against [3H]haloperidol binding. The excitatory amino acid N-methyl-d-aspartate and the direct phospholipase A2 activator melittin stimulated the release of [3H]arachidonic acid from cerebellar granule cells. The N-methyl-d-aspartate-stimulated, but not the melittin-stimulated, release was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the σ-selective agonist (+)-pentazocine. In addition, the novel σ1 agonist BD737 inhibited N-methyl-d-aspartate-stimulated release. Pentazocine inhibition was almost completely reversed by the σ antagonists NPC-16377 and opipramol. A 1 µM concentration of the phencyclidine receptor-selective ligand MK-801 inhibited ∼65% of N-methyl-d-aspartate-stimulated release. These results suggest that σ receptors may play a role in modulating arachidonic acid release in cerebellar granule cells.
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  • 63
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The endogenous polyamines spermidine and spermine enhanced guanosine 5′-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP-γ-S)-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover with EC50 values of 100 ± 30 and 50 ± 15 µM, respectively, whereas the synthetic polyamines N,N′-bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,3-propanediamine and -ethylenediamine inhibited GTP-γ-S-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover, with maximal inhibition at 1 mM. Kinetic analysis of GTP-γ-S-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover in the absence and presence of spermidine showed that the Km for GTP-γ-S was not changed (1,303 ± 270 and 1,069 ± 214 nM, respectively), whereas the Vmax was increased by 206% (1,566 ± 141 and 4,792 ± 84 cpm, respectively), indicating that spermidine and GTP-γ-S acted at different sites. Spermidine also enhanced Ca2+-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover in the absence of GTP-γ-S by decreasing the Ca2+ requirement of the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C. Arcaine and agmatine, polyamine antagonists at the NMDA receptor complex, did not block the effects of spermidine on GTP-γ-S- and Ca2+-induced phosphoinositide turnover, suggesting that the spermidine effects are not mediated through these specific polyamine sites. Furthermore, spermidine increased the level of [3H]phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (EC50 = 120 ± 10 µM), without affecting significantly the levels of [3H]phosphatidylinositol and [3H]phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Collectively these data indicate that the enhanced phosphoinositide turnover induced by spermidine in the presence of GTP-γ-S or Ca2+ is mediated through multiple levels of the phosphoinositide turnover cascade.
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  • 64
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Choline uptake by cholinergic nerve terminals is increased by depolarization; the literature suggests that this results from either the appearance of occult transporters or the increased activity of existing ones. The present experiments attempt to clarify the mechanism by which choline transport is regulated by testing if the preexposure of synaptosomes to choline mustard aziridinium ion prevents the stimulation-induced appearance of hemicholinium-3 binding sites and/or choline transport activity. Choline mustard inhibited irreversibly most of the “ground-state” (basal) high-affinity choline transport but only 50% of “ground-state” hemicholinium-3 binding sites. Exposure of both striatal and hippocampal synaptosomes to the mustard, before stimulation, inhibited K+-stimulated increases in choline transport and of [3H]hemicholinium-3 binding. We conclude that the mechanism by which choline transport is regulated involves the increased activity of a pool of transport sites that are occluded to hemicholinium-3 but are available to choline mustard aziridinium ion, and presumably to choline, before stimulation. However, the concentration of mustard needed to inhibit the stimulation-induced increase of [3H]hemicholinium-3 binding and choline transport was lower for striatal synaptosomes than for hippocampal synaptosomes. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or presence of high Mg2+ levels, the choline mustard did not prevent the appearance of extra striatal hemicholinium-3 binding sites. Also, high Mg2+ levels removed the ability of the mustard to inhibit K+-stimulated increases of either [3H]hemicholinium-3 binding or choline transport by hippocampal synaptosomes. In contrast, the preexposure of hippocampal synaptosomes to the mustard in the presence of a calcium ionophore (A23187) reduced the concentration of inhibitor needed to prevent the activation of [3H]hemicholinium-3 binding and choline uptake. Thus, we conclude that the ability of the choline mustard to alkylate the pool of choline transporters that are activated by stimulation appears dependent on the entry of extracellular Ca2+.
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  • 65
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 63 (1994), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Histamine (HA) potently stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in intact pineal glands taken from light-exposed chicks. The action of HA was stronger in the presence of forskolin and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). The effect of HA was mimicked by HA H1- and H2-receptor-selective agonists in the following order of potency: HA 〉 4-methylhistamine (H2) 〉 2-methylhistamine (H1) 〉 2-thiazolylethylamine (H1) ≫ dimaprit (H2). The HA H3-receptor-selective agonist (R)α-methylhistamine was poorly active. The effect of HA was antagonized by selective H2-receptor blockers (tiotidine 〉 oxmetidine 〉 cimetidine = ranitidine) and was not significantly affected by the selective H1- and H3-receptor blockers mepyramine and thioperamide. A detailed analysis of an antagonistic action of ranitidine (versus HA) revealed a noncompetitive mode of action of the H2 blocker. The stimulatory action of the H1 agonist 2-thiazolylethylamine (both under basal conditions and in the presence of forskolin or IBMX) was not significantly influenced by three H1-receptor-selective blockers (mepyramine, triprolidine, and diphenhydramine), but it was totally counteracted by ranitidine. Using accepted selective agonists and antagonists of the HA H1, H2, and H3 receptor we were unable to identify clearly the receptor subtype mediating the HA action on the cyclic AMP-generating system of the chick pineal. It is suggested that the receptor under consideration may represent either an H2-like (in terms of mammalian criteria) or avian-specific HA receptor. The data suggest that HA may be considered a modulator of the pineal activity in chicks.
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  • 66
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: We found in cultured glioma (C6BU-1) cells that excitatory amino acids (EAAs) such as glutamate, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), aspartate, and metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist trans-(±)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylate caused an increase in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation and the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the absence of extracellular Mg2+ and Ca2+. Pertussis toxin treatment abolished this glutamate-induced [Ca2+]i increase. Various antagonists against NMDA receptor-ion channel complex, such as Mg2+, d-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (d-APV), HA-966, and MK-801, also inhibited the increase in [Ca2+]i induced by glutamate. These results indicate that these metabotropic EAA receptors coupled to pertussis toxin-susceptible GTP-binding protein and phospholipase C system in C6BU-1 glioma cells have the pharmacological properties of NMDA receptor-ion channel complexes. We also found that in the presence of Mg2+ these metabotropic receptors resemble the NMDA receptor-ion channel complex interacted with 5-hydroxytryptamine2 (5-HT2) receptor signaling. EAAs inhibited 5-HT2 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of glutamate was reversed by various NMDA receptor antagonists (d-APV, MK-801, phencyclidine, and HA-966), but l-APV failed to block the inhibitory effect of glutamate. The same result was observed in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In addition, this inhibitory effect on 5-HT2 receptor-mediated signal transduction was abolished by treatment of C6BU-1 cells with pertussis toxin, whereas 5-HT2 receptor-mediated [Ca2+]i increase was not abolished by pertussis toxin treatment. We can, therefore, conclude that the inhibitory effect of glutamate is not a result of the influx of Ca2+ through the ion channel and that it operates via metabotropic glutamate receptors, having NMDA receptor-ion channel complex-like properties and being coupled with pertussis toxin-sensitive GTP-binding protein and phospholipase C.
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  • 67
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The ability of lithium to potentiate muscarinic cholinoceptor-stimulated CMP-phosphatidate (CMP.PA) accumulation has been examined in various cells in which muscarinic cholinoceptor agonists evoke a phosphoinositide response. Cell types examined include rat cerebellar granule cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected to express the human muscarinic M3 receptor (CHO-M3 cells), and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Neither carbachol (1 mM) nor lithium (10 mM) caused significant increases in CMP.PA accumulation in rat cerebellar granule cells; however, when added together for 20 min a linear 17-fold increase over basal levels was observed. The increase was dependent on the concentration of carbachol and lithium present, and the effect could be reversed by addition of exogenous myo-inositol (10 mM). Addition of carbachol alone to CHO-M3 cells caused a five-fold increase in CMP.PA accumulation. In the presence of lithium, a 70-fold increase was observed at 20 min after carbachol plus lithium addition. This latter response was concentration dependent and could be abolished by preincubation in the presence of 10 mM myo-inositol. In contrast, whereas carbachol elicited a three-fold increase in CMP.PA accumulation in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which reached a plateau 10 min after agonist addition, the response could neither be augmented by addition of lithium nor inhibited by addition of myo-inositol. These results emphasise that the ability of lithium to affect agonist-stimulated CMP.PA accumulation is not simply a function of stimulus strength, but is also crucially dependent on the intracellular concentration of inositol.
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  • 68
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Exposure of human SK-N-MC neurotumor cells to 4β-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increased isoproterenol stimulation of cyclic AMP levels by severalfold. This potentiation was blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) and did not occur in cells in which PKC had been down-regulated. PMA treatment also enhanced the stimulation by dopamine, cholera toxin, and forskolin. Thus, the effect of PMA on the adenylylcyclase system was postreceptor and involved either the guanine nucleotide binding regulatory (G) proteins or the cyclase itself. As PMA treatment did not impair the inhibition of isoproterenol stimulation by neuropeptide Y, an involvement of the inhibitory G protein Gi was unlikely. Cholate extracts of membranes from control and PMA-treated cells were equally effective in the reconstitution of adenylylcyclase activity in S49 cyc− membranes, which lack the stimulatory G protein subunit Gsα; thus, Gs did not appear to be the target of PMA action. Membranes from PMA-treated cells exhibited increased adenylylcyclase activity to all stimulators including Mn2+ and Mn2+ plus forskolin. In addition, activity was increased when control membranes were incubated with ATP and purified PKC from rat brain. This is consistent with a direct effect of PKC on the adenylylcyclase catalyst in SK-N-MC cells. PMA treatment also resulted in a shift to less sensitivity in the Kact for isoproterenol but not for dopamine or CGP-12177 (a β3-adrenergic agonist) stimulation. Thus, the β1 but not the D1 or β3 receptors were being desensitized by PKC activation. Analysis of SK-N-MC cells by western blotting with antibodies against different PKC isozymes revealed that both the α and ζ isozymes were present in these cells. Whereas PKC-α was activated and translocated from cytosol to membrane by phorbol esters, the ζ isozyme was not. Thus, PKC-α, which has been implicated in desensitization in other cell lines, also appears to potentiate adenylylcyclase activity.
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  • 69
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The present work relates to the possibility that the ATP-independent enzyme γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (EC 2.3.2.2), which has been postulated to be part of an amino acid uptake system, is active during cerebral ischemia. This was evaluated in the ischemic rat striatum by determination of intra- and extracellular concentrations of γ-glutamyl dipeptides (the products of the transpeptidation) and glutathione (the physiological γ-glutamyl donor). An ischemic period (0–30 and 31–60 min) resulted in prominent increases in the respective concentration of extracellular γ-glutamylglutamate (24- and 67-fold), γ-glutamyltaurine + γ-glutamylglycine (5.8- and 19-fold), and γ-glutamylglutamine (2.6- and 6.8-fold) as revealed using in vivo microdialysis. The changes coincided with increased respective extracellular concentrations of glutamate (83- and 115-fold), taurine (17- and 25-fold), glycine (4.6- and 6.1-fold), and glutamine (1.7- and 2.1-fold). Furthermore, under anoxic conditions in vitro (0–30 and 0–60 min), respective striatal tissue concentrations were increased for γ-glutamylglutamate (20- and 17-fold), γ-glutamyltaurine (6.7- and 11-fold), γ-glutamylglutamine (1.7- and 1.2-fold), and γ-glutamylglycine (14- and 18-fold), whereas glutathione levels were, on an average, decreased by ∼350 µM. In summary, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase is involved in de novo dipeptide synthesis in the mammalian brain during anoxic conditions, indicating transport of amino acids such as glutamate.
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  • 70