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  • Elsevier  (1,429,757)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (154,287)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 294 (1992), S. 466-478 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Physics Letters B 317 (1993), S. 474-484 
    ISSN: 0370-2693
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    New York, NY : Elsevier
    Keywords: Biochemistry ; Enzymes
    Notes: This is a series title, single volumes see link below.
    ISSN: 1557-7988
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  • 4
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    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Call number: QZ200:575(3)/1
    Keywords: Neoplasms ; DKFZ-publications
    Notes: Contributor: Michael Baumann
    Pages: xl, 585 p. : ill.
    Edition: 3rd ed.
    ISBN: 9780128124840
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  • 5
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    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Call number: QZ200:575(3)/3
    Keywords: Neoplasms ; DKFZ-publications
    Notes: Contributor: Michael Baumann
    Pages: xl, 605 p. : ill.
    Edition: 3rd ed.
    ISBN: 9780128124840
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  • 6
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    München : Elsevier
    Call number: WN180:10(5)
    Pages: ix, 141 p. : ill.
    Edition: 5. Aufl.
    ISBN: 9783437422973
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  • 7
    Call number: QZ269:203(3)
    Keywords: Radiation Oncology / methods ; Neoplasms / radiotherapy
    Pages: xxviii, 713 p. : ill.
    Edition: 3rd ed.
    ISBN: 9780128141281
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    QZ269:203(3) available
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  • 8
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    München : Elsevier
    Call number: QZ269:204(3)
    Keywords: Neoplasms / radiotherapy ; Radiotherapy
    Pages: xxviii, 419 p. : ill.
    Edition: 3. Aufl.
    ISBN: 9783437232923
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  • 9
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    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Call number: QZ200:575(3)/2
    Keywords: Neoplasms ; DKFZ-publications
    Notes: Contributor: Michael Baumann
    Pages: xl, 577 p. : ill.
    Edition: 3rd ed.
    ISBN: 9780128124840
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-24
    Description: Publication date: 5 October 2018 Source: Gene, Volume 673 Author(s): Tianliu Zhang, Liping Guo, Mingyan Shi, Lingyang Xu, Yan Chen, Lupei Zhang, Huijiang Gao, Junya Li, Xue Gao Incorrect paternity assignment in cattle can significantly influence the accuracy of genetic evaluation. Recent advances in high-throughput technology have facilitated the identification of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and their applications for filiation and individual identification. We genotyped 1074 bulls from a reference population of Chinese Simmental cattle for genomic selection using a BovineSNP770K BeadChip. Among them, a total of 136 bulls were randomly selected to design a suitable low-density SNP panel for paternity testing in Simmental cattle. Our results showed that 50 SNPs were determined to be the most informative markers in parental testing, with an accuracy of 99.89% for CPE (cumulative probability of exclusion) in the unknown female parent case. The 50 highly informative SNP markers were distributed across 25 chromosomes, and the mean intermarker distance per chromosome was 26.72 Mb. The average minor allele frequency (MAF), expected heterozygosity (HE), and polymorphic information content (PIC) values were 0.3748, 0.4998, and 0.4818, respectively. Finally, the 50 identified SNPs were used to estimate paternity for the remaining 938 of 1074 bulls from 23 farms. Our results revealed that 76.75% of the 938 bulls were assigned parentage to the pedigree sires with 95% confidence, and the rate of pedigree record mistakes ranged from 9.52%–39.29% in different herds. Our study is the first attempt to provide valuable insights into the extraction of informative markers through the application of high-density SNP chips for paternity testing in Chinese Simmental cattle.
    Print ISSN: 0378-1119
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-0038
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-06-24
    Description: Publication date: 23–29 June 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10139 Author(s): Sabine Kleinert, Richard Horton
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 12
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-06-24
    Description: Publication date: 23–29 June 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10139 Author(s): Paul Webster
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 13
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-06-24
    Description: Publication date: 23–29 June 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10139 Author(s): Paris Tekkis, Diana Tait, David Cunningham, Gina Brown
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 14
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-06-24
    Description: Publication date: 23–29 June 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10139 Author(s): Talha Burki
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 15
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-06-24
    Description: Publication date: 23–29 June 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10139 Author(s): Susan Jaffe
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 16
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-06-24
    Description: Publication date: 23–29 June 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10139 Author(s): Amanda McClelland, Thomas R Frieden
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 17
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-06-24
    Description: Publication date: 23–29 June 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10139 Author(s): Geoff Watts
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 18
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-06-24
    Description: Publication date: 23–29 June 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10139 Author(s): Mark Honigsbaum
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 19
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    Elsevier
    In: Lancet
    Publication Date: 2018-06-24
    Description: Publication date: 23–29 June 2018 Source: The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10139 Author(s): Tareq Al Saadi, Fatima Abbas, Tarek Turk, Mahmoud Alkhatib, Ibrahem Hanafi, Fares Alahdab
    Print ISSN: 0140-6736
    Electronic ISSN: 1474-547X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-07-10
    Description: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018 Source: Virus Research Author(s): Zhijun Bai, Li Cheng Liu, Liyun Jiang, Lei Luo, Huahua Feng, Peng Lin, Qinglong Jing, Xincai Xiao, Huiqiong Zhou, Wenzhe Su, Yimin Cao, Yilan Li, Qing Cao, Weijun Chen, Biao Di, Zhicong Yang To determine the evolutionary and phylodynamic history of DENV-1 in Guangdong, the strains detected between 1985 and 2015 were determined with phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses of the E gene. Three DENV-1 genotypes (I, V, and VI) were circulating in Guangdong, and genotype I was detected most frequently. The evolutionary rate of DENV-1 was estimated to be 1.03 × 10 −3 nucleotide substitutions/site/year. The most recent ancestor of the viruses existed approximately 141 years ago. The observed epidemiological dynamics correlated with similar fluctuations in diversity, and the epidemiological dynamics of DENV-1 transmission reflect dramatic changes in the viral population sizes. Two recombination events were identified in those strains. The selection pressures were estimated and revealed an abundance of negatively selected sites but few positively selected sites. These data improve our understanding of the evolution and molecular epidemiology of DENV-1 and provide insights that will facilitate the surveillance and control of DENV-1.
    Print ISSN: 0168-1702
    Electronic ISSN: 1872-7492
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-06-25
    Description: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2018 Source: Urology Author(s): Frank C. Lin, Joel T. Funk, Hina Arif Tiwari, Bobby T. Kalb, Christian O. Twiss Objectives To compare dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) defecography phase findings with physical examination (PE) grading in the evaluation of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 274 consecutive patients who underwent dMRI with defecography. Baden-Walker (B-W) grading of POP, absolute dMRI values, and grading by dMRI were collected for anterior, apical, and posterior compartments. Anatomically significant POP on PE was defined as B-W Grade ≥ 3 and on dMRI by dMRI Grade ≥2. A Spearman's Rank correlation was performed between absolute dMRI values and respective POP grades. Results 178 female patients were included. Anatomically insignificant and significant cystoceles had a 26.4% (19/72) and 84.6% (66/78) agreement respectively. Anatomically insignificant and significant apical prolapse had a 2.0% (2/100) and 62.9% (17/27) agreement respectively. Anatomically insignificant and significant posterior prolapse had a 49.5% (51/103) and 78.7% (59/75) agreement respectively. PE detected only 30% (9/30) of total dMRI detected enteroceles and misdiagnosed 10 % (3/30) of these patients with a rectocele. Conclusions The dMRI defecography phase correlated well for anatomically significant prolapse in anterior and posterior compartments. dMRI was superior to PE for enterocele detection and was better able to distinguish an enterocele from a rectocele. Thus, dMRI may have the greatest diagnostic value in cases where the presence of an enterocele is unclear in apical and/or posterior compartments.
    Print ISSN: 0090-4295
    Electronic ISSN: 1527-9995
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 22
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-02-17
    Description: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018 Source: Gastroenterology Author(s): Mouen A. Khashab, Petros C. Benias, Lee L. Swanstrom Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an advanced endoscopic procedure classically performed for the treatment of achalasia. The procedure is based on principles of submucosal endoscopy and is comprised of a mucosal incision, submucosal tunneling, myotomy and mucosal closure. Multiple published studies that collectively include more than 6000 patients reported clinical success in more than 80-90% of patients. Recent literature also suggested durability of response over a medium-term follow-up. POEM is associated with a low rate of adverse events when performed by experienced operators. Gastroesophageal reflux is not infrequent after POEM but does not seem significantly different from reflux which occurs after Heller myotomy. POEM also seems to be effective in the treatment of spastic esophageal disorders (e.g. Jackhammer and diffuse esophageal spasm). Lastly, the role of gastric POEM (G-POEM) in the treatment of gastroparesis has been investigated in recent studies with promising results.
    Print ISSN: 0016-5085
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0012
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 23
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-02-17
    Description: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018 Source: Gastroenterology Author(s): Nicholas J. Shaheen, M. Brian Fennerty, Jacques J. Bergman A substantial literature documents inappropriate usage of gastrointestinal endoscopy in a variety of clinical settings. Overusage of endoscopy appears to be common, and 30% or more of procedures performed in some clinical settings have questionable indications. The potential reasons for overuse of endoscopy are multiple, and include cancer phobia, fear of medical malpractice litigation, profit motive, the investigation of “incidentalomas” found on other imaging, and under-appreciation of the delayed harms of endoscopy, among other reasons. Clinical guidelines, which should limit overuse of endoscopy, may instead serve to promote it, if authors opt to be “conservative,” recommending endoscopy in situations of unclear utility. Several strategies may decrease overuse of endoscopy, including careful attention to risk stratification when choosing patients to screen, adherence to guidelines for surveillance intervals for colonoscopy, the use of quality indicators to identify outliers in endoscopy utilization, and education on appropriate indications and the risks of overuse at the medical student, residency and fellowship levels.
    Print ISSN: 0016-5085
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0012
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 24
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-02-17
    Description: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018 Source: Gastroenterology Author(s): Evelien Dekker, Douglas K. Rex Colorectal cancer (CRC) is amongst the most commonly diagnosed cancers and causes of death from cancer across the world. CRC can, however, be detected in asymptomatic patients at a curable stage, and several studies have shown lower mortality among patients who undergo screening compared to those who do not. Using colonoscopy in CRC screening also results in the detection of precancerous polyps that can be directly removed during the procedure, thereby reducing the incidence of cancer. In the past decade, convincing evidence has appeared that the effectiveness of colonoscopy as CRC prevention tool is associated with the quality of the procedure. This review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of recent efforts to improve colonoscopy effectiveness of by enhancing detection and improving the completeness and safety of resection of colorectal lesions.
    Print ISSN: 0016-5085
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0012
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-02-17
    Description: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018 Source: Gastroenterology Author(s): Long V. Pham, Santseharay Ramirez, Judith M. Gottwein, Ulrik Fahnøe, Yi-Ping Li, Jannie Pedersen, Jens Bukh Background & Aims Chronic liver diseases caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 6 are prevalent in Asia, and millions of people require treatment with direct-acting antiviral regimens, such as NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir combined with the NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir. We developed infectious cell culture models of HCV genotype 6a infection to study the effects of these inhibitors and the development of resistance. Methods The consensus sequences of prototype strains HK2 (MG717925) and HK6a (MG717928), originating from serum of patients with chronic HCV infection, were determined by Sanger sequencing of genomes amplified by reverse transcription-PCR. In vitro non-infectious full-length clones of these 6a strains were subsequently adapted in Huh7.5 cells, primarily by using substitutions identified in JFH1-based core-NS5A and core-NS5B genotype 6a recombinants. We studied the efficacy of NS5A- and NS5B- inhibitors in concentration–response assays. We examined the effects of long-term culture of Huh7.5 cells incubated with velpatasvir and sofosbuvir singly or combined following infection with passaged full-length HK2 or HK6a recombinant viruses. Resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) were identified by Sanger and next-generation sequencing, and their effects on viral fitness and in drug susceptibility were determined in reverse-genetic experiments. Results Adapted full-length HCV genotype 6a recombinants HK2cc and HK6acc had fast propagation kinetics and high infectivity titers. Compared to a HCV genotype 1a recombinant, HCV genotype 6a recombinants of strains HK2 and HK6a were equally sensitive to daclatasvir, elbasvir, velpatasvir, pibrentasvir, and sofosbuvir, but less sensitive to ledipasvir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir. Long-term exposure of HCV genotype 6a-infected Huh7.5 cells with a combination of velpatasvir and sofosbuvir resulted in clearance of the virus, but the virus escaped the effects of single inhibitors via emergence of the RAS L31V in NS5A (conferring resistance to velpatasvir) and S282T in NS5B (conferring resistance to sofosbuvir). Engineered recombinant genotype 6a viruses with single RAS mediated resistance to velpatasvir or sofosbuvir. HCV genotype 6a viruses with RAS NS5A-L31V or NS5B-S282T was however able to propagate and escape in Huh7.5 cells exposed to the combination of velpatasvir and sofosbuvir. Further, HCV genotype 6a with NS5A-L31V was able to propagate and escape in the presence of pibrentasvir with emergence of NS5A-L28S, conferring a high level of resistance to this inhibitor. Conclusions Strains of HCV genotype 6a isolated from patients can be adapted to propagate in cultured cells, permitting studies of the complete life cycle for this important genotype. The combination of velpatasvir and sofosbuvir is required to block propagation of original HCV genotype 6a, which quickly becomes resistant to single inhibitors via the rapid emergence and persistence of RAS. These features of HCV genotype 6a could compromise treatment.
    Print ISSN: 0016-5085
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0012
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-02-17
    Description: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine Author(s): Quach Ngoc Tung, Nico Linzner, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as their major LMW thiol. However, most Gram-positive bacteria do not encode enzymes for GSH biosynthesis and produce instead alternative LMW thiols, such as bacillithiol (BSH) and mycothiol (MSH). BSH is utilized by Firmicutes and MSH is the major LMW thiol of Actinomycetes . LMW thiols are required to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, but are also involved in virulence mechanisms in human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Salmonella enterica subsp. Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes . Infection conditions often cause perturbations of the intrabacterial redox balance in pathogens, which is further affected under antibiotics treatments. During the last years, novel glutaredoxin-fused roGFP2 biosensors have been engineered in many eukaryotic organisms, including parasites, yeast, plants and human cells for dynamic live-imaging of the GSH redox potential in different compartments. Likewise bacterial roGFP2-based biosensors are now available to measure the dynamic changes in the GSH, BSH and MSH redox potentials in model and pathogenic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In this review, we present an overview of novel functions of the bacterial LMW thiols GSH, MSH and BSH in pathogenic bacteria in virulence regulation. Moreover, recent results about the application of genetically encoded redox biosensors are summarized to study the mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions, persistence and antibiotics resistance. In particularly, we highlight recent biosensor results on the redox changes in the intracellular food-borne pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium as well as in the Gram-positive pathogens S. aureus and M. tuberculosis during infection conditions and under antibiotics treatments. These studies established a link between ROS and antibiotics resistance with the intracellular LMW thiol-redox potential. Future applications should be directed to compare the redox potentials among different clinical isolates of these pathogens in relation to their antibiotics resistance and to screen for new ROS-producing drugs as promising strategy to combat antimicrobial resistance. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0891-5849
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-4596
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-02-17
    Description: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine Author(s): Carolina Prolo, Natalia Rios, Lucia Piacenza, María Noel Álvarez, Rafael Radi In the last two decades, there has been a significant advance in understanding the biochemistry of peroxynitrite, an endogenously-produced oxidant and nucleophile. Its relevance as a mediator in several pathologic states and the aging process together with its transient character and low steady-state concentration, motivated the development of a variety of techniques for its unambiguous detection and estimation. Among these, fluorescence and chemiluminescence approaches have represented important tools with enhanced sensitivity but usual limited specificity. In this review, we analyze selected examples of molecular probes that permit the detection of peroxynitrite by fluorescence and chemiluminescence, disclosing their mechanism of reaction with either peroxynitrite or peroxynitrite-derived radicals. Indeed, probes have been divided into 1) redox probes that yield products by a free radical mechanism, and 2) electrophilic probes that evolve to products secondary to the nucleophilic attack by peroxynitrite. Overall, boronate-based compounds are emerging as preferred probes for the sensitive and specific detection and quantitation. Moreover, novel strategies involving genetically-modified fluorescent proteins with the incorporation of unnatural amino acids have been recently described as peroxynitrite sensors. This review analyzes the most commonly used fluorescence and chemiluminescence approaches for peroxynitrite detection and provides some guidelines for appropriate experimental design and data interpretation, including how to estimate peroxynitrite formation rates in cells. Graphical abstract
    Print ISSN: 0891-5849
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-4596
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-02-17
    Description: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018 Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine Author(s): Leire Almandoz-Gil, Hedvig Welander, Elisabeth Ihse, Payam Emami Khoonsari, Sravani Musunuri, Christofer Lendel, Jessica Sigvardson, Mikael Karlsson, Martin Ingelsson, Kim Kultima, Joakim Bergström
    Print ISSN: 0891-5849
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-4596
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 29
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2018 Source: Seminars in Immunology Author(s): Francesco De Sanctis, Stefano Ugel, John Facciponte, Andrea Facciabene Angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer and a requisite that tumors must achieve to fulfill their metabolic needs of nutrients and oxygen. As a critical step in cancer progression, the ‘angiogenic switch’ allows tumor cells to survive and grow, and provides them access to vasculature resulting in metastatic progression and dissemination. Tumor-dependent triggering of the angiogenic switch has critical consequences on tumor progression which extends from an increased nutrient supply and relies instead on the ability of the tumor to hijack the host immune response for the generation of a local immunoprivileged microenvironment. Tumor angiogenic-mediated establishment of endothelial anergy is responsible for this process. However, tumor endothelium can also promote immune tolerance by unbalanced expression of co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory molecules and by releasing soluble factors that restrain T cell function and induce apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the molecular properties of the tumor endothelial barrier and endothelial anergy and discuss the main immunosuppressive mechanisms triggered by the tumor endothelium. Lastly, we describe the current anti-angiogenic therapeutic landscape and how targeting tumor angiogenesis can contribute to improve clinical benefits for patients.
    Print ISSN: 1044-5323
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-3618
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: NeuroImage, Volume 173 Author(s): Alberto Merola, Michael A. Germuska, Kevin Murphy, Richard G. Wise As energy metabolism in the brain is largely oxidative, the measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) is a desirable biomarker for quantifying brain activity and tissue viability. Currently, PET techniques based on oxygen isotopes are the gold standard for obtaining whole brain CMRO 2 maps. Among MRI techniques that have been developed as an alternative are dual calibrated fMRI (dcFMRI) methods, which exploit simultaneous measurements of BOLD and ASL signals during a hypercapnic-hyperoxic experiment to modulate brain blood flow and oxygenation. In this study we quantified the repeatability of a dcFMRI approach developed in our lab, evaluating its limits and informing its application in studies aimed at characterising the metabolic state of human brain tissue over time. Our analysis focussed on the estimates of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), cerebral blood flow (CBF), CBF-related cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and CMRO 2 based on a forward model that describes analytically the acquired dual echo GRE signal. Indices of within- and between-session repeatability are calculated from two different datasets both at a bulk grey matter and at a voxel-wise resolution and finally compared with similar indices obtained from previous MRI and PET measurements. Within- and between-session values of intra-subject coefficient of variation (CV intra ) calculated from bulk grey matter estimates 6.7 ± 6.6% (mean ± std.) and 10.5 ± 9.7% for OEF, 6.9 ± 6% and 5.5 ± 4.7% for CBF, 12 ± 9.7% and 12.3 ± 10% for CMRO 2 . Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) maps showed the spatial distribution of the repeatability metrics, informing on the feasibility limits of the method. In conclusion, results show an overall consistency of the estimated physiological parameters with literature reports and a satisfactory level of repeatability considering the higher spatial sensitivity compared to other MRI methods, with varied performance depending on the specific parameter under analysis, on the spatial resolution considered and on the study design.
    Print ISSN: 1053-8119
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9572
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Publication date: June 2018 Source: NeuroImage, Volume 173 Author(s): Antonios Makropoulos, Emma C. Robinson, Andreas Schuh, Robert Wright, Sean Fitzgibbon, Jelena Bozek, Serena J. Counsell, Johannes Steinweg, Katy Vecchiato, Jonathan Passerat-Palmbach, Gregor Lenz, Filippo Mortari, Tencho Tenev, Eugene P. Duff, Matteo Bastiani, Lucilio Cordero-Grande, Emer Hughes, Nora Tusor, Jacques-Donald Tournier, Jana Hutter, Anthony N. Price, Rui Pedro A.G. Teixeira, Maria Murgasova, Suresh Victor, Christopher Kelly, Mary A. Rutherford, Stephen M. Smith, A. David Edwards, Joseph V. Hajnal, Mark Jenkinson, Daniel Rueckert The Developing Human Connectome Project (dHCP) seeks to create the first 4-dimensional connectome of early life. Understanding this connectome in detail may provide insights into normal as well as abnormal patterns of brain development. Following established best practices adopted by the WU-MINN Human Connectome Project (HCP), and pioneered by FreeSurfer, the project utilises cortical surface-based processing pipelines. In this paper, we propose a fully automated processing pipeline for the structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the developing neonatal brain. This proposed pipeline consists of a refined framework for cortical and sub-cortical volume segmentation, cortical surface extraction, and cortical surface inflation, which has been specifically designed to address considerable differences between adult and neonatal brains, as imaged using MRI. Using the proposed pipeline our results demonstrate that images collected from 465 subjects ranging from 28 to 45 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) can be processed fully automatically; generating cortical surface models that are topologically correct, and correspond well with manual evaluations of tissue boundaries in 85% of cases. Results improve on state-of-the-art neonatal tissue segmentation models and significant errors were found in only 2% of cases, where these corresponded to subjects with high motion. Downstream, these surfaces will enhance comparisons of functional and diffusion MRI datasets, supporting the modelling of emerging patterns of brain connectivity.
    Print ISSN: 1053-8119
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9572
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Development of Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability in solar coronal jets can trigger the wave turbulence considered as one of the main mechanisms of coronal heating. In this review, we have investigated the propagation of normal MHD modes running on three X-ray jets modeling them as untwisted and slightly twisted moving cylindrical flux tubes. The basic physical parameters of the jets are temperatures in the range of 5.2–8.2 MK, particle number densities of the order of  cm−3, and speeds of 385, 437, and 532 km s−1, respectively. For small density contrast between the environment and a given jet, as well as at ambient coronal temperature of 2.0 MK and magnetic field around 7 G, we have obtained that the kink () mode propagating on moving untwisted flux tubes can become unstable in the first and second jets at flow speeds of ≅348 and 429 km s−1, respectively. The KH instability onset in the third jet requires a speed of ≅826 km s−1, higher than the observed one. The same mode, propagating in weakly twisted flux tubes, becomes unstable at flow speeds of ≅361 km s−1 for the first and of 443 km s−1 for the second jet. Except the kink mode, the twisted moving flux tube supports the propagation of higher () MHD modes that can become unstable at accessible jets’ speeds.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7969
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Keeping the flying formation of spacecraft is a key problem which needs to be solved in deep space exploration missions. In this paper, the nonlinear dynamic model of formation flying is established and a series of transformations are carried out on this model equation. By using SDRE (State-Dependent Riccati Equation) algorithm, the optimal control of flying formation is realized. Compared with the traditional control method based on the average orbit elements and LQR (Linear Quadratic Regulator) control method, the SDRE control method has higher control precision and is more suitable for the advantages of continuous control in practical engineering. Finally, the parameter values of the sun-earth libration point L2 are substituted in the equation and simulation is performed. The simulation curves of SDRE controller are compared with LQR controller. The results show that the SDRE controllers time cost is less than the LQR controllers and the former’s fuel consumption is less than the latter’s in the system transition process.
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are extremely energetic events at cosmological distances. They provide unique laboratory to investigate fundamental physical processes under extreme conditions. Due to extreme luminosities, GRBs are detectable at very high redshifts and potential tracers of cosmic star formation rate at early epoch. While the launch of Swift and Fermi has increased our understanding of GRBs tremendously, many new questions have opened up. Radio observations of GRBs uniquely probe the energetics and environments of the explosion. However, currently only 30% of the bursts are detected in radio bands. Radio observations with upcoming sensitive telescopes will potentially increase the sample size significantly and allow one to follow the individual bursts for a much longer duration and be able to answer some of the important issues related to true calorimetry, reverse shock emission, and environments around the massive stars exploding as GRBs in the early Universe.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We present a detailed report of the connection between long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and their accompanying supernovae (SNe). The discussion presented here places emphasis on how observations, and the modelling of observations, have constrained what we know about GRB-SNe. We discuss their photometric and spectroscopic properties, their role as cosmological probes, including their measured luminosity–decline relationships, and how they can be used to measure the Hubble constant. We present a statistical summary of their bolometric properties and use this to determine the properties of the “average” GRB-SN. We discuss their geometry and consider the various physical processes that are thought to power the luminosity of GRB-SNe and whether differences exist between GRB-SNe and the SNe associated with ultra-long-duration GRBs. We discuss how observations of their environments further constrain the physical properties of their progenitor stars and give a brief overview of the current theoretical paradigms of their central engines. We then present an overview of the radioactively powered transients that have been photometrically associated with short-duration GRBs, and we conclude by discussing what additional research is needed to further our understanding of GRB-SNe, in particular the role of binary-formation channels and the connection of GRB-SNe with superluminous SNe.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Gene regulatory network (GRN) reconstruction is the process of identifying regulatory gene interactions from experimental data through computational analysis. One of the main reasons for the reduced performance of previous GRN methods had been inaccurate prediction of cascade motifs. Cascade error is defined as the wrong prediction of cascade motifs, where an indirect interaction is misinterpreted as a direct interaction. Despite the active research on various GRN prediction methods, the discussion on specific methods to solve problems related to cascade errors is still lacking. In fact, the experiments conducted by the past studies were not specifically geared towards proving the ability of GRN prediction methods in avoiding the occurrences of cascade errors. Hence, this research aims to propose Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) to infer GRN from gene expression data and to avoid wrongly inferring of an indirect interaction (A → B → C) as a direct interaction (A → C). Since the number of observations of the real experiment datasets was far less than the number of predictors, some predictors were eliminated by extracting the random subnetworks from global interaction networks via an established extraction method. In addition, the experiment was extended to assess the effectiveness of MLR in dealing with cascade error by using a novel experimental procedure that had been proposed in this work. The experiment revealed that the number of cascade errors had been very minimal. Apart from that, the Belsley collinearity test proved that multicollinearity did affect the datasets used in this experiment greatly. All the tested subnetworks obtained satisfactory results, with AUROC values above 0.5.
    Print ISSN: 1687-8027
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-8035
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We present the analytic theory of brown dwarf evolution and the lower mass limit of the hydrogen burning main-sequence stars and introduce some modifications to the existing models. We give an exact expression for the pressure of an ideal nonrelativistic Fermi gas at a finite temperature, therefore allowing for nonzero values of the degeneracy parameter. We review the derivation of surface luminosity using an entropy matching condition and the first-order phase transition between the molecular hydrogen in the outer envelope and the partially ionized hydrogen in the inner region. We also discuss the results of modern simulations of the plasma phase transition, which illustrate the uncertainties in determining its critical temperature. Based on the existing models and with some simple modification, we find the maximum mass for a brown dwarf to be in the range . An analytic formula for the luminosity evolution allows us to estimate the time period of the nonsteady state (i.e., non-main-sequence) nuclear burning for substellar objects. We also calculate the evolution of very low mass stars. We estimate that ≃11% of stars take longer than  yr to reach the main sequence, and ≃5% of stars take longer than  yr.
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations for a conformastatic metric with magnetized sources are investigated. In this context, effective potentials are studied in order to understand the dynamics of the magnetic field in galaxies. We derive the equations of motion for neutral and charged particles in a spacetime background characterized by this class of solutions. In this particular case, we investigate the main physical properties of the equatorial circular orbits and related effective potentials. In addition, we obtain an effective analytic expression for the perihelion advance of test particles. Our theoretical predictions are compared with the observational data calibrated with the ephemerides of the planets of the solar system and the Moon (EPM2011). In general, we show that the magnetic punctual mass predicts values that are in better agreement with observations than the values predicted in Einstein’s gravity alone.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Gene expression, signal transduction, protein/chemical interactions, biomedical literature cooccurrences, and other concepts are often captured in biological network representations where nodes represent a certain bioentity and edges the connections between them. While many tools to manipulate, visualize, and interactively explore such networks already exist, only few of them can scale up and follow today’s indisputable information growth. In this review, we shortly list a catalog of available network visualization tools and, from a user-experience point of view, we identify four candidate tools suitable for larger-scale network analysis, visualization, and exploration. We comment on their strengths and their weaknesses and empirically discuss their scalability, user friendliness, and postvisualization capabilities.
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    Topics: Biology , Computer Science
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Bioinformatic analysis was used to predict antigenic B-cell and T-cell epitopes within the S1 glycoprotein of M41 and CR88 IBV strains. A conserved linear B-cell epitope peptide, , was identified in M41 IBV strains while three such epitopes types namely, , , and , were predicted in CR88 IBV strains. Analysis of MHCI binding peptides in M41 IBV strains revealed the presence of 15 antigenic peptides out of which 12 were highly conserved in 96–100% of the total M41 strains analysed. Interestingly three of these peptides, GGPITYKVM208, WFNSLSVSI356, and YLADAGLAI472, relatively had high antigenicity index (〉1.0). On the other hand, 11 MHCI binding epitope peptides were identified in CR88 IBV strains. Of these, five peptides were found to be highly conserved with a range between 90% and 97%. However, WFNSLSVSL358, SYNISAASV88, and YNISAASVA89 peptides comparably showed high antigenicity scores (〉1.0). Combination of antigenic B-cells and T-cells peptides that are conserved across many strains as approach to evoke humoral and CTL immune response will potentially lead to a broad-based vaccine that could reduce the challenges in using live attenuated vaccine technology in the control of IBV infection in poultry.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018 Source: Advances in Cancer Research Author(s): Scott T. Eblen The extracellular-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 are evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitous serine–threonine kinases that are involved in regulating cellular signaling in both normal and pathological conditions. Their expression is critical for development and their hyperactivation is a major factor in cancer development and progression. Since their discovery as one of the major signaling mediators activated by mitogens and Ras mutation, we have learned much about their regulation, including their activation, binding partners and substrates. In this review I will discuss some of what has been discovered about the members of the Ras to ERK pathway, including regulation of their activation by growth factors and cell adhesion pathways. Looking downstream of ERK activation I will also highlight some of the many ERK substrates that have been discovered, including those involved in feedback regulation, cell migration and cell cycle progression through the control of transcription, pre-mRNA splicing and protein synthesis.
    Electronic ISSN: 0065-230X
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018 Source: Advances in Cancer Research Author(s): Diana Fang, Eduardo N. Maldonado Cancer metabolism is emerging as a chemotherapeutic target. Enhanced glycolysis and suppression of mitochondrial metabolism characterize the Warburg phenotype in cancer cells. The flux of respiratory substrates, ADP, and Pi into mitochondria and the release of mitochondrial ATP to the cytosol occur through voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) located in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Catabolism of respiratory substrates in the Krebs cycle generates NADH and FADH 2 that enter the electron transport chain (ETC) to generate a proton motive force that maintains mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) and is utilized to generate ATP. The ETC is also the major cellular source of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). αβ-Tubulin heterodimers decrease VDAC conductance in lipid bilayers. High constitutive levels of cytosolic free tubulin in intact cancer cells close VDAC decreasing mitochondrial ΔΨ and mitochondrial metabolism. The VDAC–tubulin interaction regulates VDAC opening and globally controls mitochondrial metabolism, ROS formation, and the intracellular flow of energy. Erastin, a VDAC-binding molecule lethal to some cancer cell types, and erastin-like compounds identified in a high-throughput screening antagonize the inhibitory effect of tubulin on VDAC. Reversal of tubulin inhibition of VDAC increases VDAC conductance and the flux of metabolites into and out of mitochondria. VDAC opening promotes a higher mitochondrial ΔΨ and a global increase in mitochondrial metabolism leading to high cytosolic ATP/ADP ratios that inhibit glycolysis. VDAC opening also increases ROS production causing oxidative stress that, in turn, leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, bioenergetic failure, and cell death. In summary, antagonism of the VDAC–tubulin interaction promotes cell death by a “double-hit model” characterized by reversion of the proproliferative Warburg phenotype (anti-Warburg) and promotion of oxidative stress.
    Electronic ISSN: 0065-230X
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We study the modified Friedmann equation in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with quantum effect. Our modified results mainly stem from the new entropy-area relation and the novel idea of Padmanabhan, who considers the cosmic space to be emerging as the cosmic time progresses, so that the expansion rate of the universe is determined by the difference of degrees of freedom between the holographic surface and the bulk inside. We also discuss the possibility of having bounce cosmological solution from the modified Friedmann equation in spatially flat geometry.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7357
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We focus on the following elliptic system with critical Sobolev exponents:  ; ; , where , either or , and critical Sobolev exponents and . Conditions on potential functions lead to no compact embedding. Relying on concentration-compactness principle, mountain pass lemma, and genus theory, the existence of solutions to the elliptic system with or will be established.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9120
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9139
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The transition density function plays an important role in understanding and explaining the dynamics of the stochastic process. In this paper, we incorporate an ergodic process displaying fast moving fluctuation into constant volatility models to express volatility clustering over time. We obtain an analytic approximation of the transition density function under our stochastic process model. Using perturbation theory based on Lie–Trotter operator splitting method, we compute the leading-order term and the first-order correction term and then present the left and right skew scenarios through numerical study.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The transverse dynamic spin susceptibility is a correlation function that yields exact information about spin excitations in systems with a collinear magnetic ground state, including collective spin-wave modes. In an ab initio context, it may be calculated within many-body perturbation theory or time-dependent density-functional theory, but the quantitative accuracy is currently limited by the available functionals for exchange and correlation in dynamically evolving systems. To circumvent this limitation, the spin susceptibility is here alternatively formulated as the solution of an initial-value problem. In this way, the challenge of accurately describing exchange and correlation in many-electron systems is shifted to the stationary initial state, which is much better understood. The proposed scheme further requires the choice of an auxiliary basis set, which determines the speed of convergence but always allows systematic convergence in practical implementations.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: (E)-N-Aryl-2-ethene-sulfonamide and its derivatives are potent anticancer agents; these compounds inhibit cancer cells proliferation. A study of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) has been applied on 40 compounds based on (E)-N-Aryl-2-ethene-sulfonamide, in order to predict their anticancer biological activity. The principal components analysis is used for minimizing the base matrix and the multiple linear regression (MLR) and multiple nonlinear regression have been used to design the relationships between the molecular descriptor and anticancer properties of the sulfonamide derivatives. The validation of the models MLR and MNLR has been done by dividing the dataset into training and test set, the external validation of multiple correlation coefficients was RpIC50 = 0.81 for MLR and RpIC50 = 0.91 for MNLR. The artificial neural network (ANN) showed a correlation coefficient close to 0.96, which concluded that this latter model is more effective and much better than the other models. This obtained model (ANN) has been confirmed by two methods of LOO cross-validation and scrambling (or Y-randomization). The high correlation between experimental and predicted activity values was observed, indicating the validation and the good quality of the derived QSAR model.
    Print ISSN: 1687-7985
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7993
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In this work, we fabricated system In(O,OH)S/i-ZnO/n+-ZnO to be used as potential optical window in thin films solar cells. i-ZnO/n+-ZnO thin films were synthesized by reactive evaporation (RE) method and In(O,OH)S thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method; all thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates. Thin films were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and spectral transmittance measurements. Structural results indicated that both thin films were polycrystalline; furthermore, morphological results indicated that both thin films coated uniformly soda lime glass substrate; besides, optical characterization indicated that system had more than 80% of visible radiation transmittance.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7993
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We present explicit formula for the general Randić connectivity, general sum-connectivity, Hyper-Zagreb and Harmonic Indices, and Harmonic polynomial of some simple connected molecular graphs.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-7993
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: We first briefly revisit the original Hamilton-Jacobi method and show that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the action of tunneling of a fermionic particle from a charged black hole can be written in the same form of that for a scalar particle. On the other hand, various theories of quantum gravity suggest the existence of a minimal length scale, incorporating of which into quantum mechanics implies a modification of the uncertainty principle. In the scenario incorporating the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) into a quantum field theory (QFT) in a covariant way, we derive the deformed model-independent KG/Dirac and Hamilton-Jacobi equations using the methods of effective field theory. For this Lorentz invariant GUP modified QFT, we find that the effect of GUP on the Hamilton-Jacobi equations is simply to “renormalize” the mass of the emitted particles, from to . Therefore, in this scenario, the Hawking temperature of a black hole does not receive any corrections from the GUP effect.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Although realistic representation of the convective boundary layer (CBL) in the desert region in Northwest China is important for weather forecasts and climate simulations, evaluations of the performance of various planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes in simulating the CBL in the region are rare. In this study, the performance of a scale-aware PBL scheme newly implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in simulating the CBL in the Taklimakan desert is evaluated based on a comparison with both the WRF-LES simulations and observations, with the focus on scale dependencies of the simulations compared to the conventional PBL scheme. A series of simulations are performed with a scale-aware PBL scheme (Shin-Hong) and the conventional PBL scheme (YSU) for a deep CBL observed at Tazhong station in the central Taklimakan on 1 July 2016. The CBL was over 5000 m deep with wider and deeper rolls than in a shallow boundary layer. The results showed that the vertical structure simulated with the Shin-Hong scheme was closer to that in both the WRF-LES (large-eddy-simulation) and observations than that simulated with the YSU. The simulation with the scale-aware scheme reproduced cellular rolls similar to those in the WRF-LES, while the conventional PBL scheme struggled to trigger intense convective cells rather than cellular rolls. The results strongly suggest that the scale-aware nonlocal PBL scheme can be used to adequately reproduce the scale and evolution of the observed rolls in the deep CBL in Taklimakan desert at subkilometer resolutions.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9317
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: As a fundamental component in material and energy circulation, precipitation with high resolution and accuracy is of great significance for hydrological, meteorological, and ecological studies. Since satellite measured precipitation is often too coarse for practical applications, it is essential to develop spatial downscaling algorithms. In this study, we investigated two downscaling algorithms based on the Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR), respectively. They were employed to downscale annual and monthly precipitation obtained from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission in Hengduan Mountains, Southwestern China, from 10 km × 10 km to 1 km × 1 km. Ground observations were then used to validate the accuracy of downscaled precipitation. The results showed that GWR performed much better than MLR to regress precipitation on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM); coefficients of GWR models showed strong spatial nonstationarity, but the spatial mean standardized coefficients were very similar to standardized coefficients of MLR in terms of intra-annual patterns: generally NDVI was positively related to precipitation when monthly precipitation was under 166 mm; DEM was negatively related to precipitation, especially in wet months like July and August; contribution of DEM to precipitation was greater than that of NDVI; residuals’ correction was indispensable for the MLR-based algorithm but should be removed from the GWR-based algorithm; the GWR-based algorithm rather than the MLR-based algorithm produced more accurate precipitation than original GPM precipitation. These results indicated that GWR is a promising method in satellite precipitation downscaling researches and needed to be further studied.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: When the coarse-resolution observations used in the first step of multiscale and multistep variational data assimilation become increasingly nonuniform and/or sparse, the error variance of the first-step analysis tends to have increasingly large spatial variations. However, the analysis error variance computed from the previously developed spectral formulations is constant and thus limited to represent only the spatially averaged error variance. To overcome this limitation, analytic formulations are constructed to efficiently estimate the spatial variation of analysis error variance and associated spatial variation in analysis error covariance. First, a suite of formulations is constructed to efficiently estimate the error variance reduction produced by analyzing the coarse-resolution observations in one- and two-dimensional spaces with increased complexity and generality (from uniformly distributed observations with periodic extension to nonuniformly distributed observations without periodic extension). Then, three different formulations are constructed for using the estimated analysis error variance to modify the analysis error covariance computed from the spectral formulations. The successively improved accuracies of these three formulations and their increasingly positive impacts on the two-step variational analysis (or multistep variational analysis in first two steps) are demonstrated by idealized experiments.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Ice nuclei are very important factors as they significantly affect the development and evolvement of convective clouds such as hail clouds. In this study, numerical simulations of hail processes in the Zhejiang Province were conducted using a mesoscale numerical model (WRF v3.4). The effects of six ice nuclei parameterization schemes on the macroscopic and microscopic structures of hail clouds were compared. The effect of the ice nuclei concentration on ground hailfall is stronger than that on ground rainfall. There were significant spatiotemporal, intensity, and distribution differences in hailfall. Changes in the ice nuclei concentration caused different changes in hydrometeors and directly affected the ice crystals, and, hence, the spatiotemporal distribution of other hydrometeors and the thermodynamic structure of clouds. An increased ice nuclei concentration raises the initial concentration of ice crystals with higher mixing ratio. In the developing and early maturation stages of hail cloud, a larger number of ice crystals competed for water vapor with increasing ice nuclei concentration. This effect prevents ice crystals from maturing into snow particles and inhibits the formation and growth of hail embryos. During later maturation stages, updraft in the cloud intensified and more supercooled water was transported above the 0°C level, benefitting the production and growth of hail particles. An increased ice nuclei concentration therefore favors the formation of hail.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: A month-long field observation campaign was conducted, which covered approximately 100 km2 of the Gobi Desert area on the southeast bank of Bosten Lake during the summer of 2016. The purpose of the study was to examine the physical characteristics of the low atmosphere over land-lake nonuniform underlying surfaces in the Gobi Desert of northwestern China. The results of the statistical analysis showed that, during the observational period, the average daytime surface horizontal thermal gradient reached up to −0.2°C/km from the lakeshore to southern Gobi Desert area. The near-surface wind field of the 7 km horizontal extent from the lakeshore was dominated by onshore breezes with average peak wind speeds above 5 m/s. In the atmospheric near-surface layer, an isohumidity layer at a height between 10 and 50 m a.g.l. was observed from 11:00 to 18:00 LST. Also, a case study for the atmospheric boundary layer and local circulation analyses was conducted. The onshore breezes were found to play a major role in the vertical structure of the local atmospheric boundary layer. The numerical simulation results indicated that there was an alternating day-night local circulation in the Bosten Lake area.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: North China Plain, Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei province are the major areas facing the decreasing air quality and frequent pollution events in the recent years. Identifying the effect of meteorological conditions on changes in aerosol concentration and the mechanism for forming such heavy pollution in North China Plain has become the focus of scientific research. The influence of atmospheric boundary layer characteristics on air quality has become the focus of attention and research. However, the boundary layer describes that the influences of air pollution have sometimes been duplicated and confused with each other in some of the studies. It is necessary to pay attention to some extent, raising awareness of related pollution mixing layer. The conclusions of the study include the following: The lowered height of pollution mixing layer (H_PML) was favorable for the increase of the PM2.5 density. The lowered height of pollution mixing layer had significant impacts on formation of severe haze. A statistical analysis of large-scale heavy pollution cases in eastern China shows that the H_PML parameters have significant contributions. The feedback effect of the high value of the convection inhibition (CIN), which is unfavorable to vertical diffusion of pollution, causes further reduction of H_PML, resulting in cumulative pollution again.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was computed for October to December (OND) and January to March (JFM) summer subseasons for Free State Province, South Africa, to assess the influence of altitude on drought severity and frequency. The observed spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the SPI variability revealed that factors governing drought interannual variability varied markedly within the region for the two subseasons. Strong correlations between and 0.93 across the clusters in both subseasons were observed. Significant shift in average SPI, towards the high during the OND subseason, was detected for the far western low-lying and central regions of the province around the 1990s. An ANOVA test revealed a significant relationship between drought severity and altitude during the OND subseason only. The impact of altitude is partly manifested in the strong relationship between meridional winds and SPI extremes. When the winds are largely northerly, Free State lies predominantly in the windward side of the Drakensberg Mountains but lies in the rain shadow when the winds are mostly southerly. The relationship between ENSO and SPI indicates stronger correlations for the early summer subseason than for the late summer subseason while overall presenting a diminishing intensity with height over the province.
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  • 58
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    Elsevier
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 102, Issue 3 Each year at the annual meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of the society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is provided below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, Curt Stern Award, and Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org .
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    Electronic ISSN: 1537-6605
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Publication date: 1 March 2018 Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 102, Issue 3 Author(s): Arthur L. Beaudet
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018 Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Author(s): Nathan R. Blue, Cristina Murray-Krezan, Shana Drake-Lavelle, Daniel Weinberg, Bradley D. Holbrook, Vivek R. Katukuri, Lawrence Leeman, Ellen L. Mozurkewich Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use has been shown to increase blood pressure in non-pregnant adults. Because of this, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists suggests avoiding their use in women with postpartum hypertension; however, evidence to support this recommendation is lacking. Objectives Our goal was to test the hypothesis that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, adversely affect postpartum blood pressure control in women with preeclampsia with severe features. Study Design At delivery, we randomized women with preeclampsia with severe features to receive “around-the-clock” oral dosing with either 600mg of ibuprofen or 650mg of acetaminophen every six hours. Dosing began within six hours after delivery and continued until discharge, with opioid analgesics available as needed for breakthrough pain. Study drugs were encapsulated in identical capsules such that patients, nurses and physicians were masked to study allocation. Exclusion criteria were serum AST or ALT > 200mg/dL, serum creatinine >1.0mg/dL, infectious hepatitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, age 〈 18 years, or current incarceration. Our primary outcome was the duration of severe-range hypertension, defined as the time (in hours, h) from delivery to the last blood pressure ≥ 160/110 mmHg. Secondary outcomes were time from delivery to last blood pressure ≥ 150/100 mmHg, mean arterial pressure (MAP), need for antihypertensive medication at discharge, prolongation of hospital stay for blood pressure control, postpartum use of short-acting antihypertensives for acute blood pressure control, and opioid use for breakthrough pain. We analyzed all outcome data according to intention-to-treat principles. Results We assessed 154 women for eligibility, of whom 100 met entry criteria, agreed to participate, and were randomized to receive postpartum ibuprofen or acetaminophen for first-line pain control. Seven patients crossed over or did not receive their allocated study drug, and 93 completed the study protocol in their assigned groups. We found no differences in baseline characteristics between groups, including mode of delivery, BMI, parity, race, chronic hypertension, and maximum blood pressure prior to delivery. We did not find a difference in the duration of severe-range hypertension in the ibuprofen versus acetaminophen groups (35.3h vs 38.0h, p=0.30). There were no differences between groups in the secondary outcome measures of time from delivery to last blood pressure ≥ 150/100 mmHg, postpartum MAP, maximum postpartum systolic or diastolic blood pressures, any postpartum BP ≥ 160/110 mmHg, short-acting antihypertensive use for acute blood pressure control, length of postpartum stay, need to extend postpartum stay for blood pressure control, antihypertensive use at discharge, or opioid use for inadequate pain control. In a subgroup analysis of patients who experienced severe-range hypertension, the mean time to blood pressure control in the acetaminophen group was 68.8h and ibuprofen group was 56.7h (p=0.26). At six weeks postpartum, there were no differences between groups in the rates of OB triage visits, hospital readmissions, continued opioid use, or continued antihypertensive use. Conclusion The first-line use of ibuprofen rather than acetaminophen for postpartum pain did not lengthen the duration of severe-range hypertension in women with preeclampsia with severe features.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018 Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Author(s): Oded Langer Controversies persist over the most efficacious pharmacologic treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus. For purposes of accuracy in this article, the individual American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Practice Bulletin and American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care positions on each issue are quoted and then deliberated with evidence of counter claims presented in point/counterpoint. This is a review of all the relevant evidence for the most holistic picture possible. The main issues are (1) which diabetic drugs cross the placenta, (2) the quality of evidence and data source validity, (3) the rationale for the designation of glucose control as the primary outcome in gestational diabetes mellitus, and (4) which drugs (metformin, glyburide, or insulin) are most effective in improving secondary outcomes. The concept that 1 drug fits all, whether it be insulin, glyburide, or metformin, is a fallacy. Different drugs provide certain benefits but not all the benefits and not to all patients. In addition, the steps in the gestational diabetes mellitus management decision path and the current cost of the use of insulin, glyburide, or metformin are addressed. In the future, we must consider studying the potential of diabetic drugs that currently are used in nonpregnancy and incorporating the concept of precision medicine in the decision tree to maximize pregnancy outcomes.
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018 Source: Analytical Biochemistry Author(s): G. Hawa, Linda Sonnleitner, A. Missbichler, A. Prinz, G. Bauer, C. Mauracher Although Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) technology is approaching it's 45th year of existence since first described in 1971, it is still the main diagnostic tool in clinical research and routine diagnostics. However, despite its broad usage it suffers from some drawbacks, limiting its use especially in more advanced assay formats like multiplexing platforms, point of care devices or protein arrays. Those limitations result from the need for an enzyme label, a soluble enzyme substrate, washing steps (multiplexing, point care, arrays) and in some cases also insufficient sensitivity, because the majority of circulating proteins and thus potential biomarkers may be found in lowor sub-picomolar concentrations. We hereby present a new assay platform based on metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF), that remedies these problems since it eliminates the need for washing steps, for using enzyme labels and allows detection of analytes down to sub-picomolar concentrations. In addition this technology is fully compatible to standard fluorescence reader equipment as it is found in many laboratories nowadays. Since our present work is focused on single biomarker evaluation, we chose a 96 well plate format for convenience, but any other formate like antibody arrays, strip-like point of care devices etc. is feasible too.
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Publication date: 1 May 2018 Source: Analytical Biochemistry, Volume 548 Author(s): Pascal Steffen, Christoph Krisp, Wang Yi, Pengyuan Yang, Mark P. Molloy, Hartmut Schlüter Transporting biological samples such as cells or tissues is complicated by the need to maintain integrity and minimise modification and degradation, but this is economically costly as the samples must be shipped in a frozen state. This multi-laboratory study investigated sample variability introduced by non-cooled transport of dried peptide samples for proteomic analysis using mass spectrometry. Human cancer cell tryptic lysates were proteolysed and dried in Australia and shipped by air to Europe and China. Samples were measured using label free mass spectrometry on similar LC-MS systems at all three sites. Preparation and analysis of the specimens in this manner resulted in only minor differences in protein identification and showed high quantitative reproducibility amongst the participating laboratories. We examined any impact on peptide chemical modification and report no discrepancies compared to the starting, non-shipped sample. We conclude that transport of non-cooled, dried peptides has negligible effect on sample integrity for downstream LC-MS analysis and therefore represents a cost-effective option to facilitate international proteomic collaborations. Data is available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008160.
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018 Source: Analytical Biochemistry Author(s): Iva Turyan, Ruth Frenkel, Zoran Sosic Protein tyrosine sulfation (Tyr-O-SO3) is a common post-translational modification (PTM), which is important for protein function. Absolute quantitation of Tyr-O-SO3 in recombinant therapeutic proteins has been challenging. We report here an MRM method used for absolute quantitation of Tyr-O-SO3 in the hydrolysate of a recombinant Fc-fusion protein. Quantitation is achieved by monitoring the sum of two transitions: the loss of carboxylic acid from tyrosine sulfate (major transition) and sulfate group from tyrosine sulfate sodium salt. The method exhibits a good sensitivity with a limit of quantitation of 1.4 ng/mL, linearity over three orders of magnitude, good repeatability, precision and accuracy.
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018 Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Author(s): Anne M. Ambia, Jamie L. Morgan, C. Edward Wells, Scott W. Roberts, Monika Sanghavi, David B. Nelson, F. Gary Cunningham Background Adverse maternal outcomes associated with chronic hypertension include accelerated hypertension and resultant target organ damage. One example is long-standing hypertension leading to maternal cardiac dysfunction. Our group has previously identified that features of such injury manifest as cardiac remodeling with left ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, these features of cardiac remodeling identified in women with chronic hypertension during pregnancy were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Recent definitions of maternal cardiac remodeling using echocardiography have been expanded to include measurements of wall thickness. We hypothesized that these new features characterizing cardiac remodeling in women with chronic hypertension may also be associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Objective There were three aims in this study of women with treated chronic hypertension during pregnancy: (1) to apply the updated definitions of maternal cardiac remodeling; (2) elucidate whether these features of cardiac remodeling were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes; and (3) determine which, if any, of the newly defined cardiac remodeling strata were most damaging when compared to women with normal cardiac geometry. Study Design This was a retrospective study of women with treated chronic hypertension during pregnancy delivered from January 2009 to January 2016. Cardiac remodeling was categorized by left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness into four groups determined using the 2015 American Society of Echocardiography guidelines: normal geometry, concentric remodeling, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy. Perinatal outcomes were analyzed according to each category of cardiac remodeling compared with outcomes in women with normal geometry. Results A total of 314 women with treated chronic hypertension underwent echocardiography at a mean gestational age of 17.9 weeks. There were no differences between maternal age (P=0.896), habitus (P=0.36), or duration of chronic hypertension (P=0.212) amongst the four groups. Abnormal cardiac remodeling was found in 51% and was significantly associated with increased rates of superimposed preeclampsia (P=0.015), preterm birth (P〈0.001), and neonatal intensive care admission (P=0.003). These outcomes reached the greatest significance when comparisons were made between eccentric hypertrophy and normal geometry. Conclusion Using current American Society of Echocardiography guidelines, 51% of women with treated chronic hypertension during pregnancy have some degree of abnormal cardiac remodeling. Any suggestion of maternal cardiac remodeling, regardless of subtype, was associated with increased risks for superimposed preeclampsia and preterm birth with its resultant perinatal sequelae. Eccentric ventricular hypertrophy, previously thought to mimic exercise physiology, appears to be the most associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Despite evidence of cardiac remodeling, ejection fraction was preserved.
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018 Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Author(s): Sharon L. Achilles, Michele N. Austin, Leslie A. Meyn, Felix Mhlanga, Zvavahera M. Chirenje, Sharon L. Hillier Background Data evaluating the impact of contraceptives on the vaginal microbiome are limited and inconsistent. Objective We hypothesized that women initiating copper intrauterine device use would have increased bacterial vaginosis and bacterial vaginosis-associated microbes with use compared to women initiating and using hormonal contraceptive methods. Study Design Vaginal swabs (N=1047 from 266 participants seeking contraception) for Nugent score determination of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses for assessment of specific microbiota were collected from asymptomatic, healthy women aged 18-35 in Harare, Zimbabwe who were confirmed to be free of non-study hormones by mass spectrometry at each visit. Contraception was initiated with an injectable (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (n=41), norethisterone enanthate (n=44), or medroxyprogesterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol (n=40)), implant (levonorgestrel- (n=45) or etonogestrel-implant (n=48)), or copper intrauterine device (n=48) and repeat vaginal swabs were collected after 30, 90 and 180-days of continuous use. Self-reported condom use was similar across all arms at baseline. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Lactobacillus crispatus , Lactobacillus jensenii , Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii group, Lactobacillus vaginalis , Lactobacillus iners , Gardnerella vaginalis , Atopobium vaginae and Megasphaera -like bacterium phylotype I from swabs. Modified Poisson regression and mixed effects linear models were used to compare marginal prevalence and mean difference in quantity (expressed as gene copies/swab) prior to and during contraceptive use. Results BV prevalence increased in women initiating copper intrauterine devices from 27% at baseline, 35% at 30 days, 40% at 90 days and 49% at 180 days (p=.005 compared to marginal prevalence at enrollment). Women initiating hormonal methods had no change in BV prevalence over 180 days. The mean increase in Nugent score was 1.2 (95% CI 0.5-2.0, p=.001) in women using copper intrauterine devices. Although the frequency and density of beneficial lactobacilli did not change among intrauterine device users over six months, there was an increase in the log concentration of Gardnerella vaginalis (4.7, 5.2, 5.8, 5.9; p=.046) and Atopobium vaginae (3.0, 3.8, 4.6, 5.1; p=.002) between baseline and 30, 90 and 180 days after initiation. Among other contraceptive groups, women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate had decreased Lactobacillus iners (mean decrease log concentration= 0.8; 95% CI: 0.3, 1.5, p=.004) and there were no significant changes in beneficial Lactobacillus species over 180 days regardless of contraceptive method used. Conclusions Copper intrauterine device use may increase colonization by BV-associated microbiota, resulting in increased prevalence of BV. Use of most hormonal contraception does not alter vaginal microbiota.
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper shows the experimental results of the flutter speed of thin-flat plates with free leading edge in axial flow as a function of plates’ geometry, fluid densities, and viscosities, as well as natural frequencies of the plates. The experiment was developed based on similitude theory using dimensional analysis and Buckingham Pi Theorem. Dimensional analysis generates four dimensionless numbers. Experiment was conducted by placing the thin-flat plates in a laminar flow wind tunnel in order to obtain the relationship among those dimensionless numbers. The flutter speed was measured by varying the flow velocity until the instability occurred. The dimensional analysis gives a map of the flutter Reynolds number as a function of a new type of dimensionless number that is hereby called flutter fluid structure interaction number, thickness-to-length, and aspect ratios as the correcting factors. This map is a very useful tool for predicting the flutter speed of thin-flat plates in general. This investigation found that the flutter Reynolds number is very high at the region of high flutter fluid structure and thickness-to-length ratios numbers; however, it is very sensitive to the change of those two dimensionless numbers. The sensitivity is higher at lower aspect ratio.
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Overlapping signals separation is a difficult problem, where time windowing is unable to separate signals overlapping in time and frequency domain filtering is unable to separate signals with overlapping spectra. In this work, a simulation under MATLAB is implemented to illustrate the concept of overlapping signals. We propose an approach for resolving overlapping signals based on Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform. The proposed approach is tested under MATLAB, and the simulation results validate the effectiveness and the accuracy of the proposed approach. The approach is developed using Gerchberg superresolution technique to cope with signals with low signal-to-noise ratio. For practical work, an echo shape determination is required to apply the proposed technique. The experimental results show accurate localization of multiple targets.
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: In this study, the vibration and acoustic interactions between the structure and the cavity inside the freezer cabinet were investigated. Thus, a set of numerical and experimental analyses were performed. In the numerical analysis, the acoustic characteristics of the freezer cavity were solved, and the mixed finite element method was then implemented to analyse the coupled behaviour of the cavity with the air duct using the Acoustic Fluid-Structure Interaction (AFSI) technique. In the experimental analyses, an acoustic modal analysis of the freezer cavity and a structural modal analysis of the air duct were performed for the validation process. A good agreement was obtained among the results. Thus, the accuracy of the numerical model was confirmed. The validated models were used for optimizing the design. To solve the noise generation mechanism inside the freezer cabinet, the noise primarily generated by the freezer fan unit was measured under normal working conditions of the refrigerator, and the resonance frequencies were obtained. This information was compared with the normal modes of the air duct, and the overlapping frequencies were identified. To reduce the interaction between the source and the structure, a few design modifications were applied to the air duct. Thus, the structural-borne noise radiating from the air duct into the freezer cavity was reduced.
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This study investigates the acoustical and nonacoustical properties of composites using corn husk fiber (CHF) and unsaturated polyester as the sound-absorbing materials. The influence of the volume fraction of CHF on acoustic performance was experimentally investigated. In addition, the nonacoustical properties, such as air-flow resistivity, porosity, and mechanical properties of composites have been analyzed. The results show that the sound absorptions at low frequencies are determined by the number of lumens in fiber, particularly the absorption coefficient, which increases the amount of fiber. For high-frequency sound, the absorption coefficient is determined by the arrangement of fibers in the composite. An absorption coefficient is close to zero when the fibers are arranged in a conventional pattern; however, when they are arranged in a random pattern, a high absorption coefficient can be obtained. The bond interface between the fiber and resin enhances its mechanical properties, which increases the longevity of the composite panel.
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Acoustical holography has been widely applied for noise sources location and sound field measurement. Performance of the microphones array directly determines the sound source recognition method. Therefore, research is very important to the performance of the microphone array, its array of applications, selection, and how to design instructive. In this paper, based on acoustic holography moving sound source identification theory, the optimization method is applied in design of the microphone array, we select the main side lobe ratio and the main lobe area as the optimization objective function and then put the optimization method use in the sound source identification based on holography, and finally we designed this paper to optimize microphone array and compare the original array of equally spaced array with optimization results; by analyzing the optimization results and objectives, we get that the array can be achieved which is optimized not only to reduce the microphone but also to change objective function results, while improving the far-field acoustic holography resolving effect. Validation experiments have showed that the optimization method is suitable for high speed trains sound source identification microphone array optimization.
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: Research has shown that the soundboard plays an increasingly important role compared to the sound hole, back plate, and the bridge at high frequencies. The frequency spectrum of investigation can be extended to 5 kHz. Design of bracings and their placements on the soundboard increase its structural stiffness as well as redistributing its deflection to nonbraced regions and affecting its loudness as well as its response at low and high frequencies. This paper attempts to present a review of the current state of the art in guitar research and to propose viable alternatives that will ultimately result in a louder and better sounding instrument. Current research is an attempt to increase the sound level with bracing designs and their placements, control of natural frequencies using scalloped braces, as well as improve the acoustic radiation of this instrument at higher frequencies by deliberately inducing asymmetric modes in the soundboard using the concept of “splitting board.” Various mathematical methods are available for analysing the soundboard based on the theory of thin plates. Discrete models of the instrument up to 4 degrees of freedom are also presented. Results from finite element analysis can be utilized for the evaluation of acoustic radiation.
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This research focuses on the application of the spatial system of finite element modeling for the vehicle-bridge interaction on reinforced concrete US Girder Bridge in order to obtain the effect of surface roughness. Single vehicle and multiple vehicles on reinforced concrete T beam bridge were studied with variable surface roughness profiles. The effects of six different surface roughness profiles (very good, good, measured, average, poor, and very poor) were investigated for vehicle-bridge interaction. The values of the Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF) were obtained for single and multiple vehicles on T Beam Bridge for different surface roughness profiles, along with the distances between the axles of heavy vehicle. It was observed that when the bridge has very good, good, measured, and average surface roughness, the DAF values for the single vehicle over the bridge were observed to be within acceptable limits specified by AASHTO. However, for the bridge with multiple vehicles only very good and measured surface roughness profiles showed a DAF and vehicle axle distances within the acceptable limits. From the current studies, it was observed that the spatial system showed reliable responses for predicting the behavior of the bridge under variable road surface roughness conditions and was reliable in vehicle axle detection, and therefore, it has a potential to be use for realistic simulations.
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper reviews the evolution of focused ultrasonic transducers of various kinds for fluid atomization and vaporization. Ultrasonic transducers used for atomization purposes in biomedical, pharmaceutical, or industrial applications, such as surface acoustic wave (SAW) transducers, array of micromachined nozzles, and Fourier horn micromachined nozzles with or without a central channel, are all presented and compared. For simplicity of manufacturing and low cost, we focus on plates and curved and corrugated structures for biomedical humidification.
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The transmission of sound in a duct with sudden area expansion and extended inlet is investigated in the case where the walls of the duct lie in the finite overlapping region lined with acoustically absorbent materials. By using the series expansion in the overlap region and using the Fourier transform technique elsewhere we obtain a Wiener-Hopf equation whose solution involves a set of infinitely many unknown expansion coefficients satisfying a system of linear algebraic equations. Numerical solution of this system is obtained for various values of the problem parameters, whereby the effects of these parameters on the sound transmission are studied.
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: This paper examines the spectrum and cepstrum content of vibration signals taken from a helicopter gearbox with two different configurations (3 and 4 planets). It presents a signal processing algorithm to separate synchronous and nonsynchronous components for complete shafts’ harmonic extraction and removal. The spectrum and cepstrum of the vibration signal for two configurations are firstly analyzed and discussed. The effect of changing the number of planets on the fundamental gear mesh frequency (epicyclic mesh frequency) and its sidebands is discussed. The paper explains the differences between the two configurations and discusses, in particular, the asymmetry of the modulation sidebands about the epicyclic mesh frequency in the 4 planets arrangement. Finally a separation algorithm, which is based on resampling the order-tracked signal to have an integer number of samples per revolution for a specific shaft, is proposed for a complete removal of the shafts harmonics. The results obtained from the presented separation algorithms are compared to other separation schemes such as discrete random separation (DRS) and time synchronous averaging (TSA) with clear improvements and better results.
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The problem of vibration attenuation in a semiactive vehicle suspension is considered. The proposed solution is based on usage of the information about the road roughness coming from the sensor installed on the front axle of the vehicle. It does not need any preview sensor to measure the road roughness as other preview control strategies do. Here, the well-known Skyhook algorithm is used for control of the front magnetorheological (MR) damper. This algorithm is tuned to a quarter-car model of the front part of the vehicle. The rear MR damper is controlled by the FxLMS (Filtered-x LMS) taking advantage of the information about the motion of the front vehicle axle. The goal of this algorithm is to minimize pitch of the vehicle body. The strategy is applied for a four-degree-of-freedom (4-DOF) vehicle model equipped with magnetorheological dampers which were described using the Bouc-Wen model. The suspension model was subjected to the road-induced excitation in the form of a series of bumps within the frequency range 1.0–10 Hz. Different solutions are compared based on the transmissibility function and simulation results show the usefulness of the proposed solution.
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2018-03-05
    Description: The Kaybob compressor failure of 1971 was an excellent historic example of rotordynamic instability and the design factors that affect this phenomenon. In the case of Kaybob, the use of poorly designed bearings produced unstable whirling in both the low and high pressure compressors. This required over five months of vibration troubleshooting and redesign along with over 100 million modern U.S. dollars in total costs and lost revenue. In this paper, the history of the Kaybob compressor failure is discussed in detail including a discussion of the ineffective bearing designs that were considered. Modern bearing and rotordynamic analysis tools are then employed to study both designs that were considered along with new designs for the bearings that could have ultimately restored stability to the machine. These designs include four-pad, load-between-pad bearings and squeeze film dampers with a central groove. Simple relationships based on the physics of the system are also used to show how the bearings could be tuned to produce optimum bearing stiffness and damping of the rotor vibration, producing insights which can inform the designers as they perform more comprehensive analyses of these systems.
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