Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Proceed order?

Export
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-05-11
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1506: Unifying Terrain Awareness for the Visually Impaired through Real-Time Semantic Segmentation Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051506 Authors: Kailun Yang Kaiwei Wang Luis Bergasa Eduardo Romera Weijian Hu Dongming Sun Junwei Sun Ruiqi Cheng Tianxue Chen Elena López Navigational assistance aims to help visually-impaired people to ambulate the environment safely and independently. This topic becomes challenging as it requires detecting a wide variety of scenes to provide higher level assistive awareness. Vision-based technologies with monocular detectors or depth sensors have sprung up within several years of research. These separate approaches have achieved remarkable results with relatively low processing time and have improved the mobility of impaired people to a large extent. However, running all detectors jointly increases the latency and burdens the computational resources. In this paper, we put forward seizing pixel-wise semantic segmentation to cover navigation-related perception needs in a unified way. This is critical not only for the terrain awareness regarding traversable areas, sidewalks, stairs and water hazards, but also for the avoidance of short-range obstacles, fast-approaching pedestrians and vehicles. The core of our unification proposal is a deep architecture, aimed at attaining efficient semantic understanding. We have integrated the approach in a wearable navigation system by incorporating robust depth segmentation. A comprehensive set of experiments prove the qualified accuracy over state-of-the-art methods while maintaining real-time speed. We also present a closed-loop field test involving real visually-impaired users, demonstrating the effectivity and versatility of the assistive framework.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-05-11
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 954: Experiences and Opinions of Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Regarding a Self-Regulation-Based eHealth Intervention Targeting Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050954 Authors: Louise Poppe Geert Crombez Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij Celien Van der Mispel Samyah Shadid Maïté Verloigne Background: Online interventions targeting a healthy lifestyle in adults with type 2 diabetes are more effective when informed by behaviour change theories. Although these theories provide guidance in developing the content of an intervention, information regarding how to present this content in an engaging way is often lacking. Consequently, incorporating users’ views in the creation of eHealth interventions has become an important target. Methods: Via a qualitative interview study with 21 adults with type 2 diabetes who had completed an online self-regulation-based intervention (‘MyPlan 2.0’), we assessed participants’ opinions regarding the usefulness of the implemented self-regulation techniques, the design of the programme as well as their knowledge regarding physical activity and sedentary behaviour. A directed content analysis was performed to synthesize the interview data. Results: Participants experienced difficulties completing the coping planning component. The simple design of the website was considered helpful, and most participants were aware of the beneficial effects of an active lifestyle. Conclusions: ‘MyPlan 2.0’ was well-accepted by the majority of participants. However, the coping planning component will need to be adapted. Based on these findings, recommendations on how to tailor eHealth interventions to the population of adults with type 2 diabetes have been formulated.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-05-11
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 957: A Case–Control Study of Socio-Economic and Nutritional Characteristics as Determinants of Dental Caries in Different Age Groups, Considered as Public Health Problem: Data from NHANES 2013–2014 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050957 Authors: Laura Zanella-Calzada Carlos Galván-Tejada Nubia Chávez-Lamas Ma. Gracia-Cortés Arturo Moreno-Báez Jose Arceo-Olague Jose Celaya-Padilla Jorge Galván-Tejada Hamurabi Gamboa-Rosales One of the principal conditions that affects oral health worldwide is dental caries, occurring in about 90% of the global population. This pathology has been considered a challenge because of its high prevalence, besides being a chronic but preventable disease which can be caused by a series of different demographic, dietary„ among others. Based on this problem, in this research a demographic and dietary features analysis is performed for the classification of subjects according to their oral health status based on caries, according to the age group where the population belongs, using as feature selector a technique based on fast backward selection (FBS) approach for the development of three predictive models, one for each age range (group 1: 10–19; group 2: 20–59; group 3: 60 or more years old). As validation, a net reclassification improvement (NRI), AUC, ROC, and OR values are used to evaluate their classification accuracy. We analyzed 189 demographic and dietary features from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013–2014. Each model obtained statistically significant results for most features and narrow OR confidence intervals. Age group 2 obtained a mean NRI = −0.080 and AUC = 0.933; age group 3 obtained a mean NRI = −0.024 and AUC = 0.787; and age group 4 obtained a mean NRI = −0.129 and AUC = 0.735. Based on these results, it is concluded that these specific demographic and dietary features are significant determinants for estimating the oral health status in patients based on their likelihood of developing caries, and the age group could imply different risk factors for subjects.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-11
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 950: Caring for Young People Who Self-Harm: A Review of Perspectives from Families and Young People International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050950 Authors: Sophie Curtis Pinar Thorn Alison McRoberts Sarah Hetrick Simon Rice Jo Robinson Self-harm among young people remains largely stigmatised and misunderstood. Parents have been identified as key facilitators in the help-seeking process, yet they typically report feeling ill-equipped to support the young person in their care. The aim of this review was to examine the perspectives of both young people (aged 12–28) and parents and to develop the conceptual framework for a future qualitative study. A systematic search of MEDLINE and PsycINFO was performed to identify articles that focused on the experiences of family members and young people related to managing the discovery of self-harm. Fourteen articles were included for review. Four addressed the perspectives of young people and 10 reported on the impact of adolescent self-harm on parents. The impact of self-harm is substantial and there exists a discrepancy between the most common parental responses and the preferences of young people. In addition, parents are often reluctant to seek help for themselves due to feelings of shame and guilt. This highlights the need for accessible resources that seek to alleviate parents’ distress, influence the strategies implemented to manage the young person’s self-harm behaviour, reduce self-blame of family members, and increase the likelihood of parental help seeking.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-11
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1508: Self-Tuning Method for Increased Obstacle Detection Reliability Based on Internet of Things LiDAR Sensor Models Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051508 Authors: Fernando Castaño Gerardo Beruvides Alberto Villalonga Rodolfo Haber On-chip LiDAR sensors for vehicle collision avoidance are a rapidly expanding area of research and development. The assessment of reliable obstacle detection using data collected by LiDAR sensors has become a key issue that the scientific community is actively exploring. The design of a self-tuning methodology and its implementation are presented in this paper, to maximize the reliability of LiDAR sensors network for obstacle detection in the ‘Internet of Things’ (IoT) mobility scenarios. The Webots Automobile 3D simulation tool for emulating sensor interaction in complex driving environments is selected in order to achieve that objective. Furthermore, a model-based framework is defined that employs a point-cloud clustering technique, and an error-based prediction model library that is composed of a multilayer perceptron neural network, and k-nearest neighbors and linear regression models. Finally, a reinforcement learning technique, specifically a Q-learning method, is implemented to determine the number of LiDAR sensors that are required to increase sensor reliability for obstacle localization tasks. In addition, a IoT driving assistance user scenario, connecting a five LiDAR sensor network is designed and implemented to validate the accuracy of the computational intelligence-based framework. The results demonstrated that the self-tuning method is an appropriate strategy to increase the reliability of the sensor network while minimizing detection thresholds.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1527: Cellular-V2X Communications for Platooning: Design and Evaluation Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051527 Authors: Giovanni Nardini Antonio Virdis Claudia Campolo Antonella Molinaro Giovanni Stea Platooning is a cooperative driving application where autonomous/semi-autonomous vehicles move on the same lane in a train-like manner, keeping a small constant inter-vehicle distance, in order to reduce fuel consumption and gas emissions and to achieve safe and efficient transport. To this aim, they may exploit multiple on-board sensors (e.g., radars, LiDARs, positioning systems) and direct vehicle-to-vehicle communications to synchronize their manoeuvres. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the design choices and factors that determine the performance of a platooning application, when exploiting the emerging cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) communication technology and considering the scheduled mode, specified by 3GPP for communications over the sidelink assisted by the eNodeB. Since no resource management algorithm is currently mandated by 3GPP for this new challenging context, we focus on analyzing the feasibility and performance of the dynamic scheduling approach, with platoon members asking for radio resources on a per-packet basis. We consider two ways of implementing dynamic scheduling, currently unspecified by 3GPP: the sequential mode, that is somehow reminiscent of time division multiple access solutions based on IEEE 802.11p—till now the only investigated access technology for platooning—and the simultaneous mode with spatial frequency reuse enabled by the eNodeB. The evaluation conducted through system-level simulations provides helpful insights about the proposed configurations and C-V2X parameter settings that mainly affect the reliability and latency performance of data exchange in platoons, under different load settings. Achieved results show that the proposed simultaneous mode succeeds in reducing the latency in the update cycle in each vehicle’s controller, thus enabling future high-density platooning scenarios.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1523: Planetary Gears Feature Extraction and Fault Diagnosis Method Based on VMD and CNN Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051523 Authors: Chang Liu Gang Cheng Xihui Chen Yusong Pang Given local weak feature information, a novel feature extraction and fault diagnosis method for planetary gears based on variational mode decomposition (VMD), singular value decomposition (SVD), and convolutional neural network (CNN) is proposed. VMD was used to decompose the original vibration signal to mode components. The mode matrix was partitioned into a number of submatrices and local feature information contained in each submatrix was extracted as a singular value vector using SVD. The singular value vector matrix corresponding to the current fault state was constructed according to the location of each submatrix. Finally, by training a CNN using singular value vector matrices as inputs, planetary gear fault state identification and classification was achieved. The experimental results confirm that the proposed method can successfully extract local weak feature information and accurately identify different faults. The singular value vector matrices of different fault states have a distinct difference in element size and waveform. The VMD-based partition extraction method is better than ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), resulting in a higher CNN total recognition rate of 100% with fewer training times (14 times). Further analysis demonstrated that the method can also be applied to the degradation recognition of planetary gears. Thus, the proposed method is an effective feature extraction and fault diagnosis technique for planetary gears.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1524: A High-Speed Imaging Method Based on Compressive Sensing for Sound Extraction Using a Low-Speed Camera Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051524 Authors: Ge Zhu Xu-Ri Yao Zhi-Bin Sun Peng Qiu Chao Wang Guang-Jie Zhai Qing Zhao This paper reports an efficient method for sound extraction from high-speed light spot videos reconstructed from the coded light spot images captured with a low-speed camera based on compressive sensing, but at the expense of consuming time. The proposed method first gets the high-speed video of the light spot that is illuminated on the vibrating target caused by sound. Then the centroid of the light spot is used to recover the sound. Simulations of the proposed method are carried out and experimental results are demonstrated. The results show that high-speed videos with a frame rate of 2000 Hz can be reconstructed with a low-speed (100 Hz) charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, which is randomly modulated by a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) 20 times during each exposure time. This means a speed improvement of 20 times is achieved. The effects of synchronization between CCD image recording and DMD modulation, the optimal sampling patterns of DMD, and sound vibration amplitudes on the performance of the proposed method are evaluated. Using this compressive camera, speech (counting from one to four in Chinese) was recovered well. This has been confirmed by directly listening to the recovered sound, and the intelligibility value (0–1) that evaluated the similarity between them was 0.8185. Although we use this compressive camera for sound detection, we expect it to be useful in applications related to vibration and motion.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 359: Water Resources Carrying Capacity Evaluation and Diagnosis Based on Set Pair Analysis and Improved the Entropy Weight Method Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050359 Authors: Yi Cui Ping Feng Juliang Jin Li Liu To quantitatively evaluate and diagnose the carrying capacity of regional water resources under uncertain conditions, an index system and corresponding grade criteria were constructed from the perspective of carrying subsystem. Meanwhile, an improved entropy weight method was used to determine the objective weight of the index. Then, an evaluation model was built by applying set pair analysis, and a set pair potential based on subtraction was proposed to identify the carrying vulnerability factors. Finally, an empirical study was carried out in Anhui Province. The results showed that the consistency among objective weights of each index was considered, and the uncertainty between the index and grade criterion was reasonably dealt with. Furthermore, although the carrying situation in Anhui was severe, the development tended to be improved. The status in Southern Anhui was superior to that in the middle area, and that in the northern part was relatively grim. In addition, for Northern Anhui, the fewer water resources chiefly caused its long-term overloaded status. The improvement of capacity in the middle area was mainly hindered by its deficient ecological water consumption and limited water-saving irrigation area. Moreover, the long-term loadable condition in the southern part was due largely to its relatively abundant water resources and small population size. This evaluation and diagnosis method can be widely applied to carrying issues in other resources and environment fields.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 964: Biodegradation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate by Rhodococcus ruber YC-YT1 in Contaminated Water and Soil International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050964 Authors: Ting Yang Lei Ren Yang Jia Shuanghu Fan Junhuan Wang Jiayi Wang Ruth Nahurira Haisheng Wang Yanchun Yan Di-(2-ethylehxyl) phthalate (DEHP) is one of the most broadly representative phthalic acid esters (PAEs) used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production, and is considered to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. DEHP and its monoester metabolites are responsible for adverse effects on human health. An efficient DEHP-degrading bacterial strain Rhodococcus ruber YC-YT1, with super salt tolerance (0–12% NaCl), is the first DEHP-degrader isolated from marine plastic debris found in coastal saline seawater. Strain YC-YT1 completely degraded 100 mg/L DEHP within three days (pH 7.0, 30 °C). According to high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis, DEHP was transformed by strain YC-YT1 into phthalate (PA) via mono (2-ethylehxyl) phthalate (MEHP), then PA was used for cell growth. Furthermore, YC-YT1 metabolized initial concentrations of DEHP ranging from 0.5 to 1000 mg/L. Especially, YC-YT1 degraded up to 60% of the 0.5 mg/L initial DEHP concentration. Moreover, compared with previous reports, strain YC-YT1 had the largest substrate spectrum, degrading up to 13 kinds of PAEs as well as diphenyl, p-nitrophenol, PA, benzoic acid, phenol, protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, catechol, and 1,2,3,3-tetrachlorobenzene. The excellent environmental adaptability of strain YC-YT1 contributed to its ability to adjust its cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) so that 79.7–95.9% of DEHP-contaminated agricultural soil, river water, coastal sediment, and coastal seawater were remedied. These results demonstrate that R. ruber YC-YT1 has vast potential to bioremediate various DEHP-contaminated environments, especially in saline environments.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 961: Dietary Differences in Male Workers among Smaller Occupational Groups within Large Occupational Categories: Findings from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS) International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050961 Authors: Rie Tanaka Mayumi Tsuji Ayako Senju Koichi Kusuhara Toshihiro Kawamoto Japan Environment and Children’s Study Group Studies examining workers’ diet according to smaller occupational groups within “large occupational categories” are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the potential differences in workers’ diets based on the classification of workers into smaller occupational groups that comprise “large occupational categories”. The subjects of this study were working fathers who had participated in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (N = 38,656). Energy and nutrient intake were calculated based on data collected from the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Occupations were classified according to the Japanese Standard Occupational Classification. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the adherence to current dietary recommendations within smaller occupational groups. In particular, significant differences were observed among the categorical groups of “professional and engineering workers”, “service workers”, and “agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers”. In “professional and engineering workers”, teachers showed higher odds of adherence to calcium intake recommendations compared with nurses (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 2.02–3.14; p < 0.001). In “agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers”, agriculture workers showed higher odds of adherence to calcium (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.46–3.15; p < 0.001) and vitamin C (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.31–2.74, p = 0.001) intake recommendations compared with forestry and fishery workers. These findings may be beneficial from a research perspective as well as in the development of more effective techniques to improve workers’ diet and health.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-05-12
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 959: Inflamed Phylloides Tumour in a Girl: A Challenging Diagnosis in Paediatric Breast Lesions International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050959 Authors: Ilaria Testa Cristina Salvatori Marco Prestipino Maria Elena Laurenti Paolo Gerli Giuseppe Di Cara Nicola Principi Susanna Esposito Mirko Bertozzi Introduction: Phylloides tumours (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms that account for 0.3–0.9% of all breast tumours. These tumours typically occur in women aged 30–70 years. The occurrence of these tumours in older children and adolescents poses particular diagnostic and therapeutic problems. However, early diagnosis is mandatory because although most of the cases of PTs in children are benign, the borderline and malignant cases with potential negative outcomes cannot be excluded. Case presentation: A 12-year-old girl presented at the Paediatric Emergency Department for hyperaemia and warmth of the left breast that occurred a few days prior without fever. The girl experienced menarche 8 months previously. She experienced no previous trauma and she had no family history of breast cancer. On physical examination, the left breast was painful, enlarged and tender. The overlying skin was erythematous and warm. A breast ultrasonography (US) revealed a large mass with features of an abscess, including a hyperechoic wall, scattered internal echoes and hypoechoic peripheral lacunae of apparent colliquative nature. After 4 days of unsuccessful antibiotic therapy, surgical drainage was performed due to the suspicion of a mammary abscess. At the surgical incision site, the lesion was not-well circumscribed and lacked a capsule. In addition, purulent material was not detected. Histological examination revealed that the tissue alterations were compatible with benign PT. With this diagnosis, the girl underwent definitive surgical removal of the lesion. The postoperative period passed without negative events. An US performed 6 months later revealed that no new mass was present at this time, suggesting no recurrence of the tumour. Conclusion: This case shows that in the presence of a clinical picture suggesting the inflammation of the breast in adolescent females, PT should be considered as a possible diagnosis and US-guided core biopsy should be considered to confirm this suspicion. Thereafter, when surgical excision is performed, particular attention must be paid to both the preservation of all the normal breast parenchyma and future aesthetic problems.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1538: Hybrid Transverse Polar Navigation for High-Precision and Long-Term INSs Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051538 Authors: Wu Wu Han Zhang Hu Li Transverse navigation has been proposed to help inertial navigation systems (INSs) fill the gap of polar navigation ability. However, as the transverse system does not have the ability of navigate globally, a complicated switch between the transverse and the traditional algorithms is necessary when the system moves across the polar circles. To maintain the inner continuity and consistency of the core algorithm, a hybrid transverse polar navigation is proposed in this research based on a combination of Earth-fixed-frame mechanization and transverse-frame outputs. Furthermore, a thorough analysis of kinematic error characteristics, proper damping technology and corresponding long-term contributions of main error sources is conducted for the high-precision INSs. According to the analytical expressions of the long-term navigation errors in polar areas, the 24-h period symmetrical oscillation with a slowly divergent amplitude dominates the transverse horizontal position errors, and the first-order drift dominates the transverse azimuth error, which results from the gyro drift coefficients that occur in corresponding directions. Simulations are conducted to validate the theoretical analysis and the deduced analytical expressions. The results show that the proposed hybrid transverse navigation can ensure the same accuracy and oscillation characteristics in polar areas as the traditional algorithm in low and mid latitude regions.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1537: A Hybrid TDMA/CSMA-Based Wireless Sensor and Data Transmission Network for ORS Intra-Microsatellite Applications Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051537 Authors: Long Wang Yong Liu Zengshan Yin To achieve launch-on-demand for Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions, in this article, an intra-satellite wireless network (ISWN) is presented. It provides a wireless and modularized scheme for intra-spacecraft sensing and data buses. By removing the wired data bus, the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) based wireless modular architecture will reduce both the volume and weight of the satellite platform, thus achieving rapid design and cost savings in development and launching. Based on the on-orbit data demand analysis, a hybrid time division multiple access/carrier sense multiple access (TDMA/CSMA) protocol is proposed. It includes an improved clear channel assessment (CCA) mechanism and a traffic adaptive slot allocation method. To analyze the access process, a Markov model is constructed. Then a detailed calculation is given in which the unsaturated cases are considered. Through simulations, the proposed protocol is proved to commendably satisfy the demands and performs better than existing schemes. It helps to build a full-wireless satellite instead of the current wired ones, and will contribute to provide dynamic space capabilities for ORS missions.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1534: Polarization Smoothing Generalized MUSIC Algorithm with Polarization Sensitive Array for Low Angle Estimation Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051534 Authors: Jun Tan Zaiping Nie Direction of Arrival (DOA) estimation of low-altitude targets is difficult due to the multipath coherent interference from the ground reflection image of the targets, especially for very high frequency (VHF) radars, which have antennae that are severely restricted in terms of aperture and height. The polarization smoothing generalized multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, which combines polarization smoothing and generalized MUSIC algorithm for polarization sensitive arrays (PSAs), was proposed to solve this problem in this paper. Firstly, the polarization smoothing pre-processing was exploited to eliminate the coherence between the direct and the specular signals. Secondly, we constructed the generalized MUSIC algorithm for low angle estimation. Finally, based on the geometry information of the symmetry multipath model, the proposed algorithm was introduced to convert the two-dimensional searching into one-dimensional searching, thus reducing the computational burden. Numerical results were provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, showing that the proposed algorithm has significantly improved angle estimation performance in the low-angle area compared with the available methods, especially when the grazing angle is near zero.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1539: A Key Pre-Distribution Scheme Based on µ-PBIBD for Enhancing Resilience in Wireless Sensor Networks Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051539 Authors: Yuan Ma Yu Bian Many key pre-distribution (KPD) schemes based on combinatorial design were proposed for secure communication of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Due to complexity of constructing the combinatorial design, it is infeasible to generate key rings using the corresponding combinatorial design in large scale deployment of WSNs. In this paper, we present a definition of new combinatorial design, termed “µ-partially balanced incomplete block design (µ-PBIBD)”, which is a refinement of partially balanced incomplete block design (PBIBD), and then describe a 2-D construction of µ-PBIBD which is mapped to KPD in WSNs. Our approach is of simple construction which provides a strong key connectivity and a poor network resilience. To improve the network resilience of KPD based on 2-D µ-PBIBD, we propose a KPD scheme based on 3-D Ex-µ-PBIBD which is a construction of µ-PBIBD from 2-D space to 3-D space. Ex-µ-PBIBD KPD scheme improves network scalability and resilience while has better key connectivity. Theoretical analysis and comparison with the related schemes show that key pre-distribution scheme based on Ex-µ-PBIBD provides high network resilience and better key scalability, while it achieves a trade-off between network resilience and network connectivity.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1533: Speckle Filtering of GF-3 Polarimetric SAR Data with Joint Restriction Principle Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051533 Authors: Jinwei Xie Zhenfang Li Chaowei Zhou Yuyuan Fang Qingjun Zhang Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) scattering characteristics of imagery are always obtained from the second order moments estimation of multi-polarization data, that is, the estimation of covariance or coherency matrices. Due to the extra-paths that signal reflected from separate scatterers within the resolution cell has to travel, speckle noise always exists in SAR images and has a severe impact on the scattering performance, especially on single look complex images. In order to achieve high accuracy in estimating covariance or coherency matrices, three aspects are taken into consideration: (1) the edges and texture of the scene are distinct after speckle filtering; (2) the statistical characteristic should be similar to the object pixel; and (3) the polarimetric scattering signature should be preserved, in addition to speckle reduction. In this paper, a joint restriction principle is proposed to meet the requirement. Three different restriction principles are introduced to the processing of speckle filtering. First, a new template, which is more suitable for the point or line targets, is designed to ensure the morphological consistency. Then, the extent sigma filter is used to restrict the pixels in the template aforementioned to have an identical statistic characteristic. At last, a polarimetric similarity factor is applied to the same pixels above, to guarantee the similar polarimetric features amongst the optional pixels. This processing procedure is named as speckle filtering with joint restriction principle and the approach is applied to GF-3 polarimetric SAR data acquired in San Francisco, CA, USA. Its effectiveness of keeping the image sharpness and preserving the scattering mechanism as well as speckle reduction is validated by the comparison with boxcar filters and refined Lee filter.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1536: Sparsity-Driven Reconstruction Technique for Microwave/Millimeter-Wave Computational Imaging Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051536 Authors: Thomas Fromenteze Cyril Decroze Sana Abid Okan Yurduseven Numerous prototypes of computational imaging systems have recently been presented in the microwave and millimeter-wave domains, enabling the simplification of associated active architectures through the use of radiating cavities and metasurfaces that can multiplex signals encoded in the physical layer. This paper presents a new reconstruction technique leveraging the sparsity of the signals in the time-domain and decomposition of the sensing matrix
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1535: An Effective Delay Reduction Approach through a Portion of Nodes with a Larger Duty Cycle for Industrial WSNs Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051535 Authors: Minrui Wu Yanhui Wu Chuyao Liu Zhiping Cai Neal N. Xiong Anfeng Liu Ming Ma For Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs), sending data with timely style to the stink (or control center, CC) that is monitored by sensor nodes is a challenging issue. However, in order to save energy, wireless sensor networks based on a duty cycle are widely used in the industrial field, which can bring great delay to data transmission. We observe that if the duty cycle of a small number of nodes in the network is set to 1, the sleep delay caused by the duty cycle can be effectively reduced. Thus, in this paper, a novel Portion of Nodes with Larger Duty Cycle (PNLDC) scheme is proposed to reduce delay and optimize energy efficiency for IWSNs. In the PNLDC scheme, a portion of nodes are selected to set their duty cycle to 1, and the proportion of nodes with the duty cycle of 1 is determined according to the energy abundance of the area in which the node is located. The more the residual energy in the region, the greater the proportion of the selected nodes. Because there are a certain proportion of nodes with the duty cycle of 1 in the network, the PNLDC scheme can effectively reduce delay in IWSNs. The performance analysis and experimental results show that the proposed scheme significantly reduces the delay for forwarding data by 8.9~26.4% and delay for detection by 2.1~24.6% without reducing the network lifetime when compared with the fixed duty cycle method. Meanwhile, compared with the dynamic duty cycle strategy, the proposed scheme has certain advantages in terms of energy utilization and delay reduction.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1532: Combining Fog Computing with Sensor Mote Machine Learning for Industrial IoT Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051532 Authors: Mehrzad Lavassani Stefan Forsström Ulf Jennehag Tingting Zhang Digitalization is a global trend becoming ever more important to our connected and sustainable society. This trend also affects industry where the Industrial Internet of Things is an important part, and there is a need to conserve spectrum as well as energy when communicating data to a fog or cloud back-end system. In this paper we investigate the benefits of fog computing by proposing a novel distributed learning model on the sensor device and simulating the data stream in the fog, instead of transmitting all raw sensor values to the cloud back-end. To save energy and to communicate as few packets as possible, the updated parameters of the learned model at the sensor device are communicated in longer time intervals to a fog computing system. The proposed framework is implemented and tested in a real world testbed in order to make quantitative measurements and evaluate the system. Our results show that the proposed model can achieve a 98% decrease in the number of packets sent over the wireless link, and the fog node can still simulate the data stream with an acceptable accuracy of 97%. We also observe an end-to-end delay of 180 ms in our proposed three-layer framework. Hence, the framework shows that a combination of fog and cloud computing with a distributed data modeling at the sensor device for wireless sensor networks can be beneficial for Industrial Internet of Things applications.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1530: Convolutional Neural Network-Based Embarrassing Situation Detection under Camera for Social Robot in Smart Homes Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051530 Authors: Guanci Yang Jing Yang Weihua Sheng Francisco Erivaldo Fernandes Junior Shaobo Li Recent research has shown that the ubiquitous use of cameras and voice monitoring equipment in a home environment can raise privacy concerns and affect human mental health. This can be a major obstacle to the deployment of smart home systems for elderly or disabled care. This study uses a social robot to detect embarrassing situations. Firstly, we designed an improved neural network structure based on the You Only Look Once (YOLO) model to obtain feature information. By focusing on reducing area redundancy and computation time, we proposed a bounding-box merging algorithm based on region proposal networks (B-RPN), to merge the areas that have similar features and determine the borders of the bounding box. Thereafter, we designed a feature extraction algorithm based on our improved YOLO and B-RPN, called F-YOLO, for our training datasets, and then proposed a real-time object detection algorithm based on F-YOLO (RODA-FY). We implemented RODA-FY and compared models on our MAT social robot. Secondly, we considered six types of situations in smart homes, and developed training and validation datasets, containing 2580 and 360 images, respectively. Meanwhile, we designed three types of experiments with four types of test datasets composed of 960 sample images. Thirdly, we analyzed how a different number of training iterations affects our prediction estimation, and then we explored the relationship between recognition accuracy and learning rates. Our results show that our proposed privacy detection system can recognize designed situations in the smart home with an acceptable recognition accuracy of 94.48%. Finally, we compared the results among RODA-FY, Inception V3, and YOLO, which indicate that our proposed RODA-FY outperforms the other comparison models in recognition accuracy.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Publication Date: 2018-05-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1529: DOW-PR DOlphin and Whale Pods Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051529 Authors: Zahid Wadud Khadem Ullah Sajjad Hussain Xiaodong Yang Abdul Baseer Qazi Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have intrinsic challenges that include long propagation delays, high mobility of sensor nodes due to water currents, Doppler spread, delay variance, multipath, attenuation and geometric spreading. The existing Weighting Depth and Forwarding Area Division Depth Based Routing (WDFAD-DBR) protocol considers the weighting depth of the two hops in order to select the next Potential Forwarding Node (PFN). To improve the performance of WDFAD-DBR, we propose DOlphin and Whale Pod Routing protocol (DOW-PR). In this scheme, we divide the transmission range into a number of transmission power levels and at the same time select the next PFNs from forwarding and suppressed zones. In contrast to WDFAD-DBR, our scheme not only considers the packet upward advancement, but also takes into account the number of suppressed nodes and number of PFNs at the first and second hops. Consequently, reasonable energy reduction is observed while receiving and transmitting packets. Moreover, our scheme also considers the hops count of the PFNs from the sink. In the absence of PFNs, the proposed scheme will select the node from the suppressed region for broadcasting and thus ensures minimum loss of data. Besides this, we also propose another routing scheme (whale pod) in which multiple sinks are placed at water surface, but one sink is embedded inside the water and is physically connected with the surface sink through high bandwidth connection. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has high Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), low energy tax, reduced Accumulated Propagation Distance (APD) and increased the network lifetime.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    Publication Date: 2018-05-14
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 363: Quantifying the Effects of Topology and Weight for Link Prediction in Weighted Complex Networks Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050363 Authors: Bo Liu Shuang Xu Ting Li Jing Xiao Xiao-Ke Xu In weighted networks, both link weight and topological structure are significant characteristics for link prediction. In this study, a general framework combining null models is proposed to quantify the impact of the topology, weight correlation and statistics on link prediction in weighted networks. Three null models for topology and weight distribution of weighted networks are presented. All the links of the original network can be divided into strong and weak ties. We can use null models to verify the strong effect of weak or strong ties. For two important statistics, we construct two null models to measure their impacts on link prediction. In our experiments, the proposed method is applied to seven empirical networks, which demonstrates that this model is universal and the impact of the topology and weight distribution of these networks in link prediction can be quantified by it. We find that in the USAir, the Celegans, the Gemo, the Lesmis and the CatCortex, the strong ties are easier to predict, but there are a few networks whose weak edges can be predicted more easily, such as the Netscience and the CScientists. It is also found that the weak ties contribute more to link prediction in the USAir, the NetScience and the CScientists, that is, the strong effect of weak ties exists in these networks. The framework we proposed is versatile, which is not only used to link prediction but also applicable to other directions in complex networks.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Algorithms, Vol. 11, Pages 71: Improving Monarch Butterfly Optimization Algorithm with Self-Adaptive Population Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a11050071 Authors: Hui Hu Zhaoquan Cai Song Hu Yingxue Cai Jia Chen Sibo Huang Inspired by the migration behavior of monarch butterflies in nature, Wang et al. proposed a novel, promising, intelligent swarm-based algorithm, monarch butterfly optimization (MBO), for tackling global optimization problems. In the basic MBO algorithm, the butterflies in land 1 (subpopulation 1) and land 2 (subpopulation 2) are calculated according to the parameter p, which is unchanged during the entire optimization process. In our present work, a self-adaptive strategy is introduced to dynamically adjust the butterflies in land 1 and 2. Accordingly, the population size in subpopulation 1 and 2 are dynamically changed as the algorithm evolves in a linear way. After introducing the concept of a self-adaptive strategy, an improved MBO algorithm, called monarch butterfly optimization with self-adaptive population (SPMBO), is put forward. In SPMBO, only generated individuals who are better than before can be accepted as new individuals for the next generations in the migration operation. Finally, the proposed SPMBO algorithm is benchmarked by thirteen standard test functions with dimensions of 30 and 60. The experimental results indicate that the search ability of the proposed SPMBO approach significantly outperforms the basic MBO algorithm on most test functions. This also implies the self-adaptive strategy is an effective way to improve the performance of the basic MBO algorithm.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4893
    Topics: Computer Science
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-05-14
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 974: Preliminary Assessment of Hurricane Harvey Exposures and Mental Health Impact International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050974 Authors: Rebecca M. Schwartz Stephanie Tuminello Samantha M. Kerath Janelle Rios Wil Lieberman-Cribbin Emanuela Taioli Hurricane Harvey made landfall in Houston, Texas on 25 August 2017, the psychological and physical effects of which are still unknown. We assessed hurricane exposure and the immediate mental health needs of the population to define public health priorities for a larger epidemiological study. Convenience sampling was used to recruit participants (n = 41) from the greater Houston area aged ≥18 years. Participants completed a questionnaire about demographics, hurricane exposures, and physical/mental health. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was measured with the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-S (PCL-S; a score ≥30 indicated probable PTSD symptoms). The Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) was used to assess symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder. The average PTSD score was 32.9 (SD = 17.1); a total of 46% of participants met the threshold for probable PTSD. Increased overall hurricane exposure (adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–2.05) and property-related exposure (ORadj 1.53; 95% CI: 1.07–2.18) were both statistically significantly associated with increased odds of probable PTSD symptoms. A perception of chemical/toxin exposure due to Hurricane Harvey was reported by 44% of participants. A higher number of personal or property exposures were associated with greater mental health symptoms three weeks post-hurricane. This work has implications for the ongoing response to Hurricane Harvey and for assessing the immediate needs of the population.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 367: Feynman Paths and Weak Values Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050367 Authors: Robert Flack Basil Hiley There has been a recent revival of interest in the notion of a ‘trajectory’ of a quantum particle. In this paper, we detail the relationship between Dirac’s ideas, Feynman paths and the Bohm approach. The key to the relationship is the weak value of the momentum which Feynman calls a transition probability amplitude. With this identification we are able to conclude that a Bohm ‘trajectory’ is the average of an ensemble of actual individual stochastic Feynman paths. This implies that they can be interpreted as the mean momentum flow of a set of individual quantum processes and not the path of an individual particle. This enables us to give a clearer account of the experimental two-slit results of Kocsis et al.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 366: Thermoelectric Efficiency of a Topological Nano-Junction Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050366 Authors: Manuel Álamo Enrique Muñoz We studied the non-equilibrium current, transport coefficients and thermoelectric performance of a nano-junction, composed by a quantum dot connected to a normal superconductor and a topological superconductor leads, respectively. We considered a one-dimensional topological superconductor, which hosts two Majorana fermion states at its edges. Our results show that the electric and thermal currents across the junction are highly mediated by multiple Andreev reflections between the quantum dot and the leads, thus leading to a strong nonlinear dependence of the current on the applied bias voltage. Remarkably, we find that our system reaches a sharp maximum of its thermoelectric efficiency at a finite bias, when an external magnetic field is imposed upon the junction. We propose that this feature can be used for accurate temperature sensing at the nanoscale.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 365: Analysis of Chaotic Behavior in a Novel Extended Love Model Considering Positive and Negative External Environment Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050365 Authors: Linyun Huang Youngchul Bae The aim of this study was to describe a novel extended dynamical love model with the external environments of the love story of Romeo and Juliet. We used the sinusoidal function as external environments as it could represent the positive and negative characteristics of humans. We considered positive and negative advice from a third person. First, we applied the same amount of positive and negative advice. Second, the amount of positive advice was greater than that of negative advice. Third, the amount of positive advice was smaller than that of negative advice in an external environment. To verify the chaotic phenomena in the proposed extended dynamic love affair with external environments, we used time series, phase portraits, power spectrum, Poincare map, bifurcation diagram, and the maximal Lyapunov exponent. With a variation of parameter “a”, we recognized that the novel extended dynamic love affairs with different three situations of external environments had chaotic behaviors. We showed 1, 2, 4 periodic motion, Rössler type attractor, and chaotic attractor when parameter “a” varied under the following conditions: the amount of positive advice = the amount of negative advice, the amount of positive advice > the amount of negative advice, and the amount of positive advice < the amount of negative advice.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 364: Fault Diagnosis of Gearboxes Using Nonlinearity and Determinism by Generalized Hurst Exponents of Shuffle and Surrogate Data Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050364 Authors: Chunhong Dou Xueye Wei Jinshan Lin Vibrations of defective gearboxes show great complexities. Therefore, dynamics and noise levels of vibrations of gearboxes vary with operation of gearboxes. As a result, nonlinearity and determinism of data can serve to describe running conditions of gearboxes. However, measuring of nonlinearity and determinism of data is challenging. This paper defines a two-dimensional measure for simultaneously quantifying nonlinearity and determinism of data by comparing generalized Hurst exponents of original, shuffle and surrogate data. Afterwards, this paper proposes a novel method for fault diagnosis of gearboxes using the two-dimensional measure. Robustness of the proposed method was validated numerically by analyzing simulative signals with different noise levels. Moreover, the performance of the proposed method was benchmarked against Approximate Entropy, Sample Entropy, Permutation Entropy and Delay Vector Variance by conducting two independent gearbox experiments. The results show that the proposed method achieves superiority over the others in fault diagnosis of gearboxes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1550: Determination of Tumor Marker Carcinoembryonic Antigen with Biosensor Based on Optical Quantum Weak Measurements Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051550 Authors: Tian Guan Xiangnan Wang Dongmei Li Yilong Zhang Yonghong He Lixuan Shi Yiqing Liu Yuxuan Yang Yang Xu Rui Cui A phase-sensitive weak measurement biosensor was proposed for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), one common category of tumor markers. The total internal reflection (TIR) at the interface of the prism without precious metal coating was exploited to introduce the phase delay between horizontal and vertical polarizations, which can be determined through the central wavelength shift of output spectra for the sensing of the refractive index of the sample. In the weak measurement analysis, the specific binding reaction of tumor markers with a refractive index change on the surface of the prism can be monitored in real time through the central wavelength shift. With the specific absorption measurement, the feasibility of this weak measurement-based biosensor was experimentally demonstrated. We provide a low cost and convenient approach for tumor marker detection.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1557: Degree-of-Freedom Strengthened Cascade Array for DOD-DOA Estimation in MIMO Array Systems Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051557 Authors: Bobin Yao Zhi Dong Weile Zhang Wei Wang Qisheng Wu In spatial spectrum estimation, difference co-array can provide extra degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) for promoting parameter identifiability and parameter estimation accuracy. For the sake of acquiring as more DOFs as possible with a given number of physical sensors, we herein design a novel sensor array geometry named cascade array. This structure is generated by systematically connecting a uniform linear array (ULA) and a non-uniform linear array, and can provide more DOFs than some exist array structures but less than the upper-bound indicated by minimum redundant array (MRA). We further apply this cascade array into multiple input multiple output (MIMO) array systems, and propose a novel joint direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm, which is based on a reduced-dimensional weighted subspace fitting technique. The algorithm is angle auto-paired and computationally efficient. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations prove the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed array structure and the related algorithm.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1553: Time-Sharing-Based Synchronization and Performance Evaluation of Color-Independent Visual-MIMO Communication Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051553 Authors: Tae-Ho Kwon Jai-Eun Kim Ki-Doo Kim In the field of communication, synchronization is always an important issue. The communication between a light-emitting diode (LED) array (LEA) and a camera is known as visual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), for which the data transmitter and receiver must be synchronized for seamless communication. In visual-MIMO, LEDs generally have a faster data rate than the camera. Hence, we propose an effective time-sharing-based synchronization technique with its color-independent characteristics providing the key to overcome this synchronization problem in visual-MIMO communication. We also evaluated the performance of our synchronization technique by varying the distance between the LEA and camera. A graphical analysis is also presented to compare the symbol error rate (SER) at different distances.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1551: Hand-Held Refractometer-Based Measurement and Excess Permittivity Analysis Method for Detection of Diesel Oils Adulterated by Kerosene in Field Conditions Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051551 Authors: Boniphace Kanyathare Kai-Erik Peiponen Adulteration of fuels is a major problem, especially in developing and third world countries. One such case is the adulteration of diesel oil by kerosene. This problem contributes to air pollution, which leads to other far-reaching adverse effects, such as climate change. The objective of this study was to develop a relatively easy measurement method based on an inexpensive, handheld Abbe refractometer for the detection of adulteration and estimation of the ascending order of the amount of kerosene present in adulterated samples in field conditions. We achieved this by increasing the volume of pure diesel sample in the adulterated diesel oil, and measuring the trend of refractive index change, and next, exploiting the true and ideal permittivities of the binary mixture. The permittivity can be obtained with the aid of the measured refractive index of a liquid. Due to the molecular interactions, the true and ideal permittivities of diesel–kerosene binary liquid mixture have a mismatch which can be used to screen for adulterated diesel oils. The difference between the true and the ideal permittivity is the so-called excess permittivity. We first investigated a training set of diesel oils in laboratory in Finland, using the accurate table model Abbe refractometer and depicting the behavior of the excess permittivity of the mixture of diesel oil and kerosene. Then, we measured same samples in the laboratory using a handheld refractometer. Finally, preliminary field measurements using the handheld device were performed in Tanzania to assess the accuracy and possibility of applying the suggested method in field conditions. We herein show that it is not only possible to detect even relatively low adulteration levels of diesel in kerosene—namely, 5%, 10%, and 15%—but also it is possible to monitor the ascending order of adulteration for different adulterated diesel samples. We propose that the method of increasing the volume of an unknown (suspected) diesel oil sample by adding a known authentic diesel sample and monitoring excess permittivity is useful for the screening of adulterated diesel oil in field measurement conditions.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1556: A Personalized QoS Prediction Approach for CPS Service Recommendation Based on Reputation and Location-Aware Collaborative Filtering Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051556 Authors: Li Kuang Long Yu Lan Huang Yin Wang Pengju Ma Chuanbin Li Yujia Zhu With the rapid development of cyber-physical systems (CPS), building cyber-physical systems with high quality of service (QoS) has become an urgent requirement in both academia and industry. During the procedure of building Cyber-physical systems, it has been found that a large number of functionally equivalent services exist, so it becomes an urgent task to recommend suitable services from the large number of services available in CPS. However, since it is time-consuming, and even impractical, for a single user to invoke all of the services in CPS to experience their QoS, a robust QoS prediction method is needed to predict unknown QoS values. A commonly used method in QoS prediction is collaborative filtering, however, it is hard to deal with the data sparsity and cold start problem, and meanwhile most of the existing methods ignore the data credibility issue. Thence, in order to solve both of these challenging problems, in this paper, we design a framework of QoS prediction for CPS services, and propose a personalized QoS prediction approach based on reputation and location-aware collaborative filtering. Our approach first calculates the reputation of users by using the Dirichlet probability distribution, so as to identify untrusted users and process their unreliable data, and then it digs out the geographic neighborhood in three levels to improve the similarity calculation of users and services. Finally, the data from geographical neighbors of users and services are fused to predict the unknown QoS values. The experiments using real datasets show that our proposed approach outperforms other existing methods in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and robustness.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1555: Design of a Low-Power, Small-Area AEC-Q100-Compliant SENT Transmitter in Signal Conditioning IC for Automotive Pressure and Temperature Complex Sensors in 180 Nm CMOS Technology Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051555 Authors: Imran Ali Behnam Rikhan Dong-Gyu Kim Dong-Soo Lee Muhammad Rehman Hamed Abbasizadeh Muhammad Asif Minjae Lee Keum Hwang Youngoo Yang Kang-Yoon Lee In this paper, a low-power and small-area Single Edge Nibble Transmission (SENT) transmitter design is proposed for automotive pressure and temperature complex sensor applications. To reduce the cost and size of the hardware, the pressure and temperature information is processed with a single integrated circuit (IC) and transmitted at the same time to the electronic control unit (ECU) through SENT. Due to its digital nature, it is immune to noise, has reduced sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and generates low EMI. It requires only one PAD for its connectivity with ECU, and thus reduces the pin requirements, simplifies the connectivity, and minimizes the printed circuit board (PCB) complexity. The design is fully synthesizable, and independent of technology. The finite state machine-based approach is employed for area efficient implementation, and to translate the proposed architecture into hardware. The IC is fabricated in 1P6M 180 nm CMOS process with an area of (116 μm × 116 μm) and 4.314 K gates. The current consumption is 50 μA from a 1.8 V supply with a total 90 μW power. For compliance with AEC-Q100 for automotive reliability, a reverse and over voltage protection circuit is also implemented with human body model (HBM) electro-static discharge (ESD) of +6 kV, reverse voltage of −16 V to 0 V, over voltage of 8.2 V to 16 V, and fabricated area of 330 μm × 680 μm. The extensive testing, measurement, and simulation results prove that the design is fully compliant with SAE J2716 standard.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1554: A Lightweight Protocol for Secure Video Streaming Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051554 Authors: Algimantas Venčkauskas Nerijus Morkevicius Kazimieras Bagdonas Robertas Damaševičius Rytis Maskeliūnas The Internet of Things (IoT) introduces many new challenges which cannot be solved using traditional cloud and host computing models. A new architecture known as fog computing is emerging to address these technological and security gaps. Traditional security paradigms focused on providing perimeter-based protections and client/server point to point protocols (e.g., Transport Layer Security (TLS)) are no longer the best choices for addressing new security challenges in fog computing end devices, where energy and computational resources are limited. In this paper, we present a lightweight secure streaming protocol for the fog computing “Fog Node-End Device” layer. This protocol is lightweight, connectionless, supports broadcast and multicast operations, and is able to provide data source authentication, data integrity, and confidentiality. The protocol is based on simple and energy efficient cryptographic methods, such as Hash Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) and symmetrical ciphers, and uses modified User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets to embed authentication data into streaming data. Data redundancy could be added to improve reliability in lossy networks. The experimental results summarized in this paper confirm that the proposed method efficiently uses energy and computational resources and at the same time provides security properties on par with the Datagram TLS (DTLS) standard.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-05-15
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1552: A Combined Gravity Compensation Method for INS Using the Simplified Gravity Model and Gravity Database Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051552 Authors: Xiao Zhou Gongliu Yang Jing Wang Zeyang Wen In recent decades, gravity compensation has become an important way to reduce the position error of an inertial navigation system (INS), especially for a high-precision INS, because of the extensive application of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros). This paper first deducts the INS’s solution error considering gravity disturbance and simulates the results. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a combined gravity compensation method using a simplified gravity model and gravity database. This new combined method consists of two steps all together. Step 1 subtracts the normal gravity using a simplified gravity model. Step 2 first obtains the gravity disturbance on the trajectory of the carrier with the help of ELM training based on the measured gravity data (provided by Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics; Chinese Academy of sciences), and then compensates it into the error equations of the INS, considering the gravity disturbance, to further improve the navigation accuracy. The effectiveness and feasibility of this new gravity compensation method for the INS are verified through vehicle tests in two different regions; one is in flat terrain with mild gravity variation and the other is in complex terrain with fierce gravity variation. During 2 h vehicle tests, the positioning accuracy of two tests can improve by 20% and 38% respectively, after the gravity is compensated by the proposed method.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 994: Seasonal Patterns in the Prevalence and Diversity of Tick-Borne Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in an Urban Temperate Forest in South Western Slovakia International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050994 Authors: Michal Chvostáč Eva Špitalská Radovan Václav Tatiana Vaculová Lenka Minichová Markéta Derdáková In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the most important vector of tick-borne zoonotic bacteria. It transmits spirochaetes from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. Although spatial differences in the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens have been intensively studied, seasonal (within-year) fluctuations in the prevalence of these pathogens within sites are often overlooked. We analyzed the occurrence and seasonal dynamics of Ixodes ricinus in an urban forest in Bratislava, Slovakia. Furthemore, we examined temporal trends in the community structure of B. burgdorferi s.l., A. phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. in questing and bird-feeding ticks. The total prevalence for B. burgdorferi s.l. in questing I. ricinus was 6.8%, involving six genospecies with the dominance of bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana. A. phagocytophilum, R. helvetica and R. monacensis occurred in 5.9%, 5.0% and 0.2% of questing ticks, respectively. In total, 12.5% and 4.4% of bird-feeding I. ricinus ticks carried B. burgdorferi s.l. and R. helvetica. The total prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in our study site was two times lower than the mean prevalence for Europe. In contrast, A. phagocytophilum prevalence was significantly higher compared to those in other habitats of Slovakia. Our results imply that tick propagation and the transmission, suppression and seasonal dynamics of tick-borne pathogens at the study site were primarily shaped by abundance and temporal population fluctuations in ruminant and bird hosts.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 993: Study of Factors Influencing the Bioaccessibility of Triazolone in Cherry Tomatoes Using a Static SHIME Model International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050993 Authors: Yu-Ying Liu Jin-Jing Xiao Yun-Yao Fu Min Liao Hai-Qun Cao Yan-Hong Shi Estimating the influence of bioaccessibility of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables on dietary exposure is a challenge for human health risk assessment. This study investigated the bioaccessibility of pesticide residues in cherry tomatoes and contributing factors (digestion time, pH, solid/liquid ratio, and dietary nutrition) using an in vitro test simulating the human gastrointestinal tract. pH had the largest effect on triazolone precipitation in the simulated gastric intestinal juice, which had a significant impact on the bioaccessibility. The bioaccessibility of triazolone in the intestinal stage was slightly higher than that in the stomach stage, owing to bile salts and pancreatic enzymes present in the intestinal juice. The bioaccessibility of triazolone did not change significantly with digestion time. In the gastric stage, there was a logarithmic relationship between the bioaccessibility and solid/liquid ratio (R2 = 0.9941). The addition of oil significantly changed the bioaccessibility in the gastrointestinal stage. Protein and dietary fiber only affected bioaccessibility in the stomach stage. Dietary nutrition can reduce the release of pesticides from fruits and vegetables into the stomach, sharply reducing the bioaccessibility, and the dietary exposure of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables can be properly evaluated.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 995: Condom and Substance Use at Last Sex: Differences between MSMO and MSWO High School Youth International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050995 Authors: Gregory Phillips Mariah Kalmin Blair Turner Dylan Felt Rachel Marro Paul Salamanca Lauren Beach HIV disproportionately impacts youth, particularly young men who have sex with men (YMSM), a population that includes subgroups of young men who have sex with men only (YMSMO) and young men who have sex with men and women (YMSMW). In 2015, among male youth, 92% of new HIV diagnoses were among YMSM. The reasons why YMSM are disproportionately at risk for HIV acquisition, however, remain incompletely explored. We performed event-level analyses to compare how the frequency of condom use, drug and/or alcohol use at last sex differed among YMSMO and YMSWO (young men who have sex with women only) over a ten-year period from 2005–2015 within the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). YMSMO were less likely to use condoms at last sex compared to YMSWO. However, no substance use differences at last sexual encounter were detected. From 2005–2015, reported condom use at last sex significantly declined for both YMSMO and YMSWO, though the decline for YMSMO was more notable. While there were no significant differences in alcohol and substance use at last sex over the same ten-year period for YMSMO, YMSWO experienced a slight but significant decrease in reported alcohol and substance use. These event-level analyses provide evidence that YMSMO, similar to adult MSMO, may engage in riskier sexual behaviors compared to YMSWO, findings which may partially explain the increased burden of HIV in this population. Future work should investigate how different patterns of event-level HIV risk behaviors vary over time among YMSMO, YMSWO, and YMSMW, and are tied to HIV incidence among these groups.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 992: Stress-Induced and Diabetic Hyperglycemia Associated with Higher Mortality among Intensive Care Unit Trauma Patients: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Propensity Score-Matched Population International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050992 Authors: Meng-Wei Chang Chun-Ying Huang Hang-Tsung Liu Yi-Chun Chen Ching-Hua Hsieh Background: This study was designed to measure the effect of stress-induced hyperglycemia (SIH) and diabetic hyperglycemia (DH) versus non-diabetic normoglycemia (NDN) on the outcomes of trauma patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: Diabetes mellitus (DM) was determined based on patient history and/or a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of ≥6.5% at admission. The patients who had serum glucose levels of ≥200 mg/dL in the absence or presence of DM were assigned into the groups SIH and DH, respectively. Diabetic normoglycemia (DN) and NDN were determined based on serum glucose levels of <200 mg/dL in patients with and without DM, respectively. Patients with burn injury or incomplete data were excluded. Detailed data of trauma patients in the ICU of a Level-I trauma center from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2016 were retrieved from the database of the Trauma Registry System. These patients were classified into four exclusive groups, including NDN (n = 1745), DN (n = 306), SIH (n = 225) and DH (n = 206). The Pearson chi-square test was used to compare categorical data between groups. Continuous variables were compared using one-way analysis of variance along with the Games–Howell post hoc test. To decrease the confounding effect of the differences in sex and age, preexisting comorbidities and injury severity score (ISS) among different groups of patients, 1:1 ratio propensity score-matched cohorts were assigned using the NCSS software. The effect of hyperglycemia on the outcomes of patients with and without DM was assessed with a logistic regression analysis. Results: Among those selected propensity score-matched patient cohorts, the patients with SIH and DH had a 3.88-fold (95% CI, 2.13–7.06; p < 0.001) and 1.83-fold (95% CI, 1.00–3.34; p = 0.048) higher mortality, respectively, than those with NDN. Moreover, the patients in the SIH group (10.0 vs. 7.4 days; p = 0.005) and those in the DH group (10.1 vs. 7.4 days; p = 0.006) who were admitted to the ICU had a significantly longer length of stay than those in the NDN group. In addition, the SIH group had a 2.13-fold (95% CI, 1.04–4.36; p = 0.038) higher adjusted odds ratio for mortality than the DH group. Conclusions: This study revealed significantly worse outcomes in terms of mortality among patients with SIH and DH who were admitted to the ICU after controlling for sex and age, preexisting comorbidities and ISS. In addition, patients who had SIH presented significantly higher adjusted odds for mortality than those DH patients. These results suggest that hyperglycemia is detrimental in patients with or without DM who were admitted to the ICU, and there is a different pathophysiological mechanisms behind the SIH and DH.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 991: The Mediating Effect of Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy on the Association between Self-Esteem and School Bullying in Middle School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050991 Authors: Xiaoqin Wang Yue Zhang Zhaozhao Hui Wanyue Bai Paul Terry Mei Ma Yang Li Li Cheng Wei Gu Mingxu Wang School bullying is negatively associated with self-esteem, but psychological mediators of bullying have yet to be clarified. We examined regulatory emotional self-efficacy (RESE) as a possible mediator in the association between self-esteem and school bullying. A cross-sectional study of 995 adolescents was conducted in two middle schools of Xi’an. All of the participants completed the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire (C-SBEQ), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy Scale (RESE). Descriptive statistics analysis, the bias corrected percentile Bootstrap CI method, and structural equation modelling were used to analyze the data. The results showed that 418 students (42.0%) reported that they were involved in school bullying in the past year. Self-esteem was negatively associated with school bullying (total effect: β = −0.275, 95% CI = −0.381–−0.034), and RESE mediated the association between self-esteem and school bullying (indirect effect: β = −0.136, 95% CI = −0.245–−0.037). Furthermore, self-esteem had an indirect effect through perceived self-efficacy in managing negative affect, while self-esteem had no indirect effect through self-efficacy in the expression of positive affect. The present study suggests that school authorities and the related education departments should not only focus on improving students’ self-esteem, but should also pay more attention to students’ RESE, in order to mitigate, and potentially reduce, the occurrence of bullying.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1570: Remote Sensing of Wildland Fire-Induced Risk Assessment at the Community Level Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051570 Authors: M. Ahmed Khan Rahaman Quazi Hassan Wildland fires are some of the critical natural hazards that pose a significant threat to the communities located in the vicinity of forested/vegetated areas. In this paper, our overall objective was to study the structural damages due to the 2016 Horse River Fire (HRF) that happened in Fort McMurray (Alberta, Canada) by employing primarily very high spatial resolution optical satellite data, i.e., WorldView-2. Thus, our activities included the: (i) estimation of the structural damages; and (ii) delineation of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and its associated buffers at certain intervals, and their utilization in assessing potential risks. Our proposed method of remote sensing-based estimates of the number of structural damages was compared with the ground-based information available from the Planning and Development Recovery Committee Task Force of Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo (RMWB); and found a strong linear relationship (i.e., r2 value of 0.97 with a slope of 0.97). Upon delineating the WUI and its associated buffer zones at 10 m, 30 m, 50 m, 70 m and 100 m distances; we found existence of vegetation within the 30 m buffers from the WUI for all of the damaged structures. In addition, we noticed that the relevant authorities had removed vegetation in some areas between 30 m and 70 m buffers from the WUI, which was proven to be effective in order to protect the structures in the adjacent communities. Furthermore, we mapped the wildland fire-induced vulnerable areas upon considering the WUI and its associated buffers. Our analysis revealed that approximately 30% of the areas within the buffer zones of 10 m and 30 m were vulnerable due to the presence of vegetation; in which, approximately 7% were burned during the 2016 HRF event that led the structural damages. Consequently, we suggest to remove the existing vegetation within these critical zones and also monitor the region at a regular interval in order to reduce the wildland fire-induced risk.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1571: Features of Cross-Correlation Analysis in a Data-Driven Approach for Structural Damage Assessment Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051571 Authors: Jhonatan Camacho Navarro Magda Ruiz Rodolfo Villamizar Luis Mujica Jabid Quiroga This work discusses the advantage of using cross-correlation analysis in a data-driven approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) and piezodiagnostics to obtain successful diagnosis of events in structural health monitoring (SHM). In this sense, the identification of noisy data and outliers, as well as the management of data cleansing stages can be facilitated through the implementation of a preprocessing stage based on cross-correlation functions. Additionally, this work evidences an improvement in damage detection when the cross-correlation is included as part of the whole damage assessment approach. The proposed methodology is validated by processing data measurements from piezoelectric devices (PZT), which are used in a piezodiagnostics approach based on PCA and baseline modeling. Thus, the influence of cross-correlation analysis used in the preprocessing stage is evaluated for damage detection by means of statistical plots and self-organizing maps. Three laboratory specimens were used as test structures in order to demonstrate the validity of the methodology: (i) a carbon steel pipe section with leak and mass damage types, (ii) an aircraft wing specimen, and (iii) a blade of a commercial aircraft turbine, where damages are specified as mass-added. As the main concluding remark, the suitability of cross-correlation features combined with a PCA-based piezodiagnostic approach in order to achieve a more robust damage assessment algorithm is verified for SHM tasks.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1578: Leveraging Energy Harvesting and Wake-Up Receivers for Long-Term Wireless Sensor Networks Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051578 Authors: Fayçal Ait Aoudia Matthieu Gautier Michele Magno Olivier Berder Luca Benini Wireless sensor nodes are traditionally powered by individual batteries, and a significant effort has been devoted to maximizing the lifetime of these devices. However, as the batteries can only store a finite amount of energy, the network is still doomed to die, and changing the batteries is not always possible. A promising solution is to enable each node to harvest energy directly in its environment, using individual energy harvesters. Moreover, novel ultra-low power wake-up receivers, which allow continuous listening of the channel with negligible power consumption, are emerging. These devices enable asynchronous communication, further reducing the power consumption related to communication, which is typically one the most energy-consuming tasks in wireless sensor networks. Energy harvesting and wake-up receivers can be combined to significantly increase the energy efficiency of sensor networks. In this paper, we propose an energy manager for energy harvesting wireless sensor nodes and an asynchronous medium access control protocol, which exploits ultra-low power wake-up receivers. The two components are designed to work together and especially to fit the stringent constraints of wireless sensor nodes. The proposed approach has been implemented on a real hardware platform and tested in the field. Experimental results demonstrate the benefits of the proposed approach in terms of energy efficiency, power consumption and throughput, which can be up to more than two-times higher compared to traditional schemes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-05-17
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 999: Reducing Amputations in People with Diabetes (RAPID): Evaluation of a New Care Pathway International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15050999 Authors: Sandra MacRury Kate Stephen Fiona Main Jane Gorman Sandra Jones David Macfarlane People with diabetes are at increased risk of foot ulcers, which, if left untreated, can lead to infection, gangrene, and subsequent amputation. Management by a multidisciplinary diabetes foot team has been shown to reduce amputation rates; however, accessing specialist treatment is made particularly difficult when living in remote and rural locations, such as many individuals cared for within NHS Highland. The RAPID project was made up of two phases: firstly, to evaluate the technical feasibility of a new integrated care pathway using innovative technology, and secondly, to establish process enhancement of the pathway to justify a larger-scale study. Omni-HubTM enabled a face-to-face consultation by the community podiatrist to be enhanced by virtual consultation with members of the multidisciplinary foot team, including specialist diabetes podiatrists and a diabetes consultant. The technical feasibility study provided recommended changes focused around adaptations to the equipment used and the best means to gain successful connectivity. The process enhancement study demonstrated positive outcomes in the process with positive effects both in the service received by patients and experiences of healthcare professionals involved. The RAPID project provides evidence and justification for a larger-scale empirical study to test an embedded pathway and technology solution, which will inform policy change and a paradigm shift in the management of foot ulceration in the community.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-05-17
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1587: Observing APOD with the AuScope VLBI Array Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051587 Authors: Andreas Hellerschmied Lucia McCallum Jamie McCallum Jing Sun Johannes Böhm Jianfeng Cao The possibility to observe satellites with the geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique is vividly discussed in the geodetic community, particularly with regard to future co-location satellite missions. The Chinese APOD-A nano satellite can be considered as a first prototype—suitable for practical observation tests—combining the techniques Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and VLBI on a single platform in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Unfortunately, it has hardly been observed by VLBI, so major studies towards actual frame ties could not be performed. The main reason for the lack of observations was that VLBI observations of satellites are non-standard, and suitable observing strategies were not in place for this mission. This work now presents the first serious attempt to observe the satellite with a VLBI network over multiple passes. We introduce a series of experiments with the AuScope geodetic VLBI array which were carried out in November 2016, and describe all steps integrated in the established process chain: the experiment design and observation planning, the antenna tracking and control scheme, correlation and derivation of baseline-delays, and the data analysis yielding delay residuals on the level of 10 ns. The developed procedure chain can now serve as reference for future experiments, hopefully enabling the global VLBI network to be prepared for the next co-location satellite mission.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-05-17
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1586: Energy Efficient GNSS Signal Acquisition Using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051586 Authors: Juan Carlos Bermúdez Ordoñez Rosa María Arnaldo Valdés Fernando Gómez Comendador A significant challenge in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signal processing is a requirement for a very high sampling rate. The recently-emerging compressed sensing (CS) theory makes processing GNSS signals at a low sampling rate possible if the signal has a sparse representation in a certain space. Based on CS and SVD theories, an algorithm for sampling GNSS signals at a rate much lower than the Nyquist rate and reconstructing the compressed signal is proposed in this research, which is validated after the output from that process still performs signal detection using the standard fast Fourier transform (FFT) parallel frequency space search acquisition. The sparse representation of the GNSS signal is the most important precondition for CS, by constructing a rectangular Toeplitz matrix (TZ) of the transmitted signal, calculating the left singular vectors using SVD from the TZ, to achieve sparse signal representation. Next, obtaining the M-dimensional observation vectors based on the left singular vectors of the SVD, which are equivalent to the sampler operator in standard compressive sensing theory, the signal can be sampled below the Nyquist rate, and can still be reconstructed via ℓ 1 minimization with accuracy using convex optimization. As an added value, there is a GNSS signal acquisition enhancement effect by retaining the useful signal and filtering out noise by projecting the signal into the most significant proper orthogonal modes (PODs) which are the optimal distributions of signal power. The algorithm is validated with real recorded signals, and the results show that the proposed method is effective for sampling, reconstructing intermediate frequency (IF) GNSS signals in the time discrete domain.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-05-17
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1585: Attention-Based Recurrent Temporal Restricted Boltzmann Machine for Radar High Resolution Range Profile Sequence Recognition Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051585 Authors: Yifan Zhang Xunzhang Gao Xuan Peng Jiaqi Ye Xiang Li The High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP) recognition has attracted great concern in the field of Radar Automatic Target Recognition (RATR). However, traditional HRRP recognition methods failed to model high dimensional sequential data efficiently and have a poor anti-noise ability. To deal with these problems, a novel stochastic neural network model named Attention-based Recurrent Temporal Restricted Boltzmann Machine (ARTRBM) is proposed in this paper. RTRBM is utilized to extract discriminative features and the attention mechanism is adopted to select major features. RTRBM is efficient to model high dimensional HRRP sequences because it can extract the information of temporal and spatial correlation between adjacent HRRPs. The attention mechanism is used in sequential data recognition tasks including machine translation and relation classification, which makes the model pay more attention to the major features of recognition. Therefore, the combination of RTRBM and the attention mechanism makes our model effective for extracting more internal related features and choose the important parts of the extracted features. Additionally, the model performs well with the noise corrupted HRRP data. Experimental results on the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) dataset show that our proposed model outperforms other traditional methods, which indicates that ARTRBM extracts, selects, and utilizes the correlation information between adjacent HRRPs effectively and is suitable for high dimensional data or noise corrupted data.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-05-17
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1584: Effects of Proof Mass Geometry on Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051584 Authors: Abdul Hafiz Alameh Mathieu Gratuze Mohannad Y. Elsayed Frederic Nabki Piezoelectric energy harvesters have proven to have the potential to be a power source in a wide range of applications. As the harvester dimensions scale down, the resonance frequencies of these devices increase drastically. Proof masses are essential in micro-scale devices in order to decrease the resonance frequency and increase the strain along the beam to increase the output power. In this work, the effects of proof mass geometry on piezoelectric energy harvesters are studied. Different geometrical dimension ratios have significant impact on the resonance frequency, e.g., beam to mass lengths, and beam to mass widths. A piezoelectric energy harvester has been fabricated and tested operating at a frequency of about 4 kHz within the audible range. The responses of various prototypes were studied, and an optimized T-shaped piezoelectric vibration energy harvester design is presented for improved performance.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-05-17
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1589: Sidelobe Suppression with Resolution Maintenance for SAR Images via Sparse Representation Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051589 Authors: Xiaoxiang Zhu Feng He Fan Ye Zhen Dong Manqing Wu Severe sidelobe interference is one of the major problems with traditional Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. In the observation scene of sea areas, the number of targets in the observation scene is so small that targets can be regarded as sparse. Taking this into account, a method of sidelobe suppression, on the basis of sparsity constraint regularization, is proposed to reduce sidelobes of Gaofen-3 (GF-3) images in sea areas of the image domain. This proposed method has a prominent sidelobe suppression effect with resolution maintenance and without destruction of amplitude and phase information. This method can also be applied to SAR images of other satellites. In addition to the employment of peak sidelobe ratio (PSLR) and integrated sidelobe ratio (ISLR) in evaluating sidelobe suppression level, AE (amplitude error) and PE (phase error) are firstly defined for the evaluation of amplitude and phase-preserving quality, respectively. Through the proposed method, AE and PE values are nearly unchanged and the PSLR and ISLR are significantly reduced. The method, as an important part of the quality-improvement project of GF-3, has been successfully applied to the sidelobe suppression of GF-3 data.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-05-17
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1581: An Efficient Framework for Development of Task-Oriented Dialog Systems in a Smart Home Environment Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051581 Authors: Youngmin Park Sangwoo Kang Jungyun Seo In recent times, with the increasing interest in conversational agents for smart homes, task-oriented dialog systems are being actively researched. However, most of these studies are focused on the individual modules of such a system, and there is an evident lack of research on a dialog framework that can integrate and manage the entire dialog system. Therefore, in this study, we propose a framework that enables the user to effectively develop an intelligent dialog system. The proposed framework ontologically expresses the knowledge required for the task-oriented dialog system’s process and can build a dialog system by editing the dialog knowledge. In addition, the framework provides a module router that can indirectly run externally developed modules. Further, it enables a more intelligent conversation by providing a hierarchical argument structure (HAS) to manage the various argument representations included in natural language sentences. To verify the practicality of the framework, an experiment was conducted in which developers without any previous experience in developing a dialog system developed task-oriented dialog systems using the proposed framework. The experimental results show that even beginner dialog system developers can develop a high-level task-oriented dialog system.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-05-18
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 376: Dynamics Analysis of a Nonlinear Stochastic SEIR Epidemic System with Varying Population Size Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050376 Authors: Xiaofeng Han Fei Li Xinzhu Meng This paper considers a stochastic susceptible exposed infectious recovered (SEIR) epidemic model with varying population size and vaccination. We aim to study the global dynamics of the reduced nonlinear stochastic proportional differential system. We first investigate the existence and uniqueness of global positive solution of the stochastic system. Then the sufficient conditions for the extinction and permanence in mean of the infectious disease are obtained. Furthermore, we prove that the solution of the stochastic system has a unique ergodic stationary distribution under appropriate conditions. Finally, the discussion and numerical simulation are given to demonstrate the obtained results.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Publication Date: 2018-05-18
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 372: Software Code Smell Prediction Model Using Shannon, Rényi and Tsallis Entropies Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050372 Authors: Aakanshi Gupta Bharti Suri Vijay Kumar Sanjay Misra Tomas Blažauskas Robertas Damaševičius The current era demands high quality software in a limited time period to achieve new goals and heights. To meet user requirements, the source codes undergo frequent modifications which can generate the bad smells in software that deteriorate the quality and reliability of software. Source code of the open source software is easily accessible by any developer, thus frequently modifiable. In this paper, we have proposed a mathematical model to predict the bad smells using the concept of entropy as defined by the Information Theory. Open-source software Apache Abdera is taken into consideration for calculating the bad smells. Bad smells are collected using a detection tool from sub components of the Apache Abdera project, and different measures of entropy (Shannon, Rényi and Tsallis entropy). By applying non-linear regression techniques, the bad smells that can arise in the future versions of software are predicted based on the observed bad smells and entropy measures. The proposed model has been validated using goodness of fit parameters (prediction error, bias, variation, and Root Mean Squared Prediction Error (RMSPE)). The values of model performance statistics ( R 2 , adjusted R 2 , Mean Square Error (MSE) and standard error) also justify the proposed model. We have compared the results of the prediction model with the observed results on real data. The results of the model might be helpful for software development industries and future researchers.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-05-18
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1008: Change and Continuity in Vaping and Smoking by Young People: A Qualitative Case Study of A Friendship Group International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15051008 Authors: Neil McKeganey Marina Barnard This paper reports a qualitative case study of a small friendship group (n = 8) in Glasgow, Scotland. Interviewed twice at six months apart, these 16 to 17 year olds reported a substantial change in their use of and attitudes towards e-cigarettes and tobacco. At time 1, vaping generated much excitement and interest, with six out of eight individuals having their own vape device. At time 2, only two young people still vaped, with the others no longer professing any interest in continued vaping. The two regular smokers, who had been smoking before they first vaped, now only vaped privately and to reduce their tobacco intake. This small case study illustrates plasticity in the use of these devices; just as young people can move into their use, so too can they move away from them. This small study underscores the importance of differentiating between long-term, frequent, consistent use and more episodic, experimental and infrequent use by young people and for undertaking a measurement of actual e-cigarette use at multiple time points in both quantitative and qualitative studies. In addition, the case study illustrates the powerful impact which peers can have on teenagers use of e-cigarettes.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-05-18
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1610: A Framework of Covariance Projection on Constraint Manifold for Data Fusion Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051610 Authors: Muhammad Abu Bakr Sukhan Lee A general framework of data fusion is presented based on projecting the probability distribution of true states and measurements around the predicted states and actual measurements onto the constraint manifold. The constraint manifold represents the constraints to be satisfied among true states and measurements, which is defined in the extended space with all the redundant sources of data such as state predictions and measurements considered as independent variables. By the general framework, we mean that it is able to fuse any correlated data sources while directly incorporating constraints and identifying inconsistent data without any prior information. The proposed method, referred to here as the Covariance Projection (CP) method, provides an unbiased and optimal solution in the sense of minimum mean square error (MMSE), if the projection is based on the minimum weighted distance on the constraint manifold. The proposed method not only offers a generalization of the conventional formula for handling constraints and data inconsistency, but also provides a new insight into data fusion in terms of a geometric-algebraic point of view. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method in handling constraints and data inconsistency.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-05-18
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1602: Integrated Method for Personal Thermal Comfort Assessment and Optimization through Users’ Feedback, IoT and Machine Learning: A Case Study † Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051602 Authors: Francesco Salamone Lorenzo Belussi Cristian Currò Ludovico Danza Matteo Ghellere Giulia Guazzi Bruno Lenzi Valentino Megale Italo Meroni Thermal comfort has become a topic issue in building performance assessment as well as energy efficiency. Three methods are mainly recognized for its assessment. Two of them based on standardized methodologies, face the problem by considering the indoor environment in steady-state conditions (PMV and PPD) and users as active subjects whose thermal perception is influenced by outdoor climatic conditions (adaptive approach). The latter method is the starting point to investigate thermal comfort from an overall perspective by considering endogenous variables besides the traditional physical and environmental ones. Following this perspective, the paper describes the results of an in-field investigation of thermal conditions through the use of nearable and wearable solutions, parametric models and machine learning techniques. The aim of the research is the exploration of the reliability of IoT-based solutions combined with advanced algorithms, in order to create a replicable framework for the assessment and improvement of user thermal satisfaction. For this purpose, an experimental test in real offices was carried out involving eight workers. Parametric models are applied for the assessment of thermal comfort; IoT solutions are used to monitor the environmental variables and the users’ parameters; the machine learning CART method allows to predict the users’ profile and the thermal comfort perception respect to the indoor environment.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-05-18
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1600: 63 km BOFDA for Temperature and Strain Monitoring Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051600 Authors: Thomas Kapa Andy Schreier Katerina Krebber We demonstrate (and are the first to do so) 63 km Brillouin Optical Frequency-Domain Analysis (BOFDA) for temperature and strain monitoring using a 100 km fiber loop. The use of BOFDA for long-range applications can be considered a novel approach, as previous investigations focused on the utilization of Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry and Analysis (BOTDR and BOTDA, respectively). At 51.7 km, a 100 m hotspot (37 ∘ C) was detected without using distributed Raman amplification or image processing.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-05-18
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1609: Secure Data Access Control for Fog Computing Based on Multi-Authority Attribute-Based Signcryption with Computation Outsourcing and Attribute Revocation Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051609 Authors: Qian Xu Chengxiang Tan Zhijie Fan Wenye Zhu Ya Xiao Fujia Cheng Nowadays, fog computing provides computation, storage, and application services to end users in the Internet of Things. One of the major concerns in fog computing systems is how fine-grained access control can be imposed. As a logical combination of attribute-based encryption and attribute-based signature, Attribute-based Signcryption (ABSC) can provide confidentiality and anonymous authentication for sensitive data and is more efficient than traditional “encrypt-then-sign” or “sign-then-encrypt” strategy. Thus, ABSC is suitable for fine-grained access control in a semi-trusted cloud environment and is gaining more and more attention recently. However, in many existing ABSC systems, the computation cost required for the end users in signcryption and designcryption is linear with the complexity of signing and encryption access policy. Moreover, only a single authority that is responsible for attribute management and key generation exists in the previous proposed ABSC schemes, whereas in reality, mostly, different authorities monitor different attributes of the user. In this paper, we propose OMDAC-ABSC, a novel data access control scheme based on Ciphertext-Policy ABSC, to provide data confidentiality, fine-grained control, and anonymous authentication in a multi-authority fog computing system. The signcryption and designcryption overhead for the user is significantly reduced by outsourcing the undesirable computation operations to fog nodes. The proposed scheme is proven to be secure in the standard model and can provide attribute revocation and public verifiability. The security analysis, asymptotic complexity comparison, and implementation results indicate that our construction can balance the security goals with practical efficiency in computation.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-05-18
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1593: SOBER-MCS: Sociability-Oriented and Battery Efficient Recruitment for Mobile Crowd-Sensing Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051593 Authors: Fazel Anjomshoa Burak Kantarci The Internet of Things (IoT) concept is aiming at being an integral part of the next generation networking services by introducing pervasiveness and ubiquitous interconnectivity of uniquely-identifiable objects. The massive availability of personalized smart devices such as smartphones and wearables enable their penetration into the IoT ecosystem with their built-in sensors, particularly in Mobile Crowd-Sensing (MCS) campaigns. The MCS systems achieve the objectives of the large-scale non-dedicated sensing concept in the IoT if a sufficient number of participants are engaged to the collaborative data acquisition process. Therefore, user recruitment is a key challenge in MCS, which requires effective incentivization of cooperative, truthful and trustworthy users. A grand concern for the participants is the battery drain on the mobile devices. It is a known fact that battery drain in a smartphone is a function of the user activity, which can be modeled under various contexts. With this in mind, we propose a new social activity-aware recruitment policy, namely Sociability-Oriented and Battery-Efficient Recruitment for Mobile Crowd-Sensing (SOBER-MCS). SOBER-MCS uses sociability and the residual power of the participant smartphones as two primary criteria in the selection of participating devices. The former is an indicator of the participant willingness toward sensing campaigns, whereas the latter is used to prioritize personal use over crowd-sensing under critical battery levels. We use sociability profiles that were obtained in our previous work and use those values to simulate the sociability behavior of a large pool of participants in an MCS environment. Through simulations, we show that SOBER-MCS is able to introduce battery savings up to 18.5% while improving user and platform utilities by 12% and 20%, respectively.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    Publication Date: 2018-05-18
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1604: A Preliminary Analysis of Wind Retrieval, Based on GF-3 Wave Mode Data Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051604 Authors: Lei Wang Bing Han Xinzhe Yuan Bin Lei Chibiao Ding Yulin Yao Qi Chen This paper presents an analysis of measurements of the normalized radar cross-(NRCS) in Wave Mode for Chinese C-band Gaofen-3(GF-3) synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Based on 2779 images from GF-3 quad-polarization SAR in Wave Mode and collocated wind vectors from ERA-Interim, this experiment verifies the feasibility of using ocean surface wind fields and VV-polarized NRCS to perform normalized calibration. The method uses well-validated empirical C-band geophysical model function (CMOD4) to estimate the calibration constant for each beam. In addition, the relationship between cross-pol NRCS and wind vectors is discussed. The cross-pol NRCS increases linearly with wind speed and it is obviously modulated by the wind direction when the wind speed is greater than 8 m/s. Furthermore, the properties of the polarization ratio, denoted PR, are also investigated. The PR is dependent on incidence angle and azimuth angle. Two empirical models of the PR are fitted, one as a function of incidence angle only, the other with additional dependence on azimuth angle. Assessments show that the σ VV 0 retrieved from new PR models as well as σ HH 0 is in good agreement with σ VV 0 extracted from SAR images directly.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    Publication Date: 2018-05-18
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1595: Visual and Colorimetric Sensing of Metsulfuron-Methyl by Exploiting Hydrogen Bond-Induced Anti-Aggregation of Gold Nanoparticles in the Presence of Melamine Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051595 Authors: Guangyang Liu Ruonan Zhang Xiaodong Huang Lingyun Li Naixin Liu Jing Wang Donghui Xu Various highly sensitive and selective analytical methods have been used to monitor metsulfuron-methyl residue in the environment. However, these methods involve costly instruments and complex, time-consuming operations performed in laboratories. Here, a rapid, convenient, and sensitive colorimetric sensor based on anti-aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is demonstrated for the rapid detection of metsulfuron-methyl in agricultural irrigation water. The AuNPs could be induced to aggregate in the presence of melamine and exhibited a distinct color change from wine-red to blue. The aggregation was suppressed by a strong hydrogen-bonding interaction between metsulfuron-methyl and melamine. The differences of the absorbance at 523 nm (ΔA523) and the color change was linearly related to metsulfuron-methyl concentration over the range 0.1–100 mg/L, as observed visually and by UV-vis (Ultraviolet-visible) spectrometry. The detection limit of the sensor was as low as 0.05 mg/L (signal/noise = 3), and was used to determine metsulfuron-methyl in spiked water and in agricultural irrigation water samples. Recoveries were in the range of 71.2–100.4%, suggesting that the colorimetric sensor was suitable for the determination of metsulfuron-methyl in agricultural water samples.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Publication Date: 2018-05-18
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1592: Improving UWB-Based Localization in IoT Scenarios with Statistical Models of Distance Error Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051592 Authors: Stefania Monica Gianluigi Ferrari Interest in the Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly increasing, as the number of connected devices is exponentially growing. One of the application scenarios envisaged for IoT technologies involves indoor localization and context awareness. In this paper, we focus on a localization approach that relies on a particular type of communication technology, namely Ultra Wide Band (UWB). UWB technology is an attractive choice for indoor localization, owing to its high accuracy. Since localization algorithms typically rely on estimated inter-node distances, the goal of this paper is to evaluate the improvement brought by a simple (linear) statistical model of the distance error. On the basis of an extensive experimental measurement campaign, we propose a general analytical framework, based on a Least Square (LS) method, to derive a novel statistical model for the range estimation error between a pair of UWB nodes. The proposed statistical model is then applied to improve the performance of a few illustrative localization algorithms in various realistic scenarios. The obtained experimental results show that the use of the proposed statistical model improves the accuracy of the considered localization algorithms with a reduction of the localization error up to 66%.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    Publication Date: 2018-05-18
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1590: Developing an Acoustic Sensing Yarn for Health Surveillance in a Military Setting Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051590 Authors: Theodore Hughes-Riley Tilak Dias Overexposure to high levels of noise can cause permanent hearing disorders, which have a significant adverse effect on the quality of life of those affected. Injury due to noise can affect people in a variety of careers including construction workers, factory workers, and members of the armed forces. By monitoring the noise exposure of workers, overexposure can be avoided and suitable protective equipment can be provided. This work focused on the creation of a noise dosimeter suitable for use by members of the armed forces, where a discrete dosimeter was integrated into a textile helmet cover. In this way the sensing elements could be incorporated very close to the ears, providing a highly representative indication of the sound level entering the body, and also creating a device that would not interfere with military activities. This was achieved by utilising commercial microelectromechanical system microphones integrated within the fibres of yarn to create an acoustic sensing yarn. The acoustic sensing yarns were fully characterised over a range of relevant sound levels and frequencies at each stage in the yarn production process. The yarns were ultimately integrated into a knitted helmet cover to create a functional acoustic sensing helmet cover prototype.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    Publication Date: 2018-05-19
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 380: Adiabatic Quantum Computation Applied to Deep Learning Networks Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050380 Authors: Jeremy Liu Federico M. Spedalieri Ke-Thia Yao Thomas E. Potok Catherine Schuman Steven Young Robert Patton Garrett S. Rose Gangotree Chamka Training deep learning networks is a difficult task due to computational complexity, and this is traditionally handled by simplifying network topology to enable parallel computation on graphical processing units (GPUs). However, the emergence of quantum devices allows reconsideration of complex topologies. We illustrate a particular network topology that can be trained to classify MNIST data (an image dataset of handwritten digits) and neutrino detection data using a restricted form of adiabatic quantum computation known as quantum annealing performed by a D-Wave processor. We provide a brief description of the hardware and how it solves Ising models, how we translate our data into the corresponding Ising models, and how we use available expanded topology options to explore potential performance improvements. Although we focus on the application of quantum annealing in this article, the work discussed here is just one of three approaches we explored as part of a larger project that considers alternative means for training deep learning networks. The other approaches involve using a high performance computing (HPC) environment to automatically find network topologies with good performance and using neuromorphic computing to find a low-power solution for training deep learning networks. Our results show that our quantum approach can find good network parameters in a reasonable time despite increased network topology complexity; that HPC can find good parameters for traditional, simplified network topologies; and that neuromorphic computers can use low power memristive hardware to represent complex topologies and parameters derived from other architecture choices.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    Publication Date: 2018-05-19
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 381: Observables and Unobservables in Quantum Mechanics: How the No-Hidden-Variables Theorems Support the Bohmian Particle Ontology Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050381 Authors: Dustin Lazarovici Andrea Oldofredi Michael Esfeld The paper argues that far from challenging—or even refuting—Bohm’s quantum theory, the no-hidden-variables theorems in fact support the Bohmian ontology for quantum mechanics. The reason is that (i) all measurements come down to position measurements; and (ii) Bohm’s theory provides a clear and coherent explanation of the measurement outcome statistics based on an ontology of particle positions, a law for their evolution and a probability measure linked with that law. What the no-hidden-variables theorems teach us is that (i) one cannot infer the properties that the physical systems possess from observables; and that (ii) measurements, being an interaction like other interactions, change the state of the measured system.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    Publication Date: 2018-05-19
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 378: Novel Bioinspired Approach Based on Chaotic Dynamics for Robot Patrolling Missions with Adversaries Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050378 Authors: Daniel-Ioan Curiac Ovidiu Banias Constantin Volosencu Christian-Daniel Curiac Living organisms have developed and optimized ingenious defense strategies based on positional entropy. One of the most significant examples in this respect is known as protean behavior, where a prey animal under threat performs unpredictable zig-zag movements in order to confuse, delay or escape the predator. This kind of defensive behavior can inspire efficient strategies for patrolling robots evolving in the presence of adversaries. The main goal of our proposed bioinspired method is to implement the protean behavior by altering the reference path of the robot with sudden and erratic direction changes without endangering the robot’s overall mission. By this, a foe intending to target and destroy the mobile robot from a distance has less time for acquiring and retaining the proper sight alignment. The method uses the chaotic dynamics of the 2D Arnold’s cat map as a primary source of positional entropy and transfers this feature to every reference path segment using the kinematic relative motion concept. The effectiveness of this novel biologically inspired method is validated through extensive and realistic simulation case studies.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    Publication Date: 2018-05-19
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1022: Views and Experiences of Persons with Chronic Diseases about Strategies that Aim to Integrate and Re-Integrate Them into Work: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15051022 Authors: Eva Esteban Michaela Coenen Elizabeth Ito Sonja Gruber Chiara Scaratti Matilde Leonardi Olga Roka Evdokia Vasilou Amalia Muñoz-Murillo Carolina C. Ávila Dare S. Kovačič Ivana Ivandic Carla Sabariego The effectiveness of strategies targeting professional integration and reintegration strongly depends on the experiences of participants. The aim of this systematic literature review is to synthesize European qualitative studies exploring views and experiences of persons with chronic conditions regarding strategies for integration and reintegration into work. The systematic search was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, CDR-HTA, CDR-DARE and Cochrane Systematic Reviews. Overall, 24 studies published in English between January 2011 and April 2016 were included. Most studies were carried out in Nordic countries or in the UK, and most participants were persons with either mental or musculoskeletal disorders. Ten themes emerged: individual and holistic approach, clarity of strategy and processes, timing of rehabilitation processes, experience with professionals, at the workplace and with peer groups, changes in the understanding of health and work, active involvement in the process, competencies development and motivating aspects of work. Findings highlight, among others, the need to actively involve participants in the return to work process and to provide timely and clearly structured processes and interventions. This review provides stakeholders key information to develop, plan, implement and evaluate interventions to integrate and re-integrate persons with chronic conditions into work in Europe.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    Publication Date: 2018-05-19
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1017: The Stability and Continuity of Maternally Reported and Observed Child Eating Behaviours and Feeding Practices across Early Childhood International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15051017 Authors: Faye Powell Claire Farrow Caroline Meyer Emma Haycraft Given that many eating behaviours and food preferences develop early in childhood and track across childhood, adolescence and into adulthood, interest has grown in the developmental trajectory of these behaviours. The aims of this study were twofold. First, to explore whether maternal reports of child eating behaviour and feeding practices are validated by independent observations of these constructs. Second, to explore the continuity and stability of both maternally reported and independently observed child eating behaviours and maternal feeding practices during early childhood. Sixty-five mothers completed measures of their child’s eating behaviour and their own feeding practices and mother–child dyads were observed during a family mealtime at approximately 3 and 4 years of age. Maternal reports of their child’s eating behaviours were validated by independent observations, however maternally reported feeding practices were not validated by observations of these behaviours. Maternally reported and independently observed child eating behaviours and parental feeding practices remained stable and showed continuity between 3 and 4 years of age, with the exception of child difficulty to feed and maternal pressure to eat which both significantly decreased over time. Findings provide an insight into the validity of maternal reports of fussy eating behaviour and parental feeding practices and the developmental trajectory of these behaviours across early childhood.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    Publication Date: 2018-05-19
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 1623: Microfluidic Cultivation and Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy of E. coli under Antibiotic Stress Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18051623 Authors: Zdeněk Pilát Silvie Bernatová Jan Ježek Johanna Kirchhoff Astrid Tannert Ute Neugebauer Ota Samek Pavel Zemánek Analyzing the cells in various body fluids can greatly deepen the understanding of the mechanisms governing the cellular physiology. Due to the variability of physiological and metabolic states, it is important to be able to perform such studies on individual cells. Therefore, we developed an optofluidic system in which we precisely manipulated and monitored individual cells of Escherichia coli. We tested optical micromanipulation in a microfluidic chamber chip by transferring individual bacteria into the chambers. We then subjected the cells in the chambers to antibiotic cefotaxime and we observed the changes by using time-lapse microscopy. Separately, we used laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) in a different micro-chamber chip to manipulate and analyze individual cefotaxime-treated E. coli cells. Additionally, we performed conventional Raman micro-spectroscopic measurements of E. coli cells in a micro-chamber. We found observable changes in the cellular morphology (cell elongation) and in Raman spectra, which were consistent with other recently published observations. The principal component analysis (PCA) of Raman data distinguished between the cefotaxime treated cells and control. We tested the capabilities of the optofluidic system and found it to be a reliable and versatile solution for this class of microbiological experiments.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    Publication Date: 2018-05-20
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 383: On f-Divergences: Integral Representations, Local Behavior, and Inequalities Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050383 Authors: Igal Sason This paper is focused on f-divergences, consisting of three main contributions. The first one introduces integral representations of a general f-divergence by means of the relative information spectrum. The second part provides a new approach for the derivation of f-divergence inequalities, and it exemplifies their utility in the setup of Bayesian binary hypothesis testing. The last part of this paper further studies the local behavior of f-divergences.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    Publication Date: 2018-05-21
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 384: Chaotic Attractors with Fractional Conformable Derivatives in the Liouville–Caputo Sense and Its Dynamical Behaviors Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050384 Authors: Jesús Emmanuel Solís Pérez José Francisco Gómez-Aguilar Dumitru Baleanu Fairouz Tchier This paper deals with a numerical simulation of fractional conformable attractors of type Rabinovich–Fabrikant, Thomas’ cyclically symmetric attractor and Newton–Leipnik. Fractional conformable and β -conformable derivatives of Liouville–Caputo type are considered to solve the proposed systems. A numerical method based on the Adams–Moulton algorithm is employed to approximate the numerical simulations of the fractional-order conformable attractors. The results of the new type of fractional conformable and β -conformable attractors are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73
    Publication Date: 2018-05-21
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 385: MOTiFS: Monte Carlo Tree Search Based Feature Selection Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20050385 Authors: Muhammad Umar Chaudhry Jee-Hyong Lee Given the increasing size and complexity of datasets needed to train machine learning algorithms, it is necessary to reduce the number of features required to achieve high classification accuracy. This paper presents a novel and efficient approach based on the Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) to find the optimal feature subset through the feature space. The algorithm searches for the best feature subset by combining the benefits of tree search with random sampling. Starting from an empty node, the tree is incrementally built by adding nodes representing the inclusion or exclusion of the features in the feature space. Every iteration leads to a feature subset following the tree and default policies. The accuracy of the classifier on the feature subset is used as the reward and propagated backwards to update the tree. Finally, the subset with the highest reward is chosen as the best feature subset. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by experimenting on many benchmark datasets. The results are also compared with significant methods in the literature, which demonstrates the superiority of the proposed method.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 74
    Publication Date: 2018-05-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1035: An Empirical Study Analyzing Job Productivity in Toxic Workplace Environments International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15051035 Authors: Amna Anjum Xu Ming Ahmed Faisal Siddiqi Samma Faiz Rasool Purpose: This empirical study aims to determine the effects of a toxic workplace environment, which can negatively impact the job productivity of an employee. Methodology: Three hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed among the staff members of seven private universities in Pakistan with a final response rate of 89%. For analysis purposes, AMOS 22 was used to study the direct and indirect effects of the toxic workplace environment on job productivity. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to ensure the convergent and discriminant validity of the factors, while the Hayes mediation approach was used to verify the mediating role of job burnout between the four dimensions of toxic workplace environment and job productivity. A toxic workplace with multiple dimensions, such as workplace ostracism, workplace incivility, workplace harassment, and workplace bullying, was used in this study. Findings: By using the multiple statistical tools and techniques, it has been proven that ostracism, incivility, harassment, and bullying have direct negative significant effects on job productivity, while job burnout was shown to be a statistical significant mediator between the dimensions of a toxic workplace environment and job productivity. Finally, we concluded that organizations need to eradicate the factors of toxic workplace environments to ensure their prosperity and success. Practical Implications: This study encourages managers, leaders, and top management to adopt appropriate policies for enhancing employees’ productivity. Limitations: This study was conducted by using a cross-sectional research design. Future research aims to expand the study by using a longitudinal research design.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 75
    Publication Date: 2018-05-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 1036: Home as a Place of Noise Control for the Elderly? A Cross-Sectional Study on Potential Mediating Effects and Associations between Road Traffic Noise Exposure, Access to a Quiet Side, Dwelling-Related Green and Noise Annoyance International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15051036 Authors: Natalie Riedel Heike Köckler Joachim Scheiner Irene van Kamp Raimund Erbel Adrian Loerbroks Thomas Claßen Gabriele Bolte Urban residents’ need to be in control of their home environment can be constrained by perceived uncontrollability of exposure to road traffic noise. Noise annoyance may indicate a psychological stress reaction due to this uncontrollability perception, thereby undermining the restoration process. Environmental resources, such as having access to a quiet side at home and dwelling-related green, may reduce noise annoyance both directly by shielding acoustically and indirectly by enhancing residents’ perceived noise control. We assessed the potential mediating role of perceived noise control in independent and joint associations of road traffic noise exposure (>65 dB Lden) and of an absent dwelling-related environmental resource (three indicators concerning quiet sides and one indicator concerning dwelling-related green) with noise annoyance. In our cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study on elderly urban citizens (N = 1812), we observed a statistically significant indirect effect of noise exposure on noise annoyance through perceived noise control (39%, 95%CI 26–55%). Statistical mediation between indicators of absent environmental resources and noise annoyance was weaker. The potential indirect effect was confirmed for combinations of noise exposure with each of the four indicators of an absent environmental resource. Our findings may call for mitigating noise levels while fostering quietness and green at residents’ homes.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 76