Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 475: Problematic Use of the Internet and Smartphones in University Students: 2006–2017 International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030475 Authors: Xavier Carbonell Andrés Chamarro Ursula Oberst Beatriz Rodrigo Mariona Prades It has been more than a decade since a concern about the addictive use of the Internet and mobile phones was first expressed, and its possible inclusion into the lists of mental disorders has recently become a popular topic of scientific discussion. Thus, it seems to be a fitting moment to investigate the prevalence of this issue over time. The aim of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of the perception of problematic Internet and smartphone use in young people over the period 2006–2017. To this end, a questionnaire on Internet use habits and two questionnaires on the negative consequences of Internet and smartphone use were administered to a sample of 792 university students. The scores were then compared with the results of former studies that had used these questionnaires. The perception of problematic Internet and mobile phone use has increased over the last decade, social networks are considered responsible for this increase, and females are perceived to be more affected than males. The current study shows how strong smartphone and Internet addiction and social media overlap. Participants from 2017 report higher negative consequences of both Internet and mobile phone use than those from 2006, but long-term observations show a decrease in problematic use after a sharp increase in 2013. We conclude that the diagnosis of technological addictions is influenced by both time and social and culture changes.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 473: Modeling Pediatric Body Mass Index and Neighborhood Environment at Different Spatial Scales International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030473 Authors: Lauren Grant Chris Gennings Edmond Wickham Derek Chapman Shumei Sun David Wheeler In public health research, it has been well established that geographic location plays an important role in influencing health outcomes. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on the impact of neighborhood or contextual factors as potential risk factors for childhood obesity. Some neighborhood factors relevant to childhood obesity include access to food sources, access to recreational facilities, neighborhood safety, and socioeconomic status (SES) variables. It is common for neighborhood or area-level variables to be available at multiple spatial scales (SS) or geographic units, such as the census block group and census tract, and selection of the spatial scale for area-level variables can be considered as a model selection problem. In this paper, we model the variation in body mass index (BMI) in a study of pediatric patients of the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) Medical Center, while considering the selection of spatial scale for a set of neighborhood-level variables available at multiple spatial scales using four recently proposed spatial scale selection algorithms: SS forward stepwise regression, SS incremental forward stagewise regression, SS least angle regression (LARS), and SS lasso. For pediatric BMI, we found evidence of significant positive associations with visit age and black race at the individual level, percent Hispanic white at the census block group level, percent Hispanic black at the census tract level, and percent vacant housing at the census tract level. We also found significant negative associations with population density at the census tract level, median household income at the census tract level, percent renter at the census tract level, and exercise equipment expenditures at the census block group level. The SS algorithms selected covariates at different spatial scales, producing better goodness-of-fit in comparison to traditional models, where all area-level covariates were modeled at the same scale. These findings underscore the importance of considering spatial scale when performing model selection.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 468: Wetlands and Malaria in the Amazon: Guidelines for the Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar Remote-Sensing International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030468 Authors: Thibault Catry Zhichao Li Emmanuel Roux Vincent Herbreteau Helen Gurgel Morgan Mangeas Frédérique Seyler Nadine Dessay The prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria, are important health issues in tropical areas. Malaria transmission is a multi-scale process strongly controlled by environmental factors, and the use of remote-sensing data is suitable for the characterization of its spatial and temporal dynamics. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is well-adapted to tropical areas, since it is capable of imaging independent of light and weather conditions. In this study, we highlight the contribution of SAR sensors in the assessment of the relationship between vectors, malaria and the environment in the Amazon region. More specifically, we focus on the SAR-based characterization of potential breeding sites of mosquito larvae, such as man-made water collections and natural wetlands, providing guidelines for the use of SAR capabilities and techniques in order to optimize vector control and malaria surveillance. In light of these guidelines, we propose a framework for the production of spatialized indicators and malaria risk maps based on the combination of SAR, entomological and epidemiological data to support malaria risk prevention and control actions in the field.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 467: Nationwide Drinking Water Sampling Campaign for Exposure Assessments in Denmark International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030467 Authors: Denitza Dimitrova Voutchkova Birgitte Hansen Vibeke Ernstsen Søren Munch Kristiansen Nationwide sampling campaign of treated drinking water of groundwater origin was designed and implemented in Denmark in 2013. The main purpose of the sampling was to obtain data on the spatial variation of iodine concentration and speciation in treated drinking water, which was supplied to the majority of the Danish population. This data was to be used in future exposure and epidemiologic studies. The water supply sector (83 companies, owning 144 waterworks throughout Denmark) was involved actively in the planning and implementation process, which reduced significantly the cost and duration of data collection. The dataset resulting from this collaboration covers not only iodine species (I−, IO3−, TI), but also major elements and parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, DOC, TC, TN, F−, Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) and a long list of trace elements (n = 66). The water samples represent 144 waterworks abstracting about 45% of the annual Danish groundwater abstraction for drinking water purposes, which supply about 2.5 million Danes (45% of all Danish residents). This technical note presents the design, implementation, and limitations of such a sampling design in detail in order (1) to facilitate the future use of this dataset, (2) to inform future replication studies, or (3) to provide an example for other researchers.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 29: Understanding How GitHub Supports Curation Repositories Future Internet doi: 10.3390/fi10030029 Authors: Yu Wu Jessica Kropczynski Raquel Prates John Carroll In recent years, software developers have started to appropriate GitHub repositories to curate resources, in order to systematically select, evaluate, and organize existing artifacts for preservation and future use. Curation behaviors in social media sites, such as users’ experiences to curate tweets from Twitter and pins on Pinterest, are well documented. However, GitHub, as a social coding platform, presents a new context for this activity, raising questions about the nature of curation on this task-driven online work site. To explore and understand curation on GitHub, we compared and contrasted curation repositories with software repositories using activity logs and analyzed the content of popular curation repositories. Our results show that: (1) curation repositories have become a favorite category of repositories in GitHub; (2) curation repositories leverage collaborative features and practices native to GitHub in new ways; (3) curation repositories collect and preserve high-quality resources for the software developers’ community. Our results suggest that curation is becoming increasingly important to the software developers’ community, and current practices can be better supported with tools designed specifically for curation.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-5903
    Topics: Computer Science
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 190: Game Theoretic Approach for Systematic Feature Selection; Application in False Alarm Detection in Intensive Care Units Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030190 Authors: Fatemeh Afghah Abolfazl Razi Reza Soroushmehr Hamid Ghanbari Kayvan Najarian Intensive Care Units (ICUs) are equipped with many sophisticated sensors and monitoring devices to provide the highest quality of care for critically ill patients. However, these devices might generate false alarms that reduce standard of care and result in desensitization of caregivers to alarms. Therefore, reducing the number of false alarms is of great importance. Many approaches such as signal processing and machine learning, and designing more accurate sensors have been developed for this purpose. However, the significant intrinsic correlation among the extracted features from different sensors has been mostly overlooked. A majority of current data mining techniques fail to capture such correlation among the collected signals from different sensors that limits their alarm recognition capabilities. Here, we propose a novel information-theoretic predictive modeling technique based on the idea of coalition game theory to enhance the accuracy of false alarm detection in ICUs by accounting for the synergistic power of signal attributes in the feature selection stage. This approach brings together techniques from information theory and game theory to account for inter-features mutual information in determining the most correlated predictors with respect to false alarm by calculating Banzhaf power of each feature. The numerical results show that the proposed method can enhance classification accuracy and improve the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve compared to other feature selection techniques, when integrated in classifiers such as Bayes-Net that consider inter-features dependencies.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Future Internet, Vol. 10, Pages 30: Optimal Design of Demand-Responsive Feeder Transit Services with Passengers’ Multiple Time Windows and Satisfaction Future Internet doi: 10.3390/fi10030030 Authors: Bo Sun Ming Wei Senlai Zhu This paper presents a mixed-integer linear programming model for demand-responsive feeder transit services to assign vehicles located at different depots to pick up passengers at the demand points and transport them to the rail station. The proposed model features passengers’ one or several preferred time windows for boarding vehicles at the demand point and their expected ride time. Moreover, passenger satisfaction that was related only to expected ride time is fully accounted for in the model. The objective is to simultaneously minimize the operation costs of total mileage and maximize passenger satisfaction. As the problem is an extension of the nondeterministic polynomial problem with integration of the vehicle route problem, this study further develops an improved bat algorithm to yield meta-optimal solutions for the model in a reasonable amount of time. When this was applied to a case study in Nanjing City, China, the mileage and satisfaction of the proposed model were reduced by 1.4 km and increased by 7.1%, respectively, compared with the traditional model. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the impact of the number of designed bus routes and weights of objective functions on the model performance. Finally, a comparison of Cplex, standard bat algorithm, and group search optimizer is analyzed to verify the validity of the proposed algorithm.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-5903
    Topics: Computer Science
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 498: Comparative Effectiveness of Published Interventions for Elderly Fall Prevention: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030498 Authors: Peixia Cheng Liheng Tan Peishan Ning Li Li Yuyan Gao Yue Wu David Schwebel Haitao Chu Huaiqiong Yin Guoqing Hu Background: Falls are a major threat to older adults worldwide. Although various effective interventions have been developed, their comparative effectiveness remains unreported. Methods: A systematic review and network meta-analysis was conducted to determine the most effective interventions to prevent falls in community-dwelling adults aged 60 and over. Combined odds ratio (OR) and 95% credible interval (95% CrI) were calculated. Results: A total of 49 trials involving 27,740 participants and 9271 fallers were included. Compared to usual care, multifactorial interventions (MFI) demonstrated the greatest efficacy (OR: 0.64, 95% CrI: 0.53 to 0.77) followed by interventions combining education and exercise (EDU + EXC) (OR: 0.65, 95% CrI: 0.38 to 1.00) and interventions combining exercise and hazard assessment and modification (EXC + HAM) (OR: 0.66, 95% CrI: 0.40 to 1.04). The effect of medical care performed the worst (OR: 1.02, 95% CrI: 0.78 to 1.34). Model fit was good, inconsistency was low, and publication bias was considered absent. The overall quality of included trials was high. The pooled odds ratios and ranking probabilities remained relatively stable across all sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: MFI and exercise appear to be effective to reduce falls among older adults, and should be considered first as service delivery options. Further investigation is necessary to verify effectiveness and suitableness of the strategies to at-risk populations.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 501: Strengthening Emergency Care Systems to Mitigate Public Health Challenges Arising from Influxes of Individuals with Different Socio-Cultural Backgrounds to a Level One Emergency Center in South East Europe International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030501 Authors: Michèle Twomey Ana Šijački Gert Krummrey Tyson Welzel Aristomenis Exadaktylos Marko Ercegovac Emergency center visits are mostly unscheduled, undifferentiated, and unpredictable. A standardized triage process is an opportunity to obtain real-time data that paints a picture of the variation in acuity found in emergency centers. This is particularly pertinent as the influx of people seeking asylum or in transit mostly present with emergency care needs or first seek help at an emergency center. Triage not only reduces the risk of missing or losing a patient that may be deteriorating in the waiting room but also enables a time-critical response in the emergency care service provision. As part of a joint emergency care system strengthening and patient safety initiative, the Serbian Ministry of Health in collaboration with the Centre of Excellence in Emergency Medicine (CEEM) introduced a standardized triage process at the Clinical Centre of Serbia (CCS). This paper describes four crucial stages that were considered for the integration of a standardized triage process into acute care pathways.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 499: Feasibility of Integrating Residential Care Pharmacists into Aged Care Homes to Improve Quality Use of Medicines: Study Protocol for a Non-Randomised Controlled Pilot Trial International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030499 Authors: Nicole McDerby Mark Naunton Alison Shield Kasia Bail Sam Kosari Older adults are particularly susceptible to iatrogenic disease and communicable diseases, such as influenza. Prescribing in the residential aged care population is complex, and requires ongoing review to prevent medication misadventure. Pharmacist-led medication review is effective in reducing medication-related problems; however, current funding arrangements specifically exclude pharmacists from routinely participating in resident care. Integrating an on-site clinical pharmacist into residential care teams is an unexplored opportunity to improve quality use of medicines in this setting. The primary objective of this pilot study is to investigate the feasibility of integrating a residential care pharmacist into the existing care team. Secondary outcomes include incidence of pharmacist-led medication review, and incidence of potential medication problems based on validated prescribing measures. This is a cross-sectional, non-randomised controlled trial with a residential care pharmacist trialled at a single facility, and a parallel control site receiving usual care and services only. The results of this hypothesis-generating pilot study will be used to identify clinical outcomes and direct future larger scale investigations into the implementation of the novel residential care pharmacist model to optimise quality use of medicines in a population at high risk of medication misadventure.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-03-13
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 842: Raw Data-Based Motion Compensation for High-Resolution Sliding Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030842 Authors: Ning Li Shilin Niu Zhengwei Guo Yabo Liu Jiaqi Chen For accurate motion compensation (MOCO) in airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, a high-precision inertial navigation system (INS) is required. However, an INS is not always precise enough or is sometimes not even included in airborne SAR systems. In this paper, a new, raw, data-based range-invariant motion compensation approach, which can effectively extract the displacements in the line-of-sight (LOS) direction, is proposed for high-resolution sliding spotlight SAR mode. In this approach, the sub-aperture radial accelerations of the airborne platform are estimated via a well-developed weighted total least square (WTLS) method considering the time-varying beam direction. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is validated by two airborne sliding spotlight C band SAR raw datasets containing different types of terrain, with a high spatial resolution of about 0.15 m in azimuth.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 193: An Information-Theoretic Perspective on the Quantum Bit Commitment Impossibility Theorem Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030193 Authors: Marius Nagy Naya Nagy This paper proposes a different approach to pinpoint the causes for which an unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment protocol cannot be realized, beyond the technical details on which the proof of Mayers’ no-go theorem is constructed. We have adopted the tools of quantum entropy analysis to investigate the conditions under which the security properties of quantum bit commitment can be circumvented. Our study has revealed that cheating the binding property requires the quantum system acting as the safe to harbor the same amount of uncertainty with respect to both observers (Alice and Bob) as well as the use of entanglement. Our analysis also suggests that the ability to cheat one of the two fundamental properties of bit commitment by any of the two participants depends on how much information is leaked from one side of the system to the other and how much remains hidden from the other participant.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 511: Social Network Analysis as a Methodological Approach to Explore Health Systems: A Case Study Exploring Support among Senior Managers/Executives in a Hospital Network International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030511 Authors: Aoife De Brún Eilish McAuliffe Health systems research recognizes the complexity of healthcare, and the interacting and interdependent nature of components of a health system. To better understand such systems, innovative methods are required to depict and analyze their structures. This paper describes social network analysis as a methodology to depict, diagnose, and evaluate health systems and networks therein. Social network analysis is a set of techniques to map, measure, and analyze social relationships between people, teams, and organizations. Through use of a case study exploring support relationships among senior managers in a newly established hospital group, this paper illustrates some of the commonly used network- and node-level metrics in social network analysis, and demonstrates the value of these maps and metrics to understand systems. Network analysis offers a valuable approach to health systems and services researchers as it offers a means to depict activity relevant to network questions of interest, to identify opinion leaders, influencers, clusters in the network, and those individuals serving as bridgers across clusters. The strengths and limitations inherent in the method are discussed, and the applications of social network analysis in health services research are explored.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 509: A Systematic Underpinning and Framing of the Servicescape: Reflections on Future Challenges in Healthcare Services International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030509 Authors: Jieun Han Hyo-Jin Kang Gyu Kwon Ever since Bitner defined the term “servicescape” as the physical environment in which the service is assembled, several scholars have attempted to better understand the impact of the built environment in the context of different service settings. While servicescape is a topic of increasing academic interest among scholars and practitioners, most studies in the area are dedicated to understanding the built environment of hedonic service. More studies are needed to examine utilitarian servicescape and in this paper, we have focused on the healthcare environment. This study aims to identify the gap in servicescape and healthscape studies by providing a theoretical structure of the current servicescape literature and comprehend the academic differences between hedonic servicescape and utilitarian healthscape studies. After reviewing 44 selected papers based on rigorous criteria, we: (1) framed the servicescape factors; (2) analyzed the servicescape literature from the perspectives of terminologies, research fields, methodologies, and frameworks; and (3) identified the current paths of healthscape research. Through this work, we highlight the significance of adopting different dimensions and factors to evaluate the distinguished service environment by the servicescape type and propose several research agendas for future studies on healthscapes. The research findings can contribute to a deep understanding of healthscapes and can introduce a new viewpoint for interpreting the servicescape in diversified service settings.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 504: Mobile Phone Dependence, Social Support and Impulsivity in Chinese University Students International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030504 Authors: Songli Mei Jingxin Chai Shi-Bin Wang Chee Ng Gabor Ungvari Yu-Tao Xiang This study examined the frequency of mobile phone dependence in Chinese university students and explored its association with social support and impulsivity. Altogether, 909 university students were consecutively recruited from a large university in China. Mobile phone use, mobile phone dependence, impulsivity, and social support were measured with standardized instruments. The frequency of possible mobile phone use and mobile phone dependence was 78.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that compared with no mobile phone dependence, possible mobile phone dependence was significantly associated with being male (p = 0.04, OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.4–0.98), excessive mobile phone use (p < 0.001, OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.09–1.2), and impulsivity (p < 0.001, OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.03–1.06), while mobile phone dependence was associated with length of weekly phone use (p = 0.01, OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2–5.0), excessive mobile phone use (p < 0.001, OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.2–1.4), and impulsivity (p < 0.001, OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.05–1.1). The frequency of possible mobile phone dependence and mobile phone dependence was high in this sample of Chinese university students. A significant positive association with impulsivity was found, but not with social support.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 847: Research on the Factors Influencing the Measurement Errors of the Discrete Rogowski Coil Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030847 Authors: Mengyuan Xu Jing Yan Yingsan Geng Kun Zhang Chao Sun An innovative array of magnetic coils (the discrete Rogowski coil—RC) with the advantages of flexible structure, miniaturization and mass producibility is investigated. First, the mutual inductance between the discrete RC and circular and rectangular conductors are calculated using the magnetic vector potential (MVP) method. The results are found to be consistent with those calculated using the finite element method, but the MVP method is simpler and more practical. Then, the influence of conductor section parameters, inclination, and eccentricity on the accuracy of the discrete RC is calculated to provide a reference. Studying the influence of an external current on the discrete RC’s interference error reveals optimal values for length, winding density, and position arrangement of the solenoids. It has also found that eccentricity and interference errors decreasing with increasing number of solenoids. Finally, a discrete RC prototype is devised and manufactured. The experimental results show consistent output characteristics, with the calculated sensitivity and mutual inductance of the discrete RC being very close to the experimental results. The influence of an external conductor on the measurement of the discrete RC is analyzed experimentally, and the results show that interference from an external current decreases with increasing distance between the external and measured conductors.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Symmetry, Vol. 10, Pages 64: Vision-Based Parking-Slot Detection: A Benchmark and A Learning-Based Approach Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10030064 Authors: Lin Zhang Xiyuan Li Junhao Huang Ying Shen Dongqing Wang Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing automatic parking systems in the field of intelligent vehicles. However, how to effectively and efficiently locating parking-slots using a vision-based system is still an unresolved issue. Even more seriously, there is no publicly available labeled benchmark dataset for tuning and testing parking-slot detection algorithms. In this paper, we attempt to fill the above-mentioned research gaps to some extent and our contributions are twofold. Firstly, to facilitate the study of vision-based parking-slot detection, a large-scale parking-slot image database is established. This database comprises 8600 surround-view images collected from typical indoor and outdoor parking sites. For each image in this database, the marking-points and parking-slots are carefully labeled. Such a database can serve as a benchmark to design and validate parking-slot detection algorithms. Secondly, a learning-based parking-slot detection approach, namely P S D L , is proposed. Using P S D L , given a surround-view image, the marking-points will be detected first and then the valid parking-slots can be inferred. The efficacy and efficiency of P S D L have been corroborated on our database. It is expected that P S D L can serve as a baseline when the other researchers develop more sophisticated methods.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-8994
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-03-14
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 856: 3VSR: Three Valued Secure Routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks using Sensing Logic in Adversarial Environment Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030856 Authors: Muhammad Sohail Liangmin Wang Today IoT integrate thousands of inter networks and sensing devices e.g., vehicular networks, which are considered to be challenging due to its high speed and network dynamics. The goal of future vehicular networks is to improve road safety, promote commercial or infotainment products and to reduce the traffic accidents. All these applications are based on the information exchange among nodes, so not only reliable data delivery but also the authenticity and credibility of the data itself are prerequisite. To cope with the aforementioned problem, trust management come up as promising candidate to conduct node’s transaction and interaction management, which requires distributed mobile nodes cooperation for achieving design goals. In this paper, we propose a trust-based routing protocol i.e., 3VSR (Three Valued Secure Routing), which extends the widely used AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector) routing protocol and employs the idea of Sensing Logic-based trust model to enhance the security solution of VANET (Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network). The existing routing protocol are mostly based on key or signature-based schemes, which off course increases computation overhead. In our proposed 3VSR, trust among entities is updated frequently by means of opinion derived from sensing logic due to vehicles random topologies. In 3VSR the theoretical capabilities are based on Dirichlet distribution by considering prior and posterior uncertainty of the said event. Also by using trust recommendation message exchange, nodes are able to reduce computation and routing overhead. The simulated results shows that the proposed scheme is secure and practical.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 516: Social Capital Enhanced Disaster Preparedness and Health Consultations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Power Station Accident International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030516 Authors: Makoto Hasegawa Michio Murakami Yoshitake Takebayashi Satoshi Suzuki Hitoshi Ohto After the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, there was a strong demand to promote disaster preparedness approaches and health checkups for the prevention of lifestyle diseases. This study examined the yearly change in the percentage of those who prepared for disasters and who utilized health checkups in Fukushima Prefecture, and identified the factors governing disaster preparedness and utilization of health checkups. We used the public opinion survey from 2011 to 2015 (n = 677–779 each year) on prefectural policies that is conducted every year by the Fukushima Prefecture government Public Consultation Unit. We found that the percentage of those who prepare for disasters decreased, while that for health checkups did not significantly change. With regard to disaster preparedness, experiences of disaster enhance disaster preparedness, while bonds with other local people help to maintain preparedness. For health checkups, familiarity with the welfare service was the most important factor governing such consultations. The findings suggest that social capital should be promoted in order to improve disaster preparedness. The findings also suggest that residents’ accessibility to medical and welfare services is also important in promoting the utilization of health checkups.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 861: GreenVMAS: Virtual Organization Based Platform for Heating Greenhouses Using Waste Energy from Power Plants Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030861 Authors: Alfonso González-Briones Pablo Chamoso Hyun Yoe Juan Corchado The gradual depletion of energy resources makes it necessary to optimize their use and to reuse them. Although great advances have already been made in optimizing energy generation processes, many of these processes generate energy that inevitably gets wasted. A clear example of this are nuclear, thermal and carbon power plants, which lose a large amount of energy that could otherwise be used for different purposes, such as heating greenhouses. The role of GreenVMAS is to maintain the required temperature level in greenhouses by using the waste energy generated by power plants. It incorporates a case-based reasoning system, virtual organizations and algorithms for data analysis and for efficient interaction with sensors and actuators. The system is context aware and scalable as it incorporates an artificial neural network, this means that it can operate correctly even if the number and characteristics of the greenhouses participating in the case study change. The architecture was evaluated empirically and the results show that the user’s energy bill is greatly reduced with the implemented system.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 858: A Review of Multimode Interference in Tapered Optical Fibers and Related Applications Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030858 Authors: Pengfei Wang Haiyan Zhao Xianfan Wang Gerald Farrell Gilberto Brambilla In recent years, tapered optical fibers (TOFs) have attracted increasing interest and developed into a range of devices used in many practical applications ranging from optical communication, sensing to optical manipulation and high-Q resonators. Compared with conventional optical fibers, TOFs possess a range of unique features, such as large evanescent field, strong optical confinement, mechanical flexibility and compactness. In this review, we critically summarize the multimode interference in TOFs and some of its applications with a focus on our research project undertaken at the Optoelectronics Research Centre of the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 859: An RFID-Based Smart Nest Box: An Experimental Study of Laying Performance and Behavior of Individual Hens Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030859 Authors: Ying-Ren Chien Yu-Xian Chen This study designed a radio-frequency identification (RFID)-based Internet of Things (IoT) platform to create the core of a smart nest box. At the sensing level, we have deployed RFID-based sensors and egg detection sensors. A low-frequency RFID reader is installed in the bottom of the nest box and a foot ring RFID tag is worn on the leg of individual hens. The RFID-based sensors detect when a hen enters or exits the nest box. The egg-detection sensors are implemented with a resistance strain gauge pressure sensor, which weights the egg in the egg-collection tube. Thus, the smart nest box makes it possible to analyze the laying performance and behavior of individual hens. An evaluative experiment was performed using an enriched cage, a smart nest box, web camera, and monitoring console. The hens were allowed 14 days to become accustomed to the experimental environment before monitoring began. The proposed IoT platform makes it possible to analyze the egg yield of individual hens in real time, thereby enabling the replacement of hens with egg yield below a pre-defined level in order to meet the overall target egg yield rate. The results of this experiment demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed RFID-based smart nest box in monitoring the egg yield and laying behavior of individual hens.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 857: Two-Dimensional Layered Nanomaterial-Based One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Refractive Index Sensor Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030857 Authors: Jitendra Maurya Alexandre François Yogendra Prajapati One-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC) sensors have emerged as contenders for traditional surface plasmon resonance sensors, owing to their potential for the detection of bigger molecules and particles due to their higher interaction volume in the sensing medium. Two-dimensional layered nanomaterials, most notably graphene and dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2), have shown higher refractive index sensitivity because of their absorption as well as adsorption property. The proposed configuration of 1DPC presented consists of alternate layers of the aforementioned nanomaterials and silicon. The performance parameters, namely the sensitivity, resolution, quality factor, and the evanescent field penetration depth, are calculated and compared with 1DPC having poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) in place of silicon. Increased shift in resonance angle and quality factor are observed by replacing PMMA with silicon, but at the cost of decreased resolution. Further, our results show that although the sensitivity and quality factor of the 1DPC sensor is less than that of the conventional surface plasmon resonance sensor (SPR) with a gold thin film, it has much higher resolution and penetration depth to make it suitable for large molecules.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Algorithms, Vol. 11, Pages 31: Bilayer Local Search Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a11030031 Authors: A. Ahmed Ji Sun The classical capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) is a very popular combinatorial optimization problem in the field of logistics and supply chain management. Although CVRP has drawn interests of many researchers, no standard way has been established yet to obtain best known solutions for all the different problem sets. We propose an efficient algorithm Bilayer Local Search-based Particle Swarm Optimization (BLS-PSO) along with a novel decoding method to solve CVRP. Decoding method is important to relate the encoded particle position to a feasible CVRP solution. In bilayer local search, one layer of local search is for the whole population in any iteration whereas another one is applied only on the pool of the best particles generated in different generations. Such searching strategies help the BLS-PSO to perform better than the existing proposals by obtaining best known solutions for most of the existing benchmark problems within very reasonable computational time. Computational results also show that the performance achieved by the proposed algorithm outperforms other PSO-based approaches.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4893
    Topics: Computer Science
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 524: The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030524 Authors: Minqi Yang Ning Ma Yingying Zhu Ying-Chu Su Qingwei Chen Fan-Chi Hsiao Yanran Ji Chien-Ming Yang Guofu Zhou Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K) alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K) three times); continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure. Each light exposure was conducted during the three hours before bedtime. Fifteen healthy volunteers (20 ± 3.4 years; seven males) were scheduled to stay in the sleep laboratory for four separated nights (one for adaptation and the others for the light exposures) with a period of at least one week between nights. The results showed that when compared with dim light, both intermittent light and continuous bright light significantly increased subjective alertness and decreased sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep time (TST). Intermittent light significantly increased objective alertness than dim light did during the second half of the light-exposure period. Our results suggested that intermittent light was as effective as continuous bright light in their acute effects in enhancing subjective and objective alertness and in negatively impacting subsequent sleep.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 526: Pesticide Use and Asthma in Alberta Grain Farmers International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030526 Authors: Nicola Cherry Jeremy Beach Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan Igor Burstyn A study of the respiratory health of grain farmers in Alberta, Canada was carried out in March 2002. Two populations were identified: members, in 1983, of a province-wide farm organisation, and grain farmers registered with the provincial agriculture department. A telephone interview addressed pesticide use (using pre-circulated trade names), chronic disease and respiratory symptoms. Pesticide ingredients were identified from provincial crop protection guides. Total years of use were calculated for seven chemical groups. Consent for linkage to administrative health records was obtained in 2009. A likelihood score (Lscore) is computed, relating symptoms to asthma diagnosis. Self-reported asthma and the Lscore are examined against duration of pesticide exposures. Of the 10,767 farmers listed, 2426 were still living, had farmed grain and were interviewed; 1371 were re-contacted and matched to health records. After allowance for confounders, years of exposure to phenoxy compounds are related to self-reported asthma and Lscore. Compared to no exposure, the adjusted odds ratios (95% Confidence Intervals for self-reported asthma for short, medium and long exposure to phenoxy compounds are 1.29 (0.66–2.52), 2.52 (1.25–5.09), and 3.18 (1.54–6.58), and for Lscore are 1.19 (0.91–1.55), 1.50 (1.13–1.99), and 1.58 (1.18–2.12). We conclude that lifetime exposure to phenoxy herbicides is associated with an increased risk of asthma.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 523: Combining Community Engagement and Scientific Approaches in Next-Generation Monitor Siting: The Case of the Imperial County Community Air Network International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030523 Authors: Michelle Wong Esther Bejarano Graeme Carvlin Katie Fellows Galatea King Humberto Lugo Michael Jerrett Dan Meltzer Amanda Northcross Luis Olmedo Edmund Seto Alexa Wilkie Paul English Air pollution continues to be a global public health threat, and the expanding availability of small, low-cost air sensors has led to increased interest in both personal and crowd-sourced air monitoring. However, to date, few low-cost air monitoring networks have been developed with the scientific rigor or continuity needed to conduct public health surveillance and inform policy. In Imperial County, California, near the U.S./Mexico border, we used a collaborative, community-engaged process to develop a community air monitoring network that attains the scientific rigor required for research, while also achieving community priorities. By engaging community residents in the project design, monitor siting processes, data dissemination, and other key activities, the resulting air monitoring network data are relevant, trusted, understandable, and used by community residents. Integration of spatial analysis and air monitoring best practices into the network development process ensures that the data are reliable and appropriate for use in research activities. This combined approach results in a community air monitoring network that is better able to inform community residents, support research activities, guide public policy, and improve public health. Here we detail the monitor siting process and outline the advantages and challenges of this approach.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 878: Accurate Sybil Attack Detection Based on Fine-Grained Physical Channel Information Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030878 Authors: Chundong Wang Likun Zhu Liangyi Gong Zhentang Zhao Lei Yang Zheli Liu Xiaochun Cheng With the development of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), wireless network security has more and more attention paid to it. The Sybil attack is one of the famous wireless attacks that can forge wireless devices to steal information from clients. These forged devices may constantly attack target access points to crush the wireless network. In this paper, we propose a novel Sybil attack detection based on Channel State Information (CSI). This detection algorithm can tell whether the static devices are Sybil attackers by combining a self-adaptive multiple signal classification algorithm with the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI). Moreover, we develop a novel tracing scheme to cluster the channel characteristics of mobile devices and detect dynamic attackers that change their channel characteristics in an error area. Finally, we experiment on mobile and commercial WiFi devices. Our algorithm can effectively distinguish the Sybil devices. The experimental results show that our Sybil attack detection system achieves high accuracy for both static and dynamic scenarios. Therefore, combining the phase and similarity of channel features, the multi-dimensional analysis of CSI can effectively detect Sybil nodes and improve the security of wireless networks.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 871: A Comparative Study on Two Typical Schemes for Securing Spatial-Temporal Top-k Queries in Two-Tiered Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030871 Authors: Xingpo Ma Xingjian Liu Junbin Liang Yin Li Ran Li Wenpeng Ma Chuanda Qi A novel network paradigm of mobile edge computing, namely TMWSNs (two-tiered mobile wireless sensor networks), has just been proposed by researchers in recent years for its high scalability and robustness. However, only a few works have considered the security of TMWSNs. In fact, the storage nodes, which are located at the upper layer of TMWSNs, are prone to being attacked by the adversaries because they play a key role in bridging both the sensor nodes and the sink, which may lead to the disclosure of all data stored on them as well as some other potentially devastating results. In this paper, we make a comparative study on two typical schemes, EVTopk and VTMSN, which have been proposed recently for securing Top-k queries in TMWSNs, through both theoretical analysis and extensive simulations, aiming at finding out their disadvantages and advancements. We find that both schemes unsatisfactorily raise communication costs. Specifically, the extra communication cost brought about by transmitting the proof information uses up more than 40% of the total communication cost between the sensor nodes and the storage nodes, and 80% of that between the storage nodes and the sink. We discuss the corresponding reasons and present our suggestions, hoping that it will inspire the researchers researching this subject.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 874: Context Mining of Sedentary Behaviour for Promoting Self-Awareness Using a Smartphone Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030874 Authors: Muhammad Fahim Thar Baker Asad Khattak Babar Shah Saiqa Aleem Francis Chow Sedentary behaviour is increasing due to societal changes and is related to prolonged periods of sitting. There is sufficient evidence proving that sedentary behaviour has a negative impact on people’s health and wellness. This paper presents our research findings on how to mine the temporal contexts of sedentary behaviour by utilizing the on-board sensors of a smartphone. We use the accelerometer sensor of the smartphone to recognize user situations (i.e., still or active). If our model confirms that the user context is still, then there is a high probability of being sedentary. Then, we process the environmental sound to recognize the micro-context, such as working on a computer or watching television during leisure time. Our goal is to reduce sedentary behaviour by suggesting preventive interventions to take short breaks during prolonged sitting to be more active. We achieve this goal by providing the visualization to the user, who wants to monitor his/her sedentary behaviour to reduce unhealthy routines for self-management purposes. The main contribution of this paper is two-fold: (i) an initial implementation of the proposed framework supporting real-time context identification; (ii) testing and evaluation of the framework, which suggest that our application is capable of substantially reducing sedentary behaviour and assisting users to be active.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 865: Energy Optimization Using a Case-Based Reasoning Strategy Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030865 Authors: Alfonso González-Briones Javier Prieto Fernando De La Prieta Enrique Herrera-Viedma Juan Corchado At present, the domotization of homes and public buildings is becoming increasingly popular. Domotization is most commonly applied to the field of energy management, since it gives the possibility of managing the consumption of the devices connected to the electric network, the way in which the users interact with these devices, as well as other external factors that influence consumption. In buildings, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems have the highest consumption rates. The systems proposed so far have not succeeded in optimizing the energy consumption associated with a HVAC system because they do not monitor all the variables involved in electricity consumption. For this reason, this article presents an agent approach that benefits from the advantages provided by a Multi-Agent architecture (MAS) deployed in a Cloud environment with a wireless sensor network (WSN) in order to achieve energy savings. The agents of the MAS learn social behavior thanks to the collection of data and the use of an artificial neural network (ANN). The proposed system has been assessed in an office building achieving an average energy savings of 41% in the experimental group offices.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-03-16
    Description: Symmetry, Vol. 10, Pages 66: Carbon Oxides Gases for Occupancy Counting and Emergency Control in Fog Environment Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10030066 Authors: Kairong Duan Simon Fong Yan Zhuang Wei Song The information of human occupancy plays a crucial role in building management. For instance, fewer people, less demand for heat and electricity supply, and vice versa. Moreover, when there is a fire in a building, it is convenient to know how many persons in a single room there are in order to plan a more efficient rescue strategy. However, currently most buildings have not installed adequate devices that can be used to count the number of people, and the most popular embedded fire alarm system triggers a warning only when a fire breaks out with plenty of smoke. In view of this constraint, in this paper we propose a carbon oxides gases based warning system to detect potential fire breakouts and to estimate the number of people in the proximity. In order to validate the efficiency of the devised system, we simulate its application in the Fog Computing environment. Furthermore, we also improve the iFogSim by giving data analytics capacity to it. Based on this framework, energy consumption, latency, and network usage of the designed system obtained from iFogSim are compared with those obtained from Cloud environment.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-8994
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-03-17
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 202: Global Reliability Sensitivity Analysis Based on Maximum Entropy and 2-Layer Polynomial Chaos Expansion Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030202 Authors: Jianyu Zhao Shengkui Zeng Jianbin Guo Shaohua Du To optimize contributions of uncertain input variables on the statistical parameter of given model, e.g., reliability, global reliability sensitivity analysis (GRSA) provides an appropriate tool to quantify the effects. However, it may be difficult to calculate global reliability sensitivity indices compared with the traditional global sensitivity indices of model output, because statistical parameters are more difficult to obtain, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS)-related methods seem to be the only ways for GRSA but they are usually computationally demanding. This paper presents a new non-MCS calculation to evaluate global reliability sensitivity indices. This method proposes: (i) a 2-layer polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) framework to solve the global reliability sensitivity indices; and (ii) an efficient method to build a surrogate model of the statistical parameter using the maximum entropy (ME) method with the moments provided by PCE. This method has a dramatically reduced computational cost compared with traditional approaches. Two examples are introduced to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method. It also suggests that the important ranking of model output and associated failure probability may be different, which could help improve the understanding of the given model in further optimization design.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-03-17
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 198: Modulation Signal Recognition Based on Information Entropy and Ensemble Learning Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030198 Authors: Zhen Zhang Yibing Li Shanshan Jin Zhaoyue Zhang Hui Wang Lin Qi Ruolin Zhou In this paper, information entropy and ensemble learning based signal recognition theory and algorithms have been proposed. We have extracted 16 kinds of entropy features out of 9 types of modulated signals. The types of information entropy used are numerous, including Rényi entropy and energy entropy based on S Transform and Generalized S Transform. We have used three feature selection algorithms, including sequence forward selection (SFS), sequence forward floating selection (SFFS) and RELIEF-F to select the optimal feature subset from 16 entropy features. We use five classifiers, including k-nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), Adaboost, Gradient Boosting Decision Tree (GBDT) and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) to classify the original feature set and the feature subsets selected by different feature selection algorithms. The simulation results show that the feature subsets selected by SFS and SFFS algorithms are the best, with a 48% increase in recognition rate over the original feature set when using KNN classifier and a 34% increase when using SVM classifier. For the other three classifiers, the original feature set can achieve the best recognition performance. The XGBoost classifier has the best recognition performance, the overall recognition rate is 97.74% and the recognition rate can reach 82% when the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is −10 dB.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-03-17
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 197: Low Probability of Intercept-Based Radar Waveform Design for Spectral Coexistence of Distributed Multiple-Radar and Wireless Communication Systems in Clutter Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030197 Authors: Chenguang Shi Fei Wang Sana Salous Jianjiang Zhou In this paper, the problem of low probability of intercept (LPI)-based radar waveform design for distributed multiple-radar system (DMRS) is studied, which consists of multiple radars coexisting with a wireless communication system in the same frequency band. The primary objective of the multiple-radar system is to minimize the total transmitted energy by optimizing the transmission waveform of each radar with the communication signals acting as interference to the radar system, while meeting a desired target detection/characterization performance. Firstly, signal-to-clutter-plus-noise ratio (SCNR) and mutual information (MI) are used as the practical metrics to evaluate target detection and characterization performance, respectively. Then, the SCNR- and MI-based optimal radar waveform optimization methods are formulated. The resulting waveform optimization problems are solved through the well-known bisection search technique. Simulation results demonstrate utilizing various examples and scenarios that the proposed radar waveform design schemes can evidently improve the LPI performance of DMRS without interfering with friendly communications.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-03-17
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 889: An Obstacle-Tolerant Path Planning Algorithm for Mobile-Anchor-Node-Assisted Localization Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030889 Authors: Rong-Guei Tsai Pei-Hsuan Tsai The location information obtained using a sensor is a critical requirement in wireless sensor networks. Numerous localization schemes have been proposed, among which mobile-anchor-node-assisted localization (MANAL) can reduce costs and overcome environmental constraints. A mobile anchor node (MAN) provides its own location information to assist the localization of sensor nodes. Numerous path planning schemes have been proposed for MANAL, but most scenarios assume the absence of obstacles in the environment. However, in a realistic environment, sensor nodes cannot be located because the obstacles block the path traversed by the MAN, thereby rendering the sensor incapable of receiving sufficient three location information from the MAN. This study proposes the obstacle-tolerant path planning (OTPP) approach to solve the sensor location problem owing to obstacle blockage. OTPP can approximate the optimum beacon point number and path planning, thereby ensuring that all the unknown nodes can receive the three location information from the MAN and reduce the number of MAN broadcast packet times. Experimental results demonstrate that OTPP performs better than Z-curves because it reduces the total number of beacon points utilized and is thus more suitable in an obstacle-present environment. Compared to the Z-curve, OTPP can reduce localization error and improve localization coverage.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-03-17
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 885: In-Field Validation of an Inertial Sensor-Based System for Movement Analysis and Classification in Ski Mountaineering Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030885 Authors: Jules Gellaerts Evgeny Bogdanov Farzin Dadashi Benoit Mariani Ski Mountaineering (SkiMo) is a fast growing sport requiring both endurance and technical skills. It involves different types of locomotion with and without the skis. The aim of this study is to develop and validate in the snowfield a novel inertial-based system for analysing cycle parameters and classifying movement in SkiMo in real-time. The study was divided into two parts, one focused on real-time parameters estimation (cadence, distance from strides, stride duration, stride length, number of strides, slope gradient, and power) and, second, on transition detection (kickturns, skin on, skin off, ski on and off backpack) in order to classify between the different types of locomotion. Experimental protocol involved 16 experienced subjects who performed different SkiMo trials with their own equipment instrumented with a ski-mounted inertial sensor. The results obtained by the algorithm showed precise results with a relative error near 5% on all parameters. The developed system can, therefore, be used by skiers to obtain quantitative training data analysis and real-time feedback in the field. Nevertheless, a deeper validation of this algorithm might be necessary in order to confirm the accuracy on a wider population of subjects with various skill levels.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-03-17
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 883: A Model of Gravity Vector Measurement Noise for Estimating Accelerometer Bias in Gravity Disturbance Compensation Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030883 Authors: Junbo Tie Juliang Cao Lubing Chang Shaokun Cai Meiping Wu Junxiang Lian Compensation of gravity disturbance can improve the precision of inertial navigation, but the effect of compensation will decrease due to the accelerometer bias, and estimation of the accelerometer bias is a crucial issue in gravity disturbance compensation. This paper first investigates the effect of accelerometer bias on gravity disturbance compensation, and the situation in which the accelerometer bias should be estimated is established. The accelerometer bias is estimated from the gravity vector measurement, and a model of measurement noise in gravity vector measurement is built. Based on this model, accelerometer bias is separated from the gravity vector measurement error by the method of least squares. Horizontal gravity disturbances are calculated through EGM2008 spherical harmonic model to build the simulation scene, and the simulation results indicate that precise estimations of the accelerometer bias can be obtained with the proposed method.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-03-17
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 884: Unannounced Meals in the Artificial Pancreas: Detection Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030884 Authors: Charrise Ramkissoon Pau Herrero Jorge Bondia Josep Vehi The artificial pancreas (AP) system is designed to regulate blood glucose in subjects with type 1 diabetes using a continuous glucose monitor informed controller that adjusts insulin infusion via an insulin pump. However, current AP developments are mainly hybrid closed-loop systems that include feed-forward actions triggered by the announcement of meals or exercise. The first step to fully closing the loop in the AP requires removing meal announcement, which is currently the most effective way to alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia due to the delay in insulin action. Here, a novel approach to meal detection in the AP is presented using a sliding window and computing the normalized cross-covariance between measured glucose and the forward difference of a disturbance term, estimated from an augmented minimal model using an Unscented Kalman Filter. Three different tunings were applied to the same meal detection algorithm: (1) a high sensitivity tuning, (2) a trade-off tuning that has a high amount of meals detected and a low amount of false positives (FP), and (3) a low FP tuning. For the three tunings sensitivities 99 ± 2%, 93 ± 5%, and 47 ± 12% were achieved, respectively. A sensitivity analysis was also performed and found that higher carbohydrate quantities and faster rates of glucose appearance result in favorable meal detection outcomes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-03-17
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 881: An Energy-Balanced Clustering Protocol Based on an Improved CFSFDP Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030881 Authors: Yiming Zhang Mandan Liu Qingwei Liu Clustering, as an essential part in an hierarchy protocol that can prolong the network lifetime, is influenced by the cluster head selection and clustering scheme. A new clustering algorithm called clustering by fast search and finding of density peaks (CFSFDP) based on local density and distance is implementable and efficient. In this paper, we combine this clustering algorithm with a hierarchy protocol in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, energy consumption in each round is unbalanced only considering these two variables during the clustering phase, which leads to the early death of the first node. In order to solve this problem, we take residual energy into consideration in our improved CFSFDP-E (energy) algorithm so as to ultimately balance the energy consumption of the network. We analyze different forms of energy and choose a dynamic threshold for each round in the CFSFDP-E algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can not only postpone the death of the first node by almost 50% compared to LEACH, but that it also outperforms several related protocols with respect to energy efficiency.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-03-17
    Description: Symmetry, Vol. 10, Pages 69: Enabling Symmetric Collaboration in Public Spaces through 3D Mobile Interaction Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10030069 Authors: Mayra Machuca Winyu Chinthammit Weidong Huang Rainer Wasinger Henry Duh Collaboration has been common in workplaces in various engineering settings and in our daily activities. However, how to effectively engage collaborators with collaborative tasks has long been an issue due to various situational and technical constraints. The research in this paper addresses the issue in a specific scenario, which is how to enable users to interact with public information from their own perspective. We describe a 3D mobile interaction technique that allows users to collaborate with other people by creating a symmetric and collaborative ambience. This in turn can increase their engagement with public displays. In order to better understand the benefits and limitations of this technique, we conducted a usability study with a total of 40 participants. The results indicate that the 3D mobile interaction technique promotes collaboration between users and also improves their engagement with the public displays.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-8994
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-03-18
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 898: Towards the Crowdsourcing of Massive Smartphone Assisted-GPS Sensor Ground Observations for the Production of Digital Terrain Models Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030898 Authors: Ido Massad Sagi Dalyot Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) used for the representation of the bare earth are produced from elevation data obtained using high-end mapping platforms and technologies. These require the handling of complex post-processing performed by authoritative and commercial mapping agencies. In this research, we aim to exploit user-generated data to produce DTMs by handling massive volumes of position and elevation data collected using ubiquitous smartphone devices equipped with Assisted-GPS sensors. As massive position and elevation data are collected passively and straightforwardly by pedestrians, cyclists, and drivers, it can be transformed into valuable topographic information. Specifically, in dense and concealed built and vegetated areas, where other technologies fail, handheld devices have an advantage. Still, Assisted-GPS measurements are not as accurate as high-end technologies, requiring pre- and post-processing of observations. We propose the development and implementation of a 2D Kalman filter and smoothing on the acquired crowdsourced observations for topographic representation production. When compared to an authoritative DTM, results obtained are very promising in producing good elevation values. Today, open-source mapping infrastructures, such as OpenStreetMap, rely primarily on the global authoritative SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission), which shows similar accuracy but inferior resolution when compared to the results obtained in this research. Accordingly, our crowdsourced methodology has the capacity for reliable topographic representation production that is based on ubiquitous volunteered user-generated data.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-03-18
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 897: Pressure Distribution during Negative Pressure Wound Therapy of Experimental Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in a Porcine Model Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030897 Authors: Adrienn Csiszkó Klaudia Balog Zoltán Godó Gyula Juhász Katalin Pető Ádám Deák Mariann Berhés Norbert Németh Zsolt Bodnár Zsolt Szentkereszty (1) Introduction: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a frequently applied open abdomen (OA) treatment. There are only a few experimental data supporting this method and describing the optimal settings and pressure distribution in the abdominal cavity during this procedure. The aim of our study was to evaluate pressure values at different points in the abdominal cavity during NPWT in experimental abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) animal model; (2) Methods: In this study (permission Nr. 13/2014/UDCAW), 27 Hungahib pigs (15.4–20.2 kg) were operated on. ACS was generated by implanting a plastic bag in the abdomen through mini-laparotomy and filled with 2100–3300 mL saline solution (37 °C) to an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) of 30 mmHg. After 3 h, NPWT (Vivano Med® Abdominal Kit, Paul Hartmann AG, Germany) or a Bogota bag was applied. The NPWT group was divided into −50, −100 and −150 mmHg suction groups. Pressure distribution to the abdominal cavity was monitored at 6 different points of the abdomen via a multichannel pressure monitoring system; (3) Results: The absolute pressure levels were significantly higher above than below the protective layer. The values of the pressure were similar in the midline and laterally. Amongst the bowels, the pressure values changed periodically between 0 and −12 mmHg which might be caused by peristaltic movements; (4) Conclusions: The porcine model of the present study seems to be well applicable for investigating ACS and NPWT. It was possible to provide valuable information for clinicians. The pressure was well distributed by the protective layer to the lateral parts of the abdomen and this phenomenon did not change considerably during the therapy.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-03-18
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 896: A Procedure for Determining Tire-Road Friction Characteristics Using a Modification of the Magic Formula Based on Experimental Results Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030896 Authors: Juan Cabrera Juan Castillo Javier Pérez Juan Velasco Antonio Guerra Pedro Hernández Knowledge of tire-road friction characteristics is essential for the proper performance of most relevant vehicle active safety systems. Therefore, its determination is necessary to improve the effectiveness of these systems and to avoid or reduce the consequences of traffic accidents. For this reason, there is a great deal of literature concerning methods and devices for measuring and modeling tire-road friction. Most of these methods have focused on determining the road friction resistance, taking only road composition and making measurements in wet conditions into account. However, friction forces are also dependent on the tire type, since the contact is established between the tire and the road in real driving conditions. Thus, the type and characteristics of the tire have to be considered in the study of the interaction between the vehicle and the road. The aim of this work is to unify the study of the friction coefficient, taking into consideration the two existing bodies involved in the contact, i.e., the tire and road and the main factors that influence the forces in the contact. To this end, a modification of the Pacejka Magic Formula is proposed to include the effects of the main parameters that influence the contact, such as road composition and its state, tire type, vehicle speed, and slip between the tire and the road. To do so, real tests have been conducted on several roads and with different operating conditions. As a result, a more accurate tire-road friction model has been obtained.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-03-18
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 540: The Public Health Challenge of Consumer Non-Compliance to Toy Product Recalls and Proposed Solutions International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030540 Authors: Xiayang Yu David Schwebel This paper addresses the public health issue of toy product recalls in the United States, an under-addressed topic in scholarly literature, yet highly relevant to the prevention of pediatric injuries. Toy-related injuries led to 274,000 emergency room visits and seven fatalities in 2016 in the United States, and toy-related injury rates have remained stable over the last five years despite declining incidences of recalls. While dangerous toys not being recalled and the misuse of “safe” products are possible contributing factors, consumer non-response to recall notices also contributes to unintentional child injury from dangerous toys. We discuss the process of recalling toys, and the role of the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission in that process. We also review potential factors behind significant consumer non-response to recall notifications, citing economic and psychological theories as explanations for the actions of multiple stakeholders in the recall process. We close by proposing reforms at the regulatory, consumer, and retailer levels that might boost compliance with recall notifications and ultimately reduce injury morbidity and mortality.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-03-21
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 210: Amplitude- and Fluctuation-Based Dispersion Entropy Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030210 Authors: Hamed Azami Javier Escudero Dispersion entropy (DispEn) is a recently introduced entropy metric to quantify the uncertainty of time series. It is fast and, so far, it has demonstrated very good performance in the characterisation of time series. It includes a mapping step, but the effect of different mappings has not been studied yet. Here, we investigate the effect of linear and nonlinear mapping approaches in DispEn. We also inspect the sensitivity of different parameters of DispEn to noise. Moreover, we develop fluctuation-based DispEn (FDispEn) as a measure to deal with only the fluctuations of time series. Furthermore, the original and fluctuation-based forbidden dispersion patterns are introduced to discriminate deterministic from stochastic time series. Finally, we compare the performance of DispEn, FDispEn, permutation entropy, sample entropy, and Lempel–Ziv complexity on two physiological datasets. The results show that DispEn is the most consistent technique to distinguish various dynamics of the biomedical signals. Due to their advantages over existing entropy methods, DispEn and FDispEn are expected to be broadly used for the characterization of a wide variety of real-world time series. The MATLAB codes used in this paper are freely available at http://dx.doi.org/10.7488/ds/2326.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-03-21
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 207: Application of Entropy Ensemble Filter in Neural Network Forecasts of Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030207 Authors: Hossein Foroozand Valentina Radić Steven Weijs Recently, the Entropy Ensemble Filter (EEF) method was proposed to mitigate the computational cost of the Bootstrap AGGregatING (bagging) method. This method uses the most informative training data sets in the model ensemble rather than all ensemble members created by the conventional bagging. In this study, we evaluate, for the first time, the application of the EEF method in Neural Network (NN) modeling of El Nino-southern oscillation. Specifically, we forecast the first five principal components (PCs) of sea surface temperature monthly anomaly fields over tropical Pacific, at different lead times (from 3 to 15 months, with a three-month increment) for the period 1979–2017. We apply the EEF method in a multiple-linear regression (MLR) model and two NN models, one using Bayesian regularization and one Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for training, and evaluate their performance and computational efficiency relative to the same models with conventional bagging. All models perform equally well at the lead time of 3 and 6 months, while at higher lead times, the MLR model’s skill deteriorates faster than the nonlinear models. The neural network models with both bagging methods produce equally successful forecasts with the same computational efficiency. It remains to be shown whether this finding is sensitive to the dataset size.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-03-21
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 209: Prior and Posterior Linear Pooling for Combining Expert Opinions: Uses and Impact on Bayesian Networks—The Case of the Wayfinding Model Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030209 Authors: Charisse Farr Fabrizio Ruggeri Kerrie Mengersen The use of expert knowledge to quantify a Bayesian Network (BN) is necessary when data is not available. This however raises questions regarding how opinions from multiple experts can be used in a BN. Linear pooling is a popular method for combining probability assessments from multiple experts. In particular, Prior Linear Pooling (PrLP), which pools opinions and then places them into the BN, is a common method. This paper considers this approach and an alternative pooling method, Posterior Linear Pooling (PoLP). The PoLP method constructs a BN for each expert, and then pools the resulting probabilities at the nodes of interest. The advantages and disadvantages of these two methods are identified and compared and the methods are applied to an existing BN, the Wayfinding Bayesian Network Model, to investigate the behavior of different groups of people and how these different methods may be able to capture such differences. The paper focusses on six nodes Human Factors, Environmental Factors, Wayfinding, Communication, Visual Elements of Communication and Navigation Pathway, and three subgroups Gender (Female, Male), Travel Experience (Experienced, Inexperienced), and Travel Purpose (Business, Personal), and finds that different behaviors can indeed be captured by the different methods.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-03-21
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 208: Deconstructing Cross-Entropy for Probabilistic Binary Classifiers Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030208 Authors: Daniel Ramos Javier Franco-Pedroso Alicia Lozano-Diez Joaquin Gonzalez-Rodriguez In this work, we analyze the cross-entropy function, widely used in classifiers both as a performance measure and as an optimization objective. We contextualize cross-entropy in the light of Bayesian decision theory, the formal probabilistic framework for making decisions, and we thoroughly analyze its motivation, meaning and interpretation from an information-theoretical point of view. In this sense, this article presents several contributions: First, we explicitly analyze the contribution to cross-entropy of (i) prior knowledge; and (ii) the value of the features in the form of a likelihood ratio. Second, we introduce a decomposition of cross-entropy into two components: discrimination and calibration. This decomposition enables the measurement of different performance aspects of a classifier in a more precise way; and justifies previously reported strategies to obtain reliable probabilities by means of the calibration of the output of a discriminating classifier. Third, we give different information-theoretical interpretations of cross-entropy, which can be useful in different application scenarios, and which are related to the concept of reference probabilities. Fourth, we present an analysis tool, the Empirical Cross-Entropy (ECE) plot, a compact representation of cross-entropy and its aforementioned decomposition. We show the power of ECE plots, as compared to other classical performance representations, in two diverse experimental examples: a speaker verification system, and a forensic case where some glass findings are present.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-03-21
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 206: Irreversibility and Action of the Heat Conduction Process Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030206 Authors: Yu-Chao Hua Tiao Zhao Zeng-Yuan Guo Irreversibility (that is, the “one-sidedness” of time) of a physical process can be characterized by using Lyapunov functions in the modern theory of stability. In this theoretical framework, entropy and its production rate have been generally regarded as Lyapunov functions in order to measure the irreversibility of various physical processes. In fact, the Lyapunov function is not always unique. In the represent work, a rigorous proof is given that the entransy and its dissipation rate can also serve as Lyapunov functions associated with the irreversibility of the heat conduction process without the conversion between heat and work. In addition, the variation of the entransy dissipation rate can lead to Fourier’s heat conduction law, while the entropy production rate cannot. This shows that the entransy dissipation rate, rather than the entropy production rate, is the unique action for the heat conduction process, and can be used to establish the finite element method for the approximate solution of heat conduction problems and the optimization of heat transfer processes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-03-21
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 211: Some Inequalities Combining Rough and Random Information Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030211 Authors: Yujie Gu Qianyu Zhang Liying Yu Rough random theory, generally applied to statistics, decision-making, and so on, is an extension of rough set theory and probability theory, in which a rough random variable is described as a random variable taking “rough variable” values. In order to extend and enrich the research area of rough random theory, in this paper, the well-known probabilistic inequalities (Markov inequality, Chebyshev inequality, Holder’s inequality, Minkowski inequality and Jensen’s inequality) are proven for rough random variables, which gives a firm theoretical support to the further development of rough random theory. Besides, considering that the critical values always act as a vital tool in engineering, science and other application fields, some significant properties of the critical values of rough random variables involving the continuity and the monotonicity are investigated deeply to provide a novel analytical approach for dealing with the rough random optimization problems.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 566: Estimating Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Emissions Using GPS Big Data International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040566 Authors: Zihan Kan Luliang Tang Mei-Po Kwan Xia Zhang The energy consumption and emissions from vehicles adversely affect human health and urban sustainability. Analysis of GPS big data collected from vehicles can provide useful insights about the quantity and distribution of such energy consumption and emissions. Previous studies, which estimated fuel consumption/emissions from traffic based on GPS sampled data, have not sufficiently considered vehicle activities and may have led to erroneous estimations. By adopting the analytical construct of the space-time path in time geography, this study proposes methods that more accurately estimate and visualize vehicle energy consumption/emissions based on analysis of vehicles’ mobile activities (MA) and stationary activities (SA). First, we build space-time paths of individual vehicles, extract moving parameters, and identify MA and SA from each space-time path segment (STPS). Then we present an N-Dimensional framework for estimating and visualizing fuel consumption/emissions. For each STPS, fuel consumption, hot emissions, and cold start emissions are estimated based on activity type, i.e., MA, SA with engine-on and SA with engine-off. In the case study, fuel consumption and emissions of a single vehicle and a road network are estimated and visualized with GPS data. The estimation accuracy of the proposed approach is 88.6%. We also analyze the types of activities that produced fuel consumption on each road segment to explore the patterns and mechanisms of fuel consumption in the study area. The results not only show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches in estimating fuel consumption/emissions but also indicate their advantages for uncovering the relationships between fuel consumption and vehicles’ activities in road networks.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 565: Modelling a Compensation Standard for a Regional Forest Ecosystem: A Case Study in Yanqing District, Beijing, China International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040565 Authors: Tan Li Qingguo Zhang Ying Zhang The assessment of forest ecosystem services can quantify the impact of these services on human life and is the main basis for formulating a standard of compensation for these services. Moreover, the calculation of the indirect value of forest ecosystem services should not be ignored, as has been the case in some previous publications. A low compensation standard and the lack of a dynamic coordination mechanism are the main problems existing in compensation implementation. Using comparison and analysis, this paper employed accounting for both the costs and benefits of various alternatives. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method and the Pearl growth-curve method were used to adjust the results. This research analyzed the contribution of each service value from the aspects of forest produce services, ecology services, and society services. We also conducted separate accounting for cost and benefit, made a comparison of accounting and evaluation methods, and estimated the implementation period of the compensation standard. The main conclusions of this research include the fact that any compensation standard should be determined from the points of view of both benefit and cost in a region. The results presented here allow the range between the benefit and cost compensation to be laid out more reasonably. The practical implications of this research include the proposal that regional decision-makers should consider a dynamic compensation method to meet with the local economic level by using diversified ways to raise the compensation standard, and that compensation channels should offer a mixed mode involving both the market and government.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 567: Challenges and Opportunities for Tribal Waters: Addressing Disparities in Safe Public Drinking Water on the Crow Reservation in Montana, USA International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040567 Authors: John Doyle Larry Kindness James Realbird Margaret Eggers Anne Camper Disparities in access to safe public drinking water are increasingly being recognized as contributing to health disparities and environmental injustice for vulnerable communities in the United States. As the Co-Directors of the Apsaálooke Water and Wastewater Authority (AWWWA) for the Crow Tribe, with our academic partners, we present here the multiple and complex challenges we have addressed in improving and maintaining tribal water and wastewater infrastructure, including the identification of diverse funding sources for infrastructure construction, the need for many kinds of specialized expertise and long-term stability of project personnel, ratepayer difficulty in paying for services, an ongoing legacy of inadequate infrastructure planning, and lack of water quality research capacity. As a tribal entity, the AWWWA faces additional challenges, including the complex jurisdictional issues affecting all phases of our work, lack of authority to create water districts, and additional legal and regulatory gaps—especially with regards to environmental protection. Despite these obstacles, the AWWWA and Crow Tribe have successfully upgraded much of the local water and wastewater infrastructure. We find that ensuring safe public drinking water for tribal and other disadvantaged U.S. communities will require comprehensive, community-engaged approaches across a broad range of stakeholders to successfully address these complex legal, regulatory, policy, community capacity, and financial challenges.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 564: Black–White Differences in Housing Type and Sleep Duration as Well as Sleep Difficulties in the United States International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040564 Authors: Dayna Johnson Roland Thorpe John McGrath W. Jackson Chandra Jackson Housing environments can directly and indirectly affect sleep, and blacks are more likely than whites to live in suboptimal housing conditions, which may independently contribute to sleep disparities. However, few large-scale epidemiological studies consider the potential influence of housing type on sleep health. Using data from the 2004–2015 National Health Interview Survey, we investigated overall and Black-White differences in the association between housing type (house/apartment versus mobile home/trailer) and sleep duration as well as sleep difficulties among 226,208 adults in the U.S. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to estimate sex-specific prevalence ratios (PR) for sleep categories, first comparing houses/apartments to mobile homes/trailers and then blacks to whites within housing types. All models were adjusted for age, educational attainment, income, occupational class, self-reported general health status, and region of residence. Compared to participants living in houses/apartments, the prevalence of short sleep was higher for men (PR = 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.08)) and women (PR = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.04–1.09)) in mobile homes/trailers. Black men (PR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.21–1.30)) and women (PR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.20–1.27)) in a house/apartment were more likely to be short sleepers than their white counterparts. There was generally no significant difference in sleep characteristics (except long sleep) between black and white men in mobile homes/trailers after adjustments, and black men in houses/apartments as well as black women in both housing types were less likely to report sleep difficulties although being more likely to report short sleep. Overall, individuals in mobile homes/trailers, which may represent suboptimal housing, had worse sleep than those in houses/apartments; and racial differences in the quality of houses and apartments are likely to greatly vary in ways that still contribute to sleep disparities. Race–sex group differences in sleep duration among residents in a house/apartment and even a lack of racial difference among individuals living in mobile homes/trailers support the need for more research on residential environments and eventually multi-level interventions designed to reduce sleep disparities.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 568: A Qualitative Study of Airborne Minerals and Associated Organic Compounds in Southeast of Cairo, Egypt International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040568 Authors: Kamal Hindy Ashraf Baghdady Fares M. Howari Ahmed Abdelmaksoud This study is concerned with the identification of the mineralogical composition of dust fall samples collected from southeast of Cairo, Egypt. The mineralogical identification was conducted by means of the polarizing microscope, infra-red spectroscopy (IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The relationship between the mineralogical composition of dust fall samples and 10 rock samples from the surrounding terrains were investigated. The major mineralogical species existing in the atmosphere of the study area are: carbonates mainly in the form of calcite in addition to the appearance of the dolomite form in traces overall the study area, but with considerable observation in the southern region; quartz which is less than calcite in its abundance; sulphates in the form of gypsum which may also be present as traces in the anhydrite form. Trace constitution of feldspars; clay minerals in the form of kaolinite, illite, and montimorillonite; and halite are also observable in the same samples. Organic compounds are present in the atmosphere of the area mainly as alkanes with presence of traces of phosphines. This study qualitatively shows the mineralogy of air particulate over rock processing area and the obtained results indicates that the main pollution source in the study area is the industrial activities with minor contribution of the natural sources, especially erosion and dust carried by winds from the surrounding terrains Cairo in the southern direction. This study provides useful results for the contribution of rock processing activities to the mineral composition of atmospheric particulates.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 563: Towards the Identification of an In Vitro Tool for Assessing the Biological Behavior of Aerosol Supplied Nanomaterials International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040563 Authors: Luisana Di Cristo Ciaran Maguire Karen Mc Quillan Mattia Aleardi Yuri Volkov Dania Movia Adriele Prina-Mello Nanoparticles (NP)-based inhalation systems for drug delivery can be administered in liquid form, by nebulization or using pressurized metered dose inhalers, and in solid form by means of dry powder inhalers. However, NP delivery to the lungs has many challenges including the formulation instability due to particle-particle interactions and subsequent aggregation, causing poor deposition in the small distal airways and subsequent alveolar macrophages activity, which could lead to inflammation. This work aims at providing an in vitro experimental design for investigating the correlation between the physico-chemical properties of NP, and their biological behavior, when they are used as NP-based inhalation treatments, comparing two different exposure systems. By means of an aerosol drug delivery nebulizer, human lung cells cultured at air–liquid interface (ALI) were exposed to two titanium dioxide NP (NM-100 and NM-101), obtained from the JRC repository. In parallel, ALI cultures were exposed to NP suspension by direct inoculation, i.e., by adding the NP suspensions on the apical side of the cell cultures with a pipette. The formulation stability of NP, measured as hydrodynamic size distributions, the cell viability, cell monolayer integrity, cell morphology and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion were investigated. Our results demonstrated that the formulation stability of NM-100 and NM-101 was strongly dependent on the aggregation phenomena that occur in the conditions adopted for the biological experiments. Interestingly, comparable biological data between the two exposure methods used were observed, suggesting that the conventional exposure coupled to ALI culturing conditions offers a relevant in vitro tool for assessing the correlation between the physico-chemical properties of NP and their biological behavior, when NP are used as drug delivery systems.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 212: A Feature Extraction Method Using Improved Multi-Scale Entropy for Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20040212 Authors: Bin Ju Haijiao Zhang Yongbin Liu Fang Liu Siliang Lu Zhijia Dai A feature extraction method named improved multi-scale entropy (IMSE) is proposed for rolling bearing fault diagnosis. This method could overcome information leakage in calculating the similarity of machinery systems, which is based on Pythagorean Theorem and similarity criterion. Features extracted from bearings under different conditions using IMSE are identified by the support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed method can extract the status information of the bearing. Compared with the multi-scale entropy (MSE) and sample entropy (SE) methods, the identification accuracy of the features extracted by IMSE is improved as well.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 213: Viewpoint-Driven Simplification of Plant and Tree Foliage Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20040213 Authors: Cristina Gasch Inmaculada Remolar Miguel Chover Cristina Rebollo Plants and trees are an essential part of outdoor scenes. They are represented by such a vast number of polygons that performing real-time visualization is still a problem in spite of the advantages of the hardware. Some methods have appeared to solve this drawback based on point- or image-based rendering. However, geometry representation is required in some interactive applications. This work presents a simplification method that deals with the geometry of the foliage, reducing the number of primitives that represent these objects and making their interactive visualization possible. It is based on an image-based simplification that establishes an order of leaf pruning and reduces the complexity of the canopies of trees and plants. The proposed simplification method is viewpoint-driven and uses the mutual information in order to choose the leaf to prune. Moreover, this simplification method avoids the pruned appearance of the tree that is usually produced when a foliage representation is formed by a reduced number of leaves. The error introduced every time a leaf is pruned is compensated for if the size of the nearest leaf is altered to preserve the leafy appearance of the foliage. Results demonstrate the good quality and time performance of the presented work.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 934: The Effect of Vibration Characteristics on the Atomization Rate in a Micro-Tapered Aperture Atomizer Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040934 Authors: Qiufeng Yan Jianhui Zhang Jun Huang Ying Wang Because little is known about the atomization theory of a micro-tapered aperture atomizer, we investigated the vibration characteristics of this type of atomizer. The atomization mechanism of a micro-tapered aperture atomizer was described, and the atomization rate equation was deduced. As observed via microscopy, the angle of the micro-tapered aperture changes with the applied voltage, which proved the existence of a dynamic cone angle. The forward and reverse atomization rates were measured at various voltages, and the influence of the micro-tapered aperture and its variation on the atomization rate was characterized. The resonance frequency of the piezoelectric vibrator was obtained using a laser vibrometer, and the atomization rates were measured at each resonance frequency. From experiments, we found that the atomization rates at the first five resonance frequencies increased as the working frequency increased. At the fifth resonance frequency (121.1 kHz), the atomization rate was maximized (0.561 mL/min), and at the sixth resonance frequency (148.3 kHz), the atomization rate decreased significantly (0.198 mL/min). The experimental results show that the vibration characteristics of the piezoelectric vibrator have a relatively strong impact on the atomization rate. This research is expected to contribute to the manufacture of micro-tapered aperture atomizers.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 947: An Equivalent Circuit of Longitudinal Vibration for a Piezoelectric Structure with Losses Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040947 Authors: Tao Yuan Chaodong Li Pingqing Fan Equivalent circuits of piezoelectric structures such as bimorphs and unimorphs conventionally focus on the bending vibration modes. However, the longitudinal vibration modes are rarely considered even though they also play a remarkable role in piezoelectric devices. Losses, especially elastic loss in the metal substrate, are also generally neglected, which leads to discrepancies compared with experiments. In this paper, a novel equivalent circuit with four kinds of losses is proposed for a beamlike piezoelectric structure under the longitudinal vibration mode. This structure consists of a slender beam as the metal substrate, and a piezoelectric patch which covers a partial length of the beam. In this approach, first, complex numbers are used to deal with four kinds of losses—elastic loss in the metal substrate, and piezoelectric, dielectric, and elastic losses in the piezoelectric patch. Next in this approach, based on Mason’s model, a new equivalent circuit is developed. Using MATLAB, impedance curves of this structure are simulated by the equivalent circuit method. Experiments are conducted and good agreements are revealed between experiments and equivalent circuit results. It is indicated that the introduction of four losses in an equivalent circuit can increase the result accuracy considerably.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 946: Real-Time Tau Protein Detection by Sandwich-Based Piezoelectric Biosensing: Exploring Tubulin as a Mass Enhancer Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040946 Authors: Dujuan Li Simona Scarano Samuele Lisi Pasquale Palladino Maria Minunni Human tau protein is one of the most advanced and accepted biomarkers for AD and tauopathies diagnosis in general. In this work, a quartz crystal balance (QCM) immunosensor was developed for the detection of human tau protein in buffer and artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), through both direct and sandwich assays. Starting from a conventional immuno-based sandwich strategy, two monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes of tau protein were used, achieving a detection limit for the direct assay in nanomolar range both in HBES-EP and aCSF. Afterward, for exploring alternative specific receptors as secondary recognition elements for tau protein biosensing, we tested tubulin and compared its behavior to a conventional secondary antibody in the sandwich assay. Tau–tubulin binding has shown an extended working range coupled to a signal improvement in comparison with the conventional secondary antibody-based approach, showing a dose–response trend at lower tau concentration than is usually investigated and closer to the physiological levels in the reference matrix for protein tau biomarker. Our results open up new and encouraging perspectives for the use of tubulin as an alternative receptor for tau protein with interesting features due to the possibility of taking advantage of its polymerization and reversible binding to this key hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 945: Sensor Buoy System for Monitoring Renewable Marine Energy Resources Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040945 Authors: Emilio García Eduardo Quiles Antonio Correcher Francisco Morant In this paper we present a multi-sensor floating system designed to monitor marine energy parameters, in order to sample wind, wave, and marine current energy resources. For this purpose, a set of dedicated sensors to measure the height and period of the waves, wind, and marine current intensity and direction have been selected and installed in the system. The floating device incorporates wind and marine current turbines for renewable energy self-consumption and to carry out complementary studies on the stability of such a system. The feasibility, safety, sensor communications, and buoy stability of the floating device have been successfully checked in real operating conditions.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 948: Recent Progress in Technologies for Tactile Sensors Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040948 Authors: Cheng Chi Xuguang Sun Ning Xue Tong Li Chang Liu Over the last two decades, considerable scientific and technological efforts have been devoted to developing tactile sensing based on a variety of transducing mechanisms, with prospective applications in many fields such as human–machine interaction, intelligent robot tactile control and feedback, and tactile sensorized minimally invasive surgery. This paper starts with an introduction of human tactile systems, followed by a presentation of the basic demands of tactile sensors. State-of-the-art tactile sensors are reviewed in terms of their diverse sensing mechanisms, design consideration, and material selection. Subsequently, typical performances of the sensors, along with their advantages and disadvantages, are compared and analyzed. Two major potential applications of tactile sensing systems are discussed in detail. Lastly, we propose prospective research directions and market trends of tactile sensing systems.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 942: Miniaturized Bio-and Chemical-Sensors for Point-of-Care Monitoring of Chronic Kidney Diseases Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040942 Authors: Antonio Tricoli Giovanni Neri This review reports the latest achievements in point-of-care (POC) sensor technologies for the monitoring of ammonia, creatinine and urea in patients suffering of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Abnormal levels of these nitrogen biomarkers are found in the physiological fluids, such as blood, urine and sweat, of CKD patients. Delocalized at-home monitoring of CKD biomarkers via integration of miniaturized, portable, and low cost chemical- and bio-sensors in POC devices, is an emerging approach to improve patients’ health monitoring and life quality. The successful monitoring of CKD biomarkers, performed on the different body fluids by means of sensors having strict requirements in term of size, cost, large-scale production capacity, response time and simple operation procedures for use in POC devices, is reported and discussed.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 944: Aerial Mapping of Forests Affected by Pathogens Using UAVs, Hyperspectral Sensors, and Artificial Intelligence Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040944 Authors: Juan Sandino Geoff Pegg Felipe Gonzalez Grant Smith The environmental and economic impacts of exotic fungal species on natural and plantation forests have been historically catastrophic. Recorded surveillance and control actions are challenging because they are costly, time-consuming, and hazardous in remote areas. Prolonged periods of testing and observation of site-based tests have limitations in verifying the rapid proliferation of exotic pathogens and deterioration rates in hosts. Recent remote sensing approaches have offered fast, broad-scale, and affordable surveys as well as additional indicators that can complement on-ground tests. This paper proposes a framework that consolidates site-based insights and remote sensing capabilities to detect and segment deteriorations by fungal pathogens in natural and plantation forests. This approach is illustrated with an experimentation case of myrtle rust (Austropuccinia psidii) on paperbark tea trees (Melaleuca quinquenervia) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The method integrates unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), hyperspectral image sensors, and data processing algorithms using machine learning. Imagery is acquired using a Headwall Nano-Hyperspec ® camera, orthorectified in Headwall SpectralView ® , and processed in Python programming language using eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL), and Scikit-learn third-party libraries. In total, 11,385 samples were extracted and labelled into five classes: two classes for deterioration status and three classes for background objects. Insights reveal individual detection rates of 95% for healthy trees, 97% for deteriorated trees, and a global multiclass detection rate of 97%. The methodology is versatile to be applied to additional datasets taken with different image sensors, and the processing of large datasets with freeware tools.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 940: Explicit Content Caching at Mobile Edge Networks with Cross-Layer Sensing Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040940 Authors: Lingyu Chen Youxing Su Wenbin Luo Xuemin Hong Jianghong Shi The deployment density and computational power of small base stations (BSs) are expected to increase significantly in the next generation mobile communication networks. These BSs form the mobile edge network, which is a pervasive and distributed infrastructure that can empower a variety of edge/fog computing applications. This paper proposes a novel edge-computing application called explicit caching, which stores selective contents at BSs and exposes such contents to local users for interactive browsing and download. We formulate the explicit caching problem as a joint content recommendation, caching, and delivery problem, which aims to maximize the expected user quality-of-experience (QoE) with varying degrees of cross-layer sensing capability. Optimal and effective heuristic algorithms are presented to solve the problem. The theoretical performance bounds of the explicit caching system are derived in simplified scenarios. The impacts of cache storage space, BS backhaul capacity, cross-layer information, and user mobility on the system performance are simulated and discussed in realistic scenarios. Results suggest that, compared with conventional implicit caching schemes, explicit caching can better exploit the mobile edge network infrastructure for personalized content dissemination.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 941: Optical Graphene Gas Sensors Based on Microfibers: A Review Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040941 Authors: Yu Wu Baicheng Yao Caibin Yu Yunjiang Rao Graphene has become a bridge across optoelectronics, mechanics, and bio-chemical sensing due to its unique photoelectric characteristics. Moreover, benefiting from its two-dimensional nature, this atomically thick film with full flexibility has been widely incorporated with optical waveguides such as fibers, realizing novel photonic devices including polarizers, lasers, and sensors. Among the graphene-based optical devices, sensor is one of the most important branch, especially for gas sensing, as rapid progress has been made in both sensing structures and devices in recent years. This article presents a comprehensive and systematic overview of graphene-based microfiber gas sensors regarding many aspects including sensing principles, properties, fabrication, interrogating and implementations.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 943: A High-Resolution SAR Focusing Experiment Based on GF-3 Staring Data Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040943 Authors: Mingyang Shang Bing Han Chibiao Ding Jili Sun Tao Zhang Lijia Huang Dadi Meng Spotlight synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a proven technique, which can provide high-resolution images as compared to those produced by traditional stripmap SAR. This paper addresses a high-resolution SAR focusing experiment based on Gaofen-3 satellite (GF-3) staring data with about 55 cm azimuth resolution and 240 MHz range bandwidth. In staring spotlight (ST) mode, the antenna always illuminates the same scene on the ground, which can extend the synthetic aperture. Based on a two-step processing algorithm, some special aspects such as curved-orbit model error correction, stop-and-go correction, and antenna pattern demodulation must be considered in image focusing. We provide detailed descriptions of all these aspects and put forward corresponding solutions. Using these suggested methods directly in an imaging module without any modification for other data processing software can make the most of the existing ground data processor. Finally, actual data acquired in GF-3 ST mode is used to validate these methodologies, and a well-focused, high-resolution image is obtained as a result of this focusing experiment.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 938: Application of Least-Squares Support Vector Machines for Quantitative Evaluation of Known Contaminant in Water Distribution System Using Online Water Quality Parameters Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040938 Authors: Kexin Wang Xiang Wen Dibo Hou Dezhan Tu Naifu Zhu Pingjie Huang Guangxin Zhang Hongjian Zhang In water-quality, early warning systems and qualitative detection of contaminants are always challenging. There are a number of parameters that need to be measured which are not entirely linearly related to pollutant concentrations. Besides the complex correlations between variable water parameters that need to be analyzed also impairs the accuracy of quantitative detection. In aspects of these problems, the application of least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) is used to evaluate the water contamination and various conventional water quality sensors quantitatively. The various contaminations may cause different correlative responses of sensors, and also the degree of response is related to the concentration of the injected contaminant. Therefore to enhance the reliability and accuracy of water contamination detection a new method is proposed. In this method, a new relative response parameter is introduced to calculate the differences between water quality parameters and their baselines. A variety of regression models has been examined, as result of its high performance, the regression model based on genetic algorithm (GA) is combined with LS-SVM. In this paper, the practical application of the proposed method is considered, controlled experiments are designed, and data is collected from the experimental setup. The measured data is applied to analyze the water contamination concentration. The evaluation of results validated that the LS-SVM model can adapt to the local nonlinear variations between water quality parameters and contamination concentration with the excellent generalization ability and accuracy. The validity of the proposed approach in concentration evaluation for potassium ferricyanide is proven to be more than 0.5 mg/L in water distribution systems.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 939: Visual Odometry and Place Recognition Fusion for Vehicle Position Tracking in Urban Environments Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040939 Authors: Safa Ouerghi Rémi Boutteau Xavier Savatier Fethi Tlili In this paper, we address the problem of vehicle localization in urban environments. We rely on visual odometry, calculating the incremental motion, to track the position of the vehicle and on place recognition to correct the accumulated drift of visual odometry, whenever a location is recognized. The algorithm used as a place recognition module is SeqSLAM, addressing challenging environments and achieving quite remarkable results. Specifically, we perform the long-term navigation of a vehicle based on the fusion of visual odometry and SeqSLAM. The template library for this latter is created online using navigation information from the visual odometry module. That is, when a location is recognized, the corresponding information is used as an observation of the filter. The fusion is done using the EKF and the UKF, the well-known nonlinear state estimation methods, to assess the superior alternative. The algorithm is evaluated using the KITTI dataset and the results show the reduction of the navigation errors by loop-closure detection. The overall position error of visual odometery with SeqSLAM is 0.22% of the trajectory, which is much smaller than the navigation errors of visual odometery alone 0.45%. In addition, despite the superiority of the UKF in a variety of estimation problems, our results indicate that the UKF performs as efficiently as the EKF at the expense of an additional computational overhead. This leads to the conclusion that the EKF is a better choice for fusing visual odometry and SeqSlam in a long-term navigation context.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 936: Resonance-Based Time-Frequency Manifold for Feature Extraction of Ship-Radiated Noise Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040936 Authors: Jiaquan Yan Haixin Sun Hailan Chen Naveed Junejo En Cheng In this paper, a novel time-frequency signature using resonance-based sparse signal decomposition (RSSD), phase space reconstruction (PSR), time-frequency distribution (TFD) and manifold learning is proposed for feature extraction of ship-radiated noise, which is called resonance-based time-frequency manifold (RTFM). This is suitable for analyzing signals with oscillatory, non-stationary and non-linear characteristics in a situation of serious noise pollution. Unlike the traditional methods which are sensitive to noise and just consider one side of oscillatory, non-stationary and non-linear characteristics, the proposed RTFM can provide the intact feature signature of all these characteristics in the form of a time-frequency signature by the following steps: first, RSSD is employed on the raw signal to extract the high-oscillatory component and abandon the low-oscillatory component. Second, PSR is performed on the high-oscillatory component to map the one-dimensional signal to the high-dimensional phase space. Third, TFD is employed to reveal non-stationary information in the phase space. Finally, manifold learning is applied to the TFDs to fetch the intrinsic non-linear manifold. A proportional addition of the top two RTFMs is adopted to produce the improved RTFM signature. All of the case studies are validated on real audio recordings of ship-radiated noise. Case studies of ship-radiated noise on different datasets and various degrees of noise pollution manifest the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 935: Detection and Compensation of Degeneracy Cases for IMU-Kinect Integrated Continuous SLAM with Plane Features Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040935 Authors: HyunGi Cho Suyong Yeon Hyunga Choi Nakju Doh In a group of general geometric primitives, plane-based features are widely used for indoor localization because of their robustness against noises. However, a lack of linearly independent planes may lead to a non-trivial estimation. This in return can cause a degenerate state from which all states cannot be estimated. To solve this problem, this paper first proposed a degeneracy detection method. A compensation method that could fix orientations by projecting an inertial measurement unit’s (IMU) information was then explained. Experiments were conducted using an IMU-Kinect v2 integrated sensor system prone to fall into degenerate cases owing to its narrow field-of-view. Results showed that the proposed framework could enhance map accuracy by successful detection and compensation of degenerated orientations.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 74
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 937: Source Localization in Acoustic Sensor Networks via Constrained Least-Squares Optimization Using AOA and GROA Measurements Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18040937 Authors: Ji-An Luo Si-Wei Pan Dong-Liang Peng Zhi Wang Yan-Jun Li A constrained least-squares (CLS) 3D source localization method is presented for acoustic sensor networks with sensor position errors. The proposed approach uses angles of arrivals (AOAs) and gain ratios of arrival (GROAs) measured simultaneously at each node to estimate the source position jointly. Compared to AOA-only localization methods, the GROAs can be used in conjunction with AOA measurements so as to get more accurate results by exploiting the geometrical relationship between these two measurements. Compared to time difference of arrival localization methods, the proposed algorithm does not require accurate time synchronization over different nodes. The theoretical mean-square error matrices of the proposed approach are derived and they are exactly equal to the Cramér–Rao bound for Gaussian noise under the small error condition. Simulations validate the performance of the proposed estimator.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 75
    Publication Date: 2018-03-23
    Description: Symmetry, Vol. 10, Pages 79: Oversampling Techniques for Bankruptcy Prediction: Novel Features from a Transaction Dataset Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10040079 Authors: Tuong Le Mi Lee Jun Park Sung Baik In recent years, weakened by the fall of economic growth, many enterprises fell into the crisis caused by financial difficulties. Bankruptcy prediction, a machine learning model, is a great utility for financial institutions, fund managers, lenders, governments, and economic stakeholders. Due to the number of bankrupt companies compared to that of non-bankrupt companies, bankruptcy prediction faces the problem of imbalanced data. This study first presents the bankruptcy prediction framework. Then, five oversampling techniques are used to deal with imbalance problems on the experimental dataset which were collected from Korean companies in two years from 2016 to 2017. Experimental results show that using oversampling techniques to balance the dataset in the training stage can enhance the performance of the bankruptcy prediction. The best overall Area Under the Curve (AUC) of this framework can reach 84.2%. Next, the study extracts more features by combining the financial dataset with transaction dataset to increase the performance for bankruptcy prediction and achieves 84.4% AUC.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-8994
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Published by MDPI Publishing
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 76