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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 632: Investigation of Sensitivities and Drift Effects of the Arrayed Flexible Chloride Sensor Based on RuO2/GO at Different Temperatures Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020632 Authors: Shi-Chang Tseng Tong-Yu Wu Jung-Chuan Chou Yi-Hung Liao Chih-Hsien Lai Siao-Jie Yan Ting-Wei Tseng We investigate the temperature effect on sensing characteristics and drift effect of an arrayed flexible ruthenium dioxide (RuO2)/graphene oxide (GO) chloride sensor at different solution temperatures between 10 °C and 50 °C. The average sensor sensitivities according to our experimental results were 28.2 ± 1.4 mV/pCl (10 °C), 42.5 ± 2.0 mV/pCl (20 °C), 47.1 ± 1.8 mV/pCl (30 °C), 54.1 ± 2.01 mV/pCl (40 °C) and 46.6 ± 2.1 mV/pCl (50 °C). We found the drift effects of an arrayed flexible RuO2/GO chloride sensor in a 1 M NaCl solution to be between 8.2 mV/h and 2.5 mV/h with solution temperatures from 10 °C to 50 °C.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 628: A Model-Driven Co-Design Framework for Fusing Control and Scheduling Viewpoints Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020628 Authors: Sakthivel Sundharam Nicolas Navet Sebastian Altmeyer Lionel Havet Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) is widely applied in the industry to develop new software functions and integrate them into the existing run-time environment of a Cyber-Physical System (CPS). The design of a software component involves designers from various viewpoints such as control theory, software engineering, safety, etc. In practice, while a designer from one discipline focuses on the core aspects of his field (for instance, a control engineer concentrates on designing a stable controller), he neglects or considers less importantly the other engineering aspects (for instance, real-time software engineering or energy efficiency). This may cause some of the functional and non-functional requirements not to be met satisfactorily. In this work, we present a co-design framework based on timing tolerance contract to address such design gaps between control and real-time software engineering. The framework consists of three steps: controller design, verified by jitter margin analysis along with co-simulation, software design verified by a novel schedulability analysis, and the run-time verification by monitoring the execution of the models on target. This framework builds on CPAL (Cyber-Physical Action Language), an MDE design environment based on model-interpretation, which enforces a timing-realistic behavior in simulation through timing and scheduling annotations. The application of our framework is exemplified in the design of an automotive cruise control system.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 629: Design and Implementation of e-Health System Based on Semantic Sensor Network Using IETF YANG Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020629 Authors: Wenquan Jin Do Hyeun Kim Recently, healthcare services can be delivered effectively to patients anytime and anywhere using e-Health systems. e-Health systems are developed through Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) that involve sensors, mobiles, and web-based applications for the delivery of healthcare services and information. Remote healthcare is an important purpose of the e-Health system. Usually, the eHealth system includes heterogeneous sensors from diverse manufacturers producing data in different formats. Device interoperability and data normalization is a challenging task that needs research attention. Several solutions are proposed in the literature based on manual interpretation through explicit programming. However, programmatically implementing the interpretation of the data sender and data receiver in the e-Health system for the data transmission is counterproductive as modification will be required for each new device added into the system. In this paper, an e-Health system with the Semantic Sensor Network (SSN) is proposed to address the device interoperability issue. In the proposed system, we have used IETF YANG for modeling the semantic e-Health data to represent the information of e-Health sensors. This modeling scheme helps in provisioning semantic interoperability between devices and expressing the sensing data in a user-friendly manner. For this purpose, we have developed an ontology for e-Health data that supports different styles of data formats. The ontology is defined in YANG for provisioning semantic interpretation of sensing data in the system by constructing meta-models of e-Health sensors. The proposed approach assists in the auto-configuration of eHealth sensors and querying the sensor network with semantic interoperability support for the e-Health system.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-07
    Description: Algorithms, Vol. 11, Pages 17: An Improved Bacterial-Foraging, Optimization-Based Machine Learning Framework for Predicting the Severity of Somatization Disorder Algorithms doi: 10.3390/a11020017 Authors: Xinen Lv Huiling Chen Qian Zhang Xujie Li Hui Huang Gang Wang It is of great clinical significance to establish an accurate intelligent model to diagnose the somatization disorder of community correctional personnel. In this study, a novel machine learning framework is proposed to predict the severity of somatization disorder in community correction personnel. The core of this framework is to adopt the improved bacterial foraging optimization (IBFO) to optimize two key parameters (penalty coefficient and the kernel width) of a kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) and build an IBFO-based KELM (IBFO-KELM) for the diagnosis of somatization disorder patients. The main innovation point of the IBFO-KELM model is the introduction of opposition-based learning strategies in traditional bacteria foraging optimization, which increases the diversity of bacterial species, keeps a uniform distribution of individuals of initial population, and improves the convergence rate of the BFO optimization process as well as the probability of escaping from the local optimal solution. In order to verify the effectiveness of the method proposed in this study, a 10-fold cross-validation method based on data from a symptom self-assessment scale (SCL-90) is used to make comparison among IBFO-KELM, BFO-KELM (model based on the original bacterial foraging optimization model), GA-KELM (model based on genetic algorithm), PSO-KELM (model based on particle swarm optimization algorithm) and Grid-KELM (model based on grid search method). The experimental results show that the proposed IBFO-KELM prediction model has better performance than other methods in terms of classification accuracy, Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), sensitivity and specificity. It can distinguish very well between severe somatization disorder and mild somatization and assist the psychological doctor with clinical diagnosis.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4893
    Topics: Computer Science
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 137: Engine Load Effects on the Energy and Exergy Performance of a Medium Cycle/Organic Rankine Cycle for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20020137 Authors: Peng Liu Gequn Shu Hua Tian Xuan Wang The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been proved a promising technique to exploit waste heat from Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). Waste heat recovery systems have usually been designed based on engine rated working conditions, while engines often operate under part load conditions. Hence, it is quite important to analyze the off-design performance of ORC systems under different engine loads. This paper presents an off-design Medium Cycle/Organic Rankine Cycle (MC/ORC) system model by interconnecting the component models, which allows the prediction of system off-design behavior. The sliding pressure control method is applied to balance the variation of system parameters and evaporating pressure is chosen as the operational variable. The effect of operational variable and engine load on system performance is analyzed from the aspects of energy and exergy. The results show that with the drop of engine load, the MC/ORC system can always effectively recover waste heat, whereas the maximum net power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency decrease linearly. Considering the contributions of components to total exergy destruction, the proportions of the gas-oil exchanger and turbine increase, while the proportions of the evaporator and condenser decrease with the drop of engine load.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 371: The Interrelationship between Family Violence, Adolescent Violence, and Adolescent Violent Victimization: An Application and Extension of the Cultural Spillover Theory in China International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020371 Authors: Yiwei Xia Spencer Li Tzu-Hsuan Liu The current study is the first study to emphasize family systems, violent norms, and violent peer association as three domains of the social environment that influence both adolescent violent offending and victimization among Chinese adolescents using a longitudinal sample. Under the framework of cultural spillover theory, the purpose of the current study was to explore how these three factors influenced adolescent violent offending and victimization. A total of 1192 middle and high school students were randomly selected from one of the largest cities in Southwest China. Structural equation model analysis was applied to investigate the direct and indirect effect of violence in the family system on violent offending and victimization. The results indicated that violent offending and victimization overlapped among Chinese adolescents. Violent peer association and acceptance of the violence norm fully mediated the effect of violence in the family system on violent offending, and partially mediated the effect of violence in the family system on violent victimization. In conclusion, adolescents who had experienced violence in their family system were more likely to be exposed to violent peer influences and to accept violent norms, which increased the likelihood of violence perpetration and victimization later in their life.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 141: Finding a Hadamard Matrix by Simulated Quantum Annealing Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20020141 Authors: Andriyan Suksmono Hard problems have recently become an important issue in computing. Various methods, including a heuristic approach that is inspired by physical phenomena, are being explored. In this paper, we propose the use of simulated quantum annealing (SQA) to find a Hadamard matrix, which is itself a hard problem. We reformulate the problem as an energy minimization of spin vectors connected by a complete graph. The computation is conducted based on a path-integral Monte-Carlo (PIMC) SQA of the spin vector system, with an applied transverse magnetic field whose strength is decreased over time. In the numerical experiments, the proposed method is employed to find low-order Hadamard matrices, including the ones that cannot be constructed trivially by the Sylvester method. The scaling property of the method and the measurement of residual energy after a sufficiently large number of iterations show that SQA outperforms simulated annealing (SA) in solving this hard problem.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 138: Coarse-Graining Approaches in Univariate Multiscale Sample and Dispersion Entropy Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20020138 Authors: Hamed Azami Javier Escudero The evaluation of complexity in univariate signals has attracted considerable attention in recent years. This is often done using the framework of Multiscale Entropy, which entails two basic steps: coarse-graining to consider multiple temporal scales, and evaluation of irregularity for each of those scales with entropy estimators. Recent developments in the field have proposed modifications to this approach to facilitate the analysis of short-time series. However, the role of the downsampling in the classical coarse-graining process and its relationships with alternative filtering techniques has not been systematically explored yet. Here, we assess the impact of coarse-graining in multiscale entropy estimations based on both Sample Entropy and Dispersion Entropy. We compare the classical moving average approach with low-pass Butterworth filtering, both with and without downsampling, and empirical mode decomposition in Intrinsic Multiscale Entropy, in selected synthetic data and two real physiological datasets. The results show that when the sampling frequency is low or high, downsampling respectively decreases or increases the entropy values. Our results suggest that, when dealing with long signals and relatively low levels of noise, the refine composite method makes little difference in the quality of the entropy estimation at the expense of considerable additional computational cost. It is also found that downsampling within the coarse-graining procedure may not be required to quantify the complexity of signals, especially for short ones. Overall, we expect these results to contribute to the ongoing discussion about the development of stable, fast and robust-to-noise multiscale entropy techniques suited for either short or long recordings.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 379: WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region: A Systematic Review on Environmental Noise and Cardiovascular and Metabolic Effects: A Summary International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020379 Authors: Elise van Kempen Maribel Casas Göran Pershagen Maria Foraster To update the current state of evidence and assess its quality, we conducted a systematic review on the effects of environmental noise exposure on the cardio-metabolic systems as input for the new WHO environmental noise guidelines for the European Region. We identified 600 references relating to studies on effects of noise from road, rail and air traffic, and wind turbines on the cardio-metabolic system, published between January 2000 and August 2015. Only 61 studies, investigating different end points, included information enabling estimation of exposure response relationships. These studies were used for meta-analyses, and assessments of the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). A majority of the studies concerned traffic noise and hypertension, but most were cross-sectional and suffering from a high risk of bias. The most comprehensive evidence was available for road traffic noise and Ischeamic Heart Diseases (IHD). Combining the results of 7 longitudinal studies revealed a Relative Risk (RR) of 1.08 (95% CI: 1.01–1.15) per 10 dB (LDEN) for the association between road traffic noise and the incidence of IHD. We rated the quality of this evidence as high. Only a few studies reported on the association between transportation noise and stroke, diabetes, and/or obesity. The quality of evidence for these associations was rated from moderate to very low, depending on transportation noise source and outcome. For a comprehensive assessment of the impact of noise exposure on the cardiovascular and metabolic system, we need more and better quality evidence, primarily based on longitudinal studies.
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 378: The Impacts of Regulations and Financial Development on the Operations of Supply Chains with Greenhouse Gas Emissions International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020378 Authors: Zhuang Xiao Yixiang Tian Zheng Yuan To establish a micro foundation to understand the impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission regulations and financial development levels on firms’ GHG emissions, we build a two-stage dynamic game model to incorporate GHG emission regulations (in terms of an emission tax) and financial development (represented by the corresponding financing cost) into a two-echelon supply chain. With the subgame perfect equilibrium, we identify the conditions to determine whether an emission regulatory policy and/or financial development can affect GHG emissions in the supply chain. We also reveal the impacts of the strictness of GHG emission regulation, the financial development level, and the unit GHG emission rate on the operations of the supply chain and the corresponding profitability implications. Managerial insights are also discussed.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 376: Determinants of Quality of Life and Satisfaction with Life in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020376 Authors: Ewa Rzońca Agnieszka Bień Artur Wdowiak Ryszard Szymański Grażyna Iwanowicz-Palus The purpose of the study was to assess the quality of life (QoL) and satisfaction with life (SwL) of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in comparison with those of healthy controls, and to identify and analyze factors determining QoL and SwL in women with PCOS. The cross-sectional study was performed between January and November 2016 in 504 women using health care services in Poland. The study group comprised women with PCOS, the control group women without PCOS. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. Research instruments included the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire, the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS), and a standardized interview questionnaire comprising questions on the participants’ characteristics. Women with PCOS have lower QoL and SwL than healthy controls (p < 0.05). Factors affecting QoL in PCOS patients included socio-economic standing, time from PCOS diagnosis, BMI, age, and professional activity (p < 0.05). Factors affecting SwL in PCOS patients included socio-economic standing, having children, BMI, and time from PCOS diagnosis (p < 0.05). The higher the PCOS patients’ QoL, the higher their SwL (p < 0.05). Further studies are required, focusing both on PCOS and its etiology, and on its impact on the women diagnosed with the disease.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 372: Adolescents’ Sexual Wellbeing in Southwestern Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Assessment of Body Image, Self-Esteem and Gender Equitable Norms International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020372 Authors: Elizabeth Kemigisha Viola Nyakato Katharine Bruce Gad Ndaruhutse Ruzaaza Wendo Mlahagwa Anna Ninsiima Gily Coene Els Leye Kristien Michielsen Measures of sexual wellbeing and positive aspects of sexuality in the World Health Organization definition for sexual health are rarely studied and remain poorly understood, especially among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to assess sexual wellbeing in its broad sense—i.e., body image, self-esteem, and gender equitable norms—and associated factors in young adolescents in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey of adolescents ages 10–14 years in schools was carried out between June and July 2016. Among 1096 adolescents analyzed, the median age was 12 (Inter-Quartile Range (IQR): 11, 13) and 58% were female. Self-esteem and body image scores were high with median 24 (IQR: 22, 26, possible range: 7–28) and median 22 (IQR: 19, 24, possible range: 5–25) respectively. Gender equitable norms mean score was 28.1 (SD 5.2: possible range 11–44). We noted high scores for self-esteem and body image but moderate scores on gender equitable norms. Girls had higher scores compared to boys for all outcomes. A higher age and being sexually active were associated with lower scores on gender equitable norms. Gender equitable norms scores decreased with increasing age of adolescents. Comprehensive and timely sexuality education programs focusing on gender differences and norms are recommended.
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 377: Exploring the Barriers: A Qualitative Study about the Experiences of Mid-SES Roma Navigating the Spanish Healthcare System International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020377 Authors: Emilia Aiello Ainhoa Flecha Olga Serradell Whereas the topic of the ‘cultural sensitivity’ of healthcare systems has been addressed extensively in the US and the UK, literature on the subject in most European countries, specifically looking at the situation of Roma, is still scarce. Drawing on qualitative research conducted mainly in the city of Barcelona under the communicative approach with Roma subjects who have stable socioeconomic positions and higher cultural capitals (end-users, professionals of the healthcare system, and key informants of a regional policy oriented to the improvement of Roma living conditions), the present study aims to fill this gap. We explore the barriers that the Roma face in accessing the healthcare system, reflecting on how these barriers are accentuated by the existing anti-Roma prejudices and institutional arrangements that do not account for minority cultures. Our results point out a series of obstacles at two levels, in the interaction with healthcare professionals, and in relation to existing institutional arrangements, which prevent Roma families from having equal access to the healthcare system. Education stands up as a mechanism to contest anti-Roma sentiments among healthcare professionals.
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 631: An Optimal Image-Based Method for Identification of Acoustic Emission (AE) Sources in Plate-Like Structures Using a Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) Sensor Array Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020631 Authors: Gang Yan Li Zhou This paper proposes an innovative method for identifying the locations of multiple simultaneous acoustic emission (AE) events in plate-like structures from the view of image processing. By using a linear lead zirconium titanate (PZT) sensor array to record the AE wave signals, a reverse-time frequency-wavenumber (f-k) migration is employed to produce images displaying the locations of AE sources by back-propagating the AE waves. Lamb wave theory is included in the f-k migration to consider the dispersive property of the AE waves. Since the exact occurrence time of the AE events is usually unknown when recording the AE wave signals, a heuristic artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm combined with an optimal criterion using minimum Shannon entropy is used to find the image with the identified AE source locations and occurrence time that mostly approximate the actual ones. Experimental studies on an aluminum plate with AE events simulated by PZT actuators are performed to validate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed optimal image-based AE source identification method.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 635: mIoT Slice for 5G Systems: Design and Performance Evaluation Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020635 Authors: Riccardo Trivisonno Massimo Condoluci Xueli An Toktam Mahmoodi Network slicing is a key feature of the upcoming 5G networks allowing the design and deployment of customized communication systems to integrate services provided by vertical industries. In this context, massive Internet of Things (mIoT) is regarded as a compelling use case, both for its relevance from business perspective, and for the technical challenges it poses to network design. With their envisaged massive deployment of devices requiring sporadic connectivity and small data transmission, yet Quality of Service (QoS) constrained, mIoT services will need an ad-hoc end-to-end (E2E) slice, i.e., both access and core network with enhanced Control and User planes (CP/UP). After revising the key requirements of mIoT and identifying major shortcomings of previous generation networks, this paper presents and evaluates an E2E mIoT network slicing solution, featuring a new connectivity model overcoming the load limitations of legacy systems. Unique in its kind, this paper addresses mIoT requirements from an end-to-end perspective highlighting and solving, unlike most prior related work, the connectivity challenges posed to the core network. Results demonstrate that the proposed solution, reducing CP signaling and optimizing UP resource utilization, is a suitable candidate for next generation network standards to efficiently handle massive device deployment.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Symmetry, Vol. 10, Pages 50: Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Choquet Aggregation Operators for Multi-Attribute Decision Making Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10020050 Authors: Xin Li Xiaohong Zhang This paper aims at developing new methods for multi-attribute decision making (MADM) under a single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy environment, in which each element has sets of possible values designed by truth, indeterminacy, and falsity membership hesitant functions. First, taking advantage of the Choquet integral and that it can reflect more correlations of attributes in MADM, two aggregation operators are defined based on the Choquet integral, specifically, the single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy Choquet ordered averaging (SVNHFCOA) operator and single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy Choquet ordered geometric (SVNHFCOG) operator, and their properties are also discussed in detail. Then, novel MADM approaches based on the SVNHFCOA and SVNHFCOG operators are established to process single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy information. Finally, this work provides a numerical example of investment alternatives to validate the application and effectiveness of the proposed approaches.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-8994
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Symmetry, Vol. 10, Pages 51: Social Group Optimization Supported Segmentation and Evaluation of Skin Melanoma Images Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10020051 Authors: Nilanjan Dey Venkatesan Rajinikanth Amira Ashour João Manuel Tavares The segmentation of medical images by computational methods has been claimed by the medical community, which has promoted the development of several algorithms regarding different tissues, organs and imaging modalities. Nowadays, skin melanoma is one of the most common serious malignancies in the human community. Consequently, automated and robust approaches have become an emerging need for accurate and fast clinical detection and diagnosis of skin cancer. Digital dermatoscopy is a clinically accepted device to register and to investigate suspicious regions in the skin. During the skin melanoma examination, mining the suspicious regions from dermoscopy images is generally demanded in order to make a clear diagnosis about skin diseases, mainly based on features of the region under analysis like border symmetry and regularity. Predominantly, the successful estimation of the skin cancer depends on the used computational techniques of image segmentation and analysis. In the current work, a social group optimization (SGO) supported automated tool was developed to examine skin melanoma in dermoscopy images. The proposed tool has two main steps, mainly the image pre-processing step using the Otsu/Kapur based thresholding technique and the image post-processing step using the level set/active contour based segmentation technique. The experimental work was conducted using three well-known dermoscopy image datasets. Similarity metrics were used to evaluate the clinical significance of the proposed tool such as Jaccard’s coefficient, Dice’s coefficient, false positive/negative rate, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The experimental findings suggest that the proposed tool achieved superior performance relatively to the ground truth images provided by a skin cancer physician. Generally, the proposed SGO based Kapur’s thresholding technique combined with the level set based segmentation technique is very effective for identifying melanoma dermoscopy digital images with high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-8994
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 143: Stochastic Dynamics of a Time-Delayed Ecosystem Driven by Poisson White Noise Excitation Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20020143 Authors: Wantao Jia Yong Xu Dongxi Li We investigate the stochastic dynamics of a prey-predator type ecosystem with time delay and the discrete random environmental fluctuations. In this model, the delay effect is represented by a time delay parameter and the effect of the environmental randomness is modeled as Poisson white noise. The stochastic averaging method and the perturbation method are applied to calculate the approximate stationary probability density functions for both predator and prey populations. The influences of system parameters and the Poisson white noises are investigated in detail based on the approximate stationary probability density functions. It is found that, increasing time delay parameter as well as the mean arrival rate and the variance of the amplitude of the Poisson white noise will enhance the fluctuations of the prey and predator population. While the larger value of self-competition parameter will reduce the fluctuation of the system. Furthermore, the results from Monte Carlo simulation are also obtained to show the effectiveness of the results from averaging method.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 389: The Role of Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Virus Transmission in Europe International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020389 Authors: Victor A. Brugman Luis M. Hernández-Triana Jolyon M. Medlock Anthony R. Fooks Simon Carpenter Nicholas Johnson Over the past three decades, a range of mosquito-borne viruses that threaten public and veterinary health have emerged or re-emerged in Europe. Mosquito surveillance activities have highlighted the Culex pipiens species complex as being critical for the maintenance of a number of these viruses. This species complex contains morphologically similar forms that exhibit variation in phenotypes that can influence the probability of virus transmission. Critical amongst these is the choice of host on which to feed, with different forms showing different feeding preferences. This influences the ability of the mosquito to vector viruses and facilitate transmission of viruses to humans and domestic animals. Biases towards blood-feeding on avian or mammalian hosts have been demonstrated for different Cx. pipiens ecoforms and emerging evidence of hybrid populations across Europe adds another level of complexity to virus transmission. A range of molecular methods based on DNA have been developed to enable discrimination between morphologically indistinguishable forms, although this remains an active area of research. This review provides a comprehensive overview of developments in the understanding of the ecology, behaviour and genetics of Cx. pipiens in Europe, and how this influences arbovirus transmission.
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 387: Advances in Residential Design Related to the Influence of Geomagnetism International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020387 Authors: Francisco Glaria Israel Arnedo Ana Sánchez-Ostiz Since the origin of the Modern Movement, there has been a basic commitment to improving housing conditions and the well-being of occupants, especially given the prediction that 2/3 of humanity will reside in cities by 2050. Moreover, a compact model of the city with tall buildings and urban densification at this scale will be generated. Continuous constructive and technological advances have developed solid foundations on safety, energy efficiency, habitability, and sustainability in housing design. However, studies on improving the quality of life in these areas continue to be a challenge for architects and engineers. This paper seeks to contribute health-related information to the study of residential design, specifically the influence of the geomagnetic field on its occupants. After compiling information on the effects of geomagnetic fields from different medical studies over 23 years, a case study of a 16-story high-rise building is presented, with the goal of proposing architectural design recommendations for long-term occupation in the same place. The purpose of the present work is three-fold: first, to characterize the geomagnetic field variability of buildings; second, to identify the causes and possible related mechanisms; and third, to define architectural criteria on the arrangement of uses and constructive elements for housing.
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 390: Assessment of Pressure Sources and Water Body Resilience: An Integrated Approach for Action Planning in a Polluted River Basin International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020390 Authors: Domenica Mirauda Marco Ostoich The present study develops an integrated methodology combining the results of the water-quality classification, according to the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC—WFD, with those of a mathematical integrity model. It is able to analyse the potential anthropogenic impacts on the receiving water body and to help municipal decision-makers when selecting short/medium/long-term strategic mitigation actions to be performed in a territory. Among the most important causes of water-quality degradation in a river, the focus is placed on pollutants from urban wastewater. In particular, the proposed approach evaluates the efficiency and the accurate localisation of treatment plants in a basin, as well as the capacity of its river to bear the residual pollution loads after the treatment phase. The methodology is applied to a sample catchment area, located in northern Italy, where water quality is strongly affected by high population density and by the presence of agricultural and industrial activities. Nearly 10 years of water-quality data collected through official monitoring are considered for the implementation of the system. The sample basin shows different real and potential pollution conditions, according to the resilience of the river and surroundings, together with the point and diffuse pressure sources acting on the receiving body.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 386: Qualification of Food Intake by the Roma Population in the Region of South Bohemia International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020386 Authors: Lenka Sedova Valerie Tothova Dita Novakova Vera Olisarova Sylva Bartlova Frantisek Dolak Alena Kajanova Radka Prokesova Vera Adamkova The article presents the results of a correlation study, aimed at quantifying the food intake of the Roma population in the South Bohemian Region. To achieve the goal, we applied the method of one-day dietary recall and frequency food analysis (non-standardized). The quantification was carried out by analysis in the Nutridan program. The study involved 302 Roma persons and 298 persons in the control group. Both groups had the same representation of males and females (50:50). The age categories of both sets differed; the average age of the Roma was lower (39.2 years) (p < 0.001). The probands from the Roma population were chosen with the help of the snowball method through known respondents. The statistical analysis shows differences in nutritional estimate between the Roma population and the control sample. The Roma differ in their energy intake. Both groups showed lower intake of sugars, below 50% total energy intake (TEI) and higher intake of fats, above 30% TEI. The respondents from both groups consume little fruits and vegetables, which may be connected with their low dietary fiber intake. In addition to the differences in the nutritional estimates, we recorded statistically significant differences in body mass index (BMI; p < 0.001), in age (p < 0.001), regular alimentation (p = 0) and demanding physical activities (p = 0). In spite of the fact our groups differed in age (the Roma are younger), it can be assumed that the obesity of the Roma may be caused by unbalanced alimentation and lack of physical activities.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 388: Comparative Analysis of Major Mosquito Vectors Response to Seed-Derived Essential Oil and Seed Pod-Derived Extract from Acacia nilotica International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020388 Authors: Perumal Vivekanandhan Raji Venkatesan Govindaraju Ramkumar Sengodan Karthi Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan Muthugoundar Shivakumar Botanical metabolites are increasingly realized as potential replacements to chemical insecticides. In the present study, Acacia nilotica seed essential oil and seed pod solvent extracts were tested for bioefficacy against three important types of mosquitoes. Mortality was recorded 24 h post-treatment, while smoke toxicity of adult mosquitoes was recorded at 10 min intervals for 40 min. Seed pod powder was extracted with different solvents and hydrodistilled seed oil chemical constituents were determined by using Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) -. Larvicidal and adulticidal efficacy of seed hydrodistilled essential oil and solvent extracts were tested against larval and adult mosquitoes. The seed hydrodistilled oil provided strong larvicidal activity against Anopheles stephensi, (LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae) = 5.239, LC90 (lethal concentration that kills 90% of the exposed larvae) = 9.713 mg/L); Aedes aegypti, (LC50 = 3.174, LC90 = 11.739 mg/L); and Culex quinquefasciatus, (LC50 = 4.112, LC90 = 12.325 mg/L). Smoke toxicities were 82% in Cx. quinquefasciatus, 90% in Ae. aegypti, and 80% mortality in An. stephensi adults, whereas 100% mortality was recorded for commercial mosquito coil. The GC-MS profile of seed essential oil from A. nilotica showed the presence of hexadecane (18.440%) and heptacosane (15.914%), which are the main and active compounds, and which may be involved in insecticidal activity. Overall findings suggest that the seed oil showed strong mosquitocidal activity against mosquito vectors and therefore may provide an ecofriendly replacement to chemical insecticides.
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 380: Prevalence of Oral Clefts among Live Births in Gansu Province, China International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020380 Authors: Mengying Wang Ruogu Meng Zhuqing Wang Dongjing Liu Hui Huang Chuyun Kang Hongtian Li Tao Wu Siyan Zhan Background: Oral clefts (OCs) are common human birth defects. Children with OCs in underdeveloped regions are more likely to suffer from poverty and hardship in their future lives. Here, we attempted to estimate the prevalence of OCs among live births in Gansu Province in 2008 to understand the epidemiologic pattern of the disease. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2008 in Gansu Province. The live births delivered between January and December 2008 with OCs were investigated through face-to-face questionnaire survey. Results: A total of 468 infants with OCs were identified among 347,137 live births in 2008 in Gansu Province, which yielded a prevalence of 1.35 per 1000 live births. The majority of these cases were CL (cleft lip) (prevalence = 0.85 per 1000 live births), and the prevalence of CLP (cleft lip and palate) and CP (cleft palate) was 0.34 and 0.11 per 1000 live births, respectively. We also found that the prevalence of OCs in Jiayuguan (3.39 per 1000 live births) and Dingxi (2.71 per 1000 live births) was higher than those of other cities in Gansu Province. Additionally, we failed to detect significant correlation between economic conditions of the cities and the prevalence of OCs in our study. Conclusions: The prevalence of OCs among live births in Gansu Province in 2008 was higher than the prevalence of OCs in other provinces in China. The high prevalence may reflect the need for further etiological studies to explore the potential risk factors in this region. In addition, more subtype information needs to be collected in future prevalence studies for better understanding of the epidemiologic pattern of the disease.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 381: Applicability of the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire for Screening Contact Dermatological Disorders in Sea Fishers International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020381 Authors: Piero Lovreglio Rossana Rotondi Patrizia Chiarappa Paolo Romita Ignazio Drago Fabrizio Guarneri Antonella Basso Leonardo Soleo Caterina Foti This survey aimed to evaluate the applicability of the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ) as a preliminary screening tool to investigate the presence of contact dermatological disorders in sea fishermen. The Italian version of the NOSQ was administered to 143 male fishermen working at an Apulia (Southern Italy) Fisheries, and 136 male workers who had never worked as sea fishers (controls). A significantly higher rate of frequency of transient itchy wheals on the hands, wrists, and forearms was recorded in the fishermen as compared to the controls (49.6% vs. 8.1%; p < 0.001), while there was no significant difference in the frequency of eczema (8.4% vs. 6.6%). In 46.1% of the fishermen, the onset of transient itchy wheals was associated with contact with specific agents and the most common causes were algae and aquatic plants (49.3%) and seabed sludge (25.3%). In conclusion, the administration of the NOSQ can be useful in preliminary screening for dermatitis in fishermen, although it could show a possible overestimation of the prevalence of transient itchy wheals.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 652: The Spectrum Analysis Solution (SAS) System: Theoretical Analysis, Hardware Design and Implementation Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020652 Authors: Ram Narayanan Richard Pooler Anthony Martone Kyle Gallagher Kelly Sherbondy This paper describes a multichannel super-heterodyne signal analyzer, called the Spectrum Analysis Solution (SAS), which performs multi-purpose spectrum sensing to support spectrally adaptive and cognitive radar applications. The SAS operates from ultrahigh frequency (UHF) to the S-band and features a wideband channel with eight narrowband channels. The wideband channel acts as a monitoring channel that can be used to tune the instantaneous band of the narrowband channels to areas of interest in the spectrum. The data collected from the SAS has been utilized to develop spectrum sensing algorithms for the budding field of spectrum sharing (SS) radar. Bandwidth (BW), average total power, percent occupancy (PO), signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR), and power spectral entropy (PSE) have been examined as metrics for the characterization of the spectrum. These metrics are utilized to determine a contiguous optimal sub-band (OSB) for a SS radar transmission in a given spectrum for different modalities. Three OSB algorithms are presented and evaluated: the spectrum sensing multi objective (SS-MO), the spectrum sensing with brute force PSE (SS-BFE), and the spectrum sensing multi-objective with brute force PSE (SS-MO-BFE).
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 647: Determining Forest Duff Water Content Using a Low-Cost Standing Wave Ratio Sensor Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020647 Authors: Xiaofei Yan Yajie Zhao Qiang Cheng Xiaoliang Zheng Yandong Zhao Forest duff (fermentation and humus) water content is an important parameter for fire risk prediction and water resource management. However, accurate determination of forest duff water content is difficult due to its loose structure. This study evaluates the feasibility of a standing wave ratio (SWR) sensor to accurately determine the forest duff water content. The performance of this sensor was tested on fermentation and humus with eight different compaction levels. Meanwhile, a commercialized time domain reflectometry (TDR) was employed for comparison. Calibration results showed that there were strong linear relationships between the volumetric water content (θV) and the SWR sensor readings (VSWR) at different compaction classes for both fermentation and humus samples. The sensor readings of both SWR and TDR underestimated the forest duff water content at low compacted levels, proving that the compaction of forest duff could significantly affect the measurement accuracy of both sensors. Experimental data also showed that the accuracy of the SWR sensor was higher than that of TDR according to the root mean square error (RMSE). Furthermore, low cost is another important advantage of the SWR sensor in comparison with TDR. This low-cost SWR sensor performs well in loose materials and is feasible for evaluating the water content of forest duff. In addition, the results indicate that decomposition of the forest duff should be taken into account for continuous and long-term water content measurement.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 648: Surface Plasmon Resonance and Bending Loss-Based U-Shaped Plastic Optical Fiber Biosensors Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020648 Authors: Ariadny Arcas Fábio Dutra Regina Allil Marcelo Werneck Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a large and diverse bacteria group that inhabits the intestinal tract of many mammals. Most E. coli strains are harmless, however some of them are pathogenic, meaning they can make one sick if ingested. By being in the feces of animals and humans, its presence in water and food is used as indicator of fecal contamination. The main method for this microorganism detection is the bacterial culture medium that is time-consuming and requires a laboratory with specialized personnel. Other sophisticated methods are still not fast enough because they require sending samples to a laboratory and with a high cost of analysis. In this paper, a gold-coated U-shaped plastic optical fiber (POF) biosensor for E. coli bacteria detection is presented. The biosensor works by intensity modulation principle excited by monochromatic light where the power absorption is imposed by predominant effect of either bending loss or surface plasmon resonance (SPR), depending on the gold thickness. Bacterial selectivity is obtained by antibody immobilization on the fiber surface. The biosensor showed a detection limit of 1.5 × 103 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, demonstrating that the technology can be a portable, fast response and low-cost alternative to conventional methodologies for quality analysis of water and food.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 650: Optical Method for Estimating the Chlorophyll Contents in Plant Leaves Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020650 Authors: Madaín Pérez-Patricio Jorge Camas-Anzueto Avisaí Sanchez-Alegría Abiel Aguilar-González Federico Gutiérrez-Miceli Elías Escobar-Gómez Yvon Voisin Carlos Rios-Rojas Ruben Grajales-Coutiño This work introduces a new vision-based approach for estimating chlorophyll contents in a plant leaf using reflectance and transmittance as base parameters. Images of the top and underside of the leaf are captured. To estimate the base parameters (reflectance/transmittance), a novel optical arrangement is proposed. The chlorophyll content is then estimated by using linear regression where the inputs are the reflectance and transmittance of the leaf. Performance of the proposed method for chlorophyll content estimation was compared with a spectrophotometer and a Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) meter. Chlorophyll content estimation was realized for Lactuca sativa L., Azadirachta indica, Canavalia ensiforme, and Lycopersicon esculentum. Experimental results showed that—in terms of accuracy and processing speed—the proposed algorithm outperformed many of the previous vision-based approach methods that have used SPAD as a reference device. On the other hand, the accuracy reached is 91% for crops such as Azadirachta indica, where the chlorophyll value was obtained using the spectrophotometer. Additionally, it was possible to achieve an estimation of the chlorophyll content in the leaf every 200 ms with a low-cost camera and a simple optical arrangement. This non-destructive method increased accuracy in the chlorophyll content estimation by using an optical arrangement that yielded both the reflectance and transmittance information, while the required hardware is cheap.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 651: A Cross-Layer, Anomaly-Based IDS for WSN and MANET Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020651 Authors: Amar Amouri Salvatore Morgera Mohamed Bencherif Raju Manthena Intrusion detection system (IDS) design for mobile adhoc networks (MANET) is a crucial component for maintaining the integrity of the network. The need for rapid deployment of IDS capability with minimal data availability for training and testing is an important requirement of such systems, especially for MANETs deployed in highly dynamic scenarios, such as battlefields. This work proposes a two-level detection scheme for detecting malicious nodes in MANETs. The first level deploys dedicated sniffers working in promiscuous mode. Each sniffer utilizes a decision-tree-based classifier that generates quantities which we refer to as correctly classified instances (CCIs) every reporting time. In the second level, the CCIs are sent to an algorithmically run supernode that calculates quantities, which we refer to as the accumulated measure of fluctuation (AMoF) of the received CCIs for each node under test (NUT). A key concept that is used in this work is that the variability of the smaller size population which represents the number of malicious nodes in the network is greater than the variance of the larger size population which represents the number of normal nodes in the network. A linear regression process is then performed in parallel with the calculation of the AMoF for fitting purposes and to set a proper threshold based on the slope of the fitted lines. As a result, the malicious nodes are efficiently and effectively separated from the normal nodes. The proposed scheme is tested for various node velocities and power levels and shows promising detection performance even at low-power levels. The results presented also apply to wireless sensor networks (WSN) and represent a novel IDS scheme for such networks.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 645: Flexible, Stretchable Sensors for Wearable Health Monitoring: Sensing Mechanisms, Materials, Fabrication Strategies and Features Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020645 Authors: Yan Liu Hai Wang Wei Zhao Min Zhang Hongbo Qin Yongqiang Xie Wearable health monitoring systems have gained considerable interest in recent years owing to their tremendous promise for personal portable health watching and remote medical practices. The sensors with excellent flexibility and stretchability are crucial components that can provide health monitoring systems with the capability of continuously tracking physiological signals of human body without conspicuous uncomfortableness and invasiveness. The signals acquired by these sensors, such as body motion, heart rate, breath, skin temperature and metabolism parameter, are closely associated with personal health conditions. This review attempts to summarize the recent progress in flexible and stretchable sensors, concerning the detected health indicators, sensing mechanisms, functional materials, fabrication strategies, basic and desired features. The potential challenges and future perspectives of wearable health monitoring system are also briefly discussed.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 646: Social Image Captioning: Exploring Visual Attention and User Attention Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020646 Authors: Leiquan Wang Xiaoliang Chu Weishan Zhang Yiwei Wei Weichen Sun Chunlei Wu Image captioning with a natural language has been an emerging trend. However, the social image, associated with a set of user-contributed tags, has been rarely investigated for a similar task. The user-contributed tags, which could reflect the user attention, have been neglected in conventional image captioning. Most existing image captioning models cannot be applied directly to social image captioning. In this work, a dual attention model is proposed for social image captioning by combining the visual attention and user attention simultaneously.Visual attention is used to compress a large mount of salient visual information, while user attention is applied to adjust the description of the social images with user-contributed tags. Experiments conducted on the Microsoft (MS) COCO dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method of dual attention.
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 649: Application of Ground-Penetrating Radar for Detecting Internal Anomalies in Tree Trunks with Irregular Contours Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020649 Authors: Weilin Li Jian Wen Zhongliang Xiao Shengxia Xu To assess the health conditions of tree trunks, it is necessary to estimate the layers and anomalies of their internal structure. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the internal part of tree trunks considering their irregular contour. In this respect, we used ground penetrating radar (GPR) for non-invasive detection of defects and deteriorations in living trees trunks. The Hilbert transform algorithm and the reflection amplitudes were used to estimate the relative dielectric constant. The point cloud data technique was applied as well to extract the irregular contours of trunks. The feasibility and accuracy of the methods were examined through numerical simulations, laboratory and field measurements. The results demonstrated that the applied methodology allowed for accurate characterizations of the internal inhomogeneity. Furthermore, the point cloud technique resolved the trunk well by providing high-precision coordinate information. This study also demonstrated that cross-section tomography provided images with high resolution and accuracy. These integrated techniques thus proved to be promising for observing tree trunks and other cylindrical objects. The applied approaches offer a great promise for future 3D reconstruction of tomographic images with radar wave.
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 644: A Spectral Reconstruction Algorithm of Miniature Spectrometer Based on Sparse Optimization and Dictionary Learning Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020644 Authors: Shang Zhang Yuhan Dong Hongyan Fu Shao-Lun Huang Lin Zhang The miniaturization of spectrometer can broaden the application area of spectrometry, which has huge academic and industrial value. Among various miniaturization approaches, filter-based miniaturization is a promising implementation by utilizing broadband filters with distinct transmission functions. Mathematically, filter-based spectral reconstruction can be modeled as solving a system of linear equations. In this paper, we propose an algorithm of spectral reconstruction based on sparse optimization and dictionary learning. To verify the feasibility of the reconstruction algorithm, we design and implement a simple prototype of a filter-based miniature spectrometer. The experimental results demonstrate that sparse optimization is well applicable to spectral reconstruction whether the spectra are directly sparse or not. As for the non-directly sparse spectra, their sparsity can be enhanced by dictionary learning. In conclusion, the proposed approach has a bright application prospect in fabricating a practical miniature spectrometer.
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 613: An Activity Recognition Framework Deploying the Random Forest Classifier and A Single Optical Heart Rate Monitoring and Triaxial AccelerometerWrist-Band Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020613 Authors: Saeed Mehrang Julia Pietilä Ilkka Korhonen Wrist-worn sensors have better compliance for activity monitoring compared to hip, waist, ankle or chest positions. However, wrist-worn activity monitoring is challenging due to the wide degree of freedom for the hand movements, as well as similarity of hand movements in different activities such as varying intensities of cycling. To strengthen the ability of wrist-worn sensors in detecting human activities more accurately, motion signals can be complemented by physiological signals such as optical heart rate (HR) based on photoplethysmography. In this paper, an activity monitoring framework using an optical HR sensor and a triaxial wrist-worn accelerometer is presented. We investigated a range of daily life activities including sitting, standing, household activities and stationary cycling with two intensities. A random forest (RF) classifier was exploited to detect these activities based on the wrist motions and optical HR. The highest overall accuracy of 89.6 ± 3.9% was achieved with a forest of a size of 64 trees and 13-s signal segments with 90% overlap. Removing the HR-derived features decreased the classification accuracy of high-intensity cycling by almost 7%, but did not affect the classification accuracies of other activities. A feature reduction utilizing the feature importance scores of RF was also carried out and resulted in a shrunken feature set of only 21 features. The overall accuracy of the classification utilizing the shrunken feature set was 89.4 ± 4.2%, which is almost equivalent to the above-mentioned peak overall accuracy.
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 642: A Novel Early Warning System Based on a Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell for In Situ and Real Time Hexavalent Chromium Detection in Industrial Wastewater Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020642 Authors: Shuai Zhao Pu Liu Yongyan Niu Zhengjun Chen Aman Khan Pengyun Zhang Xiangkai Li Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a well-known toxic heavy metal in industrial wastewater, but in situ and real time monitoring cannot be achieved by current methods used during industrial wastewater treatment processes. In this study, a Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC) was used as a biosensor for in situ real-time monitoring of Cr(VI), which was the organic substrate is oxidized in the anode and Cr(VI) is reduced at the cathode simultaneously. The pH 6.4 and temperature 25 °C were optimal conditions for the operation. Under the optimal conditions, linearity (R2 = 0.9935) of the generated voltage was observed in the Cr(VI) concentration range from 0.2 to 0.7 mg/L. The system showed high specificity for Cr(VI), as other co-existing ions such as Cu2+, Zn2+, and Pb2+ did not interfere with Cr(VI) detection. In addition, when the sediment MFC-based biosensor was applied for measuring Cr(VI) in actual wastewater samples, a low deviation (<8%) was obtained, which indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor device. MiSeq sequencing results showed that electrochemically active bacteria (Geobacter and Pseudomonas) were enriched at least two-fold on the biofilm of the anode in the biosensor as compared to the SMFC without Cr(VI). Cyclic voltammetry curves indicated that a pair of oxidation/reduction peaks appeared at −111 mV and 581 mV, respectively. These results demonstrated that the proposed sediment microbial fuel cell-based biosensor can be applied as an early warning device for real time in situ detection of Cr(VI) in industrial wastewaters.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 643: Structural Designing of a MEMS Capacitive Accelerometer for Low Temperature Coefficient and High Linearity Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020643 Authors: Jiangbo He Wu Zhou Huijun Yu Xiaoping He Peng Peng The low temperature coefficient and high linearity of the input-output characteristics are both required for high-performance microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive accelerometers. In this work, a structural designing of a bulk MEMS capacitive accelerometer is developed for both low temperature coefficient and high linearity. Firstly, the contrary effect of the wide-narrow gaps ratio (WNGR) on the temperature coefficient of the scale factor (TCSF) and linearity error is discussed. Secondly, the ability of an improved structure that can avoid the contrary effect is illustrated. The improved structure is proposed in our previous work for reducing the temperature coefficient of bias (TCB) and TCSF. Within the improved structure, both the TCSF and linearity error decrease with increasing WNGR. Then, the precise designing of the improved structure is developed for achieving lower TCB, TCSF, and linearity error. Finally, the precise structural designing is experimentally verified.
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-02-23
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 641: Experimental L-Band Airborne SAR for Oil Spill Response at Sea and in Coastal Waters Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020641 Authors: Cathleen Jones Benjamin Holt Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is frequently used during oil spill response efforts to identify oil slick extent, but suffers from the major disadvantages of potential long latency between when a spill occurs and when a satellite can image the site and an inability to continuously track the spill as it develops. We show using data acquired with the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) instrument how a low noise, high resolution, L-band SAR could be used for oil spill response, with specific examples of tracking slick extent, position and weathering; determining zones of relatively thicker or more emulsified oil within a slick; and identifying oil slicks in coastal areas where look-alikes such as calm waters or biogenic slicks can confound the identification of mineral oil spills. From these key points, the essential features of an airborne SAR system for operational oil spill response are described, and further research needed to determine SAR’s capabilities and limitations in quantifying slick thickness is discussed.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 662: Leader-Follower Formation Control of UUVs with Model Uncertainties, Current Disturbances, and Unstable Communication Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020662 Authors: Zheping Yan Da Xu Tao Chen Wei Zhang Yibo Liu Unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) have rapidly developed as mobile sensor networks recently in the investigation, survey, and exploration of the underwater environment. The goal of this paper is to develop a practical and efficient formation control method to improve work efficiency of multi-UUV sensor networks. Distributed leader-follower formation controllers are designed based on a state feedback and consensus algorithm. Considering that each vehicle is subject to model uncertainties and current disturbances, a second-order integral UUV model with a nonlinear function is established using the state feedback linearized method under current disturbances. For unstable communication among UUVs, communication failure and acoustic link noise interference are considered. Two-layer random switching communication topologies are proposed to solve the problem of communication failure. For acoustic link noise interference, accurate representation of valid communication information and noise stripping when designing controllers is necessary. Effective communication topology weights are designed to represent the validity of communication information interfered by noise. Utilizing state feedback and noise stripping, sufficient conditions for design formation controllers are proposed to ensure UUV formation achieves consensus under model uncertainties, current disturbances, and unstable communication. The stability of formation controllers is proven by the Lyapunov-Razumikhin theorem, and the validity is verified by simulation results.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 661: Metal Nanoparticles/Porous Silicon Microcavity Enhanced Surface Plasmon Resonance Fluorescence for the Detection of DNA Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020661 Authors: Jiajia Wang Zhenhong Jia A porous silicon microcavity (PSiMC) with resonant peak wavelength of 635 nm was fabricated by electrochemical etching. Metal nanoparticles (NPs)/PSiMC enhanced fluorescence substrates were prepared by the electrostatic adherence of Au NPs that were distributed in PSiMC. The Au NPs/PSiMC device was used to characterize the target DNA immobilization and hybridization with its complementary DNA sequences marked with Rhodamine red (RRA). Fluorescence enhancement was observed on the Au NPs/PSiMC device substrate; and the minimum detection concentration of DNA ran up to 10 pM. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the MC substrate; which is so well-positioned to improve fluorescence enhancement rather the fluorescence enhancement of the high reflection band of the Bragg reflector; would welcome such a highly sensitive in biosensor.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 659: Application of Improved 5th-Cubature Kalman Filter in Initial Strapdown Inertial Navigation System Alignment for Large Misalignment Angles Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020659 Authors: Wei Wang Xiyuan Chen In view of the fact the accuracy of the third-degree Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF) used for initial alignment under large misalignment angle conditions is insufficient, an improved fifth-degree CKF algorithm is proposed in this paper. In order to make full use of the innovation on filtering, the innovation covariance matrix is calculated recursively by an innovative sequence with an exponent fading factor. Then a new adaptive error covariance matrix scaling algorithm is proposed. The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method is used for improving the numerical stability of the fifth-degree CKF in this paper. In order to avoid the overshoot caused by excessive scaling of error covariance matrix during the convergence stage, the scaling scheme is terminated when the gradient of azimuth reaches the maximum. The experimental results show that the improved algorithm has better alignment accuracy with large misalignment angles than the traditional algorithm.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 660: Enhanced Humidity Sensitivity with Silicon Nanopillar Array by UV Light Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020660 Authors: Wei Li Chao Ding Yun Cai Juyan Liu Linlin Wang Qingying Ren Jie Xu The sensitivity of silicon nanopillar array for relative humidity (RH) with UV illumination was investigated in this work. The silicon nanopillar array was prepared by nanosphere lithography. Electrical measurements were performed on its sensing performance with and without UV irradiation. It was found that UV light improved the humidity sensitivity with different UV light wavelengths and power. The sensor response and recovery time were reduced. Furthermore, the turn-on threshold voltage and the operating voltage both decreased. These sensing characteristics can mainly be attributed to the electron-hole pairs generated by UV light. These electron-hole pairs promote the adsorption and desorption processes. The results indicate that silicon nanopillar array materials with UV irradiation might be competitive as novel sensing materials for fabricating humidity sensors with high performances.
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 656: Parameter Estimation of the Thermal Network Model of a Machine Tool Spindle by Self-made Bluetooth Temperature Sensor Module Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020656 Authors: Yuan-Chieh Lo Yuh-Chung Hu Pei-Zen Chang Thermal characteristic analysis is essential for machine tool spindles because sudden failures may occur due to unexpected thermal issue. This article presents a lumped-parameter Thermal Network Model (TNM) and its parameter estimation scheme, including hardware and software, in order to characterize both the steady-state and transient thermal behavior of machine tool spindles. For the hardware, the authors develop a Bluetooth Temperature Sensor Module (BTSM) which accompanying with three types of temperature-sensing probes (magnetic, screw, and probe). Its specification, through experimental test, achieves to the precision ±(0.1 + 0.0029|t|) °C, resolution 0.00489 °C, power consumption 7 mW, and size Ø40 mm × 27 mm. For the software, the heat transfer characteristics of the machine tool spindle correlative to rotating speed are derived based on the theory of heat transfer and empirical formula. The predictive TNM of spindles was developed by grey-box estimation and experimental results. Even under such complicated operating conditions as various speeds and different initial conditions, the experiments validate that the present modeling methodology provides a robust and reliable tool for the temperature prediction with normalized mean square error of 99.5% agreement, and the present approach is transferable to the other spindles with a similar structure. For realizing the edge computing in smart manufacturing, a reduced-order TNM is constructed by Model Order Reduction (MOR) technique and implemented into the real-time embedded system.
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 658: Methionine-Capped Gold Nanoclusters as a Fluorescence-Enhanced Probe for Cadmium(II) Sensing Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020658 Authors: Yan Peng Maomao Wang Xiaoxia Wu Fu Wang Lang Liu Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have been considered as novel heavy metal ions sensors due to their ultrafine size, photo-stability and excellent fluorescent properties. In this study, a green and facile method was developed for the preparation of fluorescent water-soluble gold nanoclusters with methionine as a stabilizer. The nanoclusters emit orange fluorescence with excitation/emission peaks at 420/565 nm and a quantum yield of about 1.46%. The fluorescence of the Au NCs is selectively and sensitively enhanced by addition of Cd(II) ions attributed to the Cd(II) ion-induced aggregation of nanoclusters. This finding was further used to design a fluorometric method for the determination of Cd(II) ions, which had a linear response in the concentration range from 50 nM to 35 μM and a detection limit of 12.25 nM. The practicality of the nanoprobe was validated in various environmental water samples and milk powder samples, with a fairly satisfactory recovery percent.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 653: Adaptive Correlation Model for Visual Tracking Using Keypoints Matching and Deep Convolutional Feature Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020653 Authors: Yuankun Li Tingfa Xu Honggao Deng Guokai Shi Jie Guo Although correlation filter (CF)-based visual tracking algorithms have achieved appealing results, there are still some problems to be solved. When the target object goes through long-term occlusions or scale variation, the correlation model used in existing CF-based algorithms will inevitably learn some non-target information or partial-target information. In order to avoid model contamination and enhance the adaptability of model updating, we introduce the keypoints matching strategy and adjust the model learning rate dynamically according to the matching score. Moreover, the proposed approach extracts convolutional features from a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) to accurately estimate the position and scale of the target. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracker has achieved satisfactory performance in a wide range of challenging tracking scenarios.
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 657: A Method for Dynamically Selecting the Best Frequency Hopping Technique in Industrial Wireless Sensor Network Applications Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020657 Authors: Erlantz Fernández de Gorostiza Jorge Berzosa Jon Mabe Roberto Cortiñas Industrial wireless applications often share the communication channel with other wireless technologies and communication protocols. This coexistence produces interferences and transmission errors which require appropriate mechanisms to manage retransmissions. Nevertheless, these mechanisms increase the network latency and overhead due to the retransmissions. Thus, the loss of data packets and the measures to handle them produce an undesirable drop in the QoS and hinder the overall robustness and energy efficiency of the network. Interference avoidance mechanisms, such as frequency hopping techniques, reduce the need for retransmissions due to interferences but they are often tailored to specific scenarios and are not easily adapted to other use cases. On the other hand, the total absence of interference avoidance mechanisms introduces a security risk because the communication channel may be intentionally attacked and interfered with to hinder or totally block it. In this paper we propose a method for supporting the design of communication solutions under dynamic channel interference conditions and we implement dynamic management policies for frequency hopping technique and channel selection at runtime. The method considers several standard frequency hopping techniques and quality metrics, and the quality and status of the available frequency channels to propose the best combined solution to minimize the side effects of interferences. A simulation tool has been developed and used in this work to validate the method.
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 654: Using a Second Order Sigma-Delta Control to Improve the Performance of Metal-Oxide Gas Sensors Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020654 Authors: Lukasz Kowalski Joan Pons-Nin Eric Navarrete Eduard Llobet Manuel Domínguez-Pumar Controls of surface potential have been proposed to accelerate the time response of MOX gas sensors. These controls use temperature modulations and a feedback loop based on first-order sigma-delta modulators to keep constant the surface potential. Changes in the surrounding gases, therefore, must be compensated by average temperature produced by the control loop, which is the new output signal. The purpose of this paper is to present a second order sigma-delta control of the surface potential for gas sensors. With this new control strategy, it is possible to obtain a second order zero of the quantization noise in the output signal. This provides a less noisy control of the surface potential, while at the same time some undesired effects of first order modulators, such as the presence of plateaus, are avoided. Experiments proving these performance improvements are presented using a gas sensor made of tungsten oxide nanowires. Plateau avoidance and second order noise shaping is shown with ethanol measurements.
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 655: Microwave Sensors for Breast Cancer Detection Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020655 Authors: Lulu Wang Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among females, early diagnostic methods with suitable treatments improve the 5-year survival rates significantly. Microwave breast imaging has been reported as the most potential to become the alternative or additional tool to the current gold standard X-ray mammography for detecting breast cancer. The microwave breast image quality is affected by the microwave sensor, sensor array, the number of sensors in the array and the size of the sensor. In fact, microwave sensor array and sensor play an important role in the microwave breast imaging system. Numerous microwave biosensors have been developed for biomedical applications, with particular focus on breast tumor detection. Compared to the conventional medical imaging and biosensor techniques, these microwave sensors not only enable better cancer detection and improve the image resolution, but also provide attractive features such as label-free detection. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent important achievements in microwave sensors for biomedical imaging applications, with particular focus on breast cancer detection. The electric properties of biological tissues at microwave spectrum, microwave imaging approaches, microwave biosensors, current challenges and future works are also discussed in the manuscript.
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 398: The Cost of Inadequate Sleep among On-Call Workers in Australia: A Workplace Perspective International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030398 Authors: Grace Vincent Irina Kinchin Sally Ferguson Sarah Jay On-call or stand-by is becoming an increasingly prevalent form of work scheduling. However, on-call arrangements are typically utilised when workloads are low, for example at night, which can result in inadequate sleep. It is a matter of concern that on-call work is associated with an increased risk of workplace injury. This study sought to determine the economic cost of injury due to inadequate sleep in Australian on-call workers. The prevalence of inadequate sleep among on-call workers was determined using an online survey, and economic costs were estimated using a previously validated costing methodology. Two-thirds of the sample (66%) reported obtaining inadequate sleep on weekdays (work days) and over 80% reported inadequate sleep while on-call. The resulting cost of injury is estimated at $2.25 billion per year ($1.71–2.73 billion). This equates to $1222 per person per incident involving a short-term absence from work; $2.53 million per incident classified as full incapacity, and $1.78 million for each fatality. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study to quantify the economic cost of workplace injury due to inadequate sleep in on-call workers. Well-rested employees are critical to safe and productive workplace operations. Therefore, it is in the interest of both employers and governments to prioritise and invest far more into the management of inadequate sleep in industries which utilise on-call work arrangements.
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 399: Correlation between Changes in Local Earth’s Magnetic Field and Cases of Acute Myocardial Infarction International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030399 Authors: Gediminas Jaruševičius Tautvydas Rugelis Rollin McCraty Mantas Landauskas Kristina Berškienė Alfonsas Vainoras The impact of changes in the geomagnetic field on the human body remains the subject of studies across the world, yet there is no consensus. Current studies are observing effects that require further work by researchers in order to find out the mechanisms that would allow a proper assessment of the correlations between the Earth‘s magnetic field variations and changes in human organisms. The main purpose of this study was to investigate possible correlations between the strength of time-varying aspects of the local Earth’s magnetic field and incidence of myocardial infarctions. Study participants included 435 males and 268 females who had diagnosis of myocardial infarction during the period of 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2016 and attended the Department of Cardiology at the Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (LUHS), Kauno klinikos. Time varying magnetic field data was collected at the magnetometer site located in Lithuania. After mathematical analysis, the results support the hypothesis that the Earth’s magnetic field has a relationship between the number of acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation (STEMI) cases per week and the average weekly geomagnetic field strength in different frequency ranges. Correlations varied in different age groups as well as in males and females, which may indicate diverse organism sensitivity to the Earth’s magnetic field.
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 396: Epidemiological Characteristics and Space-Time Analysis of the 2015 Dengue Outbreak in the Metropolitan Region of Tainan City, Taiwan International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030396 Authors: Ting-Wu Chuang Ka-Chon Ng Thi Nguyen Luis Chaves The metropolitan region of Tainan City in southern Taiwan experienced a dengue outbreak in 2015. This manuscript describes basic epidemiological features of this outbreak and uses spatial and temporal analysis tools to understand the spread of dengue during the outbreak. The analysis found that, independently of gender, dengue incidence rate increased with age, and proportionally affected more males below the age of 40 years but females above the age of 40 years. A spatial scan statistic was applied to detect clusters of disease transmission. The scan statistic found that dengue spread in a north-south diffusion direction, which is across the North, West-Central and South districts of Tainan City. Spatial regression models were used to quantify factors associated with transmission. This analysis indicated that neighborhoods with high proportions of residential area (or low wetland cover) were associated with dengue transmission. However, these association patterns were non-linear. The findings presented here can help Taiwanese public health agencies to understand the fundamental epidemiological characteristics and diffusion patterns of the 2015 dengue outbreak in Tainan City. This type of information is fundamental for policy making to prevent future uncontrolled dengue outbreaks, given that results from this study suggest that control interventions should be emphasized in the North and West-Central districts of Tainan city, in areas with a moderate percentage of residential land cover.
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 400: Does Electronic Cigarette Use Predict Abstinence from Conventional Cigarettes among Smokers in Hong Kong? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030400 Authors: Socrates Wu Man Wang William Li Antonio Kwong Vienna Lai Tai Lam Objectives: To investigate the effects of ever use of electronic cigarettes (ECs), many of which lack nicotine, on abstinence from convention cigarettes among Hong Kong adult smokers. Methods: We collected data from 956 daily smokers in 2014–2015 regarding ever EC use and smoking behaviors at baseline, any and past 30-day EC use at the 3-month follow-up. Outcomes measured at 6 months included past 7-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA), biochemically validated quitting, smoking reduction (≥50% from baseline) and cessation attempt. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for quitting in relation to EC use, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and smoking profile. Complete case, missing observation as smoking and propensity score analyses were conducted. Results: By complete case, ever EC use at baseline did not predict self-reported PPA (AOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.57–1.73), biochemically validated quitting (AOR 1.22, 95% CI 0.64–2.34), cessation attempt (AOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.48–1.14), or smoking reduction (AOR 0.89, 95% CI 0.54–1.47). EC use during the first 3 months did not predict quitting (AOR 1.02, 95% CI 0.22–4.71). Similar results were observed for missing observations as smoking and propensity score analyses. Conclusions: Any use of ECs, many of which lack nicotine, did not predict smoking abstinence among Hong Kong adult smokers.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2018-02-25
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 393: Investigation of a Brownfield Conflict Considering the Strength of Preferences International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020393 Authors: Jing Yu Ling-Ling Pei By employing the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution methodology, this paper models and analyzes a brownfield conflict that occurred at the Changzhou Foreign Language School in Jiangsu, China, in 2016. This conflict made national headlines when news reports revealed that a large number of students and staff suffered from health issues after the school moved to a new site that is built on recently restored land adjacent to the original “Chang Long Chemical” block. Since stakeholders in the conflict hold different strengths of preference, a new option prioritization technique is employed to elicit both crisp preferences and the strength of preferences for the decision-makers (DMs) in the conflict. The conflict analysis result is consistent with the actual trajectory of the conflict and provides strategic insights into the conflict. More specifically, equilibrium results suggest that the firm should have been required to thoroughly clean the site, the local government should not have relocated the school, and the environmental agency and other stakeholders should have closely monitored the firm’s activities. In short, strategic insights garnered from this case study indicate that positive interactions should be fostered among the local government, the enterprise, and the public to ensure sustainable brownfield land redevelopment in the future.
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2018-02-26
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 684: Archetype-Based Modeling of Persona for Comprehensive Personality Computing from Personal Big Data Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030684 Authors: Ao Guo Jianhua Ma A model describing the wide variety of human behaviours called personality, is becoming increasingly popular among researchers due to the widespread availability of personal big data generated from the use of prevalent digital devices, e.g., smartphones and wearables. Such an approach can be used to model an individual and even digitally clone a person, e.g., a Cyber-I (cyber individual). This work is aimed at establishing a unique and comprehensive description for an individual to mesh with various personalized services and applications. An extensive research literature on or related to psychological modelling exists, i.e., into automatic personality computing. However, the integrity and accuracy of the results from current automatic personality computing is insufficient for the elaborate modeling in Cyber-I due to an insufficient number of data sources. To reach a comprehensive psychological description of a person, it is critical to bring in heterogeneous data sources that could provide plenty of personal data, i.e., the physiological data, and the Internet data. In addition, instead of calculating personality traits from personal data directly, an approach to a personality model derived from the theories of Carl Gustav Jung is used to measure a human subject’s persona. Therefore, this research is focused on designing an archetype-based modeling of persona covering an individual’s facets in different situations to approach a comprehensive personality model. Using personal big data to measure a specific persona in a certain scenario, our research is designed to ensure the accuracy and integrity of the generated personality model.
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2018-02-26
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 682: Object-Oriented Hierarchy Radiation Consistency for Different Temporal and Different Sensor Images Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030682 Authors: Nan Su Yiming Yan Chunhui Zhao Liguo Wang In the paper, we propose a novel object-oriented hierarchy radiation consistency method for dense matching of different temporal and different sensor data in the 3D reconstruction. For different temporal images, our illumination consistency method is proposed to solve both the illumination uniformity for a single image and the relative illumination normalization for image pairs. Especially in the relative illumination normalization step, singular value equalization and linear relationship of the invariant pixels is combined used for the initial global illumination normalization and the object-oriented refined illumination normalization in detail, respectively. For different sensor images, we propose the union group sparse method, which is based on improving the original group sparse model. The different sensor images are set to a similar smoothness level by the same threshold of singular value from the union group matrix. Our method comprehensively considered the influence factors on the dense matching of the different temporal and different sensor stereoscopic image pairs to simultaneously improve the illumination consistency and the smoothness consistency. The radiation consistency experimental results verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method by comparing two other methods. Moreover, in the dense matching experiment of the mixed stereoscopic image pairs, our method has more advantages for objects in the urban area.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-02-26
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 680: Nanosphere Lithography on Fiber: Towards Engineered Lab-On-Fiber SERS Optrodes Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030680 Authors: Giuseppe Quero Gianluigi Zito Stefano Managò Francesco Galeotti Marco Pisco Anna De Luca Andrea Cusano In this paper we report on the engineering of repeatable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) optical fiber sensor devices (optrodes), as realized through nanosphere lithography. The Lab-on-Fiber SERS optrode consists of polystyrene nanospheres in a close-packed arrays configuration covered by a thin film of gold on the optical fiber tip. The SERS surfaces were fabricated by using a nanosphere lithography approach that is already demonstrated as able to produce highly repeatable patterns on the fiber tip. In order to engineer and optimize the SERS probes, we first evaluated and compared the SERS performances in terms of Enhancement Factor (EF) pertaining to different patterns with different nanosphere diameters and gold thicknesses. To this aim, the EF of SERS surfaces with a pitch of 500, 750 and 1000 nm, and gold films of 20, 30 and 40 nm have been retrieved, adopting the SERS signal of a monolayer of biphenyl-4-thiol (BPT) as a reliable benchmark. The analysis allowed us to identify of the most promising SERS platform: for the samples with nanospheres diameter of 500 nm and gold thickness of 30 nm, we measured values of EF of 4 × 105, which is comparable with state-of-the-art SERS EF achievable with highly performing colloidal gold nanoparticles. The reproducibility of the SERS enhancement was thoroughly evaluated. In particular, the SERS intensity revealed intra-sample (i.e., between different spatial regions of a selected substrate) and inter-sample (i.e., between regions of different substrates) repeatability, with a relative standard deviation lower than 9 and 15%, respectively. Finally, in order to determine the most suitable optical fiber probe, in terms of excitation/collection efficiency and Raman background, we selected several commercially available optical fibers and tested them with a BPT solution used as benchmark. A fiber probe with a pure silica core of 200 µm diameter and high numerical aperture (i.e., 0.5) was found to be the most promising fiber platform, providing the best trade-off between high excitation/collection efficiency and low background. This work, thus, poses the basis for realizing reproducible and engineered Lab-on-Fiber SERS optrodes for in-situ trace detection directed toward highly advanced in vivo sensing.
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-02-25
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 672: An Automatic and Novel SAR Image Registration Algorithm: A Case Study of the Chinese GF-3 Satellite Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020672 Authors: Yuming Xiang Feng Wang Hongjian You The Chinese GF-3 satellite launched in August 2016 is a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite that has the largest number of imaging modes in the world. It achieves a free switch in the spotlight, stripmap, scanSAR, wave, global observation and other imaging modes. In order to further utilize GF-3 SAR images, an automatic and fast image registration procedure needs to be done. In this paper, we propose a novel image registration technique for GF-3 images of different imaging modes. The proposed algorithm consists of two stages: coarse registration and fine registration. In the first stage, we combine an adaptive sampling method with the SAR-SIFT algorithm to efficiently eliminate obvious translation, rotation and scale differences between the reference and sensed images. In the second stage, uniformly-distributed control points are extracted, then the fast normalized cross-correlation of an improved phase congruency model is utilized as a new similarity metric to match the reference image and the coarse-registered image in a local search region. Moreover, a selection strategy is used to remove outliers. Experimental results on several GF-3 SAR images of different imaging modes show that the proposed algorithm gives a robust, efficient and precise registration performance, compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms for SAR image registration.
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2018-02-25
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 671: Study of Impact Damage in PVA-ECC Beam under Low-Velocity Impact Loading Using Piezoceramic Transducers and PVDF Thin-Film Transducers Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020671 Authors: Baoxin Qi Qingzhao Kong Hui Qian Devendra Patil Ing Lim Mo Li Dong Liu Gangbing Song Compared to conventional concrete, polyvinyl alcohol fiber reinforced engineering cementitious composite (PVA-ECC) offers high-strength, ductility, formability, and excellent fatigue resistance. However, impact-induced structural damage is a major concern and has not been previously characterized in PVA-ECC structures. We investigate the damage of PVA-ECC beams under low-velocity impact loading. A series of ball-drop impact tests were performed at different drop weights and heights to simulate various impact energies. The impact results of PVA-ECC beams were compared with mortar beams. A combination of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin-film sensors and piezoceramic-based smart aggregate were used for impact monitoring, which included impact initiation and crack evolution. Short-time Fourier transform (STFT) of the signal received by PVDF thin-film sensors was performed to identify impact events, while active-sensing approach was utilized to detect impact-induced crack evolution by the attenuation of a propagated guided wave. Wavelet packet-based energy analysis was performed to quantify failure development under repeated impact tests.
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2018-02-25
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 669: The Design of a Single-Bit CMOS Image Sensor for Iris Recognition Applications Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020669 Authors: Keunyeol Park Minkyu Song Soo Kim This paper presents a single-bit CMOS image sensor (CIS) that uses a data processing technique with an edge detection block for simple iris segmentation. In order to recognize the iris image, the image sensor conventionally captures high-resolution image data in digital code, extracts the iris data, and then compares it with a reference image through a recognition algorithm. However, in this case, the frame rate decreases by the time required for digital signal conversion of multi-bit digital data through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in the CIS. In order to reduce the overall processing time as well as the power consumption, we propose a data processing technique with an exclusive OR (XOR) logic gate to obtain single-bit and edge detection image data instead of multi-bit image data through the ADC. In addition, we propose a logarithmic counter to efficiently measure single-bit image data that can be applied to the iris recognition algorithm. The effective area of the proposed single-bit image sensor (174 × 144 pixel) is 2.84 mm2 with a 0.18 μm 1-poly 4-metal CMOS image sensor process. The power consumption of the proposed single-bit CIS is 2.8 mW with a 3.3 V of supply voltage and 520 frame/s of the maximum frame rates. The error rate of the ADC is 0.24 least significant bit (LSB) on an 8-bit ADC basis at a 50 MHz sampling frequency.
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-02-25
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 670: Error Analysis of the K-Rb-21Ne Comagnetometer Space-Stable Inertial Navigation System Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020670 Authors: Qingzhong Cai Gongliu Yang Wei Quan Ningfang Song Yongqiang Tu Yiliang Liu According to the application characteristics of the K-Rb-21Ne comagnetometer, a space-stable navigation mechanization is designed and the requirements of the comagnetometer prototype are presented. By analysing the error propagation rule of the space-stable Inertial Navigation System (INS), the three biases, the scale factor of the z-axis, and the misalignment of the x- and y-axis non-orthogonal with the z-axis, are confirmed to be the main error source. A numerical simulation of the mathematical model for each single error verified the theoretical analysis result of the system’s error propagation rule. Thus, numerical simulation based on the semi-physical data result proves the feasibility of the navigation scheme proposed in this paper.
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2018-02-25
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 665: High-Speed Interrogation for Large-Scale Fiber Bragg Grating Sensing Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020665 Authors: Chenyuan Hu Wei Bai A high-speed interrogation scheme for large-scale fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing arrays is presented. This technique employs parallel computing and pipeline control to modulate incident light and demodulate the reflected sensing signal. One Electro-optic modulator (EOM) and one semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) were used to generate a phase delay to filter reflected spectrum form multiple candidate FBGs with the same optical path difference (OPD). Experimental results showed that the fastest interrogation delay time for the proposed method was only about 27.2 us for a single FBG interrogation, and the system scanning period was only limited by the optical transmission delay in the sensing fiber owing to the multiple simultaneous central wavelength calculations. Furthermore, the proposed FPGA-based technique had a verified FBG wavelength demodulation stability of ±1 pm without average processing.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2018-02-25
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 667: Second Generation Small Pixel Technology Using Hybrid Bond Stacking Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020667 Authors: Vincent Venezia Alan Hsiung Wu-Zang Yang Yuying Zhang Cheng Zhao Zhiqiang Lin Lindsay Grant In this work, OmniVision’s second generation (Gen2) of small-pixel BSI stacking technologies is reviewed. The key features of this technology are hybrid-bond stacking, deeper back-side, deep-trench isolation, new back-side composite metal-oxide grid, and improved gate oxide quality. This Gen2 technology achieves state-of-the-art low-light image-sensor performance for 1.1, 1.0, and 0.9 µm pixel products. Additional improvements on this technology include less than 100 ppm white-pixel process and a high near-infrared (NIR) QE technology.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2018-02-25
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 668: Mn4+-Doped Magnesium Titanate—A Promising Phosphor for Self-Referenced Optical Temperature Sensing Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020668 Authors: Francesca Venturini Michael Baumgartner Sergey Borisov Phosphors based on magnesium titanate activated with Mn 4 + ions are of great interest because, when excited with blue light, they display a strong red-emitting luminescence. They are characterized by a luminescence decay which is strongly temperature dependent in the range from −50 ∘ C to 150 ∘ C, making these materials very promising for temperature sensing in the biochemical field. In this work, the optical and thermal properties of the luminescence of Mg 2 TiO 4 are investigated for different Mn 4 + doping concentrations. The potential of this material for temperature sensing is demonstrated by fabricating a fiber optic temperature microsensor and by comparing its performance against a standard resistance thermometer. The response of the fiber optic sensor is exceptionally fast, with a response time below 1 s in the liquid phase and below 1.1 s in the gas phase.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2018-02-25
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 663: Estimation of Handgrip Force from SEMG Based on Wavelet Scale Selection Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020663 Authors: Kai Wang Xianmin Zhang Jun Ota Yanjiang Huang This paper proposes a nonlinear correlation-based wavelet scale selection technology to select the effective wavelet scales for the estimation of handgrip force from surface electromyograms (SEMG). The SEMG signal corresponding to gripping force was collected from extensor and flexor forearm muscles during the force-varying analysis task. We performed a computational sensitivity analysis on the initial nonlinear SEMG-handgrip force model. To explore the nonlinear correlation between ten wavelet scales and handgrip force, a large-scale iteration based on the Monte Carlo simulation was conducted. To choose a suitable combination of scales, we proposed a rule to combine wavelet scales based on the sensitivity of each scale and selected the appropriate combination of wavelet scales based on sequence combination analysis (SCA). The results of SCA indicated that the scale combination VI is suitable for estimating force from the extensors and the combination V is suitable for the flexors. The proposed method was compared to two former methods through prolonged static and force-varying contraction tasks. The experiment results showed that the root mean square errors derived by the proposed method for both static and force-varying contraction tasks were less than 20%. The accuracy and robustness of the handgrip force derived by the proposed method is better than that obtained by the former methods.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2018-02-25
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 666: SmartVeh: Secure and Efficient Message Access Control and Authentication for Vehicular Cloud Computing Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020666 Authors: Qinlong Huang Yixian Yang Yuxiang Shi With the growing number of vehicles and popularity of various services in vehicular cloud computing (VCC), message exchanging among vehicles under traffic conditions and in emergency situations is one of the most pressing demands, and has attracted significant attention. However, it is an important challenge to authenticate the legitimate sources of broadcast messages and achieve fine-grained message access control. In this work, we propose SmartVeh, a secure and efficient message access control and authentication scheme in VCC. A hierarchical, attribute-based encryption technique is utilized to achieve fine-grained and flexible message sharing, which ensures that vehicles whose persistent or dynamic attributes satisfy the access policies can access the broadcast message with equipped on-board units (OBUs). Message authentication is enforced by integrating an attribute-based signature, which achieves message authentication and maintains the anonymity of the vehicles. In order to reduce the computations of the OBUs in the vehicles, we outsource the heavy computations of encryption, decryption and signing to a cloud server and road-side units. The theoretical analysis and simulation results reveal that our secure and efficient scheme is suitable for VCC.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2018-02-25
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 664: User Access Management Based on Network Pricing for Social Network Applications Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18020664 Authors: Fuhong Lin Zhibo Pang Xingmin Ma Qing Gu Social applications play a very important role in people’s lives, as users communicate with each other through social networks on a daily basis. This presents a challenge: How does one receive high-quality service from social networks at a low cost? Users can access different kinds of wireless networks from various locations. This paper proposes a user access management strategy based on network pricing such that networks can increase its income and improve service quality. Firstly, network price is treated as an optimizing access parameter, and an unascertained membership algorithm is used to make pricing decisions. Secondly, network price is adjusted dynamically in real time according to network load. Finally, selecting a network is managed and controlled in terms of the market economy. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can effectively balance network load, reduce network congestion, improve the user's quality of service (QoS) requirements, and increase the network’s income.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 153: Anomalous Statistics of Bose-Einstein Condensate in an Interacting Gas: An Effect of the Trap’s Form and Boundary Conditions in the Thermodynamic Limit Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030153 Authors: Sergey Tarasov Vladimir Kocharovsky Vitaly Kocharovsky We analytically calculate the statistics of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) fluctuations in an interacting gas trapped in a three-dimensional cubic or rectangular box with the Dirichlet, fused or periodic boundary conditions within the mean-field Bogoliubov and Thomas-Fermi approximations. We study a mesoscopic system of a finite number of trapped particles and its thermodynamic limit. We find that the BEC fluctuations, first, are anomalously large and non-Gaussian and, second, depend on the trap’s form and boundary conditions. Remarkably, these effects persist with increasing interparticle interaction and even in the thermodynamic limit—only the mean BEC occupation, not BEC fluctuations, becomes independent on the trap’s form and boundary conditions.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 417: The Impact of Active Workstations on Workplace Productivity and Performance: A Systematic Review International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030417 Authors: Samson Ojo Daniel Bailey Angel Chater David Hewson Active workstations have been recommended for reducing sedentary behavior in the workplace. It is important to understand if the use of these workstations has an impact on worker productivity. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effect of active workstations on workplace productivity and performance. A total of 3303 articles were initially identified by a systematic search and seven articles met eligibility criteria for inclusion. A quality appraisal was conducted to assess risk of bias, confounding, internal and external validity, and reporting. Most of the studies reported cognitive performance as opposed to productivity. Five studies assessed cognitive performance during use of an active workstation, usually in a single session. Sit-stand desks had no detrimental effect on performance, however, some studies with treadmill and cycling workstations identified potential decreases in performance. Many of the studies lacked the power required to achieve statistical significance. Three studies assessed workplace productivity after prolonged use of an active workstation for between 12 and 52 weeks. These studies reported no significant effect on productivity. Active workstations do not appear to decrease workplace performance.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 415: Predicting Circulatory Diseases from Psychosocial Safety Climate: A Prospective Cohort Study from Australia International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030415 Authors: Harry Becher Maureen Dollard Peter Smith Jian Li Circulatory diseases (CDs) (including myocardial infarction, angina, stroke or hypertension) are among the leading causes of death in the world. In this paper, we explore for the first time the impact of a specific aspect of organizational climate, Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC), on CDs. We used two waves of interview data from Australia, with an average lag of 5 years (excluding baseline CDs, final n = 1223). Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the prospective associations between PSC at baseline on incident CDs at follow-up. It was found that participants in low PSC environments were 59% more likely to develop new CD than those in high PSC environments. Logistic regression showed that PSC at baseline predicts lower CD risk at follow-up (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–1.00) and this risk remained unchanged even after additional adjustment for known job design risk factors (effort reward imbalance and job strain). These results suggest that PSC is an independent risk factor for CDs in Australia. Beyond job design this study implicates organizational climate and prevailing management values regarding worker psychological health as the genesis of CDs.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 413: Valuing a Lifestyle Intervention for Middle Eastern Immigrants at Risk of Diabetes International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030413 Authors: Sanjib Saha Ulf-G. Gerdtham Faiza Siddiqui Louise Bennet Willingness-to-pay (WTP) techniques are increasingly being used in the healthcare sector for assessing the value of interventions. The objective of this study was to estimate WTP and its predictors in a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention exclusively targeting Middle Eastern immigrants living in Malmö, Sweden, who are at high risk of type 2 diabetes. We used the contingent valuation method to evaluate WTP. The questionnaire was designed following the payment-scale approach, and administered at the end of the trial, giving an ex-post perspective. We performed logistic regression and linear regression techniques to identify the factors associated with zero WTP value and positive WTP values. The intervention group had significantly higher average WTP than the control group (216 SEK vs. 127 SEK; p = 0.035; 1 U.S.$ = 8.52 SEK, 2015 price year) per month. The regression models demonstrated that being in the intervention group, acculturation, and self-employment were significant factors associated with positive WTP values. Male participants and lower-educated participants had a significantly higher likelihood of zero WTP. In this era of increased migration, our findings can help policy makers to take informed decisions to implement lifestyle interventions for immigrant populations.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
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    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: Symmetry, Vol. 10, Pages 52: Lorentz Transformation, Poincarévectors and Poincarésphere in Various Branches of Physics Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10030052 Authors: Tiberiu Tudor In the frame of a generic language extended from the polarization theory—comprising the notions of Poincaré vectors, Poincaré sphere, and P-spheres—a geometric approach to Lorentz transformations alternative to the Minkowskian one is given. Unlike the four-dimensional Minkowskian approach, this new approach operates in the three-dimensional space of Poincaré vectors.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-8994
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 150: Big Data Blind Separation Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030150 Authors: Mujahid Syed Data or signal separation is one of the critical areas of data analysis. In this work, the problem of non-negative data separation is considered. The problem can be briefly described as follows: given X ∈ R m × N , find A ∈ R m × n and S ∈ R + n × N such that X = A S . Specifically, the problem with sparse locally dominant sources is addressed in this work. Although the problem is well studied in the literature, a test to validate the locally dominant assumption is not yet available. In addition to that, the typical approaches available in the literature sequentially extract the elements of the mixing matrix. In this work, a mathematical modeling-based approach is presented that can simultaneously validate the assumption, and separate the given mixture data. In addition to that, a correntropy-based measure is proposed to reduce the model size. The approach presented in this paper is suitable for big data separation. Numerical experiments are conducted to illustrate the performance and validity of the proposed approach.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 152: Optimized Dynamic Mode Decomposition via Non-Convex Regularization and Multiscale Permutation Entropy Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030152 Authors: Zhang Dang Yong Lv Yourong Li Cancan Yi Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) is essentially a hybrid algorithm based on mode decomposition and singular value decomposition, and it inevitably inherits the drawbacks of these two algorithms, including the selection strategy of truncated rank order and wanted mode components. A novel denoising and feature extraction algorithm for multi-component coupled noisy mechanical signals is proposed based on the standard DMD algorithm, which provides a new method solving the two intractable problems above. Firstly, a sparse optimization method of non-convex penalty function is adopted to determine the optimal dimensionality reduction space in the process of DMD, obtaining a series of optimal DMD modes. Then, multiscale permutation entropy calculation is performed to calculate the complexity of each DMD mode. Modes corresponding to the noise components are discarded by threshold technology, and we reconstruct the modes whose entropies are smaller than a threshold to recover the signal. By applying the algorithm to rolling bearing simulation signals and comparing with the result of wavelet transform, the effectiveness of the proposed method can be verified. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the experimental rolling bearing signals. Results demonstrated that the proposed approach has a good application prospect in noise reduction and fault feature extraction.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2018-02-28
    Description: Entropy, Vol. 20, Pages 151: Tsirelson’s Bound Prohibits Communication through a Disconnected Channel Entropy doi: 10.3390/e20030151 Authors: Avishy Carmi Daniel Moskovich Why does nature only allow nonlocal correlations up to Tsirelson’s bound and not beyond? We construct a channel whose input is statistically independent of its output, but through which communication is nevertheless possible if and only if Tsirelson’s bound is violated. This provides a statistical justification for Tsirelson’s bound on nonlocal correlations in a bipartite setting.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 691: Label-Free Quantification of Anti-TNF-α in Patients Treated with Adalimumab Using an Optical Biosensor Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030691 Authors: Rosa Bustos Carlos Zapata Efraín Esteban Julio-César García Edwin Jáuregui Diego Jaimes This study describes the development of an immunosensory label-free quantification methodology based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and its applicability in measuring/evaluating therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody (adalimumab) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The experimental parameters evaluated in this study were immobilising ligands by pre-concentration assays, sensor surface regeneration, ascertaining the method’s sensitivity and correlating the results from quantifying plasma samples by ELISA immunoassay. The results showed that TNF-α quantification values (in RU) were significantly different when comparing patients (~50–250 RU) to controls (~10–20 RU). Likewise, there was 0.97 correlation for patients and 0.91 for healthy volunteers using SPR and ELISA comparison methodologies. SPR immunosensory detection provided a precise, sensitive strategy, along with real-time determination, for quantifying adalimumab, having great potential for clinical routine regarding TDM.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 689: An Energy-Efficient Approach to Enhance Virtual Sensors Provisioning in Sensor Clouds Environments Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030689 Authors: Marcus Lemos Raimir Filho Ricardo Rabêlo Carlos de Carvalho Douglas Mendes Valney Costa Virtual sensors provisioning is a central issue for sensors cloud middleware since it is responsible for selecting physical nodes, usually from Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) of different owners, to handle user’s queries or applications. Recent works perform provisioning by clustering sensor nodes based on the correlation measurements and then selecting as few nodes as possible to preserve WSN energy. However, such works consider only homogeneous nodes (same set of sensors). Therefore, those works are not entirely appropriate for sensor clouds, which in most cases comprises heterogeneous sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose ACxSIMv2, an approach to enhance the provisioning task by considering heterogeneous environments. Two main algorithms form ACxSIMv2. The first one, ACASIMv1, creates multi-dimensional clusters of sensor nodes, taking into account the measurements correlations instead of the physical distance between nodes like most works on literature. Then, the second algorithm, ACOSIMv2, based on an Ant Colony Optimization system, selects an optimal set of sensors nodes from to respond user’s queries while attending all parameters and preserving the overall energy consumption. Results from initial experiments show that the approach reduces significantly the sensor cloud energy consumption compared to traditional works, providing a solution to be considered in sensor cloud scenarios.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 688: Floating Gate, Organic Field-Effect Transistor-Based Sensors towards Biomedical Applications Fabricated with Large-Area Processes over Flexible Substrates Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030688 Authors: Stefano Lai Fabrizio Viola Piero Cosseddu Annalisa Bonfiglio Organic Field-Effect Transistors (OFETs) are attracting a rising interest for the development of novel kinds of sensing platforms. In this paper, we report about a peculiar sensor device structure, namely Organic Charge-Modulated Field-Effect Transistor (OCMFET), capable of operating at low voltages and entirely fabricated with large-area techniques, i.e., inkjet printing and chemical vapor deposition, that can be easily upscaled to an industrial size. Device fabrication is described, and statistical characterization of the basic electronic parameters is reported. As an effective benchmark for the application of large-area fabricated OCMFET to the biomedical field, its combination with pyroelectric materials and compressible capacitors is discussed, in order to employ the proposed device as a temperature pressure sensor. The obtained sensors are capable to operate in conditions which are relevant in the biomedical field (temperature in the range of 18.5–50 °C, pressure in the range of 102–103 Pa) with reproducible and valuable performances, opening the way for the fabrication of low-cost, flexible sensing platforms.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2018-02-27
    Description: Sensors, Vol. 18, Pages 686: An Amperometric Biosensor for the Determination of Bacterial Sepsis Biomarker, Secretory Phospholipase Group 2-IIA Using a Tri-Enzyme System Sensors doi: 10.3390/s18030686 Authors: Nik Nik Mansor Tan Leong Eka Safitri Dedi Futra Nurul Ahmad Dian Nasuruddin Azlin Itnin Ida Zaini Khaizurin Arifin Lee Heng Nurul Hassan A tri-enzyme system consisting of choline kinase/choline oxidase/horseradish peroxidase was used in the rapid and specific determination of the biomarker for bacterial sepsis infection, secretory phospholipase Group 2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA). These enzymes were individually immobilized onto the acrylic microspheres via succinimid