Calculus of variations
modified quasilinearization algorithm
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract This paper considers the numerical solution of optimal control problems involving a functionalI subject to differential constraints, nondifferential constraints, and terminal constraints. The problem is to find the statex(t), the controlu(t), and the parameter π so that the functional is minimized, while the constraints are satisfied to a predetermined accuracy. A modified quasilinearization algorithm is developed. Its main property is the descent property in the performance indexR, the cumulative error in the constraints and the optimality conditions. Modified quasilinearization differs from ordinary quasilinearization because of the inclusion of the scaling factor (or stepsize) α in the system of variations. The stepsize is determined by a one-dimensional search on the performance indexR. Since the first variation δR is negative, the decrease inR is guaranteed if α is sufficiently small. Convergence to the solution is achieved whenR becomes smaller than some preselected value. In order to start the algorithm, some nominal functionsx(t),u(t), π and nominal multipliers λ(t), ρ(t), μ must be chosen. In a real problem, the selection of the nominal functions can be made on the basis of physical considerations. Concerning the nominal multipliers, no useful guidelines have been available thus far. In this paper, an auxiliary minimization algorithm for selecting the multipliers optimally is presented: the performance indexR is minimized with respect to λ(t), ρ(t), μ. Since the functionalR is quadratically dependent on the multipliers, the resulting variational problem is governed by optimality conditions which are linear and, therefore, can be solved without difficulty. To facilitate the numerical solution on digital computers, the actual time θ is replaced by the normalized timet, defined in such a way that the extremal arc has a normalized time length Δt=1. In this way, variable-time terminal conditions are transformed into fixed-time terminal conditions. The actual time τ at which the terminal boundary is reached is regarded to be a component of the parameter π being optimized. The present general formulation differs from that of Ref. 3 because of the inclusion of the nondifferential constraints to be satisfied everywhere over the interval 0⩽t⩽1. Its importance lies in that (i) many optimization problems arise directly in the form considered here, (ii) there are problems involving state equality constraints which can be reduced to the present scheme through suitable transformations, and (iii) there are some problems involving inequality constraints which can be reduced to the present scheme through the introduction of auxiliary variables. Numerical examples are presented for the free-final-time case. These examples demonstrate the feasibility as well as the rapidity of convergence of the technique developed in this paper.
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