Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Call number: C100:54
    Keywords: Drug Utilization / trends ; Germany
    Pages: xv, 1134 p. : ill.
    ISBN: 9783662590454
    Signatur Availability
    C100:54 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Call number: C070:8
    Keywords: Drug Utilization / trends ; Germany
    Pages: xiv, 1114 p.
    ISBN: 978-3-642-13379-4
    Signatur Availability
    C070:8 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Call number: E130:45
    Keywords: Corporation law ; Germany
    Edition: 3., aktualisierte Aufl.
    ISBN: 978-3-540-78456-2
    Signatur Availability
    E130:45 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Call number: QZ200:315(4)/1 ; S020:121 ; S020:130 ; M100:284
    Keywords: Neoplasms / drug therapy ; Palliative Care ; Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology ; Oncology Services, Hospitals / directories / Germany ; Neoplasms ; Germany ; directories
    Pages: lv, 2603, 99 p. : ill.
    Edition: 4., völlig überarb. und erw. Aufl.
    ISBN: 3-540-20657-4
    Signatur Availability
    QZ200:315(4)/1 available
    S020:121 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    S020:130 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    M100:284 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Call number: QZ200:315(4)/2 ; S020:122 ; S020:131 ; M100:285
    Keywords: Palliative Care ; Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology ; Neoplasms / drug therapy ; Oncology Services, Hospitals / directories / Germany ; Neoplasms ; Germany ; directories
    Pages: xli p., p. 2606 - 5609, 96 p.
    Edition: 4., völlig überarb. und erw. Aufl.
    ISBN: 3-540-20657-4
    Signatur Availability
    QZ200:315(4)/2 available
    S020:122 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    S020:131 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    M100:285 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Unknown
    Berlin : Springer
    Call number: QH442.2:20 ; M040:40 ; M040:41
    Keywords: Zur Hausen, Harald ; Bioethical Issues ; Genomics ; Genetic Engineering ; Molecular Biology ; Evolution ; Neoplasms / popular works ; Religion and Medicine ; Ethics ; Philosophy ; Research Personnel ; DKFZ-publications ; Germany
    Pages: viii, 185 p.
    ISBN: 354042850X
    Signatur Availability
    QH442.2:20 available
    M040:40 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    M040:41 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Call number: QH442.2:22
    Keywords: Genetics, Human / legislation & jurisprudence ; Germany
    Pages: 145 p.
    ISBN: 3540438424
    Signatur Availability
    QH442.2:22 available
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Unknown
    Berlin : Springer
    Call number: 01-KID:552
    Keywords: Telemedicine / legislation & jurisprudence ; Germany
    Pages: x, 140 p.
    ISBN: 3-540-67927-8
    Signatur Availability
    01-KID:552 departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: breast neoplasms ; breastfeeding ; family history ; Germany ; population-based case–control study
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Epidemiological evidence which suggests that prolonged breastfeeding protects against breast cancer has accumulated in recent years. Issues with regard to the timing of breastfeeding and effect modification by correlates of breastfeeding and other risk factors of breast cancer remain unresolved. Methods: A population-based case–control family study of breast cancer among women diagnosed by the age of 50, conducted in two geographic areas in Germany, was used to evaluate the effect of breastfeeding on risk of breast cancer. Results: Among parous women in this study (553 cases, 1094 age-matched population controls), having ever breastfed a child for at least 1 month did not confer protection (odds ratio of 0.9 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8–1.2). However, risk of breast cancer significantly decreased with increasing duration of breastfeeding (p for trend = 0.01) and the estimated relative risk was 0.6 (95% CI 0.4–0.9) for 13–24 months of cumulative breastfeeding and 0.5 (95% CI 0.3–1.1) for 25 months or more. Risk was less related to number of children breastfed than to increasing average length of breastfeeding per child (p for trend = 0.03). Conclusions: The reduction in risk associated with duration of breastfeeding was not primarily due to breastfeeding the firstborn and more evident in women who were older ( 〉 25 years) when they first breastfed and among women who experienced a recent full-term pregnancy. Risks were modified somewhat by a first-degree family history of breast cancer whereby a greater reduction in risk per additional month of breastfeeding was observed among women with a family history than those without (0.9 vs. 1.0). The study results support a protective role of prolonged breastfeeding against the development of breast cancer in predominantly premenopausal women in Germany.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: benthic macroinvertebrates ; functional feeding groups ; disturbance ; metrics ; index ; Germany
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Six functional feeding group (FFG) indices applied in ecological assessment were tested for their accuracy in detecting impairment in 12 cases of disturbance on 11 streams in south-western Germany. Three metrics – percentage of predators, percentage of shredders and Rhithron-Ernährungstypen-Index RETI – performed well in small highland streams up to five m width. The FFG metrics were compared to the taxonomic measures `percentage of Chironomidae' and `percentage of ephemeropteran, plecopteran and trichopteran taxa' (EPT) used the U.S.A., and to a metric based on locomotion type (percentage of sessile taxa). As the implementation of such metrics implies the use of ecological data tables, some aspects of the pro and contra of European ecological lists published in recent years were critically assessed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    ISSN: 1573-2649
    Keywords: Factor analysis ; Germany ; New Zealand ; Oral health ; Poland ; Quality of life ; Reliability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A questionnaire designed to measure oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) in adults and children was assessed for its factorial structure and reliability using data from the Second International Collaborative Study on Oral Health Outcomes in New Zealand, Poland and Germany. Principal component analysis with orthogonal and oblique rotation was applied. The three-factor structure hypothesized for the children's questionnaire (self-reported oral disease symptoms, perceived oral well-being, social and physical functioning) was confirmed in New Zealand and Poland, and two self-reported oral disease symptom dimensions emerged in Germany. Five factors instead of the three hypothesized were identified for adults: two dimensions of symptoms were identified, and social and physical functioning appeared to be independent dimensions of OHRQOL. Similarity between the factors was demonstrated in all three countries. The reliability of the questionnaire ranged from moderate to excellent depending on the dimension and the country. These findings provide preliminary evidence of the cross-cultural stability of the OHRQOL questionnaire in New Zealand, Poland and Germany, for both children and adults. Further investigations by the present authors of the properties of the instrument in other samples will focus on demonstrating the stability and replicability of the factor structure identified here.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    ISSN: 1572-994X
    Keywords: hepatitis C virus ; sequence analysis ; variability ; anti-D ; full-length cDNA ; Germany
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) variability was analyzed based upon an isolate which had caused the infection of more than 2500 women in 1978/79. Genome consensus sequences of two isolates obtained from the infectious source (HCV-AD78) and from a chronic hepatitis patient 10 years after the acute infection were determined. The entire open reading frame (ORF) exhibited 3.2 × 10-3 nucleotide substitutions per site per year (Δnt). Core (0.7 × 10-3 Δnt) and NS5B (1.9 × 10-3 Δnt) were found to be most conserved genes, while E2 (4.7 × 10-3 Δnt) with hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) (23 × 10-3 Δnt) was the most variable followed by p7 (4.2 × 10-3 Δnt). In the entire ORF transitions were 4.5 times more frequent than transversions while for the HVR1 this bias was turned. As an indicator of relative selective pressure on the proteins the rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) were determined. The obtained values exceeded 1.0 only for E2 (dN/dS=1.3). A subdivision of the entire ORF into 88 overlapping sections, each containing 300 nucleotides, led to a more precise analysis of HCV diversity. Besides for E2 an increased variability was mainly detected for three other regions: (a) the C terminal neighbouring region of E2 including p7, (b) the genome fragment extending from approximately the middle of NS3 to NS4B, and (c) the segment corresponding to the C-terminus of the NS5A protein. The variable region in NS5A was situated carboxyterminal to the predicted interferon sensitivity determining region (ISDR). These results suggest which regions other than HVR1 might contribute to persistence of the virus by the mechanism of immunescape.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Costs ; Epidemiology ; Germany ; Hepatitis B
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Despite the widespread distribution of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the ongoing controversy about HBV immunization, surprisingly few published studies examined in detail the economic impact of HBV infection in Europe. Therefore, we investigated a cohort of 180 patients throughout Germany to evaluate the economic burden of HBV-associated disease. In 58 patients with acute and 122 patients with chronic HBV infection, cost-consuming events including direct medical costs and work-loss costs were documented. The direct costs were DM 7702 (95% confidence interval (CI): 5473–9931) for each acute HBV infection and DM 4247 (CI: 1601–6893) per patient-year of chronic HBV infection, with marked differences between different stages of HBV disease. The derived overall costs (1997 price levels) per year were DM 10,018 (CI: 7613–12,421) and DM 4860 (CI: 2185–7536), respectively. Based on crude population-based estimates (30,000 acute and 420,000 chronic HBV cases), we calculated the total HBV-related costs in Germany to exceed DM 1200 millions in 1997 (CI: 924.2–1536.7), with the treatment of patients with chronic active HBV disease as the major cost determinant. Previously published data from Germany probably overestimated the financial impact of acute HBV infection. In summary, our results illustrate the ongoing economic importance of this potentially life-threatening, but preventable disease and support the call for more accurate HBV surveillance and control in Germany.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    ISSN: 1615-6722
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Cholelithiasis ; Cholezystektomie ; Epidemiologie ; Prävalenz ; Key words Cholelithiasis ; Cholecystectomy ; Epidemiology ; Prevalence ; Germany
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Study Objective: The prevalence of gallstone disease, time trends in the frequency of cholecystectomies and risk factors for the occurrence of cholelithiasis were examined in a cross-sectional population study. Methods: The survey was based on a random sample from the populations of 4 regions in Germany, stratified by region, age and sex. Information on the frequency of gallstone disease and on potential risk factors were collected by standardized interviews. For the statistical analysis, multiple logistic regression was used. Results: Overall, 1,085 persons were interviewed. The age-standardized prevalence of known gallstones was 4.2% for men and 14.5% for women. The frequency of cholecystectomy almost tripled in women from 1985 to 1994 as compared to 1975 to 1984 despite a decreasing trend in gallstone diagnoses in the same time period. No such trend was apparent in men. In men, age, body weight, changes in body weight, diabetes and use of corticosteroids were identified as risk factors for gallstone disease. In women, gallstone disease was also associated with body weight, changes in body weight and age, and, in addition, the number of births. An inverse association with gallstone disease was found for use of oral contraceptives and level of education in women.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Studienziel: Prävalenz des Gallensteinleidens, zeitliche Trends in der Häufigkeit von Cholezystektomien und Risikofaktoren für die Entwicklung von Gallensteinen wurden in einer bevölkerungsbezogenen Studie in vier deutschen Regionen erfasst. Methoden: Als Studienpopulation diente eine nach Region, Alter und Geschlecht stratifizierte Zufallsstichprobe aus den Bevölkerungen von Hamburg, Bremen, Essen und dem Saarland, die als Kontrollgruppe für eine multizentrische Fallkontrollstudie zwischen 1995 und 1997 durch standardisierte Interviews befragt wurde. Die statistische Analyse erfolgte mittels multipler logistischer Regression. Ergebnisse: Ingesamt wurden 1 085 Personen befragt. Die altersstandardisierte Gallensteinprävalenz für die 35– bis 69-Jährigen betrug 4,2% bei den Männern und 14,5% bei den Frauen. Die Häufigkeit der Cholezystektomien hat sich bei den Frauen im Zeitraum von 1985 bis 1994 verdreifacht im Vergleich zu 1975 bis 1984, trotz einer abnehmenden Tendenz bei den Gallensteindiagnosen im gleichen Zeitraum. Bei den Männern war dieser Trend nicht zu beobachten. Als Risikofaktoren für das Auftreten von Gallensteinen wurden für Männer höheres Alter, Körpergewicht und Gewichtsschwankungen, Diabetes mellitus und Corticoideinnahme identifiziert. Bei den Frauen zeigten sich eine ansteigende Häufigkeit mit der Anzahl der Geburten und mit Gewicht, Gewichtsschwankungen und Alter sowie eine negative Assoziation mit dem Ausbildungsstand und der Einnahme oraler Kontrazeptiva.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Nervenarzt 71 (2000), S. 552-558 
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Epidemiologie ; Bulimia nervosa ; Anorexia nervosa ; “Binge-eating-Störung” ; Studierende ; Fragebogen ; Deutschland ; Key words Epidemiology ; Bulimia nervosa ; Anorexia nervosa ; Binge-eating disorder ; Students ; Questionnaire ; Germany
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract A sample of 507 social work students completed the Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE). Simulating diagnoses according to DSM-IV criteria, we found three women suffering from bulimia nervosa (BN). This represents a total prevalence of 0.6%, 0.8% in women, and 0.9% in female probands up to the age of 30 years. In the same way, we identified one case of anorexia nervosa (AN), i. e. a total prevalence of 0.2%, 0,3% in women, and 0.3% in female probands up to the age of 30. Nineteen students also fulfilled DSM-IV research criteria for binge-eating disorder (BED), showing a total prevalence of 3.7%, 3.8% in women, 3.5% in men, and 4.3% in female probands up to the age of 30. Thus, BED is the most common eating disorder and also occurs in men. In light of the association between weight discontent and eating disorders, suggestions are made for the management of overweight patients and both normal and underweight clients with eating disorders.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Von 507 Studierenden der Sozialarbeit oder -pädagogik wurde der Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE) ausgefüllt. Anhand von nach DSM-IV-Kriterien simulierten Diagnosen fanden wir 3 Frauen, die vermutlich an einer Bulimia nervosa (BN) litten. Das bedeutet eine Punktprävalenz für die Gesamtstichprobe von 0,6%, für alle Frauen von 0,8% und von 0,9% für Frauen bis zu 30 Jahren. Weiterhin identifizierten wir 19 Personen (3,7%), die DSM-IV-Forschungskriterien für die “Binge-eating-Störung” (“binge-eating disorder”, BED) erfüllten, 4 von 113 Männern (3,5%), 15 von 394 Frauen (3,8%) und 14 von 329 Frauen bis zu 30 Jahren (4,3%). DSM-IV-Anorexia nervosa (AN) entdeckten wir auf dieselbe Weise bei einer 30-jährigen Studentin. Das bedeutet eine Punktprävalenz für die Gesamtstichprobe von 0,2%, für alle Frauen von 0,3% und von 0,3% für Frauen bis zu 30 Jahren. Damit ist BED die häufigste Essstörung, und sie kommt auch bei Männern vor. Wegen des Zusammenhangs zwischen Unzufriedenheit mit dem Gewicht und gestörtem Essverhalten werden Hinweise für den Umgang mit Übergewichtigen generell sowie normal- und untergewichtigen Essgestörten gegeben.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-1254
    Keywords: Key words Growing season ; Phenology ; Climate ; Change ; Time series ; Europe ; Germany
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Abstract  Increases in air temperature due to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect can be detected easily in the phenological data of Europe within the last four decades because spring phenological events are particularly sensitive to temperature. Our new analysis of observational data from the International Phenological Gardens in Europe for the 1959–1996 period revealed that spring events, such as leaf unfolding, have advanced on average by 6.3 days (–0.21 day/year), whereas autumn events, such as leaf colouring, have been delayed on average by 4.5 days (+0.15 day/year). Thus, the average annual growing season has lengthened on average by 10.8 days since the early 1960s. For autumn events, differences between mean trends of species could not be detected, but for spring events there were differences between species, with the higher trends for leaf unfolding and flowering of shrubs indicating that changes in events occurring in the early spring are more distinct. These observed trends in plant phenological events in the International Phenological Gardens and results of other phenological studies in Europe, summarised in this study, are consistent with AVHRR satellite measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index from 1981 to 1991 and with an analysis of long-term measurements of the annual cycle of CO2 concentration in Hawaii and Alaska, also indicating a global lengthening of the growing season.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Unknown
    Berlin : Springer
    Call number: 08-AlMed
    Keywords: Economics, Medical ; Germany
    Pages: xviii, 544 p. : ill.
    Edition: 2., vollständig neu überarbeitete Aufl.
    ISBN: 3540672087
    Signatur Availability
    08-AlMed departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Trauma und Berufskrankheit 1 (1999), S. S5 
    ISSN: 1436-6274
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Behandlungsergebnisse ; Tracer-Diagnose ; Qualitätssicherung ; Key words Treatment result ; Tracer diag-noses ; Quality assurance ; Germany
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract In quality assurance we differentiate between external and internal quality assurance. Internal quality assurance is already in place in most large hospitals in Germany. Its positive effect as expressed in the title of this paper is unchallenged. External quality assurance, in contrast, is frequently seen in a critical light, and its potential for effecting any improvement in surgical results is often felt to be questionable. Since 1987 external quality assurance has been available uniformly throughout Baden-Württemberg for tracer diagnoses of inguinal hernia, cholelithiasis, carcinoma of the rectum, appendicitis, medial fracture of the femoral neck and per- and subtrochanteric fracture of the femur, and it has been a legal requirement since 1989. The multiple evaluations make it possible for the institutions and departments taking part to make a critical analysis of their own results and to compare them with those obtained in other institutions. Departments that have no opportunity of having their treatment results scientifically analysed stand particularly to benefit from external quality assurance.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Qualitätssicherung wird in eine externe und interne Qualitätssicherung unterschieden. Die interne Qualitätssicherung ist realisierter Bestandteil der meisten großen Krankenhäuser in Deutschland. Ihr positiver Effekt im Sinn des Titels ist unbestritten. Demgegenüber wird die externe Qualitätssicherung häufig kritisch betrachtet und ihr Wert für die Verbesserung chirurgischer Ergebnisse hinterfragt. Seit 1987 wird in Baden-Württemberg flächendeckend eine externe Qualitätssicherung für die Tracer-Diagnosen Leistenhernie, Cholelithiasis, Rektumkarzinom, Appendizitis, mediale Schenkelhalsfraktur und persubtrochantäre Oberschenkelfraktur angeboten. Seit 1989 ist die Teilnahme an dieser externen Qualitätssicherung gesetzlich verordnet. Durch eine Vielzahl von Auswertungen werden die teilnehmenden Kliniken in die Lage versetzt, ihre Ergebnisse kritisch zu analysieren und mit denen anderer Institutionen zu vergleichen. Insbesondere für Abteilungen ohne Möglichkeiten zur wissenschaftlichen Analyse ihrer Behandlungsergebnisse stellt die externe Qualitätssicherung eine Bereicherung dar.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    ISSN: 1437-1588
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Tuberkulose ; Epidemiologie ; Deutschland ; Osteuropa ; Weltweit ; Resistenzsituation ; DOTS ; Key words Tuberculosis ; Epidemiology ; Germany ; Eastern Europe ; Worldwide ; Resistance situation ; DOTS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary From a global viewpoint, tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases of our time. The situation in Germany, as in most comparable industrialized nations, is stable. The declining trend of previous years continued in 1997, when 11,163 people developed active tuberculosis – an incidence of 13.6/100,000. However, the tuberculosis problem cannot be restricted to one country, and Germany is particularly affected by trends in Eastern Europe and in the former Soviet countries. These countries experienced a marked increase of tuberculosis cases and resistant strains during recent years, a tendency which can only be countered by fast, well-aimed and efficient action in the affected areas. The industrialized nations in particular should consider financial and logistic contributions as their duty. Crucial for control of the tuberculosis situation within each country are registration and close observation of epidemiological trends, identification of high-risk groups, and continuation of established tuberculosis control measures.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Global gesehen ist die Tuberkulose heutzutage eine der wichtigsten Infektionskrankheiten. In Deutschland, wie auch in den meisten vergleichbaren Industrienationen, ist die Situation stabil. 1997 setzte sich der rückläufige Trend der letzten Jahre fort; es erkrankten 11.163 Menschen an einer aktiven Tuberkulose, entsprechend einer Inzidenz von 13,6/100.000. Die Tuberkulose ist jedoch ein grenzüberschreitendes Problem, insbesondere die Entwicklung in Osteuropa und den Ländern der ehemaligen Sowjetunion ist für Deutschland von Bedeutung. Hier zeigt sich in den letzten Jahren ein deutlicher Anstieg der Tuberkulosefälle und zudem auch eine Zunahme resistenter Erreger. Nur durch rasches, gezieltes und effizientes Handeln vor Ort besteht die Möglichkeit, diesem Trend entgegenzuwirken. Insbesondere die Industrienationen sind gefordert, finanziell und logistisch Unterstützung zu leisten. Entscheidend für die Kontrolle der Tuberkulosesituation im eigenen Land ist die Erfassung und aufmerksame Beobachtung aktueller epidemiologischer Trends, die Identifikation gefährdeter Personengruppen sowie die Aufrechterhaltung bewährter Tuberkulose-Bekämpfungsmaßnahmen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    ISSN: 1573-6628
    Keywords: Maternal mortality ; perinatal mortality ; neonatal mortality ; influence of health care systems ; politics and health care ; Germany ; East Berlin ; West Berlin ; preterm delivery ; perinatal interventions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: When perinatal medicine emerged as a new medical discipline in the 1960s, Berlin was as one of the world's leading centers. During that time, the city was separated into two parts, each fostering its own health care system. After the destruction of the Berlin Wall, it was possible to speak with the citizens of East Berlin and to access their database systems. This created the singular opportunity to objectively compare the development of perinatal care in both parts of Berlin. Methods: Rates of maternal, perinatal, and infant mortality as well as the rate of preterm deliveries were evaluated over time and between East and West Berlin. The timing of introduction of 20 specific perinatal interventions was evaluated across 18 hospitals with more than 500 deliveries (11 in West Berlin and 7 in East Berlin). Interviews were conducted with 100 gynecologists, 100 midwives, and 100 women who had recently delivered their first child from each side of the city regarding their opinions of the importance of these interventions for the quality of perinatal medicine and how they would distribute a budget to improve maternity care. Results: Maternal, perinatal, and infant mortality decreased in both parts of Berlin until 1990 (p〈0.0001), without significant differences between East and West Berlin, though the preterm delivery rate was slightly lower in East Berlin compared with West Berlin (p〈0.06). Some new clinical techniques and treatments—such as cardiotocography, ultrasound, tocolytic therapy, and peridural anesthesia—were introduced earlier in West Berlin. In contrast, certain public health measures—such as maternal transport, screening programs for diabetes, and support of breastfeeding—were introduced much earlier in East Berlin. There were significant differences between the beliefs of gynecologists, midwives, and mothers in East and West Berlin. In general, citizens of East Berlin were more enthusiastic about technological medical advances, whereas citizens of West Berlin were more supportive of public health and alternative methods. In addition, there were significant differences between female and male physicians in their beliefs about how to improve health care, regardless of whether they resided in East or West Berlin. Conclusions: The results of this study may serve as a basis for reflection on how different social circumstances and health care policies can influence the improvement of maternal and child health care.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: ANTHRAQUINONES ; ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI ; TUMORS ; INTESTINE ; LAXATIVE
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Current evidence suggests that aberrant cryptfoci (ACF) can be used to evaluate agents for theirpotential colon carcinogenic activity. The aim of thepresent study was to determine whether senna pod extract (SE) itself induces ACF and tumors in the ratcolon or increases the development of ACF and tumorsinduced by azoxymethane (AOM). A daily administration ofSE 10 mg/kg by mouth for 13-28 weeks produced a weak laxative effect but did not itself causethe appearance of ACF or tumors. The numbers of ACF andtumors induced by AOM were, however, increased by a doseof SE (100 mg/kg) able to induce chronic diarrhea over three months. These resultssuggest that SE does not cause the appearance of ACF ortumors in the rat colon nor does it have a promotingeffect when given to rats at a dose that produceslaxation (10 mg/kg), whereas a diarrhogenic dose (100mg/kg) increases the appearance of tumors induced byAOM.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    ISSN: 1573-0417
    Keywords: diatoms ; biogenic silica ; pigments ; biomass ; trophic state changes ; eutrophication ; Lake Constance ; Germany
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract In Lake Constance, phosphorus concentrations and the seasonal development of phytoplankton communities in water samples from the pelagic zone were regularly recorded since the 1950's. Before the 1950's, there were occasional investigations of plankton communities since 1896. We compared these data with the sedimentary record in two sediment cores. Then, the eutrophication history of Lake Constance was inferred from diatoms. The record of biogenic silica in the cores is discussed with respect to diatom biomass increase. Diatom assemblages in the sediment cores precisely reflected the pelagic diatom development for the period 1971--1992. Both sediment cores and the water samples have a high interannual variability of diatom assemblages. Below a sediment depth of 27 cm (AD 1920), more than 50% of the diatoms were partly corroded, and we limited the reconstruction of trophic state changes to the interval of 1920--1993. Oligotrophic conditions of Lake Constance were indicated by the dominance of various Cyclotella taxa from 1920 to 1940. Since 1939/1940, increasing abundance of it Tabellaria fenestrata showed oligotrophic to mesotrophic conditions. Between 1953 and 1956, increasing Stephanodiscus hantzschii and disappearing Cyclotella indicated advanced eutrophication and total phosphorus values ranged between 8--10 mg m-3 during turnover in late winter. Further eutrophication was shown by disappearing T. fenestrata and increasing S. minutulus in 1963. Maximum TP concentrations of 87 mg m-3 occurred in 1979/80 and was accompanied by increasing abundances of Aulacoseira granulata. From 1986 to 1992, reoccurrence of Tabellaria fenestrata and Cyclotella indicate some recovery of Lake Constance. Biogenic silica and diatom abundances were similar among cores but indicate a 3--4 fold increase of diatom biomass only. This was far below the estimate of biomass increase from sedimentary pigment data (25 fold) and the estimate of phytoplankton data from the literature (70 fold).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    ISSN: 1573-0417
    Keywords: Lake Arendsee ; Germany ; freeze-core ; eutrophication ; calcite ; near-infrared reflectance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The present study explored whether rapid, non-destructive near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) could complement conventional paleolimnological and chemical analyses of sediment cores for greater efficiency and cost-effectiveness. The study used a 47-cm long freeze-core from the deepest point in Lake Arendsee, Mecklenburg Plain in northern Germany taken in 1993 to elucidate eutrophication history and to identify the pre-impact algal communities in this system. The core had been analyzed for total C, CO32-, N, P, and diatoms. Thirty-four of the 47 1-cm thick core sections were scanned by NIRS and calibrations were developed for total C, CO32-, N, P, N:P, total diatoms, and three dominant diatom species with different sedimentary profiles (Stephanodiscus binatus, Cyclotella rossii, and Fragilaria crotonensis). Total C ranged from 167-194 mg g-1 dry weight (d.w.), CO32- from 31.3-66.4 mg g-1 d. w., N from 9.9-17.4 mg g-1 d. w., and P from 0.7-6.0 mg g-1 d. w. Calibrations developed using multiple linear regression between NIR-predicted values and chemically-measured values were excellent for P (r2 〉 0.99), good for C, N, and N:P (r2 〉 0.93), and satisfactory for CO32-(r2 〉 0.8). Calibrations for total diatoms and for individual species were highly statistically significant (r2 between 0.54 and 0.69). Although the calibrations are not useful for reliable predictions of the content of diatoms in the samples, the results indicate that NIRS detects spectral properties associated with diatoms or lake conditions when they were present, and that further work is warranted to attempt to improve the results. The study demonstrated that rapid, non-destructive, simultaneous analysis of total C, CO32-, N, P, and N:P in sediment cores is feasible.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: benthic macroinvertebrates ; upstream migration ; fishways ; barriers ; Germany
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Upstream movements and migrations of benthic macroinvertebrates are an important component of running water dynamics. Many lotic organisms perform upstream movements at some stage in their life-cycle. We investigated whether a boulder ramp and a concrete bypass fishway on two streams in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, are successfully used by benthic invertebrates to reach upstream areas. We compared macroinvertebrate distribution at sites upstream and downstream of the fishways, rated the fishways according to their constructional features and conducted migration experiments with marked Gammaridae in the passages. The number of taxa and densities of macroinvertebrates did not significantly differ between upstream and downstream sites in both rivers. Constructional features and the results of the mark-recapture experiments indicated that the boulder ramp allows upstream migrations in principal, whereas the bypass is more difficult for macroinvertebrates to ascend. Both fishways immediately exit into an impoundment, which is a potential barrier for migrating invertebrates. High average current velocities, lack of lenitic banks and sheltered interstices, as well as problems caused by the operation of a power plant are factors explaining why the Enz River bypass is only marginally functional for invertebrates. The investigation concludes that in constructing fishways suitable for upstream movements of lotic invertebrates, more attention should be paid to their specific requirements.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    ISSN: 1439-0361
    Keywords: pesticides ; DDE ; polychlorinated biphenyls ; Accipitridae ; Germany
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Insgesamt wurden 60 Resteier des Rotmilans in drei Untersuchungsgebieten im südlichen Teil des Bundeslandes Sachsen-Anhalt zwischen 1987–1993 gesammelt und auf elf persistente Chlorkohlenwasserstoff-Verbindungen und Quecksilber sowie z. T. auf radioaktive Nuklide untersucht: 1. Die Eiproben waren hauptsächlich mit p,p'-DDE, PCB 138, 153 und 180 sowie Hg belastet, jedoch auf einem für die Reproduktion unbedenklichem Niveau. 2. Proben aus Industrie- und Großstadtnähe waren signifikant höher mit den Industrieabprodukten HCB, β-HCH und höherchlorierten PCBs kontaminiert. Proben aus landwirtschaftlich intensiv genutzten Gebieten enthielten mehr p,p'-DDT. p,p'-DDE, Hg und γ-HCH zeigten keine signifikanten Unterschiede in ihrer räumlichen Verteilung. 3. Da die Spitzenwerte der einzelnen Verbindungen in verschiedenen Jahren auftreten, sind die Trends unterschiedlich und zeigen Abnahmen über den gesamten Untersuchungszeitraum hinweg (PCB 52), Abnahmen erst ab 1990/91 (HCB, β- und γ-HCH, Hg) bzw. Anstiege nach vorangegangenem Kontaminationsrückgang (höherchlorierte PCB, p,p'-DDE). Mögliche Ursachen werden diskutiert. 4. Die Untersuchung von vier Eiinhalten von 1988 auf radioaktive Nuklide (Cäsium-Isotope) verlief negativ.
    Notes: Summary Sixty infertile Red Kite eggs were collected in three regions in the southern part of the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt. Their contents were tested for eleven chlorinated hydrocarbons, mercury and partly for radionuclids (radiocesium): 1. The egg samples on average contained p,p'-DDE, PCB 138, PCB 153, PCB 180 and Hg in low concentrations. 2. The samples from an industrial and urban region contained significantly more HCB, β-HCH and high chlorinated PCBs. The contamination of p,p'-DDT was on a higher level in eggs from farmed areas. 3. The trends of the chemicals were different between 1987 and 1993. PCB 52 shows a significant decrease in this time and HCB, β- und γ-HCH, Hg only since 1990/91. p,p'-DDE, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180 increased up to 1992, after contamination decreased. Possible reasons are discussed. 4. The contents of four eggs from 1988 did not include radiocesium.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of sexual behavior 27 (1998), S. 561-580 
    ISSN: 1573-2800
    Keywords: SEXUAL HARASSMENT ; RISK ; SEXISM ; ATTRACTIVENESS ; SEXROLE
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Abstract A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment,the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model,and the sexrole spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sexrole). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    ISSN: 1572-9915
    Keywords: AGRO-ECOLOGY ; DEVELOPMENT ; KARAKORAM ; PAKISTAN ; RISK
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Ethnic Sciences
    Notes: Abstract Despite emerging appreciations of contextual knowledge systems, elements of diversity in mountain farming systems are often characterized as irrational and as obstacles to achieving the production goals of 'modernized' agriculture. In this paper, I suggest that these negative representations are produced at least in part as a function of the normalization of a large-scale agriculture as rational. A case-study of a mountain farming system in the Karakoram mountains of northern Pakistan is presented to expose a contextual rationality in relation to risk minimization and to challenge characterizations of this system as 'backward,' unsophisticated and irrational. Specifically I examine the risk mediating characteristics of practices such as field dispersal, delayed planting, intercropping, and polyvarietal planting and conclude that the characteristic feature of this local farming system is a contextually rational diversity. This conflicts with the modernist paradigm of rationality and economic growth subscribed to by a local development agency. Intervention based on ill-informed interpretations of “traditional” practice have the potential to increase vulnerability of villagers by failing to appreciate the contextual rationality of diversity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    ISSN: 1572-9915
    Keywords: RISK ; DIVERSIFICATION ; GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM ; SOUTHWESTERN PREHISTORY ; POPULATION PRESSURE
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Ethnic Sciences
    Notes: Abstract Diversification in agricultural techniques is a common strategy of risk minimization in nonindustrial societies. However, attribution of suboptimal behavior to risk minimization without consideration of the structure of risk and its environmental context obscures the complexity of agricultural decision-making. The productive potential of a prehistoric agricultural system that includes floodwater and dry farming and stream irrigation is modeled using Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis to evaluate whether diversification occurred as a response to population pressure or as a risk buffering strategy. The estimated productive potential of floodwater and irrigation farming is sufficient to have supported the estimated local population, suggesting that risk buffering is a more likely explanation. Floodwater farming and stream irrigation form a dual strategy that is effective at reducing risk. However, the potential of dry farming for subsistence production is insufficient for buffering more than a 2% productive shortfall. We propose that, within this generally risk-averse economy, dry farming was oriented toward the production of nonsubsistence crops such as cotton.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Allergic rhinitis ; Asthma ; Atopy ; Epidemiology ; Germany ; Respiratory symptoms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Studies comparing respiratory health of residents in the areas of former East and West Germany have shown higher rates of asthma and allergies in children and young adults in former West Germany. It has been speculated that some factors associated with western lifestyle may be related to higher rates of atopic diseases among residents of former West Germany. We examined if the prevalence rates of self-reported asthma and nasal allergies in adults converged between the areas of former East and West Germany five years after re-unification. During the years 1990–1992 and 1994–1995 two independently drawn random samples of more than 3,000 subjects between the ages of 20 to 44 years answered a screening questionnaire of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in Erfurt (East Germany) and in Hamburg (West Germany). The prevalence rates of asthma attacks, asthma medication use, allergic rhinitis, and wheezing remained stable in Hamburg but increased significantly in Erfurt approaching those of Hamburg. The data indicate that there is a tendency for the prevalence rates of self-reported allergic rhinitis and asthma-related respiratory symptoms in the eastern part of Germany to increase to West-German levels. It is not yet clear if this is due to a true increase in morbidity or only to a higher awareness for these diseases among doctors and the public.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    ISSN: 1824-3096
    Keywords: Genetic markers ; isolation ; consanguinity ; Germany
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This study imparts and discusses the results of two random sample studies of 23 hemogenetic systems (blood groups, polymorphisms of serum proteins and erythrocyte enzymes) in an isolate in the Upper Swabian area and in Ulm and its surroundings. The isolate is in an area known as the Lutherische Berge (Lutheran Mountains). It is a Protestant diaspora amidst an almost exclusively Catholic population. For the purpose of comparison, data has been drawn upon from the regions of Freiburg and Düsseldorf. Through the comparison of the four random samples, clear differences between the allele and haplotype frequencies resp. in the isolate population compared to the three other large city populations become evident. This fact is also reflected in the dendrogram for genetic distances according to Rogers. In addition, the possible causes for these differentiations are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    ISSN: 1573-1626
    Keywords: Archaeomagnetism ; Secular variation ; Germany ; Kiln
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A sequence of 25 bread-kiln floors was sampled for archaeomagnetic measurements in a bakehouse in the old town of Lübeck, Germany. Due to archaeological dating this kiln floor sequence has been built up presumably from the late 13 th to the 18 th century. The primary magnetisation component is carried by magnetite (maghemite) and is very stable. Small viscous magnetisation components could be removed easily. The preliminary results of characteristic remanent magnetisation for 23 of the kiln-floor layers show clearly the trend of the geomagnetic secular variation expected for that time interval. By comparison with French and British master curves, the kiln-floor sequence started around 1425 and lasted until 1775 AD. Presently, confidence circles are relatively large and need refineing by measuring more samples, which have already been collected. Together with 14 C dating that can be determined from the charcoals found in the lowest layers and thermoluminescence dating of the layers, we expect to obtain, for the first time, a secular variation curve for Northern Germany covering the time interval from 1400 to 1800 years AD.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Hautarzt 49 (1998), S. 826-834 
    ISSN: 1432-1173
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Malignes Melanom ; Prävention ; Australien ; USA ; Großbritannien ; Deutschland ; Key words Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma ; Prevention ; Australia ; USA ; Great Britain ; Germany
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Dermatologists and physicians of other specialities, as well as other health professionals have made tremendous efforts to improve the public education (primary prevention) and early detection (secondary prevention) of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) especially during the last decade. In Australia, the country with the highest incidence of CMM in the world, the first public and effective campaigns were already carried out in the sixties. Through the public campaigns, the knowledge increased about skin cancer, and the attitude and behavior toward sun exposure changed in the population. In the USA and Great Britain too, effective public campaigns were carried out in great numbers and extensiveexperience was acquired. In Germany, prevention campaigns were first run in regional areas. In 1989, the Commission of Early Detection and Prevention of Melanoma of the German Dermatological Society launched nation-wide campaigns. These activities were complemented by regional campaigns in the 1990s. The analysis of previous campaigns demonstrates that single activities are less effective and repeated campaigns are necessary to increase knowledge about skin and to change attitudes and behavior towards UV-exposure. In addition, the development of sun protective clothings and structural changes, e.g. creation of shady places around open-air swimming pools, should be aimed for. Physicians of other specialities and other health professionals should also be included in prevention campaigns.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Beim malignen Melanom der Haut wurden insbesondere im letzten Jahrzehnt von Dermatologen und Ärzten anderer Fachrichtungen sowie weiteren Angehörigen von Gesundheitsberufen große Anstrengungen unternommen, die Aufklärung (primäre Prävention) und Früherkennung (sekundäre Prävention) zu verbessern. Die erste öffentlichkeitswirksame Kampagne zur Prävention des malignen Melanoms wurde bereits in den 60er Jahren in Australien, dem Land mit der weltweit höchsten Melanominzidenz, durchgeführt. Durch Aufklärung vermehrte sich das Wissen über Hautkrebs, und Einstellung und Verhalten der Bevölkerung in bezug auf die Sonne änderten sich. Auch in den USA und in Großbritannien wurden zahlreiche öffentlichkeitswirksame Aktivitäten durchgeführt und umfangreiche Erfahrungen gesammelt. In Deutschland wurden Aufklärungsaktionen zunächst auf regionaler Ebene durchgeführt. 1989 initiierte die Kommission zur Früherkennung und Prävention des Melanoms der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft bundesweite Kampagnen. Regionale Aktionen ergänzten diese Aktivitäten in den 90er Jahren. Die Analyse bisheriger Aktionen zeigt, daß einmalige Aktivitäten wenig wirksam und daß Wiederholungen von öffentlichkeitswirksamen Präventionskampagnen notwendig sind, um das Wissen in der Bevölkerung über Hautkrebs zu verbessern und Einstellungen und Verhalten gegenüber der UV-Exposition zu ändern. Ergänzend hierzu sollten die Entwicklung von Textilien mit hohem Lichtschutzfaktor und strukturelle Veränderungen, z.B. Schaffung von Schattenplätzen in Schwimmbädern, angestrebt werden. In Präventionskampagnen sollten auch vermehrt Ärzte anderer Disziplinen sowie weitere Gesundheitsberufe mit einbezogen werden.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    ISSN: 1573-3599
    Keywords: genetic counseling ; Germany ; nondirectiveness ; abortion ; disability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Abstract As part of an international study of ethics and genetics, we present a comparison between survey responses of 43 East German and 212 West German geneticists to anonymous questionnaires. Both groups indicated that the experience of the Third Reich has impacted the genetics profession in Germany today. East German geneticists reported more directive counseling practices after prenatal diagnosis for 10 of 26 conditions than those from West Germany. When asked to give their personal opinions about pregnancy termination, East Germans were more accepting of abortion than their West German colleagues for 7 of 24 fetal indications. In addition, there were significant differences between the two sample groups for 8 questions on the perception of disability and society. Discussions with German geneticists suggest that, while both groups were affected by Germany's experience of Nazism, different abortion laws, political systems, and ideas about the doctor-patient relationship in former East and West Germany may account for discrepancies in reported genetic counseling practices and in attitudes toward abortion and disability.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    ISSN: 1573-5133
    Keywords: Huso huso ; Acipenser nudiventris ; A. stellatus ; A. gueldenstaedti ; A. ruthenus ; anadromy ; Romania ; Serbia ; Croatia ; Hungary ; Slovakia ; Austria ; Germany
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Of the six species of sturgeons native to the Danube basin, five occurred in the upper and middle Danube. Among anadromous sturgeons were the large winter races of beluga, Huso huso, Russian sturgeon, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, and stellate sturgeon, A. stellatus, which ascended the middle, and sometimes also the upper Danube, to spawn. Due to overfishing, followed by severe habitat alteration including damming and pollution, these anadromous sturgeons are critically endangered or extirpated from the upper and middle Danube. Acipenser gueldenstaedtii and A. nudiventris are represented only as resident non-migratory races with very small populations. The most abundant and widely distributed species is the sterlet, A. ruthenus, although it is presently limited to the middle Danube. Its population increased in some sections of the middle Danube during the past 15 years, presumably because of improving water quality, but this species remains at risk because of continuing habitat degradation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    ISSN: 1573-0956
    Keywords: Eifel ; Germany ; Holocene ; lacustrine sediments ; solar forcing ; varves ; Weichselian
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Annually laminated sediments from Lake Holzmaar (Germany) provide high resolution sedimentological and palaeoenvironmental data of the last 22,500 years. Weichselian periglacial varves and Holocene organic varves indicate different depositional environments. For the best preserved sections from both parts, spectral analyses were performed in order to detect cyclic fluctuations in varve thickness. Weichselian varves are dominated by an 88 year periodicity. Linear spectral analysis of Holocene varves provides no significant cyclicity. But, supposing nonlinear transformations of the solar signal through the Lake Holzmaar ecosystem during the Holocene, an adequate nonlinear spectral analysis method was able to detect periodicities of 11, 88, and 208 years. The existence of these cyclicities, comparable to the solar activity fluctuations, give further evidence for the existence of a sun-climate relationship, based on a not yet completely understood mechanism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Case-control study ; child ; electromagnetic fields ; Germany ; leukemia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The investigation of an association between increased exposure toresidential extremely-low frequency elec-tromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) andchildhood leukemia was part of a population-based case-control study carriedout between 1992 and 1995 in the northwestern part of Germany. A total of 129children with leukemia and 328 controls participated in the EMF-study.Exposure assessment comprised measurements of the magnetic field over 24hours in the child's bedroom at the residence where the child had been livingfor the longest period before the date of diagnosis, and spot measurements atall residences where the child had been living for more than one year. Themedian of the 24h-measurement in the child's bedroom was regarded as the mostvalid exposure variable. For children exposed to more than 0.2 μT, anelevated but not significant odds ratio (OR) was observed (OR = 3.2, 95percent confidence interval = 0.7-14.9). These figures are based on only fourleukemia cases and three controls since only 1.5 percent of the studypopulation was classified as highly exposed. Exploratory analyses revealedORs that were not statistically significantly increased for othercharacteristics of the magnetic field at varying cut-points. The results arecomparable with those from other studies. Although not statisticallysignificant, they may indicate a positive association between EMF andchildhood leukemia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    Call number: QZ202:192(3) ; 08-ONK ; QZ202:192(3)/Mag
    Keywords: Neoplasms / mortality ; DKFZ-publications ; Germany
    Pages: vi, 736 p. : ill.
    Edition: 3. Aufl.
    ISBN: 3-540-62914-9
    Signatur Availability
    QZ202:192(3) available
    08-ONK departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    QZ202:192(3)/Mag departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cohort study ; dioxin exposure ; Germany ; lung cancer ; males ; occupation ; total cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In an occupational cohort study, the relation between exposure to phenoxy herbicides, and contaminants (dioxins and furans) and cancer mortality was investigated. A total of 2,479 workers from four plants in Germany were included, with a mortality follow-up until the end of 1989 (for one cohort, until the end of 1992). A total of 484 deaths were recorded yielding a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 101 (95 percent confidence interval [CI]=92–111) for total mortality, and an SMR of 119 (CI=100–141) for all malignant diseases. A variety of herbicides was produced, including those which are known to have been contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). High dioxin and furan exposure (in particular, exposure to TCDD, but also to higher chlorinated dioxins) had occurred in two of the four plants as shown by blood-fat measurements in a sample of workers. Mortality from all neoplasms increased with latency and was highest in the largest plant where the highest TCDD blood levels were recorded. An increased mortality in the total cohort from respiratory cancer (SMR=154, CI=115–202), cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx (SMR=295, CI=135–560), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SMR=326, CI=119–710) was observed. Our findings are consistent with results from other cohorts which showed an increased overall cancer mortality and mortality of respiratory cancer after long-term exposure to these phenoxy herbicides and dioxins.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    ISSN: 1617-6278
    Keywords: Late Neolithic ; Bronze Age ; Germany ; Prehistoric farming ; Cultural landscape
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Archaeology , Biology
    Notes: Abstract Botanical on-site and off-site data relating to Late Neolithic and Bronze Age settlement phases in south-western Germany are compared with a view to reconstructing economic and environmental change. The large differences between the Neolithic and Bronze Age as regards forest composition, crops and crop weeds, and charcoal input are explained in terms of different types of agronomic systems and hence cultural landscape. In the Late Neolithic, shifting cultivation, involving slash and burn, was practised with the result that the landscape was largely dominated by tall shrubs. In the Bronze Age there were more or less permanent arable fields with only short fallow phases. The agronomic system and the resulting cultural landscape was already similar to that of the medieval period and, especially, early medieval time.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Bridging studies ; Ethical concerns; psychopharmacological research ; psychiatric patients ; Germany
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Psychopharmaka ; Altarzneimittel ; Nachzulassung ; Arzneimittelgesetz ; Aufbereitung ; Key words CNS-active compounds ; drug market ; Germany ; existing medicines ; Psychiatry ; Neurology ; Anesthesiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Between 1984 and 1994 the legally required task force “Advisory Committee to the German Federal Health Office in Matters of Approval and Review of Existing Medicines B3-Psychiatry, Neurology, Anesthesiology” analyzed and evaluated the CNS-active compounds that until then had only possessed a fictitious registration. The evaluation was related to efficacy and safety within the indications claimed by the producers. Reviews and monographies had to be established for 445 basic compounds. One hundred positive and 30 negative monographies were published. “Negative” indicates that none of the claimed indications could be accepted by the committee. It is regrettable that the Federal Health Agency did not notice a considerable part of these negative evaluations until the present date. The process of the “Aufbereitung” was stopped abruptly by the 5th amendment of the German Drug Law in August 1994, – a very doubtful political decision with respect to drug safety in this country.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Von 1984–1994 wurden durch die entsprechend § 25 Abs. 7 Arzneimittelgesetz (AMG) gesetzlich berufene Aufbereitungskommission B3 (Psychiatrie, Neurologie, Anästhesie) beim ehemaligen Bundesgesundheitsamt in Berlin die bis dahin nur fiktiv zugelassenen sog. Altarzneimittel der betreffenden Indikationsgebiete kritisch hinsichtlich Wirksamkeit und Unbedenklichkeit bewertet. Insgesamt handelte es sich um 445 Grundstoffe, für die Gutachten zu erstellen und Monographien zu publizieren waren. Neben etwa 100 sog. Positivmonographien wurden über 30 sog. Negativmonographien zu Stoffen veröffentlicht, in denen keine der vom pharmazeutischen Unternehmer beanspruchten Indikationen akzeptiert werden konnte. Bedauerlicherweise hat die Bundesoberbehörde einen Teil dieser Negativbewertungen bis heute nicht am Markt umgesetzt. Zum anderen wurde durch die 5. Novelle des AMG im August 1994 das gesamte laufende Aufbereitungsverfahren mittels Aufbereitungskommissionen abrupt beendet; eine für die Arzneimittelsicherheit bedenkliche politische Entscheidung.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    Call number: QZ200:436
    Keywords: Neoplasms ; Medical Records Systems, Computerized ; Documentation ; Medical Records / forms ; DKFZ-publications ; Germany
    Notes: Not kept up to date.
    Pages: loose-leaf
    ISBN: 3-540-58711-X
    Signatur Availability
    QZ200:436 available
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Hydrobiologia 267 (1993), S. 233-248 
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: Australia ; South Africa ; Saskatchewan ; Iran ; Germany ; thalassic saline waters ; athalassic saline waters ; chydorids ; salinity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cladocerans are essentially freshwater organisms, many of which have been able to penetrate slightly saline waters (up to 5‰ salinity), both thalassic and athalassic, some of which occur at high salinities, and a few of which, mostly non-chydorids, penetrate still higher salinities (15–30‰ and even higher) and may be confined to these salinities. Three previous studies from Saskatchewan, Iran, and Germany (the latter including thalassic waters) have been analyzed, and records for the athalassic saline waters of the World have been summarized; all results show a decline, at some point, in species number against increasing concentration of salinity. Examination of samples for 67 waterbodies in southern Australia and 167 in South Africa, covering the full salinity range over which cladocerans occur, reveals much the same relationships. Graphical analysis was carried out using salinity intervals defined along a logarithmically-scaled conductivity axis. The mean number of chydorid taxa per site was considerably greater in Australia than in South Africa, and this was true for both freshwater (〈 5 mScm−1) and saline (〉 5 mScm−1) sites. In both countries, the number of chydorid taxa per site showed little variation with conductivity over the freshwater range but declined rather abruptly at conductivities 〉 mScm−1. For South Africa, there was also some indication of reduced numbers of chydorid taxa in the most dilute (〈 0.2 mScm−1) waters. Non-chydorid taxa, which were analysed only on a generic basis, averaged much more numerous in Australian saline sites than in either South Africa saline sites or Australian freshwater ones. Mean number of non-chydorid taxa per site was about the same for Australian and South African freshwater sites. Plots of total number of taxa observed per conductivity interval had maxima in the 0.2–0.7 mScm−1 conductivity range and decreased at higher and lower conductivities. This trend to some extent only reflected the effect of the variation in number of sites per interval; a negative impact on chydorids of very low conductivities (〈0.2 mScm−1) is nevertheless suggested.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Cancer registry ; childhood cancer ; epidemiology ; Germany ; leukemia ; nuclear installations ; nuclear ; power plants ; risk assessment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The incidence of childhood malignancies in 20 areas surrounding major nuclear installations is compared with the incidence in matched control regions. The study is based on the registry of childhood malignancies in the Federal Republic of Germany and includes 1,610 cases which were diagnosed before 15 years of age from 1980 to 1990. The relative risk (RR) was 0.97 for all malignancies and 1.06 for acute leukemia in all regions within a 15 km radius of an installation. Increased RR was observed in subgroups for acute leukemia before five years of age and for lymphomas, especially in regions close to installations (〈5 km) which started operation before 1970. Most of this increase was attributable to an unexpectedly low incidence in the control regions which could not be explained by analyzing possible confounding factors. Using the same control regions, a comparable and even more pronounced increase of RRs was observed in regions where nuclear power plants have been projected.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Surgery today 22 (1992), S. 4-9 
    ISSN: 1436-2813
    Keywords: postgraduate education ; surgical research ; Germany ; state of the art
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In Germany at the very moment we have general surgery and 5 specialities, they are: traumatic, plastic and reconstructive, cardiac and central vessels as well as pediatric surgery. For qualification as a general surgeon one needs at least 6 years of straight training; two more years are necessary to qualify in one of the mentioned specialities. In some specialities one year of training can be taken into account for general surgery. The postgraduate education in each field requires a precisely defined kind and number of operations as well as an examination. There are some considerations in discussion, which should be outlined: Generally speaking this means, that the basis of 6 years of general surgery may be reduced to 4 years. Thus specialization could be started 2 years earlier. This special point is in strong discussion due to the fact that the surgical skillness of the young surgeons may be decreased. In university hospitals and in academic teaching hospitals surgical research is realized within the surgical department as well as in special departments for experimental surgery. The ideal would be that both institutions stimulate each other.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    ISSN: 1436-6215
    Keywords: fattyacids ; subcutaneousfat ; nutrition ; trans fattyacids ; atherosclerosis ; Germany ; Fettsäuren ; subkutanes Fettgewebe ; Ernährung ; trans-Fettsäuren ; Atherosklerose ; Deutschland
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In der vorliegenden Studie wurde die Fettsäurenkomposition des subkutanen Fettgewebes (SCF) von 47 deutschen Erwachsenen analysiert. Es zeigte sich kein Zusammenhang zwischen dem Alter bzw. Geschlecht der Probanden und dem Fettsäurenstatus. Monoene bildeten den Hauptanteil der Fettsäuren (FA) im SCF. Linolsäure war die wichtigste mehrfach ungesättigte Fettsäure. Linolsäuremetaboliten wurden nur in geringen Mengen gefunden. Im Vergleich zu den Ergebnissen von Studien in den USA und den Niederlanden ist die FA-Zusammensetzung des SCF bei deutschen Probanden durch geringere Anteile von Linolsäure und höhere Anteile von Palmitinsäure gekennzeichnet. Der Gehalt an trans-FA entspricht dem, der bei Frauen in den Niederlanden gefunden wurde, er ist jedoch deutlich niedriger als bei amerikanischen Männern. In der Beurteilung der Unterschiede in der Fettsäurenkomposition des SCF in verschiedenen Ländern sollte jedoch berücksichtigt werden, daß die Anteile der wichtigsten FA in allen untersuchten Populationen eine große interindividuelle Schwankungsbreite zeigten.
    Notes: Summary The fatty acid (FA) composition of subcutaneous fat (SCF) was analyzed in 47 German adults. No influences of sex or age on the FA status of the probands could be detected. SCF consisted mainly of monoenoic fatty acids. Linoleic acid was the major polyunsaturated fatty acid. Linoleic acid metabolites were found in small quantities only. In comparison to the results of studies in the USA and the Netherlands the FA composition of SCF in German probands was characterized by lower levels of linoleic acid and higher contents of palmitic acid. The trans-FA content was similar to that in Dutch women, but lower than in American male probands. However, in evaluating the differences in the FA composition of SCF in different countries, it has to be noted that there are wide ranges in the proportions of the major FA in all populations studied.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Documenta ophthalmologica 81 (1992), S. 103-109 
    ISSN: 1573-2622
    Keywords: History of ophthalmology ; Hirschberg (1843–1925) ; Germany ; Japan
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Conclusion Although the Hirschberg Library is used only by a few scholars today, it remains a precious and useful collection of ophthalmic literature, especially as old literature on ophthalmology is scanty in Japan. Recently I read Arthur Hailey's novel Roots and I was quite surprised to learn that the records of ships of two hundred years ago are still kept in good order so that the author could trace back the history of the ships by record. Old literature is precious, but as the amount of new information increases exponentially, the method of storing the information is rapidly changing. Computers will be utilized more and more, such as is the case in publishing information on the sequence of DNA and proteins. At the same time, books and journals will continue to be just as important, for the exchange of results and of new ideas, and for reviews.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Autopsy ; death certificates ; Germany ; mortality ; vital statistics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The Goerlitz Autopsy Study is a population-based autopsy study, conducted in 1987 in the municipality of Goerlitz, population 78,484, in former East Germany. It is unique in that 1,023 (96.5 percent) of the 1,060 subjects who died in the municipality over a period of one year were investigated by full autopsy. An underlying cause was assigned to every death, using the procedures recommended by the International Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death, ninth revision, German edition. Assignment of cause of death was done independently by the attending clinician and the pathology team who performed the autopsy. The data were analyzed through cross-classification of deaths by death certificate diagnosis and autopsy-based diagnosis. Sensitivity and positive predictive values were calculated for the death certificate diagnoses, assuming that the autopsy findings represent the correct reference set. Overall, 47 percent of diagnoses on death certificates differed from those based on autopsy and, for 30 percent of the subjects, the difference crossed a major disease category. The proportion of disagreement was higher for deaths occurring in nursing homes and among the very old, but was unrelated to gender. In the death certificates, diseases of the circulatory system and endocrine and metabolic disorders were over-represented, whereas infectious diseases, neoplasms, and respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary diseases were under-represented. Neoplasms in the death certificates are characterized by relatively high sensitivity and predictive values, even though these were still unsatisfactory, given the chronicity of the clinical course and the opportunities available for correct diagnosis. Infections and respiratory diseases in the death certificates have low sensitivity but comparatively high predictive values, because these disease categories have relatively high diagnostic specificity. In contrast, circulatory diseases in the death certificates have high sensitivity but modest predictive value, because of their relatively low diagnostic specificity. These results reinforce the concern about the accuracy of death certificates and their potential for utilization in epidemiologic studies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    ISSN: 1617-6278
    Keywords: Germany ; Middle Pleistocene ; Kärlich Interglacial ; Vegetation history
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Archaeology , Biology
    Notes: Abstract Pollen analytical investigations have been carried out on the sediments of five profiles from a former lake exposed at the Kärlich clay-pit, Middle Rhine region, of Germany, with the aim of clarifying the stratigraphic position of the Kärlich Interglacial (Middle Pleistocene) within the European Pleistocene. The pollen sequence starts with a QM (Quercetum mixtum) phase followed by a Carpinus phase. After the interglacial period there are oscillations (Mühlheim I and II Stadials, and the Kettig Interstadial) and the sequence ends with a cold steppe phase. Parallel with these developments, conditions in the lake changed from meso- to eutrophic and back again to meso-oligotrophic. The lake was finally filled in by silty and organic sediments and then covered by loessic material, with evidence for oscillations between limnic and telmatic phases. Numerous macrofossil remains in the interglacial sediments allowed reconstruction of plant communities mainly from the lake itself, but also from the surrounding forests. The pollen analytical results indicate a warm stage that belongs to the Cromerian Complex. That is corroborated by a good conformity with the upper part of the Cromerian interglacial (Rhume Interglacial) from Bilshausen, Lower Saxony, Germany, which is considered to belong to the youngest part of the Cromerian Complex. 40Ar/39Ar laser dates of the Brockentuff (396±20 ka), a basaltic tephra deposited during the early QM phase of the same warm stage, enable the interglacial sequence to be correlated with oxygen isotope stage 11. On account of biostratigraphic arguments and old-palaeolithic artefacts within the interglacial sediments, the Kärlich Interglacial is considered to have its stratigraphical position between the Cromerian IV (based on the Dutch stratigraphy) and the Holsteinian sensu stricto.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Case-control study ; dose-response ; Germany ; lung cancer ; nonsmoking period ; smoking cessation patterns
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A case-control study of lung cancer was conducted in northwestern Germany in 1985–86. The study included 194 lung cancer cases and the same number of hospital controls and population controls who were matched to the cases by sex and age. Personal interviews were conducted by trained interviewers. We report here the effect of different smoking patterns—such as nonsmoking intervals, and time since quitting smoking—on lung cancer risk. Both quitting smoking and having a nonsmoking interval are seen to reduce lung cancer risk significantly. For a nonsmoking interval of three years or more, relative risk (RR)=0.21, 95 percent confidence interval (CI)=0.08–0.52; for quitting smoking for 10 years or more, RR=0.23, CI=0.11–0.48). A dose-response relationship was estimated for cigarette dose, length of nonsmoking interval, and time since stopped smoking.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Coronary heart disease ; Epidemiology ; China ; Japan ; Germany
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In Asia coronary heart disease mortality is almost 10 fold less frequent than in European countries. These findings attract interest to search for different risk factor patterns. From 1982 to 1985 epidemiologic surveys were carried out in China (n=2047), Japan (n=7580) and Germany (n=6052). Healthy, male subjects, aged 30 to 59 years were enrolled. The prevalence rate of hypertension for the Germans was 20% versus 18% for the Japanese, and 11% for the Chinese. About 69% of Chinese, 55% of Japanese, and 37% of Germans were smokers. About 66% of the Germans were overweight (BMI〉25), 17% of the Japanese, and 11% of the Chinese. The highest risk group with cholesterol levels of 〉300 mg/dl included no Chinese subject, 0.1% of the Japanese, but 5% of the Germans. The lipoprotein profiles among the Japanese and the Chinese collectives typically showed antiatherosclerotic characteristics, whereas most Germans exhibited profiles which support development of atherosclerosis. About 36% of the participants from Germany showed 3 or more risk factors accumulated per person (Japan and China 5%). Multifactorial risk factor reduction for Germany is recommended.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: drug utilization ; Germany ; two cities ; adult population ; pharmacoepidemiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A study has been done to describe and compare the drug utilization profiles of the 30–64 yr-old populations in two cities in the Federal Republic of Germany. Subjects from two community surveys, based on random samples in 1984, from the communities of Augsburg in the south, and Luebeck in the north, were asked to bring to interview any medications taken in the preceding seven days. Total drug use in the two communities was very similar. Women took more drugs than men. The drug categories used by at least 5% of men were analgesics/antirheumatics and antihypertensives. The prevalence of use of different drug categories by men was remarkably similar in the two cities, and the only significant difference was a greater consumption of antihypertensive drugs by Luebeck men (9.8%) compared to Augsburg men (6.3%). The drugs taken by at least 5% of women were sex hormones, analgesics/antirheumatics, antihypertensives, thyroid preparations, psychotropics, cardiac drugs and antihypotensives. Consumption by Augsburg women was significantly greater for sex hormones, cardiac drugs, thyroid drugs, and migraine drugs, whereas Luebeck women consumed significantly more antihypertensives. The high use of thyroid drugs by Augsburg women (11%) is indicative of the high frequency of endemic goitre in the southeastern quarter of the FRG. Although it has been shown from sales data that the FRG has a high consumption of cardiac glycosides, the 6% prevalence of use of preparations of them by 30–64 yrold Augsburg women represents more precise exposure information and reflects a relatively young group of users.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Call number: QZ241:113
    Keywords: Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Neoplasms / metabolism ; Tomography, Emission-Computed ; DKFZ-publications ; Germany
    Pages: XII, 101 S., ILL.
    ISBN: 3-540-13007-1
    Signatur Availability
    QZ241:113 available
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Call number: WO100:4/Mag
    Keywords: General Surgery / history ; Surgery ; Germany
    Pages: vii, 206 p. : illus., ports.
    Signatur Availability
    WO100:4/Mag departmental collection or stack – please contact the library
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55