Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (13,457)
  • 2010-2014
  • 2005-2009
  • 1990-1994  (13,457)
  • 1985-1989
  • 1970-1974
  • 1992  (13,457)
Collection
Years
  • 2010-2014
  • 2005-2009
  • 1990-1994  (13,457)
  • 1985-1989
  • 1970-1974
Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: activation ; fertilization ; microtubules ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Centrosomes are undetectable in unfertilized sea urchin eggs, and normally the sperm introduces the cell's microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) at fertilization. However, artificial activation or parthenogenesis triggers microtubule assembly in the unfertilized egg, and this study explores the reappearance and behavior of the maternal centrosome. During activation with A23187 or ammonia, microtubules appear first at the cortex; centrosomal antigen is detected diffusely throughout the entire cytoplasm. Later, the centrosome becomes more distinct and organizes a radial microtubule shell, and eventually a compact centrosome at the egg center organizes a monaster. In these activated eggs, centrosomes undergo cycles of compaction and decompaction in synchrony with the chromatin, which also undergoes cycles of condensation and decondensation. Parthenogenetic activation with heavy water (50% D2O) or the microtubule-stabilizing drug taxol (10 μM) induces numerous centrosomal foci in the unfertilized sea urchin egg. Within 15 min after incubation in D2O, numerous fine centrosomal foci are detected, and they organize a connected network of numerous asters which fill the entire egg. Taxol induces over 100 centrosomal foci by 15 min after treatment, which organize a corresponding number of asters. The centrosomal material in either D2O- or taxol-treated eggs aggregates with time to form fewer but denser foci, resulting in fewer and larger asters. Fertilization of eggs pretreated with either D2O or taxol shows that the paternal centrosome is dominant over the maternal centrosome. The centrosomal material gradually becomes associated with the enlarged sperm aster. These experiments demonstrate that maternal centrosomal material is present in the unfertilized egg, likely as dispersed undetectable material, which can be activated without paternal contributions. At fertilization, paternal centrosomes become dominant over the maternal centrosomal material. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Chloroplast movement ; phytochrome ; near infrared laser ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The cell of the green alga Mougeotia orients its chloroplast by rotation, according to the direction or polarization of incident red light. The mechanics of the rotation is described by the angle of rotation and the angular velocity of the rotator (i.e., the chloroplast). We developed a laser diffractometer to determine the angle of rotation of the chloroplast. The angle of rotation of the chloroplast shifted by a constant angular velocity, and hence, the net torque on the chloroplast was zero. This suggests that the driving torque acting on the chloroplast is always balanced by the viscous torque. The maximal driving force acting on the chloroplast was estimated to be nearly equal to the force generated by an actomyosin system. This is the first measurement of the driving force acting on the chloroplast in Mougeotia. The amplitude of the force supported the anchorage site hypothesis. However, it remains unclear whether or not the angular independence of the force also supports the hypothesis. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: division polarity ; F-actin ; microtubules ; plastids ; preprophase band ; stomata ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Stomatogenesis, the determinate developmental pathway leading to formation of a pair of specialized guard cells, was studied in monoplastidic cells ofSelaginella. Observations of living cells followed by immunofluorescence microscopy of the same cells made it possible to correlate changes in cytoskeletal organization with developmental events. The guard mother cell divides in a plane perpendicular to previous divisions and this shift in polarity is marked by morphogenetic plastid migration, as well as by extensive reorganization of cytoskeletal arrays. The single plastid divides and daughter plastids move to a position opposite each other (incipient spindle poles). The axis defined by the opposing plastids rotates in the cell before becoming fixed in position with polar plastids adjacent to the lateral anticlinal walls. Plastid polarity predicts spindle orientation and the plane of division. Once division polarity is defined by plastid position, which will remain unchanged throughout mitosis and cytokinesis, cortical microtubules become reorganized from radial to longitudinal (relative to the long axis of the leaf). The initially random cortical F-actin also becomes aligned longitudinally. A wide preprophase band of microtubules and F-actin is formed at right angles to the spindle axis. Plastid-based microtubules establish the preprophase spindle and also connect to the preprophase band. The mitotic spindle remains anchored at the polar plastids. After mitosis, a phragmoplast that forms among microtubules emanating from plastids and nuclei develops in the plane marked previously by the preprophase band. Mitosis is completed in 1 h 15 min ± 3 min (mean ± S.E.). © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 21 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 21 (1992), S. 74-82 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: motion analysis ; sperm activation ; K+inhibition ; Fluo-3 ; eukaryotic flagella ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We investigated the swimming patterns of trout sperm using computer-assisted analyses of video microscopy. Under full activation conditions, in which 80-100% of sperm activate their motility, sperm swim in circular paths for 2-5 sec, followed by 30-60 sec of a more linear swimming, and, finally, cessation of movement, with a straightening of the flagella. Threshold activation, in which 50% of the sperm activate, is characterized by circular patterns of swimming for less than 20 sec, with straightened flagella upon cessation. Full activation and threshold activation are observed in low-K+ solution or in an Mg++ -supplemented K+ solution. Similarities in swimming patterns in low-K+ solution and in a Mg++ -supplemented K+ solution suggest a common underlying mechanism of activation. Initiation of movement in solutions with high Ca++ to K+ ratio is similar to activation in K+ -free solution. However, sperm in Ca++ -supplemented media resume circular swimming within 20-25 sec after activation, and, upon cessation of movement, the flagella are frequently cane shaped or bent. Differences in swimming patterns upon activation by high Ca++ concentration suggest additional effects of Ca++ on regulating swimming patterns. We used the fluorescent Ca++ indicator Fluo-3 to measure changes in intracellular Ca++ concentration upon activation. Intracellular Ca++ concentration transiently increases upon activation, with peak Ca++ concentration coinciding with the period of circular swimming. This transient increase in Ca++ concentration is seen in the absence of external Ca++, providing strong evidence for the released of Ca++ from intracellular stores upon activation.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 21 (1992), S. 101-110 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: F-actin ; silk gland ; phalloin ; periluminal circumferential actin bundles ; actin-coated vacuoles ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Labeling of silk glands with rhodaminyl-phalloin shows that most F-actin is restricted to parallel bundles that form rings around the gland lumen at the apical cell surface. The bundles are lost when larval feeding stops at moulting, and the F-actin is redistributed through the cytoplasm as coats to vacuoles and, occasionally, in variably oriented strands. After moulting there is a return to the distribution of filamentous actin in the apical periluminal rings of bundles. These events occur at the same time as F-actin in the nuclear shell [Henderson and Locke, submitted] undergoes its own set of changes. In silk gland cells two kinds of f-actin deployment take place concurrently.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: myofibrils ; extracellular matrix ; cytoskeleton ; integrins ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The influence of the extracellular matrix (ECM) on cell behavior, myofibrillogenesis and cytoarchitecture was investigated in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes in vitro. Cell behavior was examined by analyzing cell spreading on different ECM components under a variety of experimental conditions. Area measurements were made on digitized images of cells grown for various time intervals on fibronectin (FN), laminin (LN), collagens I and III (C I + III), plastic, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The amount of spreading was varied on the different matrices and was maximal on FN 〉 LN 〉 C I+III 〉 plastic 〉 BSA. Addition of anti-β1 integrin antibodies to myocytes cultured on FN, LN and C I+III blocked spreading outward on the substrates and altered normal myofibrillogenesis, especially on LN. Concomitantly, the integrin antibodies induced the formation of giant pseudopodial processes which protruded upward from the substrates. These pseudopods contained actin polygonal networks which exhibited a regular geometrical configuration.Effects of the ECM on cytoarchitecture was examined by analyzing the temporal and spatial patterns of fluorescence and immunogold labeling of cytoskeletal and integrin proteins as myocytes spread in culture. The first indication of sarcomeric patterns was the appearance at 4 hours of striations formed by lateral alignment of α-actinin aggregates into Z bands. At later times, vinculin at 8 hours and β integrin at 22 hours became co-localized with α-actinin at the Z bands and focal adhesions. These data indicate that ECM components influence myocyte spreading and that myofibril assembly and/or stability is associated with ECM-integrin-cytoskeleton associations.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cardiac muscle ; actin dynamics ; α-actinin ; vinculin ; microinjection ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: When fluorescently labeled contractile proteins are injected into embryonic muscle cells, they become incorporated into the cells' myofibrils. In order to determine if this exchange of proteins is unique to the embryonic stage of development, we isolated adult cardiac myocytes and microinjected them with fluorescently labeled actin, myosin light chains, α-actinin, and vinculin. Each of these proteins was incorporated into the adult cardiomyocytes and was colocalized with the cells'native proteins, despite the fact that the labeled proteins were prepared from noncardiac tissues. Within 10 min of injection, α-actinin was incorporated into Z-bands surrounding the site of injection. Similarly, 30 sec after injection, actin was incorporated into the entire I-bands at the site of injection. Following a 3-h incubation, increased actin fluorescence was noted at the intercalated disc. Vinculin exchange was seen in the intercalated discs, as well as in the Z-bands throug hout the cells. Myosin light chains required 4-6 h after injection to become incorporated into the A-bands of the adult muscle. Nonspecific proteins, such as fluorescent BSA, showed no association with the myofibrils or the former intercalated discs. When adult cells were maintained in culture for 10 days, they retain the ability to incorporate these contractile proteins into their myofibrils. T-tubules and the sarcoplasmic reticulum could be detected in periodic arrays in the freshly isolated cells using the membrane dye WW781 and DiOC3[3], respectively. In conclusion, the myofibrils in adult, as in embryonic, muscle cells are dynamic structures, permitting isoform transitions without dismantling of the myofibrils.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: MAP p15 ; microtubule bundling ; trypanosoma brucei ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A protein of 15 kDa (p15) was isolated from Trypanosoma brucei subpellicular microtubules by tubulin affinity chromatography. The protein bound tubulin specifically both in its native form and after SDS-PAGE in tubulin overlay experiments. p15 promoted both the in vitro polymerization of purified calf brain tubulin and the bundling of preformed mammalian microtubules. Immunolabeling identified p15 at multiple sites along microtubule polymers comprising calf brain tubulin and p15 as well as on the subpellicular microtubules of cryosectioned trypanosomes. Antibodies directed against p15 did not cross react with mammalian microtubules. It is suggested that p15 is a trypanosome-specific microtubule-associated protein (MAP) that contributes to the unique organization of the sub-pellicular microtubules.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubules ; vesicles ; cytoplasmic movement ; monoclonal antibody ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A cytoskeletal apparatus is involved in the movement of vesicles, organelles, and gametes in the pollen tube. The function of microfilaments has been defined quite precisely, but the role of microtubules needs to be further clarified. On the basis of immunological and biochemical investigations, we have identified a polypep-tide showing common properties with kinesin, a microtubule-based motor mainly described in nonplant tissues, in the pollen tube of Nicotiana tabacum. Like mammalian kinesin, the kinesin-immunoreactive homolog from Nicotiana tabacum pollen tubes binds to mammalian microtubules in an AMP-PNP dependent manner. The kinesin-like component is likely to be involved in the movement of vesicular material in the growing pollen tube.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin ; acidic vesicles ; Ca2+ ; pH ; motility ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Unfertilized eggs of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata contain pigment granules distributed throughout their cytoplasm. During the first 15 minutes after fertilization, these vesicles move out to the cortex where they become firmly anchored. We have used time-lapse video differential interference microscopy to analyze the motility of these organelles in unfertilized and fertilized Arbacia eggs. Pigment granules exhibit saltatory movement in both unfertilized and fertilized eggs. Quantitation of vesicle saltations before and after fertilization demonstrates that while there is no significant difference in the speed or pathlength of vesicle movement, there is a dramatic change in the orientation of these saltations. Saltations in the unfertilized egg are very non-radial and are as likely to be directed toward the cortex as away. In contrast, saltations in the fertilized egg are more radially oriented and more likely to be cortically directed. This transition must reflect underlying changes in the cellular structures necessary for pigment granule saltations. The change in the orientation of pigment granule saltations following fertilization requires both a transient increase in the cytoplasmic concentration of Ca2+ and an elevation of cytoplasmic pH. Similarly, the ability of pigment granules to adhere to the cortex requires both the transient elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ and the alkalinization of the cytoplasm. As the reorganization of cortical actin at fertilization is regulated by these ionic fluxes, and both movement and adhesion are sensitive to cytochalasins, we hypothesize that the alterations in directed motility and adhesion reflect underlying changes in the actin cytoskeleton.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: bioluminescence ; ATP depletion ; motility ; flagellum ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The initiation of motility and modification of energy metabolism of rat caudal epididymal spermatozoa can be induced by dilution in a saline medium. We have investigated in these cells the relationships between the energy reserve (sperm ATP content measured by bioluminescence) and flagellar movement (high speed videomicrography, 200 frames/sec). A steady state was observed in sperm ATP content, progressive velocity (Vp) and flagellar beat frequence (F) with sperm dilution in a medium with glucose, lactate, pyruvate and acetate substrates after 30 minutes of incubation, without these substrates, changes in metabolic pathways occurred immediately and initially disturbed the relationship between ATP levels and F, suggesting differences in motility initiation when energy is from an endogenous origin via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. This “energy crisis” was reversed by the addition of substrates to the medium.The three-dimensional flagellar movement observed in the presence of substrates quickly became two-dimensional in their absence. The flagellar beat envelope became more splayed, the mean amplitude of lateral head displacement increased and F decreased. The resulting high flagellar beat efficiency can be compared to that observed during hyperactivation which is a physiological event related to a fall in intracellular ATP level. In both media, the displacement of the flagellum in relation to the wave axis varied sinusoidally. The sine period increased with time when the spermatozoa were incubated in the medium without substrates. These results suggest a gradual slowing-down of the velocity of wave formation in the proximal part of the flagellum.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: actin polymerization ; cell elongation ; photoreceptor ; cytoskeleton ; phalloidin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the retinas of teleost fish, rod photoreceptors elongate in response to light. Light-activated elongation is mediated by the myoid of the rod inner segment and is actin-dependent. Inner segment F-actin filaments form bundles running parallel to the cell's long axis. We examined the mechanism of rod elongation using mechanically-detached rod fragments, consisting of the motile inner segment and sensory outer segment (RIS-ROS). When RIS-ROS are isolated from darkadapted green sunfish and cultured in the light, they elongate 15μm at 0.3-0.6μm/min. Elongation was inhibited 65% by 0.1μM Cytochalasin D, suggesting a requirement for actin assembly. To determine the extent of assembly during elongation, we used three approaches to measure the F-actin content in RIS-ROS: detection of pelletable actin by SDS-PAGE after detergent-extraction of RIS-ROS; quantification of fluorescein-phalloidin binding by fluorimetry, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and image analysis; estimation of total F-actin filament length by electron microscopy. All three assays indicated that no net assembly of RIS-ROS F-actin accompanied myoid elongation. An increase in F-actin content within the elongated myoid was counterbalanced by a decrease in F-actin content within the 13 microvillus-like calycal processes located at the end of the inner segment opposite to the growing myoid. O'Connor and Burnside (Journal of Cell Biology 89:517-524, 1981) showed that minus-ends of rod F-actin filaments are oriented towards the elongating myoid while plus-ends are oriented towards the shortening calycal processes. Our observations suggest that RIS-ROS elongation entails actin polymerization at the minus-ends of filaments coupled with depolymerization at the filament plus-ends.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 21 (1992), S. 281-292 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: ATPase ; CTPase ; minus-end-directed microtubule motility ; cytoplasmic dynein ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Extracts of unfertilized sea urchin eggs contain at least two isoforms of cytoplasmic dynein. One exhibits a weak affinity for microtubules and is primarily soluble. The other isoform, HMr-3, binds to microtubules in an ATP-sensitive manner, but is immunologically distinct from the soluble egg dynein (Porter et al.: Journal of Biological Chemistry 263:6759-6771, 1988). We have now further distinguished these egg dynein isoforms based on differences in NTPase activity. HMr-3 copurifies with NTPase activity, but it hydrolyzes CTP at 10 times the rate of ATP. The soluble egg dynein is similar to flagellar dynein in its nucleotide specificity; its MgCTPase activity is ca. 60% of its MgATPase activity. Non-ionic detergents and salt activate the MgATPase activities of both enzymes relative to their MgCTPase activities, but this effect is more pronounced for the soluble egg dynein than for HMr-3. Sucrose gradient-purified HMr-3 promotes an ATP-sensitive microtubule bundling, as seen with darkfield optics. We have also isolated a 20 S microtubule translocating activity by sucrose gradient fractionation of egg extracts, followed by microtubule affinity and ATP release. This 20 S fraction, which contains the HMr-3 isoform, induces a microtubule gliding activity that is distinct from kinesin. Our observations suggest that soluble dynein resembles axonemal dynein, but that HMr-3 is related to the dynein-like enzymes isolated from a variety of cell types and may represent the cytoplasmic dynein of sea urchin eggs.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; globoside ; vimentin ; desmin ; keratin ; glial fibrillary acidic protein ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We reported recently that two glycosphingolipids (GSLs), globoside (Gb4)and ganglioside GM3, colocalized with vimentin intermediate filaments of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. To determine whether this association is unique to endothelial cells or to vimentin, we analyzed a variety of cell types. Doublelabel immunofluorescent staining of fixed, permeabilized cells, with and without colcemid treatment, was performed with antibodies against glycolipids and intermediate filaments. Globoside colocalized with vimentin in human and mouse fibroblasts, with desmin in smooth muscle cells, with keratin in keratinocytes and hepatoma cells, and with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in glial cells. Globoside colocalization was detected only with vimentin in MDCK and HeLa cells, which contain separate vimentin and keratin networks. GM3 ganglioside also colocalized with vimentin in human fibroblasts. Association of other GSLs with intermediate filaments was not detected by immunofluorescence, but all cell GSLs were detected in cytoskeletal fractions of metabolically labelled endothelial cells. These observations indicate that globoside colocalizes with vimentin, desmin, keratin and GFAP, with a preference for vimentin in cells that contain both vimentin and keratin networks. The nature of the association is not yet known. Globoside and GM3 may be present in vesicles associated with intermediate filaments (IF), or bound directly to IF or IF associated proteins. The prevalence of this association suggests that colocalization of globoside with the intermediate filament network has functional significance. We are investigating the possibility that intermediate filaments participate in the intracellular transport and sorting of glycosphingolipids.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: nonmuscle myosin ; antibodies ; neurons ; blood vessels ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The distribution of nonmuscle myosin isoforms in brain and aorta was studied by using polyclonal antibodies against two synthetic peptides selected from a region near the carboxyl terminus of bovine brain (peptide IIB) and human macrophage (peptide IIA) myosin. Immunoblots of brain homogenates and purified myosin showed two major bands stained by anti-peptide IIB (MIIB1 and MIIB2) and a minor band stained by anti-peptide IIA (MIIA2). Polyclonal anti-human platelet myosin antibodies did not react with MIIB isoforms. In cryosections from bovine, rat, and mouse brains, anti-peptide IIB stained most neuronal cells. In bovine cryosections, glial staining was also observed. In contrast, anti-peptide IIA and anti-platelet myosin antibodies primarily stained blood vessels. In bovine aorta, the anti-peptide antibodies recognized four bands, MIIB3, MIIB4, MIIA1, and MIIA2. Only MIIA2 was recognized by anti-human platelet myosin antibodies. In bovine aorta cryosections, anti-peptide IIB stained smooth muscle cells in tunica intima and tunica media but did not stain endothelial cells. Anti-peptide IIA stained smooth muscle cells in the tunica media, and endothelial cells of vaso vasorum but not of aorta. Only polyclonal anti-platelet myosin antibodies stained the endothelial cells of aorta tunica intima. These results indicate that multiple isoforms of cellular myosins exist in mammals, that these isoforms are expressed in a cell specific manner, and that the major myosin isoforms isolated from whole brain originate from neurons and, at least in bovine brain, from glia, but not from blood vessels. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: epidermal keratinocytes ; cytoskeleton ; UV induced reorganization ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy has been used to investigate the ultraviolet (UV) radiation induced disruption of the organization of microfilaments, keratin intermediate filaments, and microtubules in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. Following irradiation, concurrent changes in the organization of the three major cytoskeletal components were observed in cells incubated under low Ca2+ (0.15 mM) conditions. UV irradiation induced a dose-dependent condensation of keratin filaments into the perinuclear region. This collapse of the keratin network was accompanied by the reorganization of microfilaments into rings and a restricted distribution of microtubules, responses normally elicited by exposure to high Ca2+ (1.05 mM) medium. The UV induced alteration of the keratin network appears to disrupt the interactions between keratin and actin, permitting the reorganization of actin filaments in the absence of Ca2+ stimulation.In addition to the perinuclear condensation of keratin filaments, UV irradiation inhibits the Ca2+ induced formation of keratin alignments at the membrane of apposed cells if UV treatment precedes exposure to high Ca2+ medium. Incubation of keratinocytes in high Ca2+ medium for 24 hours prior to irradiation results in the stabilization of membrane associated keratin alignments and a reduced susceptibility of cytoplasmic keratin filaments to UV induced disruption. Unlike results from investigations with isogenic skin fibroblasts, no UV induced disassembly of microtubules was discernible in irradiated human keratinocytes. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: spermatozoa ; flagella ; motility ; epididymis ; maturation ; mammal ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Motility and flagellar movement of ram spermatozoa along the epididymis were analysed in vitro. From the caput to the cauda of the epididymis, the percentage of motile and progressive spermatozoa increases. No flagellar bending was observed in spermatozoa from the testis or the epididymal anterior caput. When spermatozoa reached the distal caput of the epididymis, a static curvature, associated with an initiation of the flagellar beating, appeared on the flagella. This curvature normally disappeared during epididymal transit. Its disappearance was associated with an increase in the flagellar beat efficiency. Our results suggest that the initiation of motility is related to two mechanisms involving: (1) the presence of a transient static curvature, and (2) the establishment of a symmetric regular beating of the flagellum. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 6 (1992), S. 229-229 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 6 (1992), S. i 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Predictive ability ; Regression ; PLS ; SDEP ; Cross-validation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The standard deviation of prediction errors (SDEP) is used to evaluate and compare the predictive ability of some regression models, namely MLR, ACE and linear and non-linear PLS, the last being the best one. The parameter is determined by a cross-validation approach as an average of several runs obtained on forming groups in a random way. The variation in SDEP with the number of latent variables in PLS is also discussed.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 6 (1992), S. 177-188 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: PLS ; Prediction error ; Background constituents ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A modification of a technique proposed by Lorber and Kowalski for the estimation of prediction errors is presented. The method is applied to five data sets. The results show that for some data sets the estimated prediction errors are close to the actual prediction errors for samples within the calibration range, while samples outside the calibration range must be background corrected before quantification of the prediction error.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 6 (1992), S. 189-198 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Robust regression ; Partial least squares ; QSAR ; Perturbation study ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A robust partial least squares (PLS) regression algorithm is developed. This is achieved by substitution of the univariate regression steps in the iterative PLS2 algorithm by a robust alternative. The angle between loading vectors from both perturbed and unperturbed solutions is used as a measure of robustness. By means of a perturbation study on a structure-activity data set, it is demonstrated that the stability of the robust method is superior to standard PLS.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Principal factor analysis ; Factor analysis ; Eigenvalue analysis ; Multivariate analysis ; Weighted factor analysis ; Procrustean analysis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two approximate methods for weighted principal components analysis (WPCA) were devised and tested in numerical experiments using either empirical variances (obtained from replicated data) or assumed variances (derived from unreplicated data). In the first (‘spherical’) approximation each data vector was assigned a weight proportional to the geometrical mean of its variances in all dimensions. The arithmetical mean of variances was used instead in the other approximation. Both the numerical experiments with artificial data containing random errors of various kinds (constant, proportional, constant plus proportional, Poisson) and the analysis of two sets of Raman spectra clearly indicated the necessity of introducing statistical weights. The spherical approximation was found to be slightly better than the arithmetical one. The application of statistical weighting was found to improve the performance of PCA in estimation problems.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 6 (1992), S. 357-357 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Derivatization reaction ; Factorial design ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A number of nucleophiles have been successfully identified and quantified using the Kröhnke reaction with 2,3-diphenyl derivatives of quinolizinium salts. Optimization of the reaction conditions by means of a mathematical model involving analysis of the response surface has led to a better understanding of the factors exerting an influence on the above reaction.The parameters chosen were temperature, reaction time, base concentration, water concentration and nucleophile concentration. The reaction was developed in polar aprotic solvents (acetone, acetonitrile). To facilitate the nucleophilic attack, the presence of an organic base (triethylamine) was necessary, although concentrations in excess of 0·15M did not alter the development of the reaction. Since pharmaceutical solutions are often aqueous, the influence of water on the reaction was studied. Low water volumes have no significant influence on the opening of the quinolizinium ring by the nucleophilic reagent. However, when the water proportion exceeded that of the organic solvent, the fluorescence intensity was lower than expected. Development of the fluorescent reaction product was first detected 5 min after the reaction started. The fluorescence intensity reached its optimum value after 138 min.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: hematopoiesis ; colony-stimulating factors ; structure-function relationships ; GM-CSF ; IL-3 ; helical proteins ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The hematopoietic growth factors are a family of glycoproteins involved in the production of blood cells from their bone marrow precursors and in the activation of mature blood cells. Much has been learned about the structural features of these molecules responsible for their characteristic biological activities. Most studies have been based upon mutagenesis strategies of intact polypeptides and on epitope mapping of informative monoclonal antibodies to the growth factors. A more limited amount of physical data is available. This review will summarize these findings, highlight the growing body of evidence suggesting that many of these proteins share common evolutionary origins and structural elements, and hopefully point to the directions being taken for further investigations of these scientifically informative and clinically useful group of proteins.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: computer-aided drug design ; database search ; molecular docking ; protein structure ; protein-ligand interactions ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A computer algorithm, CLIX, capable of searching a crystallographic database of small molecules for candidates which have both steric and chemical likelihood of binding a protein of known three-dimensional structure is presented. The algorithm is a significant advance over previous strategies which consider solely steric or chemical requirements for binding. The algorithm is shown to be capable of predicting the correct binding geometry of sialic acid to a mutant influenzavirus hemagglutinin and of proposing a number of potential new ligands to this protein.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: crystallization ; X-ray diffraction ; immunoaffinity chromatography ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The class I major histocompatibility (MHC) antigen HLA-B27 was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography from the homozygous human B lymphoblastoid cell line LG-2. Detergent-soluble HLA-B27 was cleaved with the protease papain to remove the hydrophobic transmembrane region and the cytoplasmic tail. Crystals of the resulting water-soluble extracellular fragments were obtained in hanging drops by the vapor-diffusion method. The crystals are triclinic, space group P1, with unit cell dimensions a = 45.9 Å, b = 71.0 Å, c = 83.7 Å, α = 79.4°, β = 88.5°, γ = 89.9°, and diffract beyond 2.5 Å resolution.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: protein folding ; multiple minima problem ; peptide conformation ; energy calculation ; helices ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have investigated the conformational properties of a truncated analogue of mastoparan and of mastoparan X, both peptides from wasp venom. The electrostatically driven Monte Carlo method was used to explore the conformational space of these short peptides. The initial conformations used in this study, mainly random ones, led to α-helical conformations. The α-helical conformations thus found exhibit an amphipathic character. These results are in accord with experimental data from NMR and CD spectroscopy.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: neutron D2O—H2O solvent difference maps ; neutron diffraction ; trypsin water structure ; density modification ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A method of determining the water structure in protein crystals is described using neutron solvent difference maps. These maps are obtained by comparing the changes in diffracted intensities between two data sets, one in which H2O is the major solvent constituent, and a second in which D2O is the solvent medium. To a good first approximation, the protein atom contributions to the scattering intensities in both data sets are equal and cancel, but since H2O and D2O have very different neutron-scattering properties, their differences are accentuated to reveal an accurate representation of the solvent structure. The method also employs a series of density modification steps that impose known physical constraints on the density distribution function in the unit cell by making real space modifications directly to the density maps. Important attributes of the method are that (1) it is less subjective in the assignment of water positions than X-ray analysis; (2) there is threefold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio for the solvent density; and (3) the iterative density modification produces a low-biased representation of the solvent density. Tests showed that water molecules with as low as 10% occupancy could be confidently assigned.About 300 water sites were assigned for trypsin from the refined solvent density; 140 of these sites were defined in the maps as discrete peaks, while the remaining were found within less-ordered channels of density. There is a very good correspondence between the sites in the primary hydration layer and waters found in the X-ray structure. Most water sites are clustered into H-bonding networks, many of which are found along intermolecular contact zones. The bound water is equally distributed between contacting apolar and polar atoms at the protein interface. A common occurence at hydrophobic surfaces is that apolar atoms are circumvented by one or more waters that are part of a larger water network. When the effects on surface accessibility by neighboring molecules in the crystal lattice are taken into consideration, only about 29% of the surface does not interface ordered water. About 25% of the ordered water is found in the second hydration sphere. In many instances these waters bridge larger clusters of primary layer waters. It is apparent that, in certain regions of the crystal, the organization of ordered water reflects the characteristics of the crystal environment more than those of trypsin's surface alone.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: α/β-barrels ; protein structure ; loops ; molecular modeling ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A systematic survey of seven parallel α/β barrel protein domains, based on exhaustive structural comparisons, reveals that a sizable proportion of the αβ loops in these proteins - 20 out of a total of 49 - belong to either one of two loop types previously described by Thornton and co-workers. Six loops are of the αβ1 type, with one residue between the α-helix and β-strand, and 13 are of the αβ3 type, with three residues between the helix and the strand. Protein fragments embedding the identified loops, and termed αβ connections since they contain parts of the flanking helix and strand, have been analyzed in detail revealing that each type of connection has a distinct set of conserved structural features. The orientation of the β-strand relative to the helix and loop portions is different owing to a very localized difference in backbone conformation. In αβ1 connections, the chain enters the β-strand via a residue adopting an extended conformation, while in αβ3 it does so via a residue in a near α-helical conformation. Other conserved structural features include distinct patterns of side chain orientation relative to the β-sheet surface and of main chain H-bonds in the loop and the β-strand moieties. Significant differences also occur in packing interactions of conserved hydrophobic residues situated in the last turn of the helix. Yet the α-helix surface of both types of connections adopts similar orientations relative to the barrel sheet surface. Our results suggest furthermore that conserved hydrophobic residues along the sequence of the connections, may be correlated more with specific patterns of interactions made with neighboring helices and sheet strands than with helix/strand packing within the connection itself. A number of intriguing observations are also made on the distribution of the identified αβ1 and αβ3 loops within the α/β-barrel motifs. They often occur adjacent to each other; αβ3 loops invariably involve even numbered β-strands, while αβ1 loops involve preferentially odd β-strands; all the analyzed proteins contain at least one αβ3 loop in the first half of the eightfold α/β barrel. Possible origins of all these observations, and their relevance to the stability and folding of parallel α/β barrel. Possible origins of all these observations, and their relevance to the stability and folding of parallel α/β barrel motifs are discussed.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: serine protease ; MNDO Hamiltonian ; SCF charges ; energy minimization ; dissociation constant ; inhibitor design ; catalytic mechanism ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A step leading to the formation of the covalent complexes between porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and 7-[(alkylcarbamoyl)amino]-4-chloro-3-ethoxyisocoumarins (alkylHNCO-EICs) is the formation of the non-covalent Michaelis complex. No average structures are available for the Michaelis complexes of PPE with alkylHNCO-EICs. We present the results of an initial step in obtaining these structures and have determined kinetic constants as well. The kinetic results indicate that formation of the Michaelis complex is what differentiates the effectiveness of these inhibitors in inactivating PPE. The structural and kinetic results together suggest that the structure of the Michaelis complex is necessary for the design of potent alkylHNCO-EIC inhibitors of PPE. Two novel alkylHNCO-EICs are predicted to be the best inhibitors of this series. An alternate mechanism for serine protease inhibition is also proposed. Evidence for, and studies that may add support to, the hypothesized mechanism are discussed. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: bacterial lactate dehydrogenase ; X-ray crystallography ; site-directed mutation ; stereospecificity ; image plates ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Bacillus stearothermophilus lactate dehydrogenase, one of the most thermostable bacterial enzymes known, has had its three-dimensional structure solved, the gene coding for it has been cloned, and the proteincan be readily overexpressed. Two mutants of the enzyme have been prepared. In one, Arg171 was changed to Trp (R171W) and Gln102 was changed to Arg (Q102R). In the other, the mutation Q102R was maintained, but Arg171 was changed to Tyr (R171Y). In addition, an inadvertent C97G mutant was present. Both mutants have been crystallized by the hanging drop vapor diffusion method at room temperature. Bipyrimidal crystals have been obtained against (NH4)2SO4in 50 mM piperazine HCI buffer. The crystals belong to space group P6622 (P6622) (whereas the native enzyme, the structure of which has been solved by Piontek et al., Proteins 7:74-92, 1990) crystallized in the space group (P61) with a = 102.3 Å, c = 168.6 Å for the R171W, Q102R, C97G triple mutant, and a = 98.2 Å; c = 162.1 Å for the R171Y, Q102R, C97G mutant. These crystal forms appear to contain one-quarter of a tetramer (Mr 135,000)in the asymmetric unit and have (VM values of 3.8 and 3.3 Å3/dalton, respectively). The R171W mutant diffracts to 2.5 Å and the R171Y mutant to approximately 3.5 Å © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: crystallography ; protein structure ; refinement ; dinucleotide binding domain ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The three-dimensional crystal structure of the NAD+-linked glutamate dehydrogenase from Clostridium symbiosum has been solved to 1.96 Å resolution by a combination of isomorphous replacement and molecular averaging and refined to a conventional crystallographic R factor of 0.227. Each subunit in this multimeric enzyme is organised into two domains separated by a deep cleft. One domain directs the self-assembly of the molecule into a hexameric oligomer with 32 symmetry. The other domain is structurally similar to the classical dinucleotide binding fold but with the direction of one of the strands reversed. Difference Fourier analysis on the binary complex of the enzyme with NAD+ shows that the dinucleotide is bound in an extended conformation with the nicotinamide moiety deep in the cleft between the two domains. Hydrogen bonds between the carboxyamide group of the nicotinamide ring and the side chains of T209 and N240, residues conserved in all hexameric GDH sequences, provide a positive selection for the syn conformer of this ring. This results in a molecular arrangement in which the A face of the nicotinamide ring is buried against the enzyme surface and the B face is exposed, adjacent to a striking cluster of conserved residues including K89, K113, and K125. Modeling studies, correlated with chemical modification data, have implicated this region as the glutamate/2-oxoglutarate binding site and provide an explanation at the molecular level for the B type stereospecificity of the hydride transfer of GDH during the catalytic cycle.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: enzyme catalysis ; Laue diffraction ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Hexagonal crystals of turkey egg white lysozyme have been examined for activity in order to evaluate their potential for use in time-resolved X-ray crystallographic experiments. Substrates used in this study were hexa-N-acetylglucosamine (hexa-GlcNAc) and a modified analogue of hexa-GlcNAc where the terminal sugar ring was opened by reduction with tritiated sodium borohydride. This gave a labeled β-N-acetylglucosaminitol unit at the sixth position of the sugar chain and allowed easy quantitation of enzymatic cleavage on TLC plates. Using these substrates, it has been shown that turkey egg white lysozyme is enzymatically active in the crystal. Enzyme dispersed in the buffer surrounding the crystal does not show detectable activity under conditions relevant to an X-ray experiment. Unmodified hexa-GlcNAc is hydrolyzed into di-, tri-, and tetrasaccharides in the crystal. This cleavage pattern is different from that obtained with hen egg white lysozyme in solution and likely causes of the differences are discussed. The reduced radiolabeled oligosaccharide has a unique cleavage pattern with trisaccharides as the products. The specific activity of the enzyme with the radiolabelled analogue was 9.8 (± 1.0) × 10-7 mmol/min/mg protein at 22°C in the crystal.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: carboxylate groups ; difference maps ; fiber diffraction ; lead ; virus assembly ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Lead has been used as a substitute for calcium binding to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The high atomic number of lead has allowed us to use difference maps from X-ray fiber diffraction data to characterize a calcium-binding site in the virus. The metal ligands are slightly different from those previously believed to bind calcium to TMV, although the binding site is very close to one previously described. Two acetate groups are also bound to the lead atom. There is no significant backbone conformational change in the protein as a result of metal binding; the binding is accomplished by means of relatively small movements in amino acid side chains.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: X-ray structure ; TLS analysis ; aspartic proteinases ; inhibitor complexes ; catalysis ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Comparison of the three-dimensional structures of native endothiapepsin (EC 3.4.23.6) and 15 endothiapepsin oligopeptide inhibitor complexes defined at high resolution by X-ray crystallography shows that endothiapepsin exists in two forms differing in the relative orientation of a domain comprising residues 190-302. There are relatively few interactions between the two parts of the enzyme; consequently, they can move as separate rigid bodies. A translational, librational, and screw analysis of the thermal parameters of endothiapepsin also supports and model in which the two parts can move relative to each other. In the comparison of different aspartic proteinases, the rms values are reduced by up to 47% when the two parts of the structure are superposed independently. This justifies description of the differences, including those between pepsinogen and pepsin (EC 3.4.34.1), as a rigid movement of one part relative to another although considerable distortions within the domains also occur. The consequence of the rigid body movement is a change in the shape of the active site cleft that is largest around the S3 pocket. This is associated with a different position and conformation of the inhibitors that are bound to the two endothiapepsin forms. The relevance of these observations to a model of the hydrolysis by aspartic proteinases is briefly discussed.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: apolipoprotein[a] ; lipoprotein[a] ; plasminogen ; kringle ; prothrombin ; lysine-binding site ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Apolipoprotein[a], the highly glycosylated, hydrophilic apoprotein of lipoprotein[a] (Lp[a]), is generally considered to be a multimeric homologue of plasminogen, and to exhibit atherogenic/thrombogenic properties. The cDNA-inferred amino acid sequence of apo[a] indicates that apo[a], like plasminogen and some zymogens, is composed of a kringle domain and a serine protease domain. To gain insight into possible positive functions of Lp[a], we have examined the apo[a] primary structure by comparing its sequence with those of other proteins involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis, and its secondary structure by using a combination of structure prediction algorithms. The kringle domain encompasses 11 distinct types of repeating units, 9 of which contain 114 residues. These units, called kringles, are similar but not identical to each other or to PGK4. Each apo[a] kringle type was compared with kringles which have been shown to bind lysine and fibrin, and with bovine prothrombin kringle 1. Apo[a] kringles are linked by serine/threonine- and proline-rich stretches similar to regions in immunoglobulins, adhesion molecules, glycoprotein Ib-α subunit, and kininogen. In comparing the protease domains of apo[a] and plasmin, apo[a] contains a region between positions 4470 and 4492 where 8 substitutions, 9 deletions, and 1 insertion are apparent. Our analysis suggests that apo[a] kringle-type 10 has a high probability of binding to lysine in the same way as PGK4. In the only human apo[a] polymorph sequenced to date, position 4308 is occupied by serine, whereas the homologous position in plasmin is occupied by arginine and is an important site for proteolytic cleavage and activation. An alternative site for the proteolytic activation of human apo[a] is proposed.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: protein folding ; protein structure ; hydrogen bond ; serine protease ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The solvent structure in orthorhombic crystals of bovine trypsin has been independently determined by X-ray diffraction to 1.35 Å resolution and by neutron diffraction to 2.1 Å resolution. A consensus model of the water molecule positions was obtained using oxygen positions identified in the electron density map determined by X-ray diffraction, which were verified by comparison to D2O—H2O difference neutron scattering density. Six of 184 water molecules in the X-ray structure, all with B-factors greater than 50 Å2, were found to be spurious after comparison with neutron results. Roughly two-thirds of the water of hydration expected from thermodynamic data for proteins was localized by neutron diffraction; approximately one-half of the water of hydration was located by X-ray diffraction. Polar regions of the protein are well hydrated, and significant D2O—H2O difference density is seen for a small number of water molecules in a second shell of hydration. Hydrogen bond lengths and angles calculated from unconstrained refinement of water positions are distributed about values typically seen in small molecule structures.Solvent models found in seven other bovine trypsin and trypsinogen and rat trypsin structures determined by X-ray diffraction were compared. Internal water molecules are well conserved in all trypsin structures including anionic rat trypsin, which is 65% homologous to bovine trypsin. Of the 22 conserved waters in trypsin, 19 were also found in trypsinogen, suggesting that they are located in regions of the apoprotein that are structurally conserved in the transition to the mature protein. Seven waters were displaced upon activation of trypsinogen. Water structure at crystal contacts is not generally conserved in different crystal forms. Three groups of integral structural water molecules are highly conserved in all solvent structures, including a spline of water molecules inserted between two β-strands, which may resemble an intermediate in the formation of β sheets during the folding of a protein.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: folding nucleation ; hydrophobic cluster ; conserved loop length ; structure-sequence relationship ; sequence patterns ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The Greek key β-barrel topology is a folding motif observed in many proteins of widespread evolutionary origin. The arthropodan hemocyanins also have such a Greek key β-barrel, which forms the core of the third domain of this protein. The hemocyanin β-barrel was found to be structurally very similar to the β-barrels of the immunoglobulin domains, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and the chromophore carrying antitumor proteins. The structural similarity within this group of protein families is not accompanied by an evolutionary or functional relationship. It is therefore possible to study structure-sequence relations without bias from nonstructural constraints. The present study reports a conserved pattern of features in these Greek key β-barrels that is strongly suggestive of a folding nucleation site. This proposed nucleation site, which we call a “β-zipper,” shows a pattern of well-conserved, large hydrophobic residues on two sequential β-strands joined by a short loop. Each β-zipper strand is near the center of one of the β-sheets, so that the two strands face each other from opposite sides of the barrel and interact through their hydrophobic side chains, rather than forming a hydrogen-bonded β-hairpin. Other protein families with Greek key β-barrels that do not as strongly resemble the immunoglobulin fold - such as the azurins, plastocyanins, crystallins, and prealbumins - also contain the β-zipper pattern, which might therefore be a universal feature of Greek key β-barrel proteins.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: conformational search ; directed searches ; α-carbon coordinates ; modeling ; structure prediction ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A directed conformational search algorithm using the program CONGEN (ref. 3), which samples backbone conformers, is described. The search technique uses information from the partially built structures to direct the search process and is tested on the problem of generating a full set of backbone Cartesian coordinates given only α-carbon coordinates. The method has been tested on six proteins of known structure, varying in size and classification, and was able to generate the original backbone coordinates with RMSs ranging from 0.30-0.87Å for the α-carbons and 0.5-0.99Å RMSs for the backbone atoms. Cis peptide linkages were also correctly identified. The procedure was also applied to two proteins available with only α-carbon coordinates in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank; thioredoxin (SRX) and triacyiglycerol acylhydrolase (TGL). All-atom models are proposed for the backbone of both these proteins. In addition, the technique was applied to randomized coordinates of flavodoxin to assess the effects of irregularities in the data on the final RMS. This study represents the first time a deterministic conformational search was used on such a large scale. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: phage peptide libraries ; conformationally constrained peptides ; IIb/IIIa peotide antagonists ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Methods have recently been developed to present vast libraries of random peptides on the surface of filamentous phage. To introduce a degree of conformational constraint into random peptides, a library of hexapeptides flanked by cysteine residues (capable of forming cyclic disulfides) was constructed. This library was screened using the platelet glycoprotein, IIb/IIIa, which mediates the aggregation of platelets through binding of fibrinogen. A variety of peptides containing the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp or Lys-Gly-Asp were discovered and synthesized. The cyclic, disulfide bonded forms of the peptides bound IIb/IIIa with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, while reduced forms or an analogue in which Ser replaced the Cys residues bound considerably less tightly. These results demonstrate the feasibility for introducing conformational constraints into random peptide libraries and also demonstrates the potential for using phage peptide libraries to discover pharmacologically active lead compounds. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: secondary structure prediction ; input space ; parallel processing ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Using a backpropagation neural network model we have found a limit for secondary structure prediction from local sequence. By including only sequences from whole α-helix and non-α-helixstructures in our training and test sets - sequences spanning boundaries between these two structures were excluded - it was possible to investigate directly the relationship between sequence and structure for α-helix. A group of non-α-helix sequences, that was disrupting overall prediction success, was indistinguishable to the network from α-helix sequences. These sequences were found to occur at regions adjacent to the termini of α-helices with statistical significance, suggesting that potentially longer α-helices are disrupted by global constraints. Some of these regions spanned more than 20 residues. On these whole structure sequences, 10 residues in length, a comparatively high prediction success of 78% with a correlation coefficient of 0.52 was achieved. In addition, the structure of the input space, the distribution of β-sheet in this space, and the effect of segment length were also investigated. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: X-ray crystallography ; HIV-1 ; principal neutralizing determinant ; protein crystallization ; antipeptide antibody ; Fab sequence ; PEG crystallization ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: X-ray quality crystals of an Fab fragment from an antipeptide monoclonal antibody (R/V3-50.1) that recognizes the principal neutralizing determinant (PND) of the gpl20 glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (MN isolate) were grown as uncomplexed and peptide complexed forms. Crystals of the free Fab grew from high salt in orthorhombic space groups P212121 and I222 and from polyethylene glycol in space groups P1 and P21. Seeds from either the P1 and P21 native (uncomplexed) Fab crystals induced nucleation of crystals of the Fab complexed to a 16-residue synthetic peptide corresponding to the PND when streak seeded into preequilibrated solutions of this complex. Data were collected from these complex crystals and from each of the four native Fab forms to at least 2.8Å resolution. The genes for the variable domain of the Fab were cloned and sequenced and the primary amino acid sequence was deduced from this information. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of this Fab-pep-tide complex will be important in the understanding of the PND of HIV-1 and its recognition by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: structural scaffolding ; sequence similarity ; sequence identity ; flavoprotein ; homology modeling ; lipoic acid ; mitochondrial enzyme ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The hypothesis that dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases (E3s) have tertiary structures very similar to that of human glutathione reductase (GR) was tested in detail by three separate criteria: (1) by analyzing each putative secondary structural element for conservation of appropriate polar/nonpolar regions, (2) by detailed comparison of putative active site residues in E3s with their authentic counterparts in human GR, and (3) by comparison of residues at the putative dimeric interface of the E3s with the authentic residues in GR. All three criteria are satisfied in a convincing way for the 7 E3s that were considered, supporting the conclusion that the structural scaffolding and the overall tertiary structure (which determines the location of functional sites and residues) are remarkably similar for the E3s and for GR. These analyses together with the crystal structures of human erythrocyte GR formed the basis for construction of a molecular model for human E3. The cofactor FAD and the substrakes NAD and lipoic acid were also included in the model. Unexpectedly, the surface residues in the cleft that holds the lipoamide were found to be highly charged and predominantly acidic, allowing us to predict that the region around the lipoamide in the sub-unit should be basic in nature. The molecular model can be tested by site-directed mutagenesis of residues predicted to be in the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase subunit binding cleft. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: solvation ; Monte Carlo ; minimization ; protein folding ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Continuum solvation models that estimate free energies of solvation as a function of solvent accessible surface area are computationally simple enough to be useful for predicting protein conformation. The behaviour of three such solvation models has been examined by applying them to the minimization of the conformational energy of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor.The model differ only with regard to how the constants of proportionality between free energy and surface area were derived. Each model was derived by fitting to experimentally measured equilibrium solution properties. For two models, the solution property was free energy of hydration. For the thrid, the property was NMR coupling constants. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of applying these solvation models to the nonequilibrium conformations of a protein arising in the course of global searches for conformational energy minima. Two approaches were used: (1) local energy minimization of an ensemble of conformations similar to the equilibrium conformation and (2) global search trajectories using Monte Carlo plus minimization starting from a single conformation similar to the equilibrium conformation.For the two models derived from free energy measurements, it was found that both the global searches and local minimizations yielded conformations more similar to the X-ray crystallographic structures than did searches or local minimizations carried out in the absence of a solvation component of the conformational energy. The model derived from NMR coupling constants behaved similarly to the other models in the context of a global search trajectory. For one of the models derived from measured free energies of hydration, it was found that minimization of an ensemble of near-equilibrium conformations yielded a new ensemble in which the conformation most similar to the X-ray determined structure PTI4 had the lowest total free energy.Despite the simplicity of the continuum slvation models, the final conformation generated in the trajectories for each of the models exhibited some of the characteristics that have been reported for conformations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations in the presence of a bath of explicit water molecules. They have smaller root mean square (rms) deviations from the experimentally determined conformation, fewer incorrect hydrogen bonds, and slightly larger radii of gyration than do conformations derived from search trajectories carried out in the absence of sovlent. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: flavoenzymes ; monooxygenase ; FAD ; reduced flavin ; flavin planarity ; Pseudomonas fluorescens ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The crystal structure of the reduced form of the enzyme p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonasm fluorescens, complexed with its substrate p-hydroxybenzoate, has been obtained by protein X-ray crystallography. Crystals of the reduced form were prepared by soaking crystals of the oxidized enzyme-substrate complex in deaerated mother liquor containing 300-400 mM NADPH. A rapid bleaching of the crystals indicated the reduction of the enzyme-bound FAD by NADPH. This was confirmed by single crystal spectroscopy.X-ray data to 2.3 Å were collected on oscillation films using a rotating anode generator as an X-ray source. After data processing and reduction, restrained least squares refinement using the 1.9 Å structure of the oxidized enzyme-substrate complex as a starting model, yielded a crystallographic R-factor of 14.8% for 11,394 reflections. The final model of the reduced complex contains 3,098 protein atoms, the FAD molecule, the substrate p-hydroxybenzoate and 322 solvent molecules.The structures of the oxidized and reduced forms of the enzyme-substrate complex were found to be very similar. The root-mean-square discrepancy for all atoms between both structures was 0.38 Å. The flavin ring is almost completely planar in the final model, although it was allowed to bend or twist during refinement. The observed angle between the benzene and the pyrimidine ring is 2° This value should be compared with observed values of 10° for the oxidized enzyme-substrate complex and 19° for the enzyme-product complex. The position of the substrate is virtually unaltered with respect to its position in the oxidized enzyme. No trace of a bound NADP+ or NADPH molecule was found. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: subdomain ; kinetics ; unfolding ; stabilization ; autolysis ; protein engineering ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Variants of the thermolabile neutral protease (Npr) of B. subtilis (Npr-sub) and the thermostable neutral protease of B. stearothermophilus (Npr-ste) were produced by means of site-directed mutagenesis and the effects of the mutations on thermostability were determined. Mutations were designed to alter the interaction between the middle and C-terminal subdomain of these enzymes. In all Nprs a cluster of hydrophobic contacts centered around residue 315 contributes to this interaction. In thermostable Nprs (like Npr-ste) a 10 residue β-hairpin, covering the domain interface, makes an additional contribution. The hydrophobic residue at position 315 was replaced by smaller amino acids. In addition, the β-hairpin was deleted from Npr-ste and inserted into Npr-sub. The changes in thermostability observed after these mutations confirmed the importance of the hydrophobic cluster and of the β-hairpin for the structural integrity of Nprs. Combined mutants showed that the effects of individual mutations affecting the inter action between the subdomains were not additive. The effects on thermostability decreased as the strength of the subdomain interaction increased. The results show that once the subdomain interface is sufficiently stabilized, additional stabilizing mutations at the same interface do not further increase thermostability. The results are interpreted on the basis of a model for the thermal inactivation of neutral proteases, in which it is assumed that inactivation results from the occurrence of local unfolding processes that render these enzymes susceptible to autolysis. © 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability