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  • Aflatoxins  (7)
  • 1990-1994  (7)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 111 (1990), S. 55-59 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxins ; dried-fish ; fungi ; salt-preservation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mycoflora of dried-salted fish from markets in Kandy, Sri Lanka was studied with emphasis on visibly spoiled dried fish. A total of 61 fungal isolates from 25 dried-fish were isolated and identified. The most prevalent fungus wasAspergillus niger. Species ofAspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. glaucus, A. restrictus, Aureobasidium spp.Basipetospora halophila (a genuinely halophilic fungus)Cladosporium herbarum, Gliomastix, spp.,Penicillium chalybeum andPenicillium expansum were present. The isolated fungi did not grow in synthetic media containing more than 30% sodium chloride.Aureobasidium spp. andGliomastix spp. did not grow on dried-fish under laboratory conditions. The protective exoskeleton appeared to prevent fungal growth on dried shrimp. TheA. flavus strains isolated were not aflatoxigenic.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxins ; cotton seeds ; cotton seed products ; mycoflora and mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thirty-nine species and 16 fungal genera were isolated from Egyptian cotton seeds, cotton seed meal and cotton seed cake on 1% glucose-Czapek's agar medium incubated at 28 °C. Aspergillus was the most frequent genus and it emerged in 87–100% of the samples contributing 70–98% of total fungi in the three substrates tested. The most common species were A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. terreus and Rhizopus stolonifer; A. niger, A. fumigatus and Penicillium corylophilum; and A. niger, A. flavus, A. terreus, A. nidulans and Rhizopus stolonifer, respectively. Cotton seeds and cotton seed products were naturally contaminated by aflatoxin B1 and B2. About 16% of the different substrates tested were positive for aflatoxin contamination. No citrinin, ochratoxin A, patulin, sterigmatocystin, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 toxin or zearalenone were detected in the samples assayed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 124 (1993), S. 41-46 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxins ; Cyperus esculentus ; Ochratoxin A ; Rootstock snack ; Storage period ; Toxigenic fungi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mold incidence, moisture contents, pH and levels of mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, G1 and ochratoxin A) on/of/in rootstock snack (tubers ofCyperus esculentus L.) samples were monitored during a 150-day storage period. Whereas the mold incidence, moisture and mycotoxin levels increased with storage time, the pH declined during the same period. Altogether, 12 fungal species, mostly toxigenic, includingAspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus andA. ochraceus were isolated. At collection period only 3 of the 9 snack samples analysed contained trace amounts of aflatoxins. By 120th day, all the 9 samples were contaminated and the average levels were 454 and 80 ppb for aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin G1 respectively on the 150th day. Ochratoxin A was not detected before 120th day and then only at low levels, occuring in a maximum of four samples and ranging between 10 and 80 ppb.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 125 (1994), S. 157-162 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxins ; Aspergillus parasiticus ; Aspergillus tamarii ; Aspergillus nomius ; soil ; fungal populations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Four agar media used to isolate aflatoxin producing fungi were compared for utility in isolating fungi in theAspergillus flavus group from agricultural soils collected in 15 fields and four states in the southern United States. The four media wereAspergillus flavus andparasiticus Agar (AFPA, 14), the rose bengal agar described by Bell and Crawford (BCRB; 3), a modified rose bengal agar (M-RB), and Czapek's-Dox Agar supplemented with the antibiotics in BC-RB (CZ-RB). M-RB was the most useful for studying the population biology of this group because it permitted both identification of the greatest number ofA. flavus group strains and growth of the fewest competing fungi. M-RB supported an average of 12% moreA. flavus group colonies than the original rose bengal medium while reducing the number of mucorales colonies and the number of total fungi by 99% and 70%, respectively. M-RB was successfully employed to isolate all three aflatoxin producing species,A. flavus, A. parasiticus andA. nomius, and both the S and L strains ofA. flavus. M-RB is a defined medium without complex nitrogen and carbon sources (e.g. peptone and yeast extract) present in BC-RB. M-RB should be useful for studies on the population biology of theA. flavus group.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxins ; Aspergillus flavus ; cyclopiazonic acid ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thirty-two isolates of Aspergillus flavus were obtained from various sources in Hungary. All isolates were morphologically identified as A. flavus and three atypical variants were confirmed as A. flavus by comparing their DNA with an ex type culture of A. flavus. None of these isolates produced aflatoxins when tested on coconut agar or grown on rice medium and culture extracts examined by thin layer chromatography. Also, none of the isolates converted sterigmatocystin, O-methyl sterigmatocystin, norsolorinic acid, or sodium acetate to aflatoxin. However, 59% of the isolates produced cyclopiazonic acid based on thin layer chromatographic analysis of culture extracts. The isolates that lack the ability to produce both aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid are potential candidates for use in bicontrol studies.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxins ; Corn-based substrates ; Moisture content ; Mycoflora ; Ochratoxin A ; Temperature
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thirty-one fungal species, mostly toxigenic and belonging to 11 genera were isolated from corn, corn cake and corn roll snack samples.Aspergillus, Penicillum andFusarium accounted for 10, 6 and 3 of the species and altogether, they constituted 90, 94 and 88 percent of the total fungi in corn, corn cake and corn roll snack respectively. Mycotoxins (aflatoxins and ochratoxin A) were detected in 45, 80 and 12 percent while the means and ranges of the total aflatoxins recorded were: 200(25–770 ppb); 233(15–1070 ppb) and 55(10–160 ppb) for corn, corn cake and corn roll snack samples respectively. Ochratoxin A was detected at toxicologically significant levels in only 15 percent of the corn cake samples analyzed. All the strains ofAspergillus flavus andA. ochraceus tested produced aflatoxin B and ochratoxin A, respectively, when they were cultured on each of the three substrates. In each case, substantial quantities of the toxins were produced from 25 to 35°C with the peak level recorded at 30°C. Toxin production was detected only in substrates with 15 percent moisture content and above; reaching the maximum at 25 or 30 percent moisture level. No substantial differences in the amount of toxins were elaborated with further increase in substrates' moisture content. Of the three substrates, corn cake was the most suitable for aflatoxin B production while they were all equally suitable for the elaboration of ochratoxin A.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxins ; rice
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In Sri Lanka, rice is the main staple which is mostly processed into parboiled rice. The levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) in parboiled and raw milled rice collected from major rice producing areas and rice consuming townships were estimated. In almost all the samples of parboiled rice examined, the AFB1 and AFG1 contents were significantly higher than in raw milled rice. The highest AFB1 content was 185 µg/kg and AFG1 content 963 μg/kg. These samples were collected from a major rice producing/milling district where the mean relative humidity is 78% and mean annual temperature 27 °C which is the highest amongst the rice growing areas in Sri Lanka. Raw rice was either free of aflatoxins or when toxins were detected, they occurred in less than 10% of the samples. The frequency of occurrence of surface fungal flora (Aspergillus/Penicillium) and aflatoxin content in market samples was closely related. Brownish or greenish moldy rice samples with fermented odour contained over 1000 μg/kg of AFB1.
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