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  • Amphetamine  (84)
  • Springer  (84)
  • 1970-1974  (84)
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  • Springer  (84)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Carbon disulphide ; Catecholamines ; Brain ; Amphetamine ; Stereotypy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary CS2 in the exhaled air and in blood and liver was estimated after a single 1-hour exposure to 2.0 mg/l CS2. At the end of this exposure the whole body burden of CS2 calculated from the amount of CS2 exhaled within 4 hrs was 160 nmoles/g and it decreased exponentially with a half life of 35 min. CS2 concentrations in blood and liver were also 160 nmoles/g, but in the first 20 min they decreased faster than the whole body burden. As exhalation of CS2 did not tail off in the first 2 hrs when more than 90% of the body burden was exhaled it seems reasonable to suppose that 20 hrs after exposure the body burden of CS2 cannot be more than 0.1 to 1.0% of the initial body burden or probably less. Consequently, any effect of CS2 observed 20 hrs after exposure cannot be due to the presence of free or reversible bound CS2. Inspite of the rapid elimination of free and reversible bound CS2 from the body a decrease in the noradrenaline concentration in the brain and an increase in the sensitivity of animals to stereotyp induced by 6.0 mg/kg amphetamine was observed 20 hrs after exposure. The implication of these findings is discussed in relation to the increased frequency of coronary heart disease among workers exposed to CS2.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of toxicology 32 (1974), S. 307-311 
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Fatal Poisoning ; Thin-Layer Chromatographic Spectrophotofluorometric Determination ; Distribution ; Amphetamin ; Tödliche Vergiftung ; Dünnschichtchromatographische spektrofluorometrische Bestimmung ; Verteilung im Körper
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die anatomisch-pathologische und chemisch-toxikologische Untersuchung einer ungewöhnlichen Intoxikation mit Amphetamin wird beschrieben. Die quantitative Analyse von Amphetamin erfolgte in verschiedenen Organen und Körperflüssigkeiten durch Dünnschichtchromatographie und Spektrophotofluorometrie nach Kupplung von Amphetamin mit 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2,1,3-oxadiazol (NBD-Cl). Es wurden sehr hohe Konzentrationen in Harn und Blut und nur geringe Mengen Amphetamin in Magen- und Dünndarminhalt festgestellt. Die Ergebnisse sprechen für eine intravenöse Amphetamin-Injektion in tödlich wirkender Menge.
    Notes: Abstract A pathological report and toxicological examination of an uncommon case of fatal amphetamine poisoning are presented. Amphetamine was quantified in different tissues by thin-layer chromatography and spectrophotofluorometry after fluorigenic labeling of amphetamine with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2,1,3-oxadiazole (NBD-Cl). The distribution study of amphetamine showed an extremely high concentration of amphetamine in urine and blood; fairly small amounts were found in the contents of the stomach and small intestine. These figures could indicate that the subject had taken amphetamine over a long period and that his death was probably caused by intravenous injection of amphetamine.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 35 (1974), S. 91-98 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Food Intake ; α-Methyl-p-Tyrosine ; Catecholamines ; Dopamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Inhibition of catecholamine synthesis with α-methyl-p-tyrosine antagonized amphetamine-induced anorexia. This effect of α-methyl-p-tyrosine was reversed by l-Dopa administration. Comparison of the anorectic potencies of the stereoisomers of amphetamine yielded a d-amphetamine to l-amphetamine ratio of 2.75∶1. It is concluded that amphetamine produces anorexia through an action on catecholamines, with dopamine playing a major role.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Morphine ; Phenobarbital ; Ethanol ; Amphetamine ; Aggression ; Rearing ; Biting ; Vocalization ; Paw Shock ; Drug Dependence ; Withdrawal Syndrome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Male rats of Long-Evans strain were chronically administered increasing doses until a maximally tolerated maintenance-dose of morphine (400 mg/ kg/day), phenobarbital (400 mg/kg/day), ethanol (20ml of 50% v/v/day) or amphetamine (16 mg/kg/day) was reached. After several days of maintenance doses, the rats were withdrawn from those drugs. When grouped, morphine-withdrawn rats showed intermittent spontaneous-aggression (rearing, vocalization, attack-bites). Amphetamine (2 mg/kg) treatment potentiated morphine withdrawal aggression. However, animals withdrawn from phenobarbital, ethanol or amphetamine failed to show spontaneous aggression with or without amphetamine. Similarly, shock intensity required to elicit pain-induced aggression was significantly decreased in morphine-withdrawn rats but not in rats withdrawn from phenobarbital, ethanol or amphetamine. These results suggest that the aggression seen during abstinence is caused by specific changes in the central nervous system uniquely produced by the chronic administration of narcotic drugs.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Rats ; Self-Stimulation ; Medial Forebrain Bundle ; Monopolar Electrodes ; Various Stimulus Parameter Combinations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of various subcutaneous doses (0.16, 0.31, 0.63, 1.25 and 2.50 mg/kg) of amphetamine on self-stimulation in rats, with monopolar nichrome electrodes, implanted in the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, were studied. Six different stimulus parameter combinations (SPC), inducing different predictable response rates, were used. Response stimulation as well as response inhibition were measured at the same dose levels in the same rats and during the same experimental session. At each dose level of amphetamine response stimulation was more pronounced than response depression. The response depression was dose-related and the response stimulation reached a peak at 0.63 mg/kg. The response depression was directly related and the response stimulation inversely related to the control response rate, obtained with the different SPC's. It is assumed that amphetamine enhanced self-stimulation by lowering the threshold at the synaptic level and by increasing catecholamine release at neurons mediating motivational properties and reinforcement. Inhibition of the response rate at high doses of amphetamine can be attributed to non-specific motor stimulation interfering with performance efficiency.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Hallucinogens ; Hallucinations ; LSD ; Dimethyltryptamine ; Chlorpromazine ; Amphetamine ; Monkey Behavior
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An attempt was made to develop an objective behavioral profile that could be used to distinguish the behavioral effects of hallucinogens from those of other classes of drugs. Saline, bromo-lysergic acid diethylamide, and two doses each of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), diemethyltryptamine (DMT), chlorpromazine, and d-amphetamine sulphate were administered to solitary adolescent rhesus monkeys whose behavior was observed, videotaped, and scored in a number of categories. Hallucinogens (LSD and DMT) could be distinguished from other drugs by the increased frequency of unusual behaviors such as spasms, stereotypy, and inappropriate behavior, and the decreased amount of exploration time. Hallucinogens also produced distinctive qualitative changes in behavior.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 35 (1974), S. 189-193 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Tyramine ; Eserine ; Hexamethonium ; Methylatropine ; Adrenergic Blockers ; Peripheral Mechanisms ; Pseudoconditioning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Buzzers and shocks were presented in random sequence and with no temporal association to rats in a shuttle-box, so that they performed pseudoconditioned barrier-crossing responses to the buzzer. Performance of these responses was enhanced by amphetamine and tyramine. The adrenergic blocking agents yohimbine and dibenamine, though ineffective on their own, antagonized the action of amphetamine and tyramine. Hexamethonium and methylatropine, also ineffective by themselves, potentiated the effect of amphetamine but not that of tyramine. Eserine depressed the performance of pseudoconditioned responses when given alone, and it antagonized the stimulant action of both amphetamine and tyramine. The results suggest that amphetamine and tyramine enhance pseudoconditioning through activation of a peripheral adrenergic mechanism and that amphetamine, in addition, triggers an opposing cholinergic mechanism, also peripheral, from which it can be released by the anticholinergic agents hexamethonium and methylatropine. The depressant action of eserine can also be explained by activation of the cholinergic mechanism.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Catalepsy ; Catecholamine Metabolism ; Amphetamine ; α-Methyl-p-tyrosine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and Dopa-decarboxylase on the catalepsy induced by d-amphetamine in α-methyl-p-tyrosine (α-MpT) treated rats has been investigated. Administration of an MAO inhibitor concomitant with α-MpT slightly antagonized the cataleptic state, but when given 2 h later was without an appreciable effect. Only when an inhibitor was injected at an extremely high dose level 18 h prior to α-MpT did catalepsy fail to develop. Following COMT inhibition the cataleptic state was enhanced. After Dopa decarboxylase inhibition the catalepsy developed as usual for the first 3 h post-amphetamine, but then declined in intensity. It is concluded that neither deaminated nor O-methylated products are responsible for the development of catalepsy. In fact, the indication is that the catalepsy may be antagonised by an O-methylated derivative. A possible explanation for the action of the Dopa decarboxylase inhibitor is discussed.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 38 (1974), S. 279-286 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Adrenalectomy ; Amphetamine ; Food Deprivation ; 6-Hydroxydopamine ; Sympathectomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of amphetamine on spontaneous motor behavior has been studied in satiated and in food deprived rats. Amphetamine (1 mg/kg) evoked a large increase in motor activity in satiated animals, and an even larger increase in motor activity in deprived animals. The magnitude of motor stimulation by amphetamine in deprived animals was roughly proportional to the duration of deprivation. Food deprivation by itself did not increase motor activity. Neither sympathectomy nor adrenalectomy modified the response to amphetamine or to amphetamine plus deprivation. The data suggest that food deprivation potentiates the action of amphetamine by a central rather than a peripheral mechanism.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: 6-Hydroxydopamine ; Self-stimulation ; Amphetamine ; α-Methyl Tyrosine ; U-14624 ; Brain Dopamine ; Brain Norepinephrine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Changes in electrical self-stimulation responding were examined in rats with electrodes implanted in the lateral hypothalamus following 6-hydroxydopamine treatments which depleted brain dopamine, norepinephrine or both of these catecholamines. Acute depression of self-stimulation occurred after treatments which reduced brain dopamine, but did not occur in rats treated to deplete just brain norepinephrine. A chronic deficit in self-stimulation responding occurred in rats treated with 6-hydroxydopamine in combination with pargyline to reduce both brain amines, while responding of animals in which brain dopamine was reduced returned to levels observed prior to 6-hydroxydopamine treatment. A dose of α-methyl-tyrosine (25 mg/kg), which did not affect responding of control rats, caused a significant reduction in responding of rats depleted of brain dopamine. This treatment did not affect responding of rats depleted of brain norepinephrine. Administration of the dopamine-Β-hydroxylase inhibitor, U-14624, failed to affect self-stimulation in spite of an additional 70% reduction of brain norepinephrine content. The response to a dose of d-amphetamine (0.25 mg/kg), that increased self-stimulation of control rats, was significantly reduced in rats with brain dopamine selectively depleted. Rats in which norepinephrine was depleted responded to d-amphetamine like the control group. α-Methyltyrosine antagonized the increased self-stimulation responding following administration of d-amphetamine (1 mg/kg) to reserpinized rats, while U-14624 did not. Results support the hypothesis that central dopaminergic fibers have an important involvement in the maintenance of self-stimulation of brain.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Stereotypy ; Amphetamine ; Caudate Nucleus ; Tuberculum Olfactorium ; 6-Hydroxydopamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The caudate nucleus or the tuberculum olfactorium of the rat was lesioned by bilateral stereotaxic injection of 6-hydroxydopamine. The degree of dopamine depletion was assessed by a sensitive regional dopamine assay and revealed severe depletions in the lesioned areas. The locomotor response to a low dose of d-amphetamine was not modified by either lesion. However, the stereotypy response to a high dose of amphetamine was abolished by the caudate lesion. The stereotypy response was not modified by lesion to the tuberculum olfaotorium. Neither lesion abolished the stereotypy response to apomorphine. The results therefore demonstrate that amphetamine is an indirect sympathomimetic agent and further emphasize the critical role of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway in amphetamine induced stereotypy.
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 34 (1974), S. 191-198 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Albino Rats ; Stereotypy ; Electro-Stimulation ; Conditioning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract 12 male albino rats were injected with amphetamine, 5 mg/kg, every 4th to 5th day, 30 times/rat in all, and their behaviour recorded 10–31 min after injection. During the observation period 4 rats, the stereotypy-group, were electro-stimulated when they did not demonstrate stereotypy, which is a well-defined, constantly and spontaneously occurring amphetamine-induced behaviour. 4 rats non-stereotypy-group, were stimulated when demonstrating stereotypy. 4 rats acted as control group and were not stimulated. Whereas there was no difference between the groups during the first experiments, their behaviour differed in a statistically significant was during the experiments with stimulation, and the differences remained during control experiments without stimulation. The groups differed in the following way: the stereotypy-group demonstrated a high percentage of stereotypy per experiment, the non-stereotypy-group a low percentage, while the results of the control group lay between those of the stimulated groups. It is concluded that stereotypy can be subjected to conditioning.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: ACh Release ; Limbic System ; Amphetamine ; Scopolamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of electrocoagulative lesions placed in the septum, fornix and fimbria, fimbria and hippocampus on ACh release from the cerebral cortex was investigated in rats under urethane anaesthesia. At least 2 weeks elapsed between the stereotactic placement of the lesions and the determination of ACh output. ACh was determined by bioassay on the dorsal muscle of the leech. No lesion affected the spontaneous release of ACh. The increase in ACh output induced by i.p. administration of amphetamine was abolished by the septal lesion only. On the other hand, the increase in ACh output induced by i.p. administration of scopolamine was strongly reduced by lesions of the septum, of the fornix and fimbria and to a lesser extent of the fimbria. The administration of amphetamine and scopolamine discloses therefore a specific functional impairment of the cerebral cholinergic mechanisms in rats with limbic lesions.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Fenfluramine ; Stereotypy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The behavioural effects of a range of high doses of D-amphetamine and DL-fenfluramine were investigated in rats. Subjects were observed individually for 1 min in every 5 for a period of an hour. During each observation period the presence of any of 6 behavioural patterns was recorded in an “all or none”; fashion Behaviour patterns recorded included: Rearing, Forward Locomotion, Immobility, Backward Locomotion, Circling and Head Swaying. The last 3 behaviours are considered “Abnormal”; in that they were never observed in saline treated controls. The results indicate that, at the doses used in this study, both compounds induce abnormal behaviours, the latency of onset of which is directly proportional to dose. For both compounds an inverse correlation was found between normal and abnormal behaviours. However, the type of abnormal behaviour observed differed considerably between drugs in that fenfluramine elicited Backward Walking and Circling with no Head Swaying, over the dose range 10–30 mg per kg; whilst the predominant abnormal behaviour elicited by D-amphetamine, over the range 5–20 mg per kg, was Head Swaying. At the highest doses of amphetamine used some Backward Walking was elicited, behaviour which was totally absent at the lower doses. The implications of these results for the concept of “stereotypy”; are discussed, and attention is drawn to an important distinction between abnormal and stereotyped behaviour.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Pregnancy ; Learning ; Seizure ; Hippocampus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Female rats with 30 to 70% of conditioned responses in an avoidance conditioning session in a Warner cage, were treated daily during pregnancy with 0.5 mg/kg of d,l-amphetamine administered subcutaneously. They had been mated with males selected with the same criterion who received no treatment. The control group differed from the treated one in that females received the same volume of saline solution instead of the drug. Teratogenic effects of the drug were not observed and there were no differences in either the age of eyes or vaginal aperture or in growth rate determined by the weekly weight between offspring of treated and control mothers. The pups of amphetamine treated mothers had better acquisition and retention of conditioned avoidance responses than those of control mothers when they were 90 days old but no difference was observed at the age of 45 days. On the other hand, offspring of the treated group had a lower hippocampal seizure threshold than the control group. The relation between the mechanisms of learning and seizure are discussed in connection with potassium release by stimulation in the hippocampus.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Self-stimulation Behavior ; Amphetamine ; Pimozide ; Apomorphine ; Substantia Nigra
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Previous research has shown that self-stimulation (SS) is found in substantia nigra (SN) and that SS in other loci is altered by drugs preferentially influencing dopaminergic neurotransmission. In the first part of this investigation the effects of pimozide (0.35 and 0.5 mg/kg), apomorphine (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (0.1, 0.25, and 1.0 mg/kg) and L-amphetamine (0.25, 1.0, and 2.5 mg/kg) on SS in lateral hypothalamus (HL) and SN were separately determined. To reduce possible confounding of drug effects on SS with non-specific changes in motor activation, a rate-free test of SS was employed. Pimozide (0.5 mg/kg) reduced SS more strongly in SN than in HL, confirming the existence of a dopaminergic substrate of SS in SN, but HL SS was also reduced by this drug. Low doses of apomorphine (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg) elevated SS in HL while not influencing or slightly reducing SS in SN. Higher doses of apomorphine reduced SS in both regions. The enhancing effect of 0.1 mg/kg d-amphetamine on SS was greater in HL than in SN. However, d-amphetamine tended to increase SS more strongly than did L-amphetamine in SN as well as HL. It was concluded that HL SS may be mediated by both noradrenergic and dopaminergic substrates. An investigation was also undertaken into the possibility of noradrenergic or dopaminergic mediation of SS in other brain regions. Self-stimulation in the dorsal raphé area of mesencephalic central gray matter was not increased by 0.1 or 0.25 mg/kg d-amphetamine and was elevated only at 1.0 mg/kg, a dose level well above that needed to elevate HL or SN SS. In this region, therefore, SS did not appear to have either a noradrenergic or a dopaminergic substrate.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Body Temperature ; Adrenergic Receptor ; Azapetine ; Propranolol ; Hypophysectomy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We investigated the effect of (+)-amphetamine on body temperature in the unrestrained and curarized rat. In the unrestrained animal kept at an ambient temperature of 30°C amphetamine had a dose-dependent hyperthermic action, whereas in animals kept at 7°C it decreased body temperature. An increase in body temperature was evident also in the curarized rat; after spinal cord transection at the level of C1; and in the pithed rat. Pretreatment with the alpha-adrenergic blocking agent azapetine attenuated amphetamine-hyperthermia in the curarized rat, but enhanced the hyperthermic response in the unrestrained rat. Pretreatment with the beta-adrenergic blocking agent propranolol abolished amphetamine-hyperthermia in the curarized rat, but did not affect the response in the unrestrained animal. In the hypophysectomized animal amphetamine had a hypothermic effect even at high ambient temperatures. It is concluded that the action of amphetamine on peripheral beta-receptors has a hyperthermic effect, but that additional mechanisms are involved in the thermal response of the freely moving animal.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Hypothalamus ; Release ; Noradrenaline ; Dopamine ; Amphetamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The posterior hypothalamus of cats immobilized with gallamine was superfused through a push-pull cannula with artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Addition of3H-tyrosine into the superfusing fluid led to synthesis of3H-catecholamines which were released spontaneously. Separation of the3H-catecholamines by column chromatography or their acetylation and separation by paper chromatography revealed that both3H-noradrenaline and3H-dopamine were released. In most experiments3H-noradrenaline represented about 10 to 25% of total3H-catecholamines. Superfusion of the hypothalamus with amphetamine (1×10−5 M) enhanced the release of total3H-catecholamines, the release of3H-noradrenaline being relatively more enhanced than that of3H-dopamine. Determination of the readioactive compounds in the hypothalamus at the end of the experiments showed that total3H-catecholamines represented 3% of3H-tyrosine. About 15% of the total3H-catecholamines were due to3H-noradrenaline and 85% to3H-dopamine.
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  • 19
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    Archives of toxicology 30 (1973), S. 187-198 
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Plasma Iron Level ; Side Effect of Drugs ; Rat ; Amphetamine ; Chlorpromazin ; Haloperidolum ; Guanethidin ; Reserpine ; α-Methyltyrosine. ; Plasmaeisenspiegel ; Arzneimittelnebenwirkungen ; Ratte ; Amphetamin ; Chlorpromazin ; Raloperidol ; Guanethidin ; Reserpin ; α-Methyltyrosin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 4 Std nach einmaliger Gabe von 24 mg/kg d,l-Amphetamin i.p. kommt es bei Ratten zu einem Abfall des Eisens im Plasma um 40 bis 60 %. Die Reaktion ist nicht mit dem amphetaminbedingten Anstieg von Körpertemperatur und Skeletmuskelarbeit zu erklären, da sie durch Vorbehandlung mit α-Methyltyrosin, Chlorpromazin, Haloperidol, Guanethidin und Reserpin nicht unterdrückt werden kann. Jedes der zur Vorbehandlung verwandten Medikamente löst selbst bei entsprechend hoher Dosierung eine Hyposiderämie aus. 4 Std nach einmaliger Gabe von 200 mg/kg α-Methyltyrosin vermindert sich der Eisenspiegel im Plasma um 55 %, nach 10 mg/kg Chlorpromazin um 11 %, nach 5 mg/kg Haloperidol um 28 % und nach 20 mg/kg Guanethidin um 50 %. Dieser Effekt ist am ausgeprägtesten mit einer Plasmaeisenverminderung um 69 % 20 Std nach Gabe von 20 mg/kg Reserpin. Als möglicher Pathomechanismus der arzneimittelbedingten Hyposiderämie wird die Wirkung der untersuchten sämtlich zentralnervös aktiven Medikamente als “non-specific stressfull agents” sowie der durch ihre toxische Konzentration in Gang gesetzte Entgiftungsmechanismus im RES diskutiert.
    Notes: Abstract Four hours following a single dose of 25 mg/kg of d, 1-Amphetamine in rats, a 40 to 60 % drop of plasma iron level occurred. This reaction cannot be explained by the Amphetamine-induced rise in body temperature and motor activity, since when pretreated with α-Methyltyrosine, Chlorpromazin, Haloperidolum, Guanethidin and Reserpin this was not observable. All the drugs applied for pretreatment in adequately high doses also induced hyposideremia. Four hours following a single dose of 200 mg/kg of α-Methyltyrosine, plasma iron level was reduced by 55 %, after 10 mg/kg of Chlorpromazin by 11 %, after 5 mg/kg of Haloperidolum by 28 % and after 20 mg/kg of Guanethidin by 50 %. The most pronounced effect (69 % fall) was obtained by 20 hour pretreatment with 20 mg/kg of Reserpin. As possible pathomechanism of the drug induced hyposideremia the applied drugs may be regarded as “non-specific stressfull agents”, or as another possibility, the detoxifying mechanism in RES induced by toxic concentrations of the applied drugs can be considered as responsible for this phenomena.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; drug dependence ; metabolism ; urine ; man
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The metabolism of (+)-[14C] amphetamine has been studied in two women who had been taking 90–100 mg of Dexedrine ((+)amphetamine sulphate; Smith, Kline & French) daily for several years but who showed no evidence of overt amphetamine toxicity. The urinary metabolites were identified, estimated and compared with the results previously obtained from two drug naive male subjects who had received 20 mg of (±)amphetamine (Caldwellet al., (1972b). The same metabolites were found, but the dependent subjects excreted in 24 h more unchanged amphetamine (about 30% of dose) than the naive subjects (20%). This may be a reflection of the dose, which in dependent subjects was five times that of naive subjects. The dependent subjects excreted in 24 h slightly more norephedrine (2.9, 4.1% of dose) and 4′-hydroxynorephedrine (1.1, 1.6%) than the naive subjects (norephedrine, 2.2, 2.6%; 4′-hydroxynorephedrine, 0.3, 0.4%), but the difference in percentage of dose may not be significant. However, in absolute terms the dependent subjects are producing at least five times as much norephedrines as the naive subjects because of the larger dose.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Food Intake ; Tolerance ; Hypothalamus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The depression of intake initially seen when a rat is placed on an amphetamine adulterated diet disappears over a week at the dose level of 0.2 mg amphetamine per gram of chow. The decreased effectiveness of amphetamine is attributable primarily to accruing deprivation rather than to either behavioral or pharmacological tolerance. Ventromedial hypothalamic lesions attenuate the tolerance, whereas lateral hypothalamic lesions decrease the basic anorexigenic effect of amphetamine.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Lithium ; Amphetamine ; Brain Stimulation ; Rats ; Threshold ; Self-Stimulation ; Reinforcement ; Psychophysics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of lithium chloride on the behavior of rats aroused by electrical self-stimulation of the brain were compared to the effects of a known stimulant, d-amphetamine sulfate. The threshould of the reinforcing effect of this same electrical stimulation was determined by a classical psychophysical method. A threshold of reinforcement was defined by counting the postreinforcement pauses during concurrent fixed-ratio and continuous reinforcement schedules. Lithium raises and d-amphetamine lowers this threshold. These threshold changes correspond to the opponent behavioral and biochemical actions produced by these drugs in man.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Reserpine ; Alpha-Methyl-P-Tyrosine ; Behavioral Activity ; Supersensitivity ; Norepinephrine ; Dopamine ; Amphetamine ; Intraventricular Infusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The locomotor activity of rats was monitored during the intraventricular infusion of either dopamine or norepinephrine after intraperitoneal pretreatment with saline, reserpine (5.0 mg/kg), or acute and chronic alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (125 mg/kg-1 or 8 days). While the hyperactivity produced by norepinephrine was potentiated 24 h after reserpine, the response to dopamine was reduced by reserpine. Chronic, but not acute, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine enhanced the effect of norepinephrine without altering the dopamine-induced activity. These results indicate: 1. dopamine-induced hyperactivity is due to its conversion to norepinephrine, and 2. prolonged depletion of central catecholamines may result in post-synaptic receptor supersensitivity.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Tics ; Norepinephrine ; Dopamine ; Hyperactivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Graduated doses of d- and l-isomers of amphetamine were administered on several occasions in double blind fashion to a patient with symptoms of both Gilles de la Tourettes disease and minimal brain dysfunction. d-Amphetamine markedly increased the frequency of ticking while l-amphetamine did not alter the tics. By contrast both isomers decreased the patient's hyperactivity to a similar extent. Based on the known differential influence of amphetamine isomers upon brain norepinephrine and dopamine, these findings suggest that aggravation of the tics is mediated by brain norepinephrine, while brain dopamine plays a major role in the alleviation of the symptoms of minimal brain dysfunction.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Morphine ; Amphetamine ; Behavioural Stimulation ; Brain-Catecholamines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the present experiments the influence of small acute doses of morphine on rat behaviour was investigated. Small doses of morphine produced stimulation of locomotion, rearing, grooming, eating and drinking. Inhibition of catecholamine biosynthesis by α-methyl tyrosine and FLA-63 or blockade of the catecholamine receptors in the brain could inhibit the behavioral stimulant effects of morphine. Comparison between the morphine-induced hyperactivity and the stimulation of behaviour by amphetamine showed that the behavioural profiles of the excitation produced by these drugs differ significantly from each other, and it was concluded that morphine stimulates the behaviour of rats probably by a different mechanism from that of amphetamine.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; α-Methyl-p-tyrosine ; Chronic administration ; Withdrawal ; Avoidance Behavior ; Squirrel Monkeys
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two squirrel monkeys were trained on a nondiscriminated (Sidman) avoidance schedule that presented a conditional aversive stimulus (CAS) whenever the animals failed to respond within 20 sec. Shock was paired with the CAS 20% of the time. A 3 min tone followed by unavoidable shock was superimposed upon this avoidance schedule. Amphetamine (1.0, 2.0 mg/kg) increased responding without consistently affecting shock or CAS rate, while α-methyl-p-tyrosine (150, 225 mg/kg) decreased response rate and led to more CAS presentations and shocks. Withdrawal of amphetamine produced behavioral effects similar in direction but not intensity to those seen after the administration of α-methyl-p-tyrosine. Neither drug reliably altered the facilitation of avoidance response rate normally noted during the 3-min tone. These results were interpreted to reflect the role of the catecholamines in modulating the performance of an avoidance task. Furthermore, an attempt was made to speculate on the mechanism that may be responsible for the behavioral effects noted after the withdrawal of chronic amphetamine administration.
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  • 27
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 30 (1973), S. 1-12 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Relapse ; Morphine ; Dog ; Self-Administration ; Drug Dependence ; Amphetamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Intravenous self-administration of morphine by dogs was studied before and during dependence on morphine, and after 1 to 6 months of enforced abstinence. In comparison to pedal response rates during a saline control period, 18 of 22 dogs studied showed decreased rates of responding for morphine during the initial 3-week exposure. Following subsequent passive establishment of dependence in 7 dogs, they self-administered morphine and maintained dependence. Following enforced abstinence for periods of 1 to 6 months the 7 dogs relapsed to self-administration of morphine when it was again made available. In contrast, additional dogs offered food or amphetamine reinforcements showed marked increases in pedal responding for these reinforcements within a few days after initial exposure. The results indicate that in post-dependent dogs that had maintained their dependence on morphine by self-administration, effects other than those experienced during the initial exposure to morphine are responsible for relapse.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Cannabinoids ; EEG ; Behavior ; Reserpine ; Amphetamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The pharmacological effects of marihuana in man and animals have been attributed to Δ 1 and Δ 6 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Recently, one of the metabolites of THC, 7-OH-THC, has been reported to have intoxicating properties. A comparative study was carried out on the EEG and behavioral effects of cannabinol, cannabidiol, Δ 6-THC, 7-OH-Δ 6-THC and 7-Acetoxy Δ 6-THC acetate in six chronically implanted rabbits bearing cortical and subcortical leads. Drugs were dissolved in polyethyleneglycol and administered i.v. once every 7 days in a crossover experimental design. 7-OH-Δ 6-THC and 7-Acetoxy-Δ 6THC acetate proved to be at least twice as active as Δ 6-THC in inducing EEG changes (disruption of theta waves, appearance of spikes and waves, blockade of the “arousal” reaction) and behavioral alterations (excitation, exophthalmus, mydriasis, corneal arreflexia, ataxia and swaying). Pretreatment with 1 or 2 mg/kg of reserpine, s.c., did not substantially alter the subjects response to THC. Amphetamine 2 mg/kg, i.v., in animals pretreated with 2 or 4 mg/kg Δ 6-THC, reverses in part the depression induced by THC.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Apomorphine ; Neuroleptics ; Dopamine ; Drinking Behaviour ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Hypodipsia produced by injection of d-amphetamine (2.0 mg/kg) or apomorphine (0.8 mg/kg) in rats, was partially antagonized by two DA-specific neuroleptic drugs, Pimozide and Spiramide, respectively. Pimozide revealed a maximal amphetamine-antagonistic effect at dose levels between 0.1–0.4 mg/kg. Hypodipsia could also be produced by Pimozide alone in doses greater than 1.0 mg/kg. Pretreatment of the apomorphine-induced hypodipsia with 0.05 mg/kg Spiramide also reliably counteracted drinking deficits. The interaction of water deprivation combined with the presence or absence of food in the test situation was also examined, but no effect was found. The possibility that perseverative rearing on the hind legs under d-amphetamine might interfere with drinking was tested with high vs. low drinking-tubes in the Pimozide-amphetamine experiments. There was evidence for a slight initial effect of drinking position, but the general form of the dose-response curve was not greatly altered. It was concluded that dopamine effects cannot easily be excluded from a role in the control of drinking, and that the primary role often accorded norepinephrine in relation to amphetamine effects should be re-examined with respect to the specific behavioural functions which are altered.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Catecholamines ; Dopaminergic Vesicles ; Striatum ; Amphetamine ; Amantadine ; Desipramine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Dopamine storing vesicles were isolated from the caudate nucleus of the pig by differential centrifugation and incubated at various temperatures. The spontaneous release of endogenous dopamine was temperature-dependent. Incubation with 14C-dopamine or 14C(±)-noradrenaline revealed that the vesicles were able to take up catecholamines by two different transport mechanisms; one was dependent on ATP, magnesium and temperature, the other one was independent of ATP and magnesium, and partially dependent on temperature. The Km of the ATP-magnesium-dependent uptake was 1.52×10−6 M for dopamine and 3.45×10−6 M for noradrenaline. Incubation with dopamine increased the dopamine content of the vesicles and diminished the endogenous dopamine by approximately 90%. Addition of ATP and magnesium further increased the dopamine content without influencing the per cent exchange between endogenous and exogenous dopamine. The dopamine uptake at 37°C in the presence of ATP and magnesium was of short duration because of the thermo-lability of the vesicles. (+)-amphetamine competitively inhibited the ATP-magnesium-dependent uptake of dopamine and noradrenaline. Amantadine and desipramine influenced neither the ATP-magnesium-dependent nor the ATP-magnesium-independent uptake of the catecholamines.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Dopamine ; Axotomy ; Gammahydroxybutyric Acid ; Receptor Activity ; Amphetamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The influence of blockade or stimulation of dopamine (DA) receptors on the selective increase in brain DA seen after axotomy or injection of gammahydroxybutyric acid (sodium form, 1.5 g/kg i.p.) was studied in rats. The increases were not changed after blockade of the DA receptors by haloperidol but were slightly reduced after stimulation of these receptors by apomorphine. Since pretreatment with haloperidol counteracted this effect of apomorphine, a diminished stimulation of DA receptors may partially be responsible for the increase in brain DA seen when the nerve impulse flow has been blocked in the DA neurones by axotomy or treatment with gammahydroxybutyric acid. The NA content was usually somewhat lowered on the lesioned side and this reduction was not changed after treatment with haloperidol, apomorphine or amphetamine. The increase in brain DA usually observed after axotomy was not found when the rats were also treated with reserpine and nialamide. This effect indicates that the negative feed-back of cytoplasmic DA on the DA synthesis operates also in the absence of nerve impulses. Injection of amphetamine before or after axotomy or treatment with gammahydroxybytyric acid markedly inhibited the increase in brain DA, probably due to release of newly synthesized DA.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: AN 1 ; Amphetamine ; Doping Controls ; AN 1 ; Amphetamin ; Dopingkontrollen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Nach Einnahme von AN 1 (1) (α-Phenyl-α-N-(1-phenyl-isopropyl)-amino-acetonitril) konnte im Urin von Versuchspersonen mit Hilfe der Kombination GC-MS Amphetamin (2) nachgewiesen werden. Da dieses Psychotonikum frei im Handel erhältlich ist, sollte dieser Befund in Zukunft bei der Durchführung von Dopingkontrollen berücksichtigt werden.
    Notes: Abstract After oral administration of the psychotonic AN 1 (1) (α-Phenyl-α-N-(1-phenylisopropyl)-amino-acetonitril), amphetamine (2) could be detected in the urine of volunteers by GC-MS-analysis. Since this drug is commercially free available this finding should be considered in doping controls in the future.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; drug ; dependence ; chlorpromazine ; thioridazine ; pimozide ; phenoxybenzamine ; propanolol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Pharmacological blockade of the euphoric effect of amphetamine was studied in amphetamine dependent patients. An eleven grade self-rating scale was used for registration of the subjective feeling of euphoria after intravenous administration of 200 mg d,l-amphetamine. Three neuroleptic drugs, chlorpromazine, thioridazine, pimozide, the α-receptor-blocking agent phenoxybenzamine and the β-receptor-blocking agent propranolol were tested for possible anti-amphetamine effect. — The euphoric effect of amphetamine was significantly reduced after a single dose of 50 mg of chlorpromazine and after 7 and 13 days of chlorpromazine treatment, 50 mg every 8 h. Single doses of chlorpromazine 25 mg or thioridazine 25 and 50 mg, respectively, had no effect. Pimozide significantly reduced euphoria after single doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg, but there was no dose-response relationship. The amphetamine-induced euphoria was also reduced by 7 and 13 days of treatment with pimozide 5 mg daily. Pretreatment for 6 days with phenoxybenzamine had no effect on the response to amphetamine and, propranolol, too both in single doses and after 5 days administration also had no amphetamine blocking effect. — Blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate and body temperature were measured after administration of amphetamine before and after pretreatment with these blocking agents. Amphetamine significantly increased the blood pressure and at certain times the pulse and respiratory rates, too, but not the body temperature. If these blocking agents were given in combination with amphetamine they showed no particular effects on these parameters.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Epidemiology ; Patterns of Drug Use ; Cannabis ; Hallucinogen ; Opiate ; Amphetamine ; Epidemiologie ; Drogenkonsummuster ; Cannabis ; Halluzinogene ; Opiate ; Amphetamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In einer teils anonymen, teils nicht-anonymen Untersuchung an 6315 19jährigen Probanden des Kantons Zürich werden die Drogenkontakte ermittelt. 1570 Versuchspersonen (24,9%) der untersuchten Gruppe weisen Drogenkontakte auf. Die Kontamination zwischen den einzelnen Drogen, besonders bei Halluzinogenen und Opiaten, ist äußerst stark. Konfigurationsanalyse, statistische und klinisch-psychiatrische Überlegungen ergeben eine Klassifikation von 7 unterschiedlichen Drogengruppen, wobei nur Cannabis- und Halluzinogen-Konsum als reine Gruppen vertreten sind. Die restlichen Drogen (Weckamine, Opiate, Muskatnuß, Lösungs- und Hustenmittel, eingenommen zur bewußten Herbeiführung von Rauschzuständen) weisen Kontaminationen mit Cannabis auf. Dieses Ergebnis erlaubt keine Aussage über die Umsteige-Hypothese, Cannabis diene als Schrittmacher für den Konsum anderer Drogen.
    Notes: Summary The incidence of drug taking was established in a partly anonymous investigation on 6315 19-year old test subjects from the canton of Zurich. 1570 subjects (24.9%) in the group investigated showed drug contact. The contamination between the individual drugs, particulary between hallucinogens and opiates, was extremly strong. Configuration-frequency analysis, and consideration of statistical and clinico-psychiatric aspects resulted in the classification of the sample into 7 different drug groups, where only cannabis and hallucinogen consumption were represented as pure groups. All other drugs (amphetamines, opiates, nutmeg, solvents and cough remedies, when taken deliberately induce delirium) showed a dependence upon cannabis consumption. This result allows no statement about the stepping-stone theory that cannabis-users tend to frequent use of other drugs.
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  • 35
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 25 (1972), S. 195-204 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Conditional Avoidance Response ; Asymmetric Behavior-Controlling State ; Catecholamines ; Serotonin ; Reserpine ; Syrosingopine ; Amphetamine ; 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine ; 5-Hydroxytryptophan ; Hydroxyamphetamine ; Parachlorophenylalanine ; Methyl-p-tyrosine ; Chlorpromazine ; Cyproheptadine ; State-Dependent Learning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Conditional avoidance responses acquired under amphetamine were recalled without deficit only when tested under amphetamine (“amphetaminestate” dependent learning). Hydroxyamphetamine was devoid of this property. Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) but not 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) substituted for amphetamine while reserpine but not syrosingopine eliminated the “amphetamine-state”. DOPA and 5-HTP, only when given together, restored the “amphetamine-state” in reserpinized animals. DOPA alleviated the deficit in retention which was caused by methyl-p-tyrosine. 5-HTP alleviated the similar deficit caused by p-chlorophenylalanine. Chlorpromazine or cyproheptadine antagonized the “amphetamine-state”. It is suggested that amphetamine, but not hydroxyamphetamine is capable of producing an asymmetric behavior-controlling state. The “amphetamine-state” is related to the stimulation of central and not peripheral amine-receptors and depends on newly synthesized catecholamines which stimulate central catecholamine receptors through serotonin modulation in this case.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Cyclic AMP Response to Norepinephrine ; Prochlorperazine ; Metabolites of Chlorpromazine ; Imipramine ; Amphetamine ; p-Chloroamphetamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Tissue slices were prepared from paired areas of the rat hypothalamus and brain stem. Exposure of the brain slices for 6 min to 5×10−5 M norepinephrine (NE) consistently resulted in a 3- to 5-fold increase in the level of adenosine 3′,5′monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Prochlorperazine and 7-hydroxychlorpromazine at 10−5 M antagonized the increase of the cyclic nucleotide elicited by NE in the hypothalamus and the brain stem (p〈0.01), while 8-hydroxychlorpromazine and imipramine were effective in only the hypothalamus. The remaining metabolites of chlorpromazine (CPZ), 7-methoxy-CPZ, 3,7-dihydroxy-CPZ, 7-hydroxy-8-methoxy-CPZ, 8-hydroxy-7-methoxy-CPZ, and 7,8-dihydroxypromazine failed to modify the NE-induced cyclic AMP response at 10−5 M. d-Amphetamine and p-chloroamphetamine at a concentration of 10−5 M did not affect the levels of cyclic AMP either in the precence or absence of NE. High concentrations of lithium antagonized the cyclic AMP response to NE in the hypothalamus. None of the drugs altered the basal levels of the cyclic nucleotide in vitro; p-chloroamphetamine, however, markedly reduced the basal level of cyclic AMP after the intraperitoneal injection of the drug.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Operant Conditioning ; Amphetamine ; Animal Behaviour ; Stereotypy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two experiments were performed in rats, using operant conditioning techniques and various dose levels of d-amphetamine. Repeated sessions with drugs occurred at intervals of at least four days and were interspersed with saline or non-injection control sessions so that results from each animal could be compared with its own control data. Each animal was tested on one of two schedules of reinforcement, both of which used termination of electric shock as the principle response-contingent event. In the first schedule (Av-R), each lever-press in the presence of shock was followed by a period of no-shock and each subsequent lever-press within this no-shock period further delayed the onset of shock. In the second schedule (Av-H), the shock was off only as long as the animal held the lever in a depressed position and leverrelease was immediately followed by shock. At 1.0 mg/kg d-amphetamine, total avoidance of shock, as compared with control sessions, was increased on the Av-R schedule, but deteriorated on the Av-H schedule, in both cases due to increased lever-pressing (and releasing). At higher doses of 3.0–5.0 mg/kg, shock avoidance responding on the Av-R schedule was even higher in some animals but decreased or disappeared in others, while holding activity on the Av-H schedule was practically unaffected except in very long sessions. Recording of other bodily activities during these sessions revealed dose-related elements of response perseveration and behavioural stereotypy which could be more effectively blended with Av-R responding at low doses and with Av-H responding at higher doses. These results were discussed in relation to the operant conditioning literature on behavioural effects of amphetamine and a theoretical link was suggested between increasingly stereotyped behaviour due to the drug effect and the type of responding seen in the two schedules tested here.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Propranolol ; Prinodolol ; Practolol ; Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents ; Amphetamine ; Apomorphine ; Stereotyped Behavior ; Rats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The influence of three beta-adrenergic blocking agents was studied on the stereotyped behavior induced in rats by a range of doses of d-amphetamine or apomorphine. The stereotyped behavior was assessed either clinically (quotation from 0 to 3 at various times for each rat) or using the confinement motor activity test. From 8 mg/kg (i.p.) onwards, propranolol and prinodolol clearly potentiated the amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior without any modification of the apomorphine-induced stereotyped behavior. Practolol, known for its poor passage through the blood-brain barrier had only a slight effect.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Choice ; Concurrent Schedules ; Response Rate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Key-pecking behavior of three pigeons was maintained by concurrent variable-interval, variable-interval schedules of reinforcement. Dose-response curves of amphetamine on four operants involved in the choice situation were obtained. None of the doses of amphetamine studied produced any rate-increasing effect on responding, irrespective of the differences in control baseline rates. Responding at the changeover key was relatively more depressed than main-key responding in spite of occuring at lower rates in non-drug conditions.
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  • 40
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    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 24 (1972), S. 384-396 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Waltzing-Shaker Syndrome ; Amphetamine ; Haloperidol ; Mice
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In the order to examine activity of the dopamine system in the Varitint-waddler (Va) mouse, behavioral effects of haloperidol and dexamphetamine on waltzing Va, non-waltzing Va and non-mutant mice were investigated. The dopamine system of these mice was studied by macro-autoradiography with 14C-dihydroxyphenylalanine. High doses (5.0–10.0 μmol/kg) of haloperidol were similarly effective in both mutant and non-mutant mice: they induced a highly characteristic cataleptic effect in all types of mice. Low doses (0.10–3.16 μmol/kg) were significantly less effective in the waltzing Va mice: they induced a marked shift from a small increase of the sitting frequency in the waltzing mice to a large increase of this measure in the non-mutant mice. Several behavioral measures of the untreated waltzing mice mimicked those of control mice treated with amphetamine. Amphetamine reversed original strain differences and depressed several stereotyped Va activities. The autoradiograms of the waltzing Va mice, which showed a marked labelling of the Harderian gland, differed significantly from those of the nonwaltzing Va mice and controls, which showed no labelling of this gland. It is suggested that a hyperactive dopaminergic mechanism is involved in the waltzingshaker syndrome of the Varitint-waddler.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Nicotine ; State-Dependent Behavior ; Lobeline ; Amphetamine ; Arecoline
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Rats were trained to enter one arm of a T-maze after the subcutaneous administration of 0.4 mg/kg and to enter the opposite arm following the injection of an equal volume of saline. Administration of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine isomethonium iodide hydroiodide, 0.4–10.0 mg/kg lobeline sulfate, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg d-amphetamine sulfate and 0.25–2.0 mg/kg arecoline hydrobromide produced responses which resembled the established saline effect. Pretreatment with 10.0 mg/kg lobeline had no significant effect on the nicotine-cued response. The inability of these structurally and/or functionally similar drugs to produce a nicotine-like discriminative effect is discussed.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Locomotor Activity ; Desmethylimipramine ; Tetrabenazine ; “Paradoxical” Depression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Amphetamine, at intraperitoneal doses of 0.1–3.2 mg/kg, significantly depresses the stimulated motor activity caused by combined treatment with desmethylimipramine (DMI) plus tetrabenazine (TBZ) in mice. The mechanism of this depressant effect probably differs from that for amphetamine's stimulant effect in saline-pretreated mice, since doses that produce the effects are dissimilar. DMI alone fails to potentiate or prolong amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in mice, probably because it does not block the degradation of amphetamine in mice, as it does in rats. TBZ alone does not potentiate, but rather partially blocks the motor stimulation caused by amphetamine.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Ephedrine ; pOH Amphetamine ; pOH Ephedrine ; Nigrostriatum ; Striatal Dopamine ; Rotational Behaviour
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé La d-amphétamine (5–10 mg/kg i.v., 5 mg/kg i.p.) et la l-éphédrine (120 mg/kg i.p.) provoquent des mouvements de rotation ipsilatérale chez le Rat dont le faisceau nigrostriatal est interrompu unilatéralement par électrocoagulation, mais il ne semble pas que ces mouvements soient en relation avec les teneurs en dopamine endogène du striatum et du reste de l'encéphale. Il nous semble possible d'admettre cependant que les effets des amines sympathomimétiques sont en relation avec la libération de la dopamine nouvellement synthétisée au niveau du striatum. L'inactivité des dérivés p-hydroxylés de l'amphétamine et de l'éphédrine sur le phénomène considéré peut s'expliquer par la faible perméabilité de la barrière hémato-encéphalique à leur égard.
    Notes: Abstract Amphetamine (5–10 mg/kg i.v. and 5 mg/kg i.p.) and ephedrine (120 mg/kg i.p.) induce vigorous rotational behaviour in rats whose nigro-striatal system has been unilateraly destroyed by electrocoagulation. No relationship has been observed between endogenous dopamine content of the striatum on the intact side or the remaining part of the brain, and rotational behaviour. The effects of both these amines are probably due to the release of newly synthesized dopamine. The inactivity of p-hydroxylated derivatives of amphetamine and ephedrine is explained by their inability to cross the blood-brain barrier.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Aggression ; Amphetamine ; Dopamine ; Mice ; Stereotypy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract d-Amphetamine in a dose of 15 mg/kg elicits both aggressive activities and stereotyped sniffing, licking and biting of the cage in mice. A selective inhibition of the aggressive activities (without general sedation of the mice) was obtained by small doses of the neuroleptics spiramide and trifluperazine, indicating that this behaviour was mediated by increased activity of dopamine in the brain. This indication was supported by experiments with noradrenaline blocking agents and inhibitors of the synthesis of dopamine and noradrenaline.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Haloperidol ; Amphetamine ; Rats ; Noise-Escape ; Shuttle Box ; Skinner Box
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The learning process of two different noise-escape responses—lever pressing and jumping—was studied in the same rats using a shuttle box automatically transformable during the experimental sessions into two Skinner boxes. The effects of different doses of haloperidol and amphetamine were studied in rats overtrained in the two situations. The learning process was slower in the Skinner box than in the shuttle box. To reach the maximum response level in 50% of the rats 13 to 18 training sessions of 5 min were necessary in the shuttle box versus 31 to 36 in the Skinner box. Haloperidol prolonged the latency (T) and reduced the frequency (F and F′) of both lever pressing (L) and jumping responses (J) to about the same extent at the same dose levels (lowest effective dose 0.04 mg/kg s.c.). At 0.005 mg/kg haloperidol slightly increased F′L. At doses lower than 2.5 mg/kg, amphetamine decreased T in both the Skinner and the shuttle box and the ineffective responses (F′) were increased up to 4 to 5 times their control values. The lowest effective dose was 0.16 mg/kg in the shuttle box (F′J) and 0.31 mg/kg in the Skinner box (F′L). At 2.5 mg/kg amphetamine increased T and reduced F.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Animal Behaviour ; Antidepressive Agents ; Antihistaminic Agents ; Benztropine ; Chicks ; Cocaine ; Pipradrole
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Antidepressants, antihistamines or other psychotropic drugs were administered before injection of d-amphetamine in 3–5 day old chicks. This pretreatment completely protected some animals against the characteristic behavioural changes seen after d-amphetamine 6 mg/kg i.p. In addition chlorpheniramine, chlorimipramine, imipramine, cocaine and diphenhydramine were also able to antagonize a dose of 10 mg/kg i.p. It was further noticed that well developed d-amphetamine symptoms were interrupted by subsequent treatment with imipramine.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Self-Stimulation ; Acetylcholine ; Amphetamine ; Scopolamine ; Chlordiazepoxide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of d-amphetamine (0.25–8), scopolamine (0.25–8), chlordiazepoxide (2.5–40), and diphenylhydantoin (25–75), given i.p. or s.c. on a mg/kg basis, were studied on self-stimulation behavior in the male albino rat. The dose-effect relationships, the role of baseline rates of responding and their effects on brain acetylcholine (ACh) were determined in rats trained to self-stimulate for electrical reward in the lateral posterior hypothalamus. The effects of d-amphetamine were both dose and baseline-rate dependent. Low-moderate doses (0.5–2.0 mg/kg inclusive) facilitated self-stimulation and larger doses (2.0 to 8.0 mg/kg) depressed responding. Baseline rates before d-amphetamine administration were extremely important in the effect observed. Low rates of responding were facilitated and high rates were depressed by this agent. The effects of scopolamine in a wide range of dosage were less consistent. A small dose (0.5 mg/kg) facilitated only transiently self-stimulation and larger doses (1–8 mg/kg) tended to depress this behavior. Baseline rate effects were less important but high-rate responders were usually depressed by scopolamine. The effects of chlordiazepoxide were dose-dependent. A dose of (5 mg/kg) caused facilitation but larger doses (10–40 mg/kg) produced depression of selfstimulation irrespective of baseline rates. However, high-rate stimulators showed the most dramatic increases with 5 mg/kg of chlordiazepoxide. In contrast, diphenylhydantoin (25–75 mg/kg) usually depressed self-stimulation. Low rate self-stimulators showed the most marked depressant effects. Brain ACh was progressively reduced by handling of naive animals, injection of saline, and 1/2 h of self-stimulation and escape behavior. Animals not allowed to self-stimulate but given d-amphetamine (2.0 mg/kg), scopolamine (2.0 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in brain ACh. Self-stimulation, in addition to medication with the various drugs, showed a trend for further reduction in brain ACh but the differences were not statistically significant.
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  • 48
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    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 23 (1972), S. 17-25 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Memory ; Mice ; Catecholamines ; Reserpine ; DOPA ; DEDTC ; DCT ; Amphetamine ; 5HTP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Drugs that deplete the biogenic amines of the central nervous system were found to impair the consolidation of memory, in mice, of an avoidance task. Results indicate that normal levels of one of the catecholamines are necessary for the formation of long term memory.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Monoamine Metabolites ; MHPG
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Four physically healthy non-schizophrenic amphetamine abusers volunteered to ingest amphetamine in large doses and to cooperate with behavioral assessments, urine collections and to undergo lumbar punctures before and after dong so. The effects of administered amphetamine on behavior and on urine and cerebrospinal fluid levels of homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl glycol (MHPG) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) are presented and discussed with regard to the findings of other investigators.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Physical Performance ; Motivation ; Amphetamine ; Amobarbital ; Work Test
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of amphetamine sulphate and amobarbital on maximal physical performance was examined. Each subject underwent on two different occasions a test on a bicycle ergometer, consisting of a series of short intermittent exercises of maximal character, the CSET (Cycling Strength and Endurance Test). The 34 male subjects tested were divided into three groups (A, B, and C) on the basis of their results of the first test. Before the second test started, group A was given amphetamine sulphate, group B amobarbital and group C placebo. The final performances in the CSET improved under the influence of amphetamine, but the initial ones did not. After treatment with amobarbital the performance decreased. These results may be interpreted as effects on processes which are similar to those influenced by reduced performance demands, and which are related to work motivation.
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  • 51
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    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 27 (1972), S. 171-178 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Corpus striatum ; Reserpine ; Amphetamine ; Rigidity ; Stereotypy ; Rats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of the study was to determine the role of the neostriatum in the syndromes produced by some drugs which affect monoaminergic transmission. Thirty days after bilateral destruction of the neostriatum, and in some cases the pallidum, rats were studied while under the action of reserpine, apomorphine or amphetamine. Under reserpine, intact rats developed rigidity, in operated animals rigidity was absent; otherwise the syndrome was the same in the two groups. Apomorphine and amphetamine produced sniffing and gnawing in operated as well as unoperated animals. In both groups haloperidol blocked the stereotyped behavior. Thus, of the symptoms produced by the examined drugs, only rigidity depends on an intact neostriatum.
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  • 52
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    Springer
    Psychopharmacology 27 (1972), S. 203-212 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Morphine ; Amphetamine ; Stereotyped Behaviour ; Noradrenaline ; Dopamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The injections of morphine into rats which had been made tolerant to morphine produced stereotyped sniffing, licking and biting reminiscent of amphetamine-stereotypy. Pretreatment with drugs acting on the brain catecholamines such as reserpine, H 44/68, FLA-63 and receptor blockers could inhibit this behaviour. Comparison between morphine and amphetamine stereotypy indicated that brain noradrenaline plays a more important role than dopamine in morphine induced stereotyped behaviour, in contrast to amphetamine stereotypy where dopamine is the most important brain amine. The result of experiments with intraventricular injections of noradrenaline supported this conclusion, because the noradrenaline suppressed the blocking action of FLA-63 on morphine-induced stereotypy.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Open Field ; Amphetamine ; Imipramine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Experiments were performed to study the individual and combined effects of amphetamine and imipramine in rats with lowered brain catecholamines or 5-HT levels. The stereotyped behaviour was studied employing the “Open Field” test apparatus. When the brain catecholamine level was lowered by α-methyl tyrosine, amphetamine failed to induce complex stereotyped behaviour, while disulfiram pretreatment did not significantly alter the complex stereotyped behaviour due to amphetamine. However, pretreatment with either α-methyltyrosine or p-chlorophenylalanine modified the effects of imipramine. Imipramine augmented the amphetamine induced stereotype behaviour. Pretreatment with α-methyl tyrosine, p-chlorophenylalanine or disulfiram altered the behavioural effects due to the interaction of imipramine and amphetamine. These findings suggest that catecholamines, particularly brain dopamine, play a greater role in the stereotype behaviour due to amphetamine and its augmentation by imipramine.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Atropine ; Pre-Trial ; Post-Trial ; Conditioning ; Pseudoconditioning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Rats were trained in a shuttle-box to avoid shocks, and then re-tested 5 days later for retention. A pre-trial injection of 2 mg/kg amphetamine increased the performance of conditioned responses (CR's) on the first day, but it did not improve retention beyond control levels. A similar post-trial injection, on the other hand, caused a marked enhancement of retention, even in rats which had received a pre-trial amphetamine treatment. Atropine potentiated the effect of pre-trial amphetamine on performance during the first-day session, but it partly antagonised that of post-trial amphetamine on retention. The effect of pre-trial amphetamine, and its interaction with atropine were similar to previously reported observations on pseudoconditioning. Thus, amphetamine was considered to have a dual effect on behaviour: on one hand, an enhancing effect on pseudoconditioning, which could be potentiated by atrophie; on the other, another stimulant action on memory consolidation, which was counteracted by atropine. Under the conditions of the present experiment, it was to be expected that the effect of pre-trial amphetamine on the performance of avoidance responses on the first-day would be due to an increase of pseudoconditioned responses, and therefore would not improve retention of CRs over control levels. A higher dose (5 mg/kg) of amphetamine lacked all facilitatory action on learning. The effects of atropine by itself were dose-dependent on pre-trial injection (a low dose depressed, a higher dose enhanced performance on both sessions), and was stimulant upon retention upon post-trial treatment.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Anorexia ; Amphetamine ; Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor ; Norepinephrine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of d-amphetamine on food and water intake and brain monoamine concentrations in rats that had been deprived of food and water for 24 h were compared with those of two MAO inhibitors: tranylcypromine which has prominent amphetamine-like activity; and, pargyline which does not. All drugs produced dose-related depressions of food and water intake. The anorexic effects of the MAO inhibitors were correlated, over a 16-fold dose range, with elevated levels of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin. The anorexic effect of d-amphetamine was blocked by α-methyltyrosine, an inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis. α-Methyltyrosine failed to block the depression of food and water intake caused by the MAO inhibitors, although the rise in catecholamine levels was prevented. It was concluded that the mechanisms by which d-amphetamine produces anorexia may differ from those of the MAO inhibitors. Central adrenergic mediation appears to play a role in the anorexic activity of d-amphetamine, but may not be essential for the anorexic effect of tranylcypromine and pargyline.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Fenfluramine ; Amphetamine ; Paradoxical Sleep ; Slow-Wave Sleep ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Five cats were prepared with chronically implanted electrodes for recording sleep-wakefulness patterns. Four of these animals received fenfluramine at each of three dose levels and data was recorded for the following 12 hours. Percent of time in paradoxical sleep was significantly reduced by 2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg, but not by 0.5 mg/kg, of fenfluramine. The higher doses also increased slow-wave sleep and, at 7.5 mg/kg (an anorexigenic dose), total sleep time was significantly increased. Under similar conditions amphetamine, at an anorexigenic dose of 1 mg/kg, significantly suppressed both paradoxical sleep and slow-wave sleep in three cats. Rebound of paradoxical sleep after suppression induced by 2.5 mg/kg of fenfluramine was not seen in either of two cats studied when sleep patterns were recorded for 48 hours. After 7.5 mg/kg of the drug, however, rebound was seen on days 3 and 4 after suppression of paradoxical sleep which lasted for over 26 hours. In two animals, daily administration of 2.5 mg/kg of fenfluramine for 16 consecutive days, followed by saline administration for three days, indicated that tolerance was developing to the suppression of paradoxical sleep produced by the drug.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Phentolamine ; Noradrenaline ; Amphetamine ; Rat ; Locomotor Activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Phentolamine injected intraventricularly in unanaesthetized rats decreased their locomotor activity and antagonized the excitatory effect of intraventricularly injected noradrenaline, or amphetamine injected s.c. Phentolamine did not influence the level of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the rat brain. The mechanism of observed action of phentolamine is discussed.
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  • 58
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    Psychopharmacology 21 (1971), S. 353-360 
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Learning ; Situational Determinants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Water-rewarded spatial discrimination learning was studied in rats injected with either d-amphetamine sulphate or physiological saline 15 min prior to the first of two training sessions. The effect of a light which functioned as a reward and/or as a distraction in the testing situation was examined. Amphetamine was found to facilitate learning by enhancing the reward value of light onset and also to impair learning by enhancing the distraction of light onset. The effects of amphetamine were found to interact with the duration of water deprivation preceding the first training session. Factors responsible for the controversy concerning amphetamine's influence on learning were implicated.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Nicotine ; α-Methyl Tyrosine ; Adrenergic Blocking Agents ; Learning-Conditioning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract dl-amphetamine sulphate (2 mg/kg) and nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) showed a facilitatory action on the acquisition of a conditioned response in a shuttle-box by rats and this was reversed by pretreatment with α-MT (30 mg/kg). Pretreatment with dibenamine (10 mg/kg) impaired the action either of amphetamine or nicotine. Nethalide (5–10 mg/kg) exerted a partial protection on the depressant effect produced by the interaction between dibenamine and nicotine. Animals treated with α-MT (30 mg/kg) and kept in the cold (4–6° C for 3 h) also showed a depressed learning capacity. dl-Dopa (200 mg/kg) provided a partial protection on the depressive effects caused by the interaction of α-MT with amphetamine, nicotine or cold. It is suggested that the facilitatory learning action of amphetamine and nicotine involves a common adrenergic mechanism. The depressant effects of amphetamine, nicotine or cold after α-MT treatment are attributed to depletion of “functional pools” of catecholamines.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide ; Amphetamine ; Chlorpromazine ; Discrimination ; Mice
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of a psychodysleptic (lysergic acid diethylamide), a psychoanaleptic (amphetamine) and a psycholeptic (chlorpromazine) have been evaluated on the performance of mice previously trained in a Y water maze, following two procedures: Light Procedure, corresponding to a type of innate behaviour, and to a “learning without errors”, and Dark Procedure, corresponding to a type of acquired behaviour. The disrupting effect of lysergic acid diethylamide and chlorpromazine was much more marked in the Dark than in the Light Procedure, so that the results can be interpreted as a return to an innate behaviour pattern. Lysergic acid diethylamide causes the reappearance of a “coming and going” pattern of behaviour normally observed only during the pre-training sessions. With chlorpromazine a deconditioning effect limited to the Dark Procedure is evident at low doses, while at the highest dose immobilization at the starting point in both procedures was observed.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Amphetamine ; Apomorphine ; Stereotypy ; Behaviour ; Rat ; Mouse ; Neuroleptics ; Thymoleptics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The behaviour of mice after various doses of amphetamine or apomorphine which induce stereotypies is described in details. The induced stereotyped behaviour in mice appears more differentiated than that in rats. The amphetamine-syndrome in rats consists of an excitement phase followed by the stereotypy, whereas apomorphine elicits stereotyped behaviour directly after administration. Amphetamine-induced stereotyped behaviour is different from the apomorphine-induced stereotypy in several respects. Neuroleptics inhibit the amphetamine (12.5 mg/kg s.c.) and apomorphine-(10 mg/kg s.c.) syndrome, while thymoleptics potentiate subeffective doses of amphetamine (5 mg/kg s.c.) and apomorphine (2 mg/kg s.c.). This is demonstrated with some neuroleptics of the phenothiazine-type, haloperidol, reserpine, and a group of thymoleptics. The method opens the possibility of differentiating within several groups of neuroleptics and within several groups of thymoleptics.
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