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  • Inorganic Chemistry  (14,741)
  • Organic Chemistry  (13,527)
  • Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  (9,909)
  • 1990-1994  (15,606)
  • 1970-1974  (9,408)
  • 1965-1969  (7,644)
  • 1955-1959  (5,519)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: PLS regression algorithm ; Kernel ; Many-variable data sets ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A fast PLS regression algorithm dealing with large data matrices with many variables (K) and fewer objects (N) is presented For such data matrices the classical algorithm is computer-intensive and memory-demanding. Recently, Lindgren et al. (J. Chemometrics, 7, 45-49 (1993)) developed a quick and efficient kernel algorithm for the case with many objects and few variables. The present paper is focused on the opposite case, i.e. many variables and fewer objects. A kernel algorithm is presented based on eigenvectors to the ‘kernel’ matrix XX TYYT, which is a square, non-symmetric matrix of size N × N, where N is the number of objects. Using the kernel matrix and the association matrices XXT (N × N) and YYT (N × N), it is possible to calculate all score and loading vectors and hence conduct a complete PLS regression including diagnostics such as R2. This is done without returning to the original data matrices X and Y. The algorithm is presented in equation form, with proofs of some new properties and as MATLAB code.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 8 (1994), S. 169-174 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Kernel algorithm ; PLS ; SVD ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Lindgren et al. (J. Chemometrics, 7, 45-49 (1993)) published a so-called kernel algorithm for PLS regression of Y against X when the number of objects is very large. The algorithm is based solely on deflation of the cross-product matrices XTX, YTY and XTY. The algorithm is now described in a shorter and more transparent way and compared with a similar algorithm for the singular value decomposition of XTY.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 8 (1994), S. 37-44 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Bootstrap ; Confidence interval ; Non-linear regression ; Monte Carlo methods ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Non-linear regression models describing the toxicity of a mixture of rotenone and pyrethrins as an insecticide, the catalytic dehydration of n-hexyl alcohol and the Michaelis-Menten model for characterizing reaction rates in enzyme systems will be used to illustrate the accuracy of bootstrap methods in non-linear regression. Classical and bootstrap confidence intervals for the parameter estimates will be presented.
    Additional Material: 5 Tab.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 8 (1994), S. 97-98 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 8 (1994), S. 147-154 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: RAFA ; GRAM ; Eigenvalue problem ; Complex solution ; Degenerate solution ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) is a method for multicomponent calibration using two data matrices simultaneously, one for the unknown and one for the calibration sample. In its most general form, the generalized rank annihilation method (GRAM), an eigenvalue problem has to be solved. In this first paper different formulations of GRAM are compared and a slightly different eigenvalue problem will be derived. The eigenvectors of this specific eigenvalue problem constitute the transformation matrix that rotates the abstract factors from principal component analysis (PCA) into their physical counterparts. This reformulation of GRAM facilitates a comparison with other PCA-based methods for curve resolution and calibration. Furthermore, we will discuss two characteristics common to all formulations of GRAM, i.e. the distinct possibility of a complex and degenerate solution. It will be shown that a complex solution-contrary to degeneracy-should not arise for components present in both samples for model data.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 8 (1994), S. 179-180 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 8 (1994), S. i 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 8 (1994), S. 245-261 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Factor analysis ; Spectral resolution ; Two-dimensional luminescence ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A factor analysis algorithm that estimates the spectra of mixture components using the set of most dissimilar rows and/or columns is described and illustrated. This algorithm uses the distance as a measure of spectral similarity and is suitable for application to a variety of the bilinear matrix-formatted data types produced by hyphenated and multidimensional analytical techniqes. The algorithm requires that the data matrix contain at least one row or column that corresponds to the pure spectrum of each component to effect accurate spectral resolution. The performance of the method is illustrated using the resolution of excitation and emission spectra of up to four components from experimental fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). In the case of the EEM, characteristic bands in an emission spectrum effect resolution of the excitation spectrum of the corresponding component, while characteristic bands in an excitation spectrum lead to resolution of the corresponding emission spectrum. The use of the set of most dissimilar rows and columns to evaluate the degree of overlap in the component spectra and compare the quality of row and column solutions is also described.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Rank annihilation ; Principal components ; Procrustes rotation ; Multivariate analysis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: It is shown that the DATa ANalysis (DATAN) algorithm can be expressed in terms of rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA). Subsequent advances in RAFA are applied to DATAN to eliminate the problems and restrictions associated with DATAN. The extension of DATAN in terms of the trilinear decomposition algorithm is discussed.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 8 (1994), S. 299-301 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Resolvability ; Evolutionary factor analysis ; Variable selection ; Window factor analysis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A method for selecting variables in the non-sequential direction of a two-way data matrix (e.g. wavelength in diode array HPLC) is described. Composition 1 and 2 resolvability indices are calculated according to the size of eigenvalues of uncentred data matrices as a window is moved along the sequential direction. A double-window technique is then performed where resolvability indices are calculated as a window is moved along the non-sequential direction. Some regions have higher resolvability indices and hence are more useful for resolution. Variables are ranked according to resolvability. Two simulations are analysed and it is shown that it is possible to obtain good resolution on a small subset of the original variables.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Chemometrics 8 (1994), S. i 
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0886-9383
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Semi-empirical (AM1) calculations on the 12 isomeric products and the corresponding transition states of ketene-1-azabutadiene [4 + 2] and [2 + 2] cycloaddition reactions as a model system for the reaction of ketenes with 4-iminobenzylfuran-2,3-diones are presented. A [4 + 2] type of reaction of the ketene C=C double bond leading to a six-membered lactam compound is found to be highly favoured both thermodynamically and kinetically. [2 + 2] Cycloadducts generally have significantly higher activation energies. Reactions involving the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond proceed in most cases via attack of the nitrogen lone pair leading to a zwitterionic intermediate. Depending on the respective cycloadduct, both two-step and concerted, albeit asynchronous, processes were obtained. Based on the structures of the various transition states, some predictions with respect to substituent effects are made. Similarities to and differences from the analogous reaction of ketenimines with oxa-1,3-dienes are discussed.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Reaction of aryliminodimagnesium [ArN(MgBr)2, IDMg] with nitrobenzene (Ar1NO2) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) gives unsymmetrical (unsym) azoxybenzene, which is deoxygenated to give unsym-azobenzene. The reaction is utilized for the independent preparation of ONN and NNO isomers of unsym-azoxy compounds. The effects of the relative value of the difference between oxidation and reduction potentials of para-substituted reactants, special effects of ortho-substituents of the substrate and also effects of structure and concentration of mono- and bis-IDMg reagents were studied previously, and ‘cooperation of their aggregate excess needed for product formation’ was proposed. This unfamiliar concept for reactions of magnesium reagents was studied further. Supporting evidence was obtained from the retarding effect of trimethylene chains of nitro [3.3] metacyclophanes and the derived azoxy [3.3] metacyclophanes and also from the effect of the length of bis-IDMg's central α,ω-polymethylenedioxy chain appropriate for azoxy deoxygenation. By comparison with deoxygenation by X3P reagents (X = EtO, Me2N), the general needs of cooperation of excess magnesium reagents were confirmed and its role in their reactions is discussed.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The magnitude ρx(ρnuc) is shown to decrease with increase in the extent of bond making estimated by the kinetic isotope effect for the reactions of Y-benzoyl chlorides with anilines, XC6H4NH2, in acetonitrile at 25·0°C.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The role of orbital control in product selectivity during electrophilic aromatic alkylation catalysed by zeolites was studied both theoretically and experimentally. In order to discuss this, the alkylation of toluene and m-xylene by methanol was carried out on a series of large-pore zeolites (HY). The changes in the para to ortho ratio observed on changing the framework Si/Al ratio of the zeolites were related to ab initio molecular orbital calculations of the LUMO energy of structurally alike model clusters but containing different tetrahedral cations around the active site. The observed correlation is discussed in terms of the HSAB principle by taking into account the influence of the catalyst composition on the reactivity of the electrophilic reagent.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: N-Substituted carbonimidodithioic acid dimethyl esters, when reacted with an active methylene compound such as nitromethane, undergo carbon-carbon bond formation followed by carbon-sulphur bond cleavage in the presence of zeolite catalysts to give 1-substituted amino-1-methylthio-2-nitroethenes. This carbon-sulphur bond cleavage is facilitated by the presence of rare earth cations in the zeolite-Y framework. The shape selectivity of the zeolite also plays an important role in this cleavage reaction. Force field calculations adopted for the molecules involved in the reaction indicate the geometry and conformational flexibility of these molecules. The computer-simulated model for the zeolite-Y is correlated with the conformation and shape of the reactant and product molecules to explain the variation in yields obtained in the conversion of substituted dimethyl esters.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The effects of the concentrations of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, Na2CO3 and BaCl2 on the rates of reactions of hydroxide ion with ionized N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHP-) at 30°C and in H2O-MeCN solvents containing 10, 50, 60, 66, 70, 76 and 80% (v/v) MeCN reveal the formation of ion-pair complexes between cations of the salts, which probably exist in solvent-separated loose ion-pair forms (Mn+⃛Xk-) and NHP-. An increase in MeCN content from 2 to 76% (v/v) causes an increase in the association constants (K) by factors of 40, 21 and 9 for LiCl, NaCl and KCl, respectively, while the respective increase in the rate constants (k′s1) for the collapse of the ion-pair complexes to product is ca two-fold. The values of k′s1 remain almost unchanged whereas the values of K increase 7·5-fold with an increase in MeCN content from 2 to 70% (v/v) for CsCl. Ion-pair complex formation was not detected in the presence of Me4NCl at 70% (v/v) MeCN. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constants are highly sensitive to the valence state of cations and almost insensitive to the valence state of the anions of the salts.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The rates and products of solvolyses of 4-methylene-2ax- and -2eq-adamantyl p-toluenesulphonates (tosylates) (4a-OTs and 4e-OTs, respectively) were studied. Compound 4a-OTs solvolysed more slowly than 2-adamantyl tosylate (1) in methanol and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) by factors of 2·3 and 2·5, respectively, at 25°C. However, by taking the inductive decelerating effect of a β-methylene substituent into account, the rates were revealed to be enhanced by α-participation by a factor of 50. The products of solvolyses of 4a-OTs in methanol, 80% acetone and TFE at 100°C were 2ax- and 2eq-alkoxy(or hydroxy)-4-methyleneadamantanes (4a-OR and 4e-OR, respectively), exo-4-alkoxy(or hydroxy)-5-methyleneprotoadamantane (exo-5-OR) and 5-[alkoxy(or hydroxy)methyl]-4-protoadamantene (6-OR) with adamantyl to protoadamantyl product ratio of 39:61 (in methanol), 56:44 (in 80% acetone) and 71:29 (in TFE). Despite the nearly symmetric nature of the intermediate cation, the 4a-OR: 4e-OR product ratio was essentially constant with 83:17 (in methanol), 85:15 (in 80% acetone) and 82:18 (in TFE). The formation of considerable amounts of 4e-OR was interpreted as showing the intermediacy of a pair of rapidly equilibrating classical ions. The rates of 4e-OTs were 2300-4300 times faster than those expected from inductive electron-withdrawing effect of a β-methylene substituent. The major product (84·5% in methanolysis and 98·7% in trifluoroethanolysis) was 4e-OR accompanied by small amounts of 2-alkoxy-2,4-methanoadamantane (9-OR) and 2-(alkoxymethyl)-2,4-didehydroadamantane (10-OR), no formation of 4a-OR having been observed. These results suggested that 4e-OTs solvolyses via a π-bridged intermediate cation.
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  • 27
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Molecular mechanics (MM3) calculations were carried out on the title compounds. Comparison between the MM3 results and those of semi-empirical and ab initio calculations and experiment indicates that the MM3 results are at least as good as results of much more expensive calculations. The MM3 calculations predict that unlike corannulene and cyclopentacorannulene, the transition state of the bowl-to-bowl inversion of the related C30H10 is non-planar, and the activation barrier is too high for this motion to occur.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Reactions of benzo-, naphtho- and anthraquinone derivatives (unsubstituted and substituted) with aryliminodimagnesium [ArN(MgBr)2] and aryloxymagnesium of a weak electron-donating ability were studied. In addition to the reduction products (quinhydrones and hydroquinones), nuclear substitution and condensation products were formed. The efficiency of single electron transfer (SET) from ArN(MgBr)2, evaluated by the relative values of the difference between the oxidation and reduction potentials of the reactants (ΔE = Eox - Ered), varies with the electron-accepting power of quinones. ΔE governs the modes of semiquinone appearance (ESR signals) and the relative amounts of the heat of reactions, reflecting the types and yields of the products. It is concluded that condensation products of both components are produced in the reactions of quinones with the lower SET efficiency by the presence of a fused benzene ring or MeO substituent. The structure-reactivity relationship proposed previously for reactions of various magnesium reagents is extended in the reactions with a variety of quinones even in cases of higher SET efficiency.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The low temperature 1H NMR spectra of 2,2-bis(3,5-dibromomesityl)ethenol in CS2-CD2Cl2 (3:7) display new signals which indicate the presence of four enol species whose OH is hydrogen bonded. Oligomerization to intermolecularly hydrogen-bonded enol dimers or tetramers is suggested.
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  • 31
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Measurements of absorption and emission spectra, fluorescence quantum yields (Φf) and lifetimes (τf) of ω-(1-pyrenyl)alkyl para-substituted benzoates PnX (X = H, Cl, CF3, CN, NO2, with n = 1-4) were carried out in solvents of various polarity. Intramolecular interaction in the ground state is not observed in any of these compounds. PnCN (n = 2-4) shows an intramolecular exciplex emission in solvents of low to high polarity. The broad, structureless emission at longer wavelength observed in ethyl acetate solution of P1CN is ascribed to an ‘exciplex-type’ emission which does not require actual overlapping of the two chromophores. P2CF3 also shows an exciplex emission in solvents of medium to high polarity. The solvent dependence of both Φf and τf increases as the electron-withdrawing ability of the para-sustituents increases. The relationship between fluorescence quenching by electron transfer and para-substituent of PnX is discussed by means of the free energy for electron transfer, ΔGET, obtained from the oxidation and reduction potentials of pyrene and methyl para-substituted benzoates in acetonitrile, respectively. PnH, with positive ΔGET, does not show a solvent dependence of Φf, except for P1H, in which ca 40% of the fluorescence is quenched in acetonitrile. PnCl, with slightly negative ΔGET, shows more efficient quenching, but does not show exciplex emission. PnCN, PnCF3 and PnNO2 have ΔGET values between -0·36 and -0·65 eV, and their fluorescence is fairly efficiently quenched. The fluorescence of PnCN is concluded to be strongly quenched by intersystem crossing from the singlet exciplex to the locally excited pyrene, and by electron transfer from the pyrene part to the benzoate part. That the formation of a singlet exciplex is necessary for intersystem crossing in bichromophoric compounds containing pyrene is thus clearly illustrated.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The evidence for the mechanisms proposed for aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions by primary and secondary amines in aprotic solvents of low relative permittivity is reviewed.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A rigorous procedure was developed for measuring the relative rates of addition of bromine atoms to eleven substituted α-methylstyrenes (1-Y, with Y = CF3, NO2, F, CN, Cl, Br, CO2Me, Me, COMe, OMe and SMe). The reaction was run in tetrahydrofuran in the presence of HBr, O2 and dibutyl peroxyoxalate at 30°C. All products were derived from the YC6H4CMeCH2Br adduct radicals, which were immediately intercepted by O2. Correlation analysis of all the data confirmed the proposition that in the absence of measurable steric effects, the relative rates for radical additions can be correlated only by a dual-parameter equation and not by a single-parameter equation. Among various combinations of σ* and σx, the (σJJ* + σmb) combination yields the best correlation.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Protonation of tetrafluoro-2,11-dithia [3·3]paracyclophane and tetrafluoro-2,11-dithia [3·3]metaparacyclophane in high-acidity super acid media, namely FSO3H.SbF5 (1:1) ‘magic acid’-SO2CIF, gave their corresponding acidic disulfonium ions. Additional ring protonation to give a disulfonium-monoarenium trication was not observed. With the non-fluorinated 2,11-dithia [3·3] cyclophanes, the disulfonium ions can be ring protonated in equilibrium to give a dynamic disulfonium-monoarenium trication. Tetrafluoro [2·2]-metaparacyclophane is monoprotonated at the meta ring and gives a complex mixture of conformational isomers. Multinuclear magnetic resonance data on the cyclophane precursors and their derived cations are compared and analysed. The energies, conformations and charge distributions of the isometric fluorinated and non-fluorinated [2·2] - and dithia [3·3] cyclophanes were calculated by the AM1 and PM3 methods, respectively. In all but one case the cyclophane arenium ions predicted by theory to be energetically most favoured are those observed in solution under stable ion conditions. In agreement with experiment, the instabilities of S,S,C-cyclophane trications are also theoretically predicted.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Ionization constants for 214 dye molecules were calculated from molecular structures using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry). These models used fundamental chemical structure theory to predict chemical reactivities for a wide range of organic molecules from molecular structure. The energy differences between the protonated state and the unprotonated state for a molecule of interest are factored into mechanistic components including the electrostatic and resonance contributions and any additional contributions to these energy differences. The RMS deviation was found to be less than 0·62 pKa units, which is similar to the experimental error.
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  • 37
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 169-169 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Solvent effects on the absorption spectra of N-(p-nitrophenyl)dimethylenediamine (Ia), N-(p-nitrophenyl)trimethylenediamine (Ib), N-(p-nitrophenyl)tetramethylenediamine (Ic). N-methyl-N-(p-nitrophenyl)tetramethylenediamine (II), N-butyl-p-nitroaniline (III) and N-(o-nitrophenyl)trimethylenediamine (IV) were studied at different temperatures. Whereas II, III and IV do not show any variation in their spectra characteristics with changes in temperature, I shows a hypsochromic shift with a hypochromic effect when the temperature is increased. The Kamlet and Taft solvatochromic comparison method was applied. A strong effect of the β parameter on I and III was interpreted as being due to the hydrogen bond donor ability of the H atom in the aromatic amino groups. In I, the β influence increases with increase in temperature. These facts are explained by proposing the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds between amine groups in all compounds I, besides the intermolecular interactions between compounds I and the solvent. On the other hand, the values of vo, s and b for Ib are smaller than the corresponding values for Ia and Ic. Since in Ib a six-membered ring may be formed, a more stable bond is expected. Comparative 1H NMR of the aniline hydrogen for I and IV (in non-hydrogen bond acceptor solvents) shows a particular downfield chemical shift for I which suggests hydrogen bond formation. Since this effect is independent of concentration, the hydrogen bond is assumed to be intramolecular, in agreement with solvatochromic and thermochromic studies. These conclusions were corroborated by IR spectroscopy in the solid state and in chloroform solutions.
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  • 39
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The secondary α-deuterium isotpe effect on the equiliburium constant (KD/KH) for the hydration of p-nitrobenzaldehyde is 1·39 ± 0·05. The Kinetic secondary α-deuterium isotope effect (KD/KH) for the addition of water to p-nitrobenzaldehyde is 1·18 ± 0·07. This result demonstrates that there is extensive carbon-oxygen bond formation in the transition state for addition of water to the carbonyl group of p-nitrobezaldehyde.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The rate of the reaction of 2-chloroquinoxaline with piperidine in dimethyl sulphoxide was measured over a wide range of amine concentrations and at several temperatures. It was found that the order with respect to the nucleophile is close to 1 between 300 and 320 K, but is definitely less at lower and higher temperature. It is suggested that below 300 K an unreactive charge-transfer complex is formed between the reactants which dissociates at higher temperatures, whereas at temperatures higher than 320 K an unproductive σ complex is formed, the concentration of which increases with increase in temperature.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The enthalpic contribution to the anomeric effect in r-2-carboethoxy-trans-4,trans-6- and r-2-carboethoxy-cis-4,cis-6-dimethyl-1,3-dithianes was determined by reaction-solution calorimetry. The enthalpy of solution of both isomers in pure p-dioxane and the enthalpy of solution and isomerization in the same solvent and in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid were experimentally measured. From these results the corresponding enthalpies of isomerization in solution were calculated, and were found to be ΔHax→eq = -0·16 ± 0·04 kcal mol-1 (-0·67 ± 0·18 kJ mol-1) and ΔSax→eq = -2·68 ± 0·1 cal K-1 mol-1 (-11·2 ± 0·4 J K-1 mol-1). The slightly negative ΔH term nevertheless reflects a substantial anomeric effect owing to the countervailing steric effects in the axial isomer. The significant entropy loss in the equatorial isomer was explained in terms of intramolecular electrostatic effects. The results are in agreement with those obtained from NMR studies of the conformational behaviour of 2-carboethoxy-5-methyl-5-aza-1,3-dithiacyclohexane.
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  • 43
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 591-609 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The MM3 molecular mechanics program calculates a fair representation of hydrogen bonding interactions, but to improve the MM3 hydrogen bond potential, a directional term has been added to the hydrogen bonding function. The resulting total function was reoptimized. Comparisons of the hydrogen bonding potential functions from ab initio, the original MM3, the current MM3(92) force field and the reoptimized MM3 force field MM3(94) for a variety of C,N,O systems are described.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The title sulphenamides were pyrolysed in a stirred-flow reactor at temperatures of 310-410°C, pressures of 8-15 Torr and residence times of 0·4-2 s using toluene as the carrier gas. N-(tert-Butylthio)allylamine formed 73 ± 4% isobutene, 23 ± 3% propene and N-allylthiohydroxylamine. The first-order rate coefficients for the formation of isobutene and propene, respectively, followed the Arrhenius equations kC4(s-1) = 1012·52 ± 0·36 exp(-163 ± 5 kJ mol-1 RT) and kC3(s-1) = 1010·99 ± 0·29 exp(-151 ± 4 kJ mol-1 RT) N-(tert-Butylthio)diethylamine gave 97 ± 1% isobutene, 1·9 ± 0·4% isobutane and N,N-diethylthiohydroxylamine. The first-order rate coefficients for isobutene elimination followed the Arrhenius equation k(s-1) = 1013·45 ± 0·24 exp(-164 ± 3 kJ mol-1 RT). The formation of the products is interpreted in terms of an elimination reaction with a unimolecular, four-centered, cyclic transition state. The reactivity of these sulphenamides was found to be much higher than that of previously studied alkyl or aryl tert-butyl sulphides and disulphides.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The aromatic odd-alternant phenalenyl anion and a number of its derivatives were prepared in order to study the perturbation of this conjugated anion by methyl and methoxy groups. The conjugated anions were studied by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, alkylation experiments and semi-empirical calculations. It was found that a substituent at a charged carbon atom perturbs the entire conjugated system, whereas substituents at inactive (uncharged) carbon atoms have a large effect on the positions ortho to the substituent.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The spontaneous hydrolysis of p-nitrobenzyl cellulose xanthate (CelXNB) with a degree of substitution (DS) in the range 2-9 was studied in 10% aqueous ethanol at pH 10, and was followed spectrophotometrically by the appearance of p-nitro-α-toluenethiol, in a continuous-flow system where the reactor was shaken. CelXNB was characterized by solid-state 13C NMR spectra. The reaction occurs through two parallel processes due to two xanthate ester groups with different reactivities. The fast hydrolysis was ascribed to the reaction of the C-2 + C-3 isomers, whereas the slow hydrolysis was due to the C-6 isomer. The percentage of the latter is much higher than C-2 + C-3. The solvent isotope effect of the fast hydrolysis (k′H2O/)k′H2D 11 was 2·22 ± 0·16 and the proton inventory indicated that there is only one proton transfer involved in the transition state, where a second water (or a neighbouring OH group) acts as a general base. The entropy of activation of the fast hydrolysis was only 3·3 ± 0·8 e.u., suggesting that the water molecules involved are highly oriented with respect to the coordinates required to reach the transition state. It is proposed that they form part of the three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded ice-like structure that involves the cellulose matrix.
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  • 47
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 316-322 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Rates of hydrolysis of the vinyl ether functional groups of (Z)- and (E)-β-methoxyacrylic acid and (Z)-and (E)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid and their methyl esters were measured in aqueous perchloric acid solution. Additional rate measurements were also made for one substrate, (Z)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid, in buffer solutions down to pH 7, and a rate profile was constructed. The results show that the β-carboxy and β-carbomethoxy substituents produce strong rate retardations, ranging from 2000- to 25 000-fold, for both Z- and E-isomers in both the acrylic and methacrylic acid series. The rate profile for (Z)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid indicates that ionization of this substrate to the carboxylate ion form rises the rate of hydrolysis by a factor of 240. It is argued that this difference in reactivity of ionized and non-ionized forms of the substrate is due to conjugative and inductive effects of the substituents, rather than β-lactone formation as suggested in an earlier observation of the same phenomenon in a different system.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The stereochemistry and kinetics of the methoxide ion substitution reactions (Z)- and (E)-methylbenzohydroximoyl cyanidc [PhC(CN)=NOCH3] were investigated. The reaction of the (Z)-hydroximoyl cyanide with sodium methoxide in DMSO-methanol (9:1) solution at 44·8°C gives a mixture of methyl (Z)-O-methylbenzohydroximate [PhC(OCH3)=NOCH3] and the O-methyloxime of α-ketophenylacetamide PhC(CONH2)=NOCH3. The (E)-hydroximoyl cyanide undergoes methoxide ion-catalyzed isomerization to the E-isomer faster than it undergoes nucleophilic substitution. These observations were interpreted in terms of an addition-elimination mechanism in which the rate-limiting step is elimination of the nucleofuge (AN + DN#).
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  • 49
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 394-394 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The reaction of nitrosobenzene with aniline, to give azobenzene, in basic conditions was studied. It was shown that the reaction exhibits general base catalysis by different buffers giving a Brønsted coefficient β = 0·318. As in previous studies, a two-step process with a first step of attack of aniline on nitrosobenzene to give an addition intermediate and a second step of dehydration of this intermediate is proposed to interpret the mechanism of the reaction. The analysis of the Brønsted relationship and of the intermediate of the reaction led to the suggestion that hydoxide ion catalyses the reaction by a mechanism of general base catalysis in the dehydration step.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Imidazole (Imz)-catalysed hydrolysis of benzoate esters proceeds via the intermediate formation of N-benzoylimidazoles. This paper considers the second step of this reaction, viz., Imz-catalysed hydrolysis of N-(4-X-benzoyl)imidazoles, X = CH3, H, Cl, CN and NO2, and N-(disubstituted benzoyl)imidazoles, 2-chloro-4-nitro, 2, 4-dinitro and 3,5-dinitro, in water-acetonitrile mixtures (10% or 14%, v/v, in organic solvent). On the basis of catalytic rate constants and the kinetic solvent isotope effect, it is shown that catalysis by Imz is of the general-base type. Unexpectedly, the hydrolysis of N-(2,4-dinitrobenzoyl)imidazole was found to be slower than that of N-(4-nitrobenzoyl)imidazole. It is shown that this reactivity order is due to a combination of a steric effect and stabilization of the reactant state due to a donor-acceptor interaction between the Imz moiety and the 2,4-dinitrophenyl ring.
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  • 52
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The rates of the solvolysis of 3-R-4-homoadamantyl methanesulphonates (mesylates) (3) were determined in 80% aqueous ethanol. The relative first-order rate constants at 25 °C were 1·0 (R = H), 2·29 (R = Ph), 3·26 (R = p-anisyl), 73·6 (R = Me) and 209 (R = Et). The methanolysis of 3 gave rearranged methyl ethers and rearranged olefins as major products together with small amounts (0·9-3·4%) of unrearranged products. The order of the accelerating effect suggests that the transition states involve significant σ-participation, despite the fact that 3 (R = H) solvolyses via a classical ion intermediate. The logarithms of the solvolysis rate constants of 3 showed linear correlations with those of 1-R-2-adamantyl tosylates (1) and 1-R-exo-2-norbornyl tosylates (2), indicating that the linear free-energy relationship between the β-substituent effects on the solvolysis rate is not a definite measure to distinguish between classical and non-classical intermediates.
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  • 54
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 518-524 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The kinetics of the nucleophilic cleavage of phthalimide (PTH) in buffer solutions of ammonia and pyrrolidine were determined. The reaction rates for ammonolysis of PTH revealed a buffer-catalysed second-order term in the rate law, but the reaction rates for pyrrolidinolysis of PTH showed buffer-catalysed second- and third-order terms in the rate law. Both ammonia and pyrrolidine revealed nucleophilic reactivity towards ionized PTH (S-) only within the pH range of the present study. This is attributed to the occurrence of intramolecular general base-acid catalysis. General base catalysis is detected in the reactions of pyrrolidine with both non-ionized PTH (SH) and S-. The general base-catalysed third-order rate constant for pyrrolidinolysis of SH is nearly 28 times larger than that of S-.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The bisporphyria N,N′-bis[4″-(meso-triphenylporphyrinyl)benzyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 and its mono- and dizinc derivatives were synthesized in 66%, 46% and 53% yields, respectively, from 5-(4′-bromomethylphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin or its zinc derivative and 4,13-diaza-18-crown-6. The zinc-containing bisporphyrins form dimers in solution at low temperature or at high concentration. The unsymmetrical bisporphyrin; monozinc N,N′-bis[4″-(meso-triphenylporphyrinyl)benzyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 shows singlet-singlet energy transfer from the zinc porphyrin moiety to the free base moiety in both the monomeric and the dimeric form. The energy transfer rates were determined using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and were found to be 1·26 × 109 and 2·29 × 109 s-1 for the monomeric and dimeric form, respectively. The difference in energy transfer rates between the two forms can be rationalized by the difference in overlap between the donor fluorescence spectrum and acceptor absorption spectrum, donor-acceptor distance and donor-acceptor orientation.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: enantiomers ; propranolol ; enantioselective pharmacokinetics ; protein binding ; nicardipine ; drug-drug interaction ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The influence of a single oral dose of 30 mg nicardipine on the pharmacokinetics of (R)- and (S)-propranolol, given orally as rac-propranolol 80 mg, was studied in 12 healthy volunteers. The plasma concentrations were higher for the (S)-enantiomer than for the (R)-enantiomer. The Clo and the Cl′intr of (S)-propranolol were significantly lower than the Clo and Cl′intr of (R)-propranolol. The unbound fraction of (R)-propranolol was significantly higher than that of (S)-propranolol. Coadministration of nicardipine significantly increased the AUC and Cmax and significantly decreased the Clo and Cl′intr for unbound drug of (R)- and (S)-propranolol. These changes were more important for (R)- than for (S)-propranolol. The protein binding was not altered by nicardipine. The enantioselective effect of nicardipine on the metabolic clearance of propranolol appears to be due to an interaction at the level of the metabolizing enzymes. The effect on blood pressure of rac-propranolol was little affected when nicardipine was coadministered with rac-propranolol, and its bradycardic effect was reduced. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 57
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chirality 6 (1994), S. 25-40 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: Review ; capillary electrophoresis ; enantiomeric resolution ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The preconditions are outlined for enantioselective separations in capillary electrophoresis (CE) with chiral selectors as additives to the background electrolyte. Free solution capillary electrophoresis conditions are characterised by a single solution phase. Chiral separations are reviewed by selector type (chiral ligand exchange, cyclodextrins, crown ethers, glycoproteins) with the extensive studies on cyclodextrins grouped into sections on amino acids, pharmaceuticals, and speciality chemicals, optimisation, biological fluids, and quantitative aspects. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, enantioselective discrimination occurs by partition in a two-phase system, with a chiral micellar phase as selector. Optimum separation conditions can be readily predicted for a given selector-selectand combination, and absolute values of binding constants determined by CE. Advantages of CE in comparison with HPLC using a chiral stationary phase include robust, rapid assays and the use of small volumes of aqueous solutions; disadvantages include less favourable detection limits. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: chiral HPLC ; Chiralpak AD ; amylose carbamate stationary phase ; antiestrogen ; breast cancer ; dichlorotriarylcyclopropane ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: (Z)-1,1-Dichloro-2-(4-benzyloxyphenyl)-2,3-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)cyclopropane (5), a potential antitumor agent designed to treat breast cancer, was prepared in three steps. A stereospecific palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reaction which provided the intermediate (Z)-triaryl alkene 4 was a crucial step in the synthesis. Makosza phase transfer reaction on 4 gave the enantiomeric (Z)-dichlorocyclopropane derivatives 5 which were resolved by semipreparative HPLC on a chiral stationary phase consisting of amylose tris-3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamate coated on silica gel. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: enantioselective ; chromatography ; validation ; column-switching ; robotic ; pharmacokinetic ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Lifibrol, a new drug for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, contains a stereogenic center bearing a secondary alcohol group. A normal-phase achiral-chiral HPLC separation of the enantiomers of lifibrol and two of its metabolites was developed and validated for quantitation in dog plasma. A silica and a Chiralcel OD-H column were operated in series and all six enantiomeric components and internal standard were directly separated. An initial solid-phase extraction (phenyl) clean-up step and a column-switching step to eliminate late-eluting compounds were also utilized. The solid-phase extraction step was automated using a robotic system. Assay development, validation, and application of the method to a bioavailability study of the racemate and enantiomers of lifibrol in dogs are described. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.0125 μg/ml for each enantiomer of lifibrol using 200 μl of dog plasma with UV detection (255 nm). In dog plasma following oral or intravenous administration of the racemate, the (R)/(S) ratio of the enantiomers of lifibrol was greater than one and increased with time. Following administration of the individual enantiomers, chiral inversion of the (S)-enantiomer but not the (R)-enantiomer was observed. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: pargyline N-oxide ; chiral nitrogen centre ; flavin-containing monooxygenase ; chiral stationary phase ; high-performance liquid chromatography ; Chiralcel OD ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The monoamine oxidase inhibitor pargyline (N-benzyl-N-methyl-2-propynylamine) is known to undergo extensive in vitro microsomal N-oxidation, thought to be mediated predominantly by the flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) enzyme system. Formation of the pargyline N-oxide (PNO) metabolite creates a chiral nitrogen centre and thus asymmetric oxidation is possible. This study describes a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the quantitation of PNO and a chiral-phase HPLC method for the determination of the enantiomeric ratio of PNO. In vitro microsomal N-oxidation of pargyline was found to be highly steroselective in a number of species, with the (+)-enantiomer being formed preferentially. This metabolic transformation was stereospecific when purified porcine hepatic FMO was used as the enzyme source. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: chirality ; fluoxetine ; norfluoxetine ; desipramine ; iprindole ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The antidepressant fluoxetine (FLU) and its N-demethylated metabolite, norfluoxetine (NFLU), each contains a chiral center. The combination of FLU and desipramine (DMI), another antidepressant, has been reported to be useful in treatment of depression, to dramatically increase plasma levels of DMI and also to produce more rapid β-adrenergic receptor down-regulation in brain than caused by DMI alone. We have now begun studies on the effects of this drug combination on the levels of FLU and NFLU enantiomers in the rat. In addition, the combination of FLU and iprindole (IPR) was also investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated intraperitoneally with either normal saline vehicle, DMI (5 mg/kg/day), (R,S)-FLU (10 mg/kg/day) or DMI (5 mg/kg/day) + (R,S)-FLU (10 mg/kg/day) for 4 days. Following the last treatment, 24 h urine samples were collected. Rats were sacrificed and brains were removed. For the IPR study, rats were pretreated with either saline or IPR-HCl (11.2 mg/kg) and then treated 1 h later with (R,S)-FLU. After 5 h, the rats were sacrificed and brains were removed. Brain and urine samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection for free (R)- and (S)-FLU and (R)- and (S)-NFLU after extraction and reaction with (-)-(S)-N-(trifluoroacetyl)prolyl chloride. The results from the brains of the rats treated with DMI/FLU indicate that levels of the enantiomers of both FLU and NFLU were significantly increased over those seen in the animals receiving (R,S)-FLU alone. In the IPR/FLU treated rats, an increase in the brain levels of both (R)- and (S)-FLU was noted when compared with rats receiving (R,S)-FLU alone; however, there appeared to be no increase in the brain levels of NFLU enantiomers. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 62
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chirality 6 (1994), S. 148-155 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: chiral stationary phase ; dinitrobenzylphenylethylamine ; dinitrobenzoylphenylglycine ; enantiomers ; 2,2,2-trifluoro-1-(9-anthryl) ethanol ; competition ; nonlinear ; liquid chromatography ; system peaks ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Competition between the (+)- and (-) enantiomers of 2,2,2-trifluoro-1-(9-anthryl) ethanol as mobile phase additives was indicated by the chromatographic behavior of their system peaks. Two types of chiral stationary phases were used, one based on dinitrobenzoylphenylglycine and the other on dinitrobenzylphenylethylamine plus tartaric acid. The racemic mixture was used as the mobile phase additive and k′ of their system peaks was studied as a function of the mixture concentration in the mobile phase in both cases. A shift in k′ of the two system peaks was observed and considered as an indication that competition occurred. The areas of the two system peaks were also studied as a function of the concentration of the enantiomers in the samples, using two different compositions of the mobile phase. The dependency of system peaks' area on the sample composition indicated whether competition between the enantiomers occurred. One mobile phase contained 0.1 mM of the racemic mixture, where the area of the two retained system peaks behaved independently, i.e., only the peak corresponding to the enantiomer was affected by its presence in the sample. The other mobile phase contained 0.75 mM of the racemic mixture, and both peaks were affected by the injection of any one of the enantiomers. The interdependency of the system peaks' area on both the enantiomers indicated that their distribution in the chiral system was interrelated due to mutual interactions. A quantitative treatment of the interdependency and competition was excluded, due to the irreversible adsorption of the two enantiomers on the chiral stationary phase after using overloading concentrations. This irreversible adsorption was visualized by the appearance of two retained system peaks of the two residual enantiomers. These system peaks were detected only when the sample contained pure enantiomers due to competition between the enantiomer in the sample with the residual enantiomers in the stationary phase. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chirality 6 (1994) 
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 64
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Chirality 6 (1994), S. 165-168