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  • Organic Chemistry  (68,947)
  • Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  (25,705)
  • 1
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Biotechnology ; Organic Chemistry ; Biochemistry ; Cell Biology ; Life sciences ; Cell Biology ; Biochemistry, general ; Biotechnology ; Organic Chemistry ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 1. Trends in bioprobe research -- 2. Cell proliferation and differentiation -- 3. Epigenetics -- 4. Apoptosis and autophagy -- 5. Adaptive and innate immune Systems -- 6. Bioprobes at a glance
    Abstract: This new edition provides the most advanced research using bioprobes on the chemical control of 1) cell cycle and differentiation, 2) epigenetics, 3) apoptosis and autophagy, and 4) immune response. The “bioprobe”, first proposed in the first edition, has become an indispensable tool for chemical biology and has substantially assisted in the investigation of complex biochemical processes of cells. New areas of investigation such as stem cell research, epigenetic research, and autophagy research have rapidly advanced in the past 10 years. Including these new findings, this second edition supplies up-to-date information on the biochemical tools called bioprobes. Data on each bioprobe, such as chemical structure, origin, function, and references, are presented as one item in this volume. Readers will easily find useful information and will be able to determine the appropriate bioprobes to investigate cell functions. The information on bioprobes and their use in research makes this book a valuable source for researchers in diverse fields. Not only scientists in academia but also in the pharmaceutical industries will discover the most important information about small molecules useful for drug discovery
    Pages: VIII, 384 p. 173 illus., 10 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 2nd ed. 2017.
    ISBN: 9784431565291
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  • 2
    Keywords: Medicine ; Neurochemistry ; Organic Chemistry ; Radiology ; Biomedicine ; Neurochemistry ; Organic Chemistry ; Imaging / Radiology ; Springer eBooks
    Abstract: This book explores the revolutionary fMRI field from basic principles to state-of-the-art research. It covers a broad spectrum of topics, including the history of fMRI's development using endogenous MR blood contrast, neurovascular coupling, pulse sequences for fMRI, quantitative fMRI, genetic imaging using fMRI, multimodal neuroimaging, brain bioenergetics and function, and molecular-level fMRI. Comprehensive and intuitively structured, this book examines the physiological basis of fMRI, the basic principles of fMRI and its applications, and the latest advances of the technology. The final chapter discusses the field's future. fMRI: From Nuclear Spins to Brain Function is an ideal resource for clinicians and researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, and MRI physics. This book also: ℗ʺ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ Explores a wide range of topics, covering the physical basics, physiological bases, a selection of various applications, and cutting-edge advances in fMRI ℗ʺ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ Engages the reader with a first-person account of the development and history of the fMRI field by the authors ℗ʺ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ ℗ Discusses fMRI applications in a variety of contexts, including fMRI of the visual system, auditory cortex, and sensorimotor system as well as the history of fMRI's development using endogenous MR blood contrast, neurovascular coupling, pulse sequences for fMRI, and℗ quantitative fMRI ℗
    Pages: XVIII, 929 p. 235 illus., 179 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 1st ed. 2015.
    ISBN: 9781489975911
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  • 3
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    Cham : Springer International Publishing
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Medicine ; Chemistry, Organic ; Biochemistry ; Life sciences ; Protein Science ; Biomedicine general ; Organic Chemistry ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Sequences -- Structures -- Systems
    Abstract: This book describes more than 60 web-accessible computational tools for protein analysis and is totally practical, with detailed explanations on how to use these tools and interpret their results and minimal mentions to their theoretical basis (only when that is required for making a better use of them). It covers a wide range of tools for dealing with different aspects of proteins, from their sequences, to their three-dimensional structures, and the biological networks they are immersed in. The selection of tools is based on the experience of the authors that lead a protein bioinformatics facility in a large research centre, with the additional constraint that the tools should be accessible through standard web browsers without requiring the local installation of specific software, command-line tools, etc. The web tools covered include those aimed to retrieve protein information, look for similar proteins, generate pair-wise and multiple sequence alignments of protein sequences, work with protein domains and motifs, study the phylogeny of a family of proteins, retrieve, manipulate and visualize protein three-dimensional structures, predict protein structural features as well as whole three-dimensional structures, extract biological information from protein structures, summarize large protein sets, study protein interaction and metabolic networks, etc. The book is associated to a dynamic web site that will reflect changes in the web addresses of the tools, updates of these, etc. It also contains QR codes that can be scanned with any device to direct its browser to the tool web site. This monograph will be most valuable for researchers in experimental labs without specific knowledge on bioinformatics or computing
    Pages: VIII, 106 p. 40 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319127279
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  • 4
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    Cham : Springer International Publishing
    Keywords: Medicine ; Chemistry, Organic ; Life sciences ; Biomedicine ; Biomedicine general ; Life Sciences, general ; Organic Chemistry ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Alkanes, Composition, Constitution and Configuration -- Functional Groups -- Electronic Structure of Organic Molecules -- Alkenes and Alkynes -- Substitutions on Saturated Carbon Atom -- Nucleophilic Additions -- Stereochemistry, Symmetry and Molecular Chirality -- Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids -- Electrophilic Substitutions -- Cycloadditions -- Organic Natural Products
    Abstract: This work provides an overview of the basics of organic chemistry for non-chemists. As such, this book should be very useful for university students of biology, molecular biology, ecology, medicine, agriculture, forestry, and other specialties where the knowledge of organic chemistry plays the important role but is not a core discipline. The book should also be of interest to non-professionals, and it may serve as a manual or repetitorium to high school teachers. ℗ The text is divided into eleven chapters on the basis of the systematization of fundamental organic reaction types, and classes of organic compounds. The first chapters comprise fundamental aspects of structural theory, reaction mechanisms, electronic structure, some basic spectroscopy, and properties of main groups of organic compounds. At the end of the book, the largest chapter contains the elements of the organic chemistry of natural products. Comparison of the reactions in the laboratory with the analogous molecular transformations in living cells will enable the reader to better understand the basic principles of biochemistry
    Pages: XIII, 179 p. 331 illus., 51 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319076058
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  • 5
    Keywords: Medicine ; Spectroscopy ; Biotechnology ; Chemistry, Organic ; Chemistry, Physical organic ; Biochemistry ; Biomedicine ; Biomedicine general ; Spectroscopy/Spectrometry ; Biotechnology ; Physical Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry ; Biochemistry, general ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: The basis of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy -- Spectroscopic parameters in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance -- Basic NMR experiments -- Biomolecular NMR
    Abstract: This book intends to be an easy and concise introduction to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance or NMR, which has revolutionized life sciences in the last twenty years. A significant part of the progress observed in scientific areas like Chemistry, Biology or Medicine can be ascribed to the development experienced by NMR in recent times. Many of the books currently available on NMR deal with the theoretical basis and some of its main applications, but they generally demand a strong background in Physics and Mathematics for a full understanding. This book is aimed to a wide scientific audience, trying to introduce NMR by making all possible effort to remove, without losing any formality and rigor, most of the theoretical jargon that is present in other NMR books. Furthermore, illustrations are provided that show all the basic concepts using a naive vector formalism, or using a simplified approach to the particular NMR-technique described. The intention has been to show simply the foundations and main concepts of NMR, rather than seeking thorough mathematical expressions
    Pages: XII, 115 p. 36 ill. : digital.
    ISBN: 9789400769762
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  • 6
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    Dordrecht : Springer
    Keywords: Medicine ; Spectroscopy ; Chemistry, Organic ; Chemistry, Physical organic ; Chemistry ; Biomedicine ; Biomedicine general ; Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry ; Spectroscopy/Spectrometry ; Organometallic chemistry ; Electrochemistry ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Molecular structures -- An overview of synthetic methods for preparation of nitrosoaromatic compounds -- Molecular properties and spectroscopy -- Organometallic compounds -- Bilological systems
    Abstract: This volume will present the reader with an update on the scientific research on organic chemistry of nitroso compounds that was performed in the last two decades. The overview will include the original synthetic applications of nitroso compounds, but will also cover the discovery of novel physico-chemical phenomena and their potential future uses. The properties that form the basis for this technological potential originate from the intriguing property of C-nitroso molecules to form dimers through the formation of a relatively weak nitrogen-nitrogen double bond. The equilibrium between the different monomeric and dimeric forms, which appears under controlled environmental parameters, opened new areas of research in organic chemistry.The novel paradigm presented in this volume includes insight into the original problem of organic reactivity and synthesis, but also sheds light on the solid-state reaction mechanisms. A number of fascinating photochemical, electrochemical, supramolecular, and biological properties, as well as advanced techniques in spectroscopy, now enables us to use these compounds as molecular models for studying a number of general chemical concepts.℗
    Pages: : digital.
    ISBN: 9789400763371
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  • 7
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Toxicology ; Chemistry, Organic ; Pharmacy ; Oceanography ; Biochemistry ; Aquatic biology ; Life sciences ; Biochemistry, general ; Organic Chemistry ; Freshwater & Marine Ecology ; Oceanography ; Pharmacology/Toxicology ; Pharmacy ; Springer eBooks
    ISBN: 9789048138340
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  • 8
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Chemistry, Organic ; Carbohydrates ; Biochemistry ; Proteomics ; Cytology ; Cell Membranes ; Life sciences ; Biochemistry, general ; Organic Chemistry ; Carbohydrate Chemistry ; Cell Biology ; Membrane Biology ; Proteomics ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital.
    ISBN: 9781461433811
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  • 9
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemistry, Organic ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9781441972705
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  • 10
    Keywords: Medicine ; Toxicology ; Pharmaceutical technology ; Chemistry, Organic ; Chemical engineering ; Biochemistry ; Biomedicine ; Pharmacology/Toxicology ; Pharmaceutical Sciences/Technology ; Organic Chemistry ; Medicinal Chemistry ; Medical Biochemistry ; Industrial Chemistry/Chemical Engineering ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9783034801256
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  • 11
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Chemistry, Organic ; Nucleic Acids ; Biochemistry ; Life sciences ; Nucleic Acid Chemistry ; Protein Science ; Organic Chemistry ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9783642169311
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Monolithic column ; silica monolith ; HPLC ; capillary liquid chromatography ; capillary electrochromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Two types of monolithic silica columns derivatized to form an ODS phase, one prepared in a fused silica capillary (SR-FS) and the other prepared in a mold and clad with an engineering plastic (poly-ether-ether-ketone) (SR-PEEK), were evaluated. The column efficiency and pressure drop were compared with those of a column packed with 5-μm ODS-silica particles and of an ODS-silica monolith prepared in a mold and wrapped with PTFE tubing (SR-PTFE). SR-FS gave a lower pressure drop than a column packed with 5-μm particles by a factor of 20, and a plate height of 20 μm at a linear velocity below 1 mm/s. SR-PEEK showed higher flow-resistance than the other monolithic silica columns, but they still showed a minimum plate height of 8-10 μm and a lower pressure drop than popular commercial columns packed with 5-μm particles. The evaluation of SR-FS columns in a CEC mode showed much higher efficiency than in a pressure-driven mode.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: On-line coupled LC-GC ; nitrogen selective detection ; NPD ; carbazoles ; PANH ; personal exposure measurement ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A coupled LC-GC method for the analysis of carbazole-type PANH has been developed and evaluated. Group separation and isolation of carbazoles from interfering acridines in a complex sample matrix was accomplished by using a back-flush technique and an in situ end-capped dimethylaminopropyl silica column in the HPLC part of the system. On-line injection of the carbazole fraction into the GC column was performed with a loop-type interface utilizing concurrent solvent evaporation technique. An LOD of 1-3 pg of individual carbazole compounds was achieved by nitrogen selective detection using an NPD. The method is shown to be robust and is demonstrated by application to personal exposure measurement in an aluminum reduction plant.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrochromatography ; monolithic columns ; synthetic polymers ; stationary phase ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Monolithic materials have quickly become a well-established stationary phase format in the field of capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Both the simplicity of their in situ preparation method and the large variety of readily available chemistries make the monolithic separation media an attractive alternative to capillary columns packed with particulate materials. This review summarizes the contributions of numerous groups working in this rapidly growing area, with a focus on monolithic capillary columns prepared from synthetic polymers. Various approaches employed for the preparation of the monoliths are detailed, and where available, the material properties of the resulting monolithic capillary columns are shown. Their chromatographic performance is demonstrated by numerous separations of different analyte mixtures in variety of modes. Although detailed studies of the effect of polymer properties on the analytical performance of monolithic capillaries remain scarce at this early stage of their development, this review also discusses some important relationships such as the effect of pore size on the separation performance in more detail.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrochromatography ; nucleosides ; short-end injection ; phenyl-bonded silica ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The influence of several experimental parameters (pH, ionic strength, organic modifier content of hydro-organic buffer) upon EOF, migration time, and retention factor has been studied in CEC with a phenyl-bonded silica column on a model mixture of five nucleosides. This paper illustrates the current interest in CEC as a method of resolving complex mixtures of neutral and ionic solutes and demonstrates the potential of the short-end injection method as a means of reducing analysis time.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary GC ; fast GC ; on-column injection ; narrow-bore column ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---In this work a fast gas chromatography set-up with on-column injection was optimized and evaluated with a model mixture of C8-C28 n-alkanes. Usual injection volumes when using narrow-bore (e. g., 0.1 mm i.d.) analytical columns are ca. 0.1 μL. The presented configuration allows introduction of 10-30-fold larger sample volumes without any distortion of peak shapes. In the set-up a normal-bore retention gap (1 m×0.32 mm i. d.) was coupled to a narrow-bore (4.8 m×0.1 mm i. d.×0.4 μm film thickness) analytical column using a low dead volume column connector. The effects of the experimental conditions such as inlet pressure, sample volume, initial injection temperature, and oven temperature on a peak focusing are discussed. H-u curves for helium and hydrogen are used to compare their suitability for high speed gas chromatography and to show the dependence of separation efficiency on the carrier gas velocity at high inlet pressures. In the fast gas chromatography system a baseline separation of C10-C28 n-alkanes was achieved in less than 3 minutes.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ; high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-MS with APCI) ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids using high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry is described. The standard fatty acid methyl esters from 16 to 22 carbons were analyzed by LC-MS with APCI. The effect of orifice voltage and total carbon atoms versus number of double bonds in each homologue on the mass spectra is discussed. The correction coefficients for homologues from saturated fatty acids to hexaenoic acid are also mentioned.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: SPME ; desorption ; fiber conditioning ; field sampling ; sample preparation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: HPLC ; industrial wastewater ; process development ; 4-amino-azobenzene-4′,5-disulfonic acid (AABDS) ; 4-amino-azobenzene (AAB) ; 4-amino-azobenzene-4′-sulfonic acid (AABS) ; 4-amino-azobenzene-4′,3,5-trisulfonic acid (AABTS) ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A simple and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the separation and determination of 4-amino-azobenzene-4′,5-disulfonic acid (AABDS) and its process-related impurities was developed. The separation was achieved on a μ-Bondapak C18 column using 0.15 M ammonium sulfate-acetonitrile (55:45) (v/v) as eluent. A UV-visible spectrophotometric detector fixed at 386 nm was used both for detection and quantitation. The method was used not only for quality assurance but also for process development and wastewater management of AABDS.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Antioxidants ; propyl gallate ; octyl gallate ; dodecyl gallate ; butylated hydroxyanisole ; butylated hydroxytoluene ; reverse-phase liquid chromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The influence of cationic and anionic surfactants and short-chain alcohols in the mobile phase on the retention of five antioxidants has been studied. The solutes chosen were butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and propyl, octyl, and dodecyl gallates (PG, OG, DG).The surfactants were hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and n-propanol (PrOH) was the selected alcohol. A simple isocratic reversed-phase method for the antioxidant determination is proposed. Separation of five primary antioxidants takes 18 min with the mobile phase SDS 0.10 M/H3PO4 0.01 M/PrOH 30%. Variation of the percentage of alcohol in the mobile phase permits optimization of the retention times of the antioxidants. Detection limits in the pg range were obtained for the all solutes. The method was used to determine the antioxidants in olive oil at three different levels, giving mean recoveries close to 100% for all the solutes (BHA 102%, PG 99%, OG 99%, DG 99%) except BHT (84%).
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Liquid chromatography ; chiral separation ; chiral stationary phase ; separation of enantiomers ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A new reciprocal π-basic chiral stationary phase (CSP) was designed based on the reciprocity conception of chiral recognition and prepared starting from (S)-leucine. The CSP thus prepared was applied in resolving various π-acidic N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)-α-amino amides and esters and found to be very effective. Especially, N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)-α-amino N,N-dialkyl amides were resolved very well on the new reciprocal CSP. From the chromatographic resolution results and based on the reciprocity conception of chiral recognition with the aid of Corey/Pauling/Koltan (CPK) molecular model studies, a chiral recognition mechanism which utilizes π-π interaction and simultaneously two hydrogen bonding interactions between the CSP and the analyte has been proposed. The CSP prepared in this study was also successful in resolving 3,5-dinitrophenylcarbamate derivatives of 2-hydroxycarboxylic acid esters.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Artemisia palustris ; Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus ; capillary gas liquid chromatography ; Compositae (Asteraceae) ; Heteropappus hispidus ; seed oil ; silver ion thin layer chromatography ; trans-fatty acids ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Seed oils from the Compositae plant family are known to contain a variety of unusual fatty acids. Subsequent to the recent discovery of γ-linolenic acid in Saussurea and Youngia, further Mongolian Compositae species were investigated for their seed oil fatty acid composition. A number of δ3trans-fatty acids (16 : 1δ3t, 18 : 1δ3t and 18 : 3δ3t, 9c, 12c) were found in the seed oils of Heteropappus hispidus and Asterothamnus centrali-asiaticus. The latter fatty acid, but not the trans-monoenes, was also found in one species of Artemisia. These unusual fatty acid isomers were characterized by capillary gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) separations in combination with other chromatographic techniques (analytical thin layer chromatography, TLC and preparative argentation TLC), and infrared spectrocsopy (IR). Their identity was further confirmed by co-chromatography with other seed oils known to contain these trans-fatty acids. The fact that within the Compositae plant family there are apparently two or three distinct groups of genera containing δ3trans-fatty acids is discussed.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: On-line SFE-SFC ; organometallics ; purity testing ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Open tubular columns ; capillary electrochromatography ; column efficiency ; injected volume ; applied voltage ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The effect of some instrumental parameters on column efficiency in open tubular capillary electrochromatography (OTCEC) has been evaluated. First, it was investigated whether band broadening due to the sample injection process is within a tolerable range when an open tubular column (OTC) of about 10 μm i. d. is used. As a result of the small injection profile factor (K2 = 1.3), injected volumes must be sufficiently small (less than 10 pL) to avoid a significant efficiency loss (>5%) when hydrodynamic injection by siphoning is employed. Secondly, the kinetic performance of OTCs in a CEC system was estimated from the variation of the reduced plate height (h) with the reduced linear velocity (ν) which was controlled by the voltage applied. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the theoretical h versus ν curve and the experimental values for a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons used as test compounds. Values of 0.25 for minimum h at an optimum ν of 16 are estimated, which permit separations with around 400,000 plates per meter to be obtained in less than 5 min. Finally, the possibility of estimating the diffusion coefficients of the solutes in the mobile phase from the plot of the height of a theoretical plate versus electroosmotic flow velocity is shown.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) ; micropacked capillary columns ; waxes ; restoring ; objects of art ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Clean-up ; aliphatic hydrocarbons ; organochlorine compounds ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis ; enantiomer separation ; chiral drugs ; TM-γ-cyclodextrin ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---High-throughput screening is a promising new approach in analytical chemistry. Within the framework of an extended screening program (The German-Chinese Drug Screening Program), the enantioseparation of 86 drugs was investigated by capillary zone electrophoresis in the presence of the chiral solvating agent (CSA) octakis-(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-γ-cyclodextrin (TM-γ-CD). By this means, 15 drugs could be separated into enantiomeric pairs. Approximate measures for the degree of interaction (migration retardation factor, Rm) and for the degree of enantiomer recognition (migration separation factors, αm) revealed intriguing patterns that were compared with those found for native γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD). Although there is a distinct influence of the analyte structure on the electrophoretic data, interpretation remains difficult. Most remarkably, permethylation of γ-CD leads neither to a higher affinity nor to better chiral recognition, in contrast to the findings with α-CD.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: O-Aryl,O-(1-methylthioethylideneamino)phosphates ; retention prediction ; quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) ; reversed-phase HPLC ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Using factor analysis and stepwise linear regression methods, two parameters - CMR and ECCR - were selected from eight solute-related structure parameters as the most retention-influencing parameters. The relationships between the retention data (k ´) and the two structure parameters were established for 13 O-aryl,O-(1-methylthioethylideneamino)phosphate compounds under a wide range of experimental conditions. The retention data (k ´) of another seven compounds with similar structures were predicted using these QSRR equations. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental k ´ values and predicted ones.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Retention factors ; styrene divinylbenzene polymer ; porous graphitic carbon ; solid-phase extraction ; water analysis ; polar organic compounds ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---LC retention data have been measured using various stationary phases with an emphasis on highly polar to moderately polar neutral organic compounds having octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) in log units between 0 and 3. The relationships between the retention factor measured in water and the octanol-water partition coefficient are linear but with different slopes for octadecyl (C18) silicas, and two polystyrene divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) phases with low and high surface areas. These relationships confirm that highly cross-linked polymers can provide more than 1000-times higher retention values than C18 silicas for moderately polar analytes but close values for highly polar ones. They also explain why C18 silicas and polymers are equivalent for the separation of very polar analytes. In contrast, due to a different retention mechanism, no relation exists between the retention shown by porous graphitic carbons (PGC) and analyte hydrophobicity, but highly polar analytes are in general much more strongly retained than by any other sorbent. The potential of PGC for both the extraction and the separation of analytes is shown. Due to the difference in separation mechanism, PGC is the analytical phase that should be used for confirmation of the identity of analytes instead of a cyanopropylsilica column as recommended in some environmental procedures. Applications are presented for the trace-determination of triazines and polar degradation products in ground and surface water with detection limits below the 0.1 μg/L level.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary isotachophoresis ; capillary electrophoresis ; column-coupling electrophoresis ; enantiomers ; chiral ; amino acids ; tryptophan ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The ability of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) coupled on-line with capillary isotachophoresis (ITP) sample pretreatment in the column-coupling capillary electrophoresis equipment to separate trace enantiomers present in samples of complex ionic matrices and enantiomers present in their mixtures at significantly differing concentrations has been studied. Enantiomers of 2,4-dinitrophenyl labeled norleucine (DNP-Nleu) and tryptophan enantiomers were employed as model analytes in this work while urine and mixtures of tryptophan enantiomers of differing concentrations served as model samples. Experiments performed with urine samples spiked with the DNP-Nleu racemate at sub-μmol/L concentrations demonstrated excellent sample pretreatment capabilities of ITP (concentration of the analytes, in-column and post-column sample clean up) when coupled on-line with chiral CZE separations. In the CZE separations of enantiomers present in the samples at trace concentrations the sample pretreatment could be performed in both achiral and chiral ITP electrolyte systems. The use of a chiral electrolyte system was found to be essential in the ITP pretreatment of the samples containing the enantiomers at very differing concentrations. For example, a 2×10-7 mol/L concentration of L-tryptophan could be detected in the CZE separation stage of the ITP-CZE combination in samples containing about a 104 excess of D-tryptophan only when the ITP pretreatment was carried out in the electrolyte system providing the resolution of enantiomers (α-cyclodextrin served for this purpose in the present work). A post-column ITP sample clean up was found effective in enhancing the destacking rate of the trace enantiomer in the CZE stage when the migration configuration of the enantiomers was less favorable (the trace constituent migrating behind the major enantiomer).
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary GC ; static and dynamic headspace sampling ; sorptive and adsorptive extraction ; plant volatiles ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Static and dynamic headspace sampling have been applied for the enrichment of volatiles emitted by living plants. For solid phase microextraction (SPME) the sorptive fibers polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyacrylate (PA) have been compared and, in accordance with the like-like principle, polar compounds exhibit more affinity for the PA fiber while apolar solutes favor the PDMS fiber. For dynamic sampling, tubes packed with PDMS particles show greater inertness than Tenax; some Tenax decomposition products, e.g. benzaldehyde and acetophenone, interfere with the analyses. With PDMS particles operated in the breakthrough mode, the obtained profiles are similar to those obtained by SPME on the PA fiber. Recoveries relative to a packed PDMS bed are 85% for Tenax, 2.4% for SPME-PDMS, and 6.2% for SPME-PA.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Comprehensive gas chromatography ; multidimensional gas chromatography ; essential oils ; coupled column analysis ; high resolution analysis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The essential oils from French lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) were separated by the two-dimensional GC technique of comprehensive gas chromatography. A coupled column combination of non-polar (5% phenyl equivalent) and polyethylene glycol phase columns was used to provide the desired resolution performance. By using a range of known standards, some of the peaks in lavender oil can be assigned. Some of these also occur in tea tree oil; however, from our knowledge of the major constituents in this oil and their relative retention behaviour, most of the major peaks may be tentatively assigned within the 2-dimensional separation space. There appear to be elution patterns within the 2-D space which should be useful in correlating retention with chemical and structural properties of the components, although this will require further evaluation. A range of coeluting peaks, which may not be so readily separated by using a single column capillary GC analysis, are resolved in the experiment described.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: CZE ; indirect UV detection ; metal ions ; ecological samples ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Scoparone ; phytoalexin ; citrus ; MEKC ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A new MEKC method has been developed to determine the amount of the phytoalexin, scoparone, in Citrus roots. The separation and analysis was achieved with a running buffer of 100 mM SDS, 25 mM phosphate and 12% (v/v) methanol pH 6.2. Separation was performed at 12 kV with 25°C and UV detection at 200 nm. A near complete recovery of scoparone was obtained with the extraction procedure. The MEKC method was compared with a fluorescence TLC method. The detection limit for scoparone with the MEKC method (2 μg/mL) was better than the TLC method (10 μg/mL).
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Monoliths ; CIM® monolithic column ; dynamic binding capacity ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The characterization of CIM® DEAE monolithic columns in terms of dynamic binding capacity is presented in this paper. Breakthrough experiments were performed for capacity determination. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein. It is shown that CIM® monolithic columns have good batch-to-batch reproducibility as well as long-term stability. The experiments performed under different linear velocities demonstrated that the dynamic capacity is unaffected at least up to a linear velocity of 2450 cm/h. Furthermore, the breakthrough curve slope is constant, indicating that the capacity would remain constant at even higher linear velocities. The adsorption isotherm of BSA dissolved in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer shows a constant capacity of around 30 mg/mL of support down to a concentration of 20 μg/mL. The capacity is substantially influenced by the ionic strength; however, 20% of the maximal capacity is still preserved at 0.3 M NaCl.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 36
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: In situ molecular imprinting ; continuous polymer rod ; miniaturized column ; chiral recognition ; diastereoselectivity ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Molecularly imprinted continuous polymer rods are prepared inside PEEK tubes of 1 mm i. d. by an in situ preparation technique; and chiral separations on such media have been demonstrated. The miniaturized column filled with (-)-cinchonidine-imprinted or (+)-cinchonine-imprinted polymer rods based on a copolymer of 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate permitted diastereoseparation of (-)-cinchonidine and (+)-cinchonine; the template molecule is retained to a greater extent than the corresponding antipode. Increasing the amount of cyclohexanol in the polymerization mixture decreased the backpressure of the resultant rod and the addition of latex beads suspended in water to the prepolymerization mixture affected the selectivity and affinity of the imprinted polymer rods. The column length is adjusted easily by cutting, thus allowing easy control of retention behavior and analysis time.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantiomeric separation ; capillary electrochromatography ; positively charged polyacrylamide gel ; allyl carbamoylated β-cyclodextrin derivatives ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The novel enantiomeric separation of acidic and neutral compounds by capillary electrochromatography with β-cyclodextrin-bonded positively charged polyacrylamide gels was examined. The columns used are capillaries filled with a positively charged polyacrylamide gel, a so-called monolithic stationary phase, to which allyl carbamoylated β-CD derivatives covalently bind. The capillary wall was activated first by bifunctional reagent to make the resulting gel bind covalently inside the fused-silica tubing. Enantiomeric separations of sixteen acidic and two neutral compounds were achieved using the above-mentioned columns and 200 mmol dm-3 Tris-300 mmol dm-3 boric acid buffer (pH 8.1) as a mobile phase. High efficiencies of up to 150 000 plates m-1 were obtained for dansyl-DL-amino acids. The within-run and between-run reproducibilities of retention time and separation factor were examined for three dansyl-DL-amino acids and warfarin. The relative standard deviations of the within-run and between-run reproducibilities of retention time were less than 1.2 and 1.3% over the six injections, respectively. Those of the separation factor were less than 0.3 and 0.2%, respectively. The gel-filled capillaries were stable for at least four months with intermittent use.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrochromatography ; monolithic column ; electroosmotic flow ; retention mechanism ; aromatic compound ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new kind of monolithic capillary electrochromatography column with poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene-co-methacrylic acid) as the stationary phase has been developed. The stationary phase was found to be porous by scanning electron microscopy and the composition of the continuous bed was proved by IR spectroscopy to be the ternary polymer of styrene, divinylbenzene, and methacrylic acid. The effects of operating parameters, such as voltage, electrolyte, and organic modifier concentration in the mobile phase on electroosmotic flow were studied systematically. The retention mechanism of neutral solutes on such a column proved to be similar to that of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, fast analyses of phenols, chlorobenzenes, anilines, isomeric compounds of phenylenediamine and alkylbenzenes within 4.5 min were achieved.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Continuous-bed ; sol-gel ; octadecylsilica ; mixed-mode stationary phase ; large-pore ; column technology ; capillary electrochromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Sol-gel bonded packing materials in continuous-bed columns have been prepared for capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Three packing materials were investigated: small-pore Spherisorb ODS1 (3 μm, 80 Å) with octadecyl as stationary phase, small-pore mixed-mode Spherisorb ODS/SCX (3 μm, 80 Å) with octadecyl and propyl sulfonic acid as stationary phases, and large-pore Nucleosil ODS (7 μm, 1 400 Å) with octadecyl as stationary phase. The characteristics of these columns were compared in terms of electroosmotic flow, efficiency, inertness, and retention factors. In contrast to columns containing sol-gel bonded ODS, columns containing sol-gel bonded mixed-mode ODS/SCX generated nearly pH independent electroosmotic flow (EOF) over pH 2-9. Columns containing sol-gel bonded large-pore ODS produced nearly three times lower reduced plate height than those containing small-pore ODS. Efficiencies of 220,000 plates per meter and 175,000 plates per meter were obtained from columns containing sol-gel bonded 7 μm, 1 400 Å ODS and columns containing sol-gel bonded 3 μm, 80 Å ODS, respectively, which are among the highest reported efficiencies for continuous-bed columns. In CEC, over one million plates per meter and pH independent EOF are expected from continuous-bed columns containing sol-gel bonded 1.5 μm particles with large pores and mixed-mode stationary phases.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Monolithic chromatography columns ; capillary electrochromatography (CEC) ; micro high performance liquid chromatography ; sol-gel based columns for chromatography ; fritless capillary chromatography columns ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Particle-loaded (3 μm, octadecylsilica) monolithic sol-gel columns have been prepared and selected characteristics measured. Several electrical properties may be calculated from simple current measurements in the column as a whole. Resistivity in the packed segment is approximately three times that in open segments, resulting in a 60% increase in field strength in the packed regions compared to the capillary with no packing. The surprisingly high specific permeability of these sol-gel columns is characteristic of 8-μm particles, which allows their operation in the microLC mode at pressures as low as 69 kPa where their efficiency is about 50,000 plates per meter and in the CEC mode where efficiency is about 106,000 plates per meter at 5 kV. There is a relatively rapid loss of efficiency with increasing linear velocity beyond 0.2 mm/s in microLC mode, which may be due to additional diffusion processes in the inter-particulate voids. A rapid loss of efficiency above 0.5 mm/s is also observed in the CEC mode, for the same reasons. Chromatographic retention behavior in either separation mode is characteristic of conventional octadecylsilica particles, indicating that analytes have significant access to the surface within the pores of the immobilized bonded phase.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: HPLC ; monolithic column ; silica rod column ; fast separations ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The application of a new silica-based, monolithic-type HPLC-column for fast separations is presented. The column is prepared according to a new sol-gel process, which is based on the hydrolysis and polycondensation of alkoxysilanes in the presence of water soluble polymers. The method leads to “rods” made of a single piece of porous silica with a defined pore structure, i. e. macro- and mesopores. The main feature of silica rod columns is a higher total porosity, about 15% higher than of conventional particulate HPLC columns. The resulting column pressure drop is therefore much lower, allowing operation at higher flow rates including flow gradients. Consequently, HPLC analysis can be performed much faster, as it is demonstrated by various applications.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 42
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrochromatography ; packed columns ; fritless columns ; stationary phases ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Fritless packed silica gel columns were prepared using sol-gel technology. A part of a 75 μm i.d. fused silica capillary was filled with a mixture of tetramethoxysilane and poly(ethylene glycol). After gelling at 40°C and heating at 300°C, the resultant silica gel was derivatized with dimethyloctadecylchlorosilane. A scanning electron micrograph of a cross-section of the capillary column showed that the gel took the form of a spherical particle aggregate and adhered to the column inner wall. The column performance was evaluated for electrochromatography using acetonitrile-50 mM HEPES buffer (pH 6.6) (60/40 or 40/60, v/v) as the mobile phase. An electroosmotic flow of 1.0 mm/s was generated with (60/40, v/v) acetonitrile/HEPES buffer at a field strength of 546 V/cm. Using a sol-gel-derived packed column at an electroosmotic flow of 0.5 mm/s, efficiencies of up to 1.1×105 plates/m were obtained for retained solutes.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Preparative chromatography ; silica monoliths ; PrepROD™ ; productivity ; SMB-chromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The use of monolithic silica sorbents for the isolation of substances by preparative liquid chromatography is demonstrated. Preparative liquid chromatography is recognized as a valuable technique for the isolation and purification of substances in the pharmaceutical and fine chemicals industry. The system technology has meanwhile reached a high standard, and the greatest future improvements are expected to arise from new and improved adsorbents. Monolithic silica sorbents offer some unique features for preparative liquid chromatography. They exhibit high efficiencies even at high flow rates due to their fast convective mass transfer and can therefore be used at very high mobile phase velocities, leading to high productivity and hence to maximum process economy. The benefits of this new type of adsorbent are illustrated for an example in batch-chromatographic mode and an example using the continuous simulated moving bed (SMB) technology.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Silica ; monolithic column ; aging ; mesopores ; pore size distribution ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Mesopore formation in silica gels having continuous macropores has been investigated. The macroporous wet silica gel prepared by the sol-gel process including phase separation was aged in a basic solvent making use of hydrolysis of urea in a closed condition. The mesopore structure was finally obtained by subsequent evaporation drying of solvent and heat-treatment at 600°C for 2 h. The dissolution-reprecipitation kinetics at the interfaces between wet gel skeletons and an external solvent affected the size and volume of pores formed within the skeletons. Below 120°C, mesopores suitable for various chromatographic applications have been formed typically within 24 h. On the other hand, at 200°C, the pore size attained the macropore dimensions (>50 nm), and the whole macroporous morphology was significantly modified.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chemiluminescence ; diol compound ; oxalate ; post-column reaction ; ruthenium complex ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---In this paper we propose a new post-column detection method for polyols containing 1,2-diol, 1,3-diol, and saccharides. The polyols are oxidized in a photochemical reactor to yield oxalate with subsequent chemiluminescence detection using [Ru(III)(bpy)3]3+. A mixing solution of eluate and oxidizing reagent is delivered to a reaction coil, which is then irradiated with ultraviolet light to promote the oxidation reaction. The detection limits for 1,2-ethanediol (ethylene glycol) and 1,3-propanediol were 38 pmol and 23 pmol, respectively.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Tunable column ensembles ; high speed GC ; comprehensive two-dimensional GC ; time of flight ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A series-coupled ensemble of two capillary GC columns of different selectivity with an adjustable pressure at the column junction point is used to obtain tunable selectivity for high-speed GC and GC/TOFMS. An electronic pressure controller with a 0.1-psi step size is used to obtain numerous computer-selected unique selectivities. System configurations for conventional, atmospheric-pressure outlet operation with flame ionization detection and for vacuum-outlet operation with photoionization detection are described for GC-only experiments. Polydimethylsiloxane is used as the non-polar column and polyethylene glycol (atmospheric outlet) or triflouropropylpolysiloxane (vacuum outlet) is used as the polar column. For GC/TOFMS experiments, 5% phenyl polydimethylsiloxane was used as the non-polar column, and polyethylene glycol was used as the polar column. The time-of-flight mass spectrometer can acquire up to 500 complete mass spectra per second. Since spectral continuity is achieved across the entire chromatographic peak profile, severely overlapping peaks can be spectrally deconvoluted for high-speed characterization of completely unknown mixtures. For mixture components with significantly different fragmentation patterns, spectral deconvolution can be achieved for chromatographic peak separations of as little as 6.0 ms. This can result is very large peak capacity for time compressed (not completely resolved) chromatograms. The use of columns with tunable selectivity allows for precise peak-position control, which can result in more efficient utilization of available peak capacity and thus further time compression of chromatograms. The limits of tunability and deconvolution are tested for near co-elutions of different classes of hydrocarbon compounds as well as for more multi-functional mixtures.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Comprehensive two-dimensional GC ; peak overlap ; statistical-overlap theory ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The need for two-dimensional gas chromatography is justified by the extent of peak overlap in one-dimensional gas chromatograms (GCs) of complex mixtures. Such overlap was predicted long ago by statistical-overlap theory (SOT). In this paper, SOT is conceptually reviewed and its predictions are shown to be quantitatively accurate. GCs of complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls, pyridine- and nitrogen-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, fatty acid methyl esters, flavors and fragrances, and naphtha were simulated by commercial GC software on DB-1, DB-5, and Stabilwax stationary phases. The numbers of peak maxima in the GCs agreed with predictions of SOT, when the interval of time between successive peaks of pure compounds was described by Poisson statistics. This agreement was realized even though the time intervals actually are deterministic, not statistical. In addition, the numbers of mixture components were predicted with accuracy by regression of peak numbers against SOT. Similar regressions have been reported before, but the theory used here is more sophisticated and its predictions consequently are more accurate. Future directions for finalizing SOT are suggested.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Bilinear signal enhancement ; two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography ; chemometrics ; GC ; GRAM ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The chemometric method referred to as the generalized rank annihilation method (GRAM) is used to improve the precision, accuracy, and resolution of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) data. Because GC×GC signals follow a bilinear structure, GC×GC signals can be readily extracted from noise by chemometric techniques such as GRAM. This resulting improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and detectability is referred to as bilinear signal enhancement. Here, GRAM uses bilinear signal enhancement on both resolved and unresolved GC×GC peaks that initially have a low S/N in the original GC×GC data. In this work, the chemometric method of GRAM is compared to two traditional peak integration methods for quantifying GC×GC analyte signals. One integration method uses a threshold to determine the signal of a peak of interest. With this integration method only those data points above the limit of detection and within a selected area are integrated to produce the total analyte signal for calibration and quantification. The other integration method evaluated did not employ a threshold, and simply summed all the data points in a selected region to obtain a total analyte signal. Substantial improvements in quantification precision, accuracy, and limit of detection are obtained by using GRAM, as compared to when either peak integration method is applied. In addition, the GRAM results are found to be more accurate than results obtained by peak integration, because GRAM more effectively corrects for the slight baseline offset remaining after the background subtraction of data. In the case of a 2.7-ppm propylbenzene synthetic sample the quantification result with GRAM is 2.6 times more precise and 4.2 times more accurate than the integration method without a threshold, and 18 times more accurate than the integration method with a threshold. The limit of detection for propylbenzene was 0.6 ppm (parts per million by mass) using GRAM, without implementing any sample preconcentration prior to injection. GRAM is also demonstrated as a means to resolve overlapped signals, while enhancing the S/N. Four alkyl benzene signals of low S/N which were not resolved by GC×GC are mathematically resolved and quantified.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: LMCS ; cryogenic modulation ; comprehensive gas chromatography ; GC×GC ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Comprehensive gas chromatography is the realization of true continuous multidimensional (dual column) gas chromatography. The key requirement in the comprehensive GC experiment is that the second dimension analysis is completed in a rapid time-frame compared to the elution of components in the first dimension, and that the two coupled dimensions represent ‘orthogonal’ analyses towards the analytes to be separated. The former normally necessitates pulsing of contiguous segments of each chromatographic band from the first to the second dimensions. The two dimensions should be in fluid communication. The comprehensive GC×GC experiment passes all the column flow from the first column to the second column, leading to no sample loss, but this also requires a suitable method for time- or zone-compression of the band to be pulsed to the second column. The final pulse should be narrow, and should be delivered to the second column quickly. A simple procedure can achieve this using the cryogenic modulator that has been recently described by this group. The system uses a cryogenic trap which can be moved away from the cooled zone of the column faster than 10 ms. A fast-acting pneumatic ram achieves this performance. The cooled column heats up to the prevailing oven temperature within 10-15 ms. Molecules as volatile as C5 alkanes or small aromatics will be fully retained by the trap within the period of modulation used for GC×GC. The technique is simple to implement and requires no special column connections. Using a gas chromatograph which allows control of external events and can acquire from a detector at 50 Hz or faster, and a timing controller for modulation, the comprehensive result can easily and effectively be achieved.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Comprehensive gas chromatography ; cryogenic modulation ; semi-volatile aromatics ; thermal sweeper ; peak widths ; peak asymmetries ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The two current technologies for achieving comprehensive gas chromatography (GC×GC) - the thermal sweeper and the cryogenic modulator - are compared in an interlaboratory study using a multicomponent semi-volatile aromatic compound sample. The same column set (phases, film thickness, dimensions of columns) and conditions of oven temperature program were used. Carrier gas flow settings however were different for the data reported here. The thermal sweeper has a longer overall length due to the extra ca. 30 cm length of narrow bore tubing used for the modulator/accumulator section. Data reveal that the two methods behave in an analogous manner in respect of delivering GC×GC results, with key peak parameters of peak widths and symmetry measures showing good correlation. Retention time dissimilarity on the first dimension columns in the two systems arises from different flow rates used, however the second column retention is similar, and this is due to the resulting different elution temperatures that peaks elute on the first dimension in each system. Overall, the two approaches to GC×GC appear to produce equivalent results within the scope of the application studied. Each system does have its experimental limitations; the thermal sweeper has what may be called a ‘thick film effect’, where at high temperature it can be difficult to sufficiently trap the migrating bands in the accumulator column, and the pulsing of solutes in the cryogenic system may suffer from a ‘thick wall effect’ if a column with too thick a wall dimension is used at low oven temperature.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Proteomics ; protein analysis ; multidimensional HPLC ; ion-exchange chromatography ; reversed phase chromatography ; comprehensive HPLC ; two-dimensional HPLC ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The interactive modes of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of proteins provide a platform for the construction of a multidimensional HPLC system coupled to mass spectrometry. We present a system composed of both anion and cation exchanger columns, in the first dimension, and n-octadecyl bonded 1.5 μm nonporous silica columns in the second dimension. Both columns are operated under gradient conditions. A system suitability test with standard proteins showed that the total analysis can be performed within about 20 minutes. The fractions taken from the ion exchanger column are directly analyzed within one minute on the reversed phase column at a high flow rate. Two reversed phase columns are applied and operated alternatively: while the first column performs the separation within one minute, the analytes leaving the first dimension are enriched in an on-column focusing mode on top of the second column. The sample clean-up and enrichment is performed on a novel type of restricted access cation exchanger column with internal sulfonic acid groups and external diol groups. The columns exhibit a molecular weight exclusion limit for globular proteins of about 15 kDa. Our next studies will be directed towards the analysis of proteins and peptides from extracts of fibroblasts.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Microfabrication ; monolith ; electrochromatography ; peptides ; reactive ion etching ; reversed phase ; nanocolumns ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Monolith columns are generally fabricated by polymerization of monomers within a column. This paper reviews an alternative strategy in which the bed is microfabricated in an inorganic material by ablation. Channels of 1.5 μm width and 10 μm depth were sculpted in quartz by deep reaction ion etching. Using this approach chromatographic beds were constructed in which cubic support structures were created and arranged in rows to mimic particles in a conventional column. Beds ranging from hundreds of thousands to millions of “particles” with volumes of 15 nL to 15 μL were produced. Columns that had been derivatized with an octadecyl silane stationary phase were used to separate both low molecular weight analytes and peptides in the CEC mode. Plate height in the CEC mode was 1.2 μm at maximum efficiency.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Monolith ; continuous bed column ; convective interaction media ; membrane chromatography ; membrane adsorber ; HPMDC ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Monolithic stationary phases have revolutionized protein chromatography because they combine speed, capacity, and resolution in a unique manner. Since such stationary phases contain no particles but only flow-through pores, the usual mass transfer restrictions to the chromatography of large molecules are not observed and extremely fast separations become possible. Recently the area of application of monolith chromatography has been extended to the separation and analysis of small molecules and plasmid DNA. This review summarizes the state of art in high performance monolith and especially high performance monolithic disk chromatography (HPMDC). The current understanding of the theory of protein HPMDC is summarized, while an introduction to the evolving field of small molecule HPMDC is attempted. The basic differences between the monolithic disks and columns packed with conventional stationary phases (including perfusion and micropellicular particles) but also monolithic columns (porous rods) are outlined. Finally, the potential of HPMDC to analytical and preparative biochromatography is demonstrated by a discussion of recent applications of chromatographic disks for protein isolation and bioprocess analysis.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 54
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Monolith ; factor VIII ; affinity chromatography ; combinatorial peptide library ; peptide synthesis ; recombinant proteins ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: FVIII is a very complex molecule of great therapeutic significance. It is purified by a sequence of chromatographic steps including immunoaffinity chromatography. A peptide affinity chromatography method has been developed using peptides derived from a combinatorial library. Spot technology using cellulose sheets has been applied for this purpose. The dual positional scanning strategy was used for identification of the amino acids in random positions. Approximately 5000 possible candidates found in the first screening round were reduced to a panel of 36. Six candidates have been selected empirically. Five peptides seem to be directed against the light chain of FVIII, one peptide seems to be directed against the heavy chain. The peptides have been immobilized on conventional beaded material and CIM polymethacrylate monoliths. Much better performance with respect to capacity and selectivity has been observed with the monolithic material. Exposure of the ligand and its ensuing accessibility are responsible for these properties.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; retention volume ; real gas carrier ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The problem of the calculation and interpretation of the net retention volume with a real gas as carrier is revisited. The properties of the carrier are described by a first order virial equation of state. The net retention volume of a solute is related to the mean flow rate of the carrier, therefore determination of the mean flow rate of a real gas carrier is reviewed. It is shown that the mean flow rate cannot be calculated from the mean column pressure. With a real gas carrier the local capacity factor depends on the local pressure of the real gas. The basic relationship between the net retention volume and the function describing this pressure dependence is also reviewed. Precise formulae as well as practical approximations are presented for the calculation of the mean flow rate, of the mean column pressure, and of a representative pressure related to the mean capacity factor.
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Sample preparation ; gas extraction techniques ; membrane-type techniques ; water analysis ; soil analysis ; gas chromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---This review focuses on the role of so-called solventless methods of sample preparation in contemporary environmental analysis. The basic classification of this group of methods as well as the principal features and advantages of the techniques in current use are discussed.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 57
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Supercritical fluid extraction ; capillary GC ; hydrocarbons ; bio-oil ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: