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  • 1
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    London : Henry Stewart Talks
    Keywords: Blood pressure / Measurement ; Veterinary Medicine ; Animals ; Blood Pressure Determination / veterinary ; Blood Pressure Monitors ; Endocrine Diseases / veterinary ; Hypertension / veterinary ; Kidney Diseases / veterinary
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: Signs that you should measure blood pressure in small animal patients -- Hypertension in small animal practice, and its association with endocrine and renal diseases -- Targets of hypertension -- The pros and cons of Doppler and Oscillometric blood pressure monitors -- The benefits of observing oscillometric tracing -- The impact of white coat effect on blood pressure and how to minimize it
    Notes: Animated audio-visual presentation with synchronized narration.
    Pages: 1 online resource (1 streaming video file (51 min.) : color, sound).
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: Problematic fossils, extinct taxa of enigmatic morphology that cannot be assigned to a known major group, were once a major issue in palaeontology. A long-favoured solution to the 'problem of the problematica', particularly the 'weird wonders' of the Cambrian Burgess Shale, was to consider them representatives of extinct phyla. A combination of new evidence and modern approaches to phylogenetic analysis has now resolved the affinities of most of these forms. Perhaps the most notable exception is Tullimonstrum gregarium, popularly known as the Tully monster, a large soft-bodied organism from the late Carboniferous Mazon Creek biota (approximately 309-307 million years ago) of Illinois, USA, which was designated the official state fossil of Illinois in 1989. Its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain and it has been compared with nemerteans, polychaetes, gastropods, conodonts, and the stem arthropod Opabinia. Here we review the morphology of Tullimonstrum based on an analysis of more than 1,200 specimens. We find that the anterior proboscis ends in a buccal apparatus containing teeth, the eyes project laterally on a long rigid bar, and the elongate segmented body bears a caudal fin with dorsal and ventral lobes. We describe new evidence for a notochord, cartilaginous arcualia, gill pouches, articulations within the proboscis, and multiple tooth rows adjacent to the mouth. This combination of characters, supported by phylogenetic analysis, identifies Tullimonstrum as a vertebrate, and places it on the stem lineage to lampreys (Petromyzontida). In addition to increasing the known morphological disparity of extinct lampreys, a chordate affinity for T. gregarium resolves the nature of a soft-bodied fossil which has been debated for more than 50 years.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McCoy, Victoria E -- Saupe, Erin E -- Lamsdell, James C -- Tarhan, Lidya G -- McMahon, Sean -- Lidgard, Scott -- Mayer, Paul -- Whalen, Christopher D -- Soriano, Carmen -- Finney, Lydia -- Vogt, Stefan -- Clark, Elizabeth G -- Anderson, Ross P -- Petermann, Holger -- Locatelli, Emma R -- Briggs, Derek E G -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):496-9. doi: 10.1038/nature16992. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, 210 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. ; American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, New York 10024, USA. ; Field Museum of Natural History, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605, USA. ; X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA. ; Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, 170 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982721" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Fins/anatomy & histology ; Animals ; Extinction, Biological ; Eye/anatomy & histology ; *Fossils ; Gastrointestinal Tract/anatomy & histology ; Illinois ; Lampreys/classification ; Notochord/anatomy & histology ; *Phylogeny ; Tooth/anatomy & histology ; Vertebrates/anatomy & histology/*classification
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: Little is known about how pro-obesity diets regulate tissue stem and progenitor cell function. Here we show that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity augments the numbers and function of Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells of the mammalian intestine. Mechanistically, a HFD induces a robust peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-delta) signature in intestinal stem cells and progenitor cells (non-intestinal stem cells), and pharmacological activation of PPAR-delta recapitulates the effects of a HFD on these cells. Like a HFD, ex vivo treatment of intestinal organoid cultures with fatty acid constituents of the HFD enhances the self-renewal potential of these organoid bodies in a PPAR-delta-dependent manner. Notably, HFD- and agonist-activated PPAR-delta signalling endow organoid-initiating capacity to progenitors, and enforced PPAR-delta signalling permits these progenitors to form in vivo tumours after loss of the tumour suppressor Apc. These findings highlight how diet-modulated PPAR-delta activation alters not only the function of intestinal stem and progenitor cells, but also their capacity to initiate tumours.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4846772/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4846772/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Beyaz, Semir -- Mana, Miyeko D -- Roper, Jatin -- Kedrin, Dmitriy -- Saadatpour, Assieh -- Hong, Sue-Jean -- Bauer-Rowe, Khristian E -- Xifaras, Michael E -- Akkad, Adam -- Arias, Erika -- Pinello, Luca -- Katz, Yarden -- Shinagare, Shweta -- Abu-Remaileh, Monther -- Mihaylova, Maria M -- Lamming, Dudley W -- Dogum, Rizkullah -- Guo, Guoji -- Bell, George W -- Selig, Martin -- Nielsen, G Petur -- Gupta, Nitin -- Ferrone, Cristina R -- Deshpande, Vikram -- Yuan, Guo-Cheng -- Orkin, Stuart H -- Sabatini, David M -- Yilmaz, Omer H -- AI47389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DK043351/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K08 CA198002/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K99 AG041765/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- K99 AG045144/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30-CA14051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R00 AG041765/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R00 AG045144/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA129105/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32DK007191/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):53-8. doi: 10.1038/nature17173.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT, Department of Biology, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital and Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Division of Gastroenterology and Molecular Oncology Research Institute, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA. ; Departments of Pathology, Gastroenterology, and Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA. ; Division of Digestive Diseases, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Missisippi 39216, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935695" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Count ; Cell Self Renewal/drug effects ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/*drug effects ; Colonic Neoplasms/*pathology ; Diet, High-Fat/*adverse effects ; Female ; Genes, APC ; Humans ; Intestines/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Obesity/chemically induced/pathology ; Organoids/drug effects/metabolism/pathology ; PPAR delta/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Stem Cell Niche/drug effects ; Stem Cells/*drug effects/metabolism/*pathology ; beta Catenin/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McGilvray, Annabel -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):S4-5. doi: 10.1038/531S4a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934524" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetates/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Aging/blood/drug effects/pathology/*psychology ; Alzheimer Disease/blood/therapy ; Animals ; Anti-Asthmatic Agents/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Cognition Disorders/pathology/physiopathology/*prevention & control/*therapy ; Estrogens/pharmacology ; Female ; Hippocampus/drug effects/pathology/physiology/physiopathology ; Humans ; Inflammation Mediators/immunology ; Leukotrienes/immunology ; Macaca mulatta ; Male ; Mice ; Neuronal Plasticity/drug effects ; Parkinson Disease/therapy ; Plasma/chemistry/physiology ; Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects/pathology/physiology/physiopathology ; Quinolines/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Rats ; Rejuvenation/*physiology/*psychology ; Synapses/drug effects/metabolism/pathology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: Planktonic organisms play crucial roles in oceanic food webs and global biogeochemical cycles. Most of our knowledge about the ecological impact of large zooplankton stems from research on abundant and robust crustaceans, and in particular copepods. A number of the other organisms that comprise planktonic communities are fragile, and therefore hard to sample and quantify, meaning that their abundances and effects on oceanic ecosystems are poorly understood. Here, using data from a worldwide in situ imaging survey of plankton larger than 600 mum, we show that a substantial part of the biomass of this size fraction consists of giant protists belonging to the Rhizaria, a super-group of mostly fragile unicellular marine organisms that includes the taxa Phaeodaria and Radiolaria (for example, orders Collodaria and Acantharia). Globally, we estimate that rhizarians in the top 200 m of world oceans represent a standing stock of 0.089 Pg carbon, equivalent to 5.2% of the total oceanic biota carbon reservoir. In the vast oligotrophic intertropical open oceans, rhizarian biomass is estimated to be equivalent to that of all other mesozooplankton (plankton in the size range 0.2-20 mm). The photosymbiotic association of many rhizarians with microalgae may be an important factor in explaining their distribution. The previously overlooked importance of these giant protists across the widest ecosystem on the planet changes our understanding of marine planktonic ecosystems.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Biard, Tristan -- Stemmann, Lars -- Picheral, Marc -- Mayot, Nicolas -- Vandromme, Pieter -- Hauss, Helena -- Gorsky, Gabriel -- Guidi, Lionel -- Kiko, Rainer -- Not, Fabrice -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):504-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17652. Epub 2016 Apr 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Universite Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire Adaptation et Diversite en Milieu Marin UMR7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, 29688 Roscoff, France. ; Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Universite Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie de Villefranche (LOV) UMR7093, Observatoire Oceanologique, 06230 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France. ; GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Wischhofstrasse 1-3, 24148 Kiel, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096373" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biomass ; *Biota ; Carbon/metabolism ; Carbon Sequestration ; Earth (Planet) ; Microalgae/metabolism ; *Oceans and Seas ; Photosynthesis ; Rhizaria/classification/*isolation & purification/metabolism ; Seawater/chemistry ; Symbiosis ; Zooplankton/classification/*isolation & purification/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-04-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉McKinlay, Roger -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):573-5. doi: 10.1038/531573a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Royal Institute of Navigation, and a former head of engineering at Thales UK. He sits on the EPSRC Quantum Technology Strategic Advisory Board.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029262" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cues ; Facility Design and Construction ; Geographic Information Systems/instrumentation/*utilization ; Hippocampus/anatomy & histology/physiology ; Humans ; Maps as Topic ; Orientation/physiology ; Satellite Communications/utilization ; Smartphone/utilization ; Spatial Learning/*physiology ; Spatial Memory/physiology ; Spatial Navigation/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Biewener, Andrew A -- Wilson, Alan -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):442. doi: 10.1038/532442a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and director of the Concord Field Station, where he collaborated with Neill Alexander. ; Royal Veterinary College in London. Alexander examined Wilson's PhD thesis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121834" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Dinosaurs/physiology ; Gait/*physiology ; Great Britain ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Movement/physiology ; Zoology/*history
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-05-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tollefson, Jeff -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 10;533(7602):156-7. doi: 10.1038/533156a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172025" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biology/instrumentation/*methods ; Cesium Radioisotopes/*supply & distribution ; Immune System/immunology/radiation effects ; Immunologic Techniques/instrumentation/methods ; Internationality ; *Laboratories ; Mice ; *Research Design ; *Research Personnel ; *Security Measures/trends ; X-Rays
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Melott, Adrian L -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):40-1. doi: 10.1038/532040a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27078562" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Climate Change/history ; *Earth (Planet) ; Extinction, Biological ; Geologic Sediments/chemistry ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Iron Radioisotopes/*analysis/chemistry ; Stars, Celestial/*chemistry ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Meharg, Andrew A -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):S60. doi: 10.1038/531S60a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Queen's University Belfast, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981731" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Agriculture ; Animals ; Carbon Footprint ; *Cities ; *Environmental Monitoring ; Environmental Pollution ; Insect Vectors ; Water Supply
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-04-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Boiani, Michele -- Buehler, Alexandra -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):580. doi: 10.1038/531580d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Munster, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029267" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Experimentation/legislation & jurisprudence/standards ; Animal Welfare/*economics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Animals ; European Union ; Germany ; Research/*economics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Research Personnel/*economics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 12
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tollefson, Jeff -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):20-1. doi: 10.1038/531020a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935677" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anthozoa ; Coral Reefs ; *Data Collection ; Droughts ; *El Nino-Southern Oscillation/adverse effects ; Floods ; Oceans and Seas ; Rain ; *Research/economics ; Seawater/analysis ; Temperature ; *Weather
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):286. doi: 10.1038/531286a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Nucleus/genetics ; DNA/*analysis/genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Humans ; Neanderthals/*genetics ; *Phylogeny ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: Sulawesi is the largest and oldest island within Wallacea, a vast zone of oceanic islands separating continental Asia from the Pleistocene landmass of Australia and Papua (Sahul). By one million years ago an unknown hominin lineage had colonized Flores immediately to the south, and by about 50 thousand years ago, modern humans (Homo sapiens) had crossed to Sahul. On the basis of position, oceanic currents and biogeographical context, Sulawesi probably played a pivotal part in these dispersals. Uranium-series dating of speleothem deposits associated with rock art in the limestone karst region of Maros in southwest Sulawesi has revealed that humans were living on the island at least 40 thousand years ago (ref. 5). Here we report new excavations at Talepu in the Walanae Basin northeast of Maros, where in situ stone artefacts associated with fossil remains of megafauna (Bubalus sp., Stegodon and Celebochoerus) have been recovered from stratified deposits that accumulated from before 200 thousand years ago until about 100 thousand years ago. Our findings suggest that Sulawesi, like Flores, was host to a long-established population of archaic hominins, the ancestral origins and taxonomic status of which remain elusive.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉van den Bergh, Gerrit D -- Li, Bo -- Brumm, Adam -- Grun, Rainer -- Yurnaldi, Dida -- Moore, Mark W -- Kurniawan, Iwan -- Setiawan, Ruly -- Aziz, Fachroel -- Roberts, Richard G -- Suyono -- Storey, Michael -- Setiabudi, Erick -- Morwood, Michael J -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):208-11. doi: 10.1038/nature16448.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Archaeological Science, School of Earth &Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia. ; Naturalis Biodiversity Center, 2333 CR Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Research Centre for Human Evolution, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia. ; School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia. ; Geology Museum Bandung, Geological Agency, Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia. ; Archaeology, School of Humanities, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2350, Australia. ; Quadlab, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 13 DK-1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762458" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Fossils ; History, Ancient ; *Hominidae ; Human Migration/history ; Humans ; Indonesia ; Tool Use Behavior
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 15
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gupta, Sujata -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):S12-3. doi: 10.1038/531S12a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934519" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Animals ; Biological Availability ; Brain/*physiology ; Child ; Cognition/*physiology ; Dendrites/physiology ; Dietary Proteins ; Docosahexaenoic Acids/metabolism ; Eicosapentaenoic Acid/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Iron/administration & dosage/pharmacology ; *Meat ; Pregnancy ; Primates/physiology ; Vitamin B Complex ; Zinc
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-02-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Heuckeroth, Robert O -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):44-5. doi: 10.1038/nature16877. Epub 2016 Feb 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute and the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863191" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Lineage ; *Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy ; Drug Discovery/*methods ; Enteric Nervous System/*pathology ; Female ; Hirschsprung Disease/*drug therapy/*pathology ; Humans ; Male ; Neurons/*pathology
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 17
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Butler, Declan -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):155-6. doi: 10.1038/532155a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075072" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/virology ; Angola/epidemiology ; Animals ; Asia/epidemiology ; Child ; Cities/epidemiology ; Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data ; *Fear ; Haplorhini/virology ; Humans ; South America/epidemiology ; Strategic Stockpile/statistics & numerical data ; Vaccination/statistics & numerical data ; World Health Organization ; Yellow Fever/*epidemiology/*transmission/virology ; Yellow Fever Vaccine/administration & dosage/supply & distribution
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: The most recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, which was unprecedented in the number of cases and fatalities, geographic distribution, and number of nations affected, highlights the need for safe, effective, and readily available antiviral agents for treatment and prevention of acute Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) or sequelae. No antiviral therapeutics have yet received regulatory approval or demonstrated clinical efficacy. Here we report the discovery of a novel small molecule GS-5734, a monophosphoramidate prodrug of an adenosine analogue, with antiviral activity against EBOV. GS-5734 exhibits antiviral activity against multiple variants of EBOV and other filoviruses in cell-based assays. The pharmacologically active nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) is efficiently formed in multiple human cell types incubated with GS-5734 in vitro, and the NTP acts as an alternative substrate and RNA-chain terminator in primer-extension assays using a surrogate respiratory syncytial virus RNA polymerase. Intravenous administration of GS-5734 to nonhuman primates resulted in persistent NTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (half-life, 14 h) and distribution to sanctuary sites for viral replication including testes, eyes, and brain. In a rhesus monkey model of EVD, once-daily intravenous administration of 10 mg kg(-1) GS-5734 for 12 days resulted in profound suppression of EBOV replication and protected 100% of EBOV-infected animals against lethal disease, ameliorating clinical disease signs and pathophysiological markers, even when treatments were initiated three days after virus exposure when systemic viral RNA was detected in two out of six treated animals. These results show the first substantive post-exposure protection by a small-molecule antiviral compound against EBOV in nonhuman primates. The broad-spectrum antiviral activity of GS-5734 in vitro against other pathogenic RNA viruses, including filoviruses, arenaviruses, and coronaviruses, suggests the potential for wider medical use. GS-5734 is amenable to large-scale manufacturing, and clinical studies investigating the drug safety and pharmacokinetics are ongoing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Warren, Travis K -- Jordan, Robert -- Lo, Michael K -- Ray, Adrian S -- Mackman, Richard L -- Soloveva, Veronica -- Siegel, Dustin -- Perron, Michel -- Bannister, Roy -- Hui, Hon C -- Larson, Nate -- Strickley, Robert -- Wells, Jay -- Stuthman, Kelly S -- Van Tongeren, Sean A -- Garza, Nicole L -- Donnelly, Ginger -- Shurtleff, Amy C -- Retterer, Cary J -- Gharaibeh, Dima -- Zamani, Rouzbeh -- Kenny, Tara -- Eaton, Brett P -- Grimes, Elizabeth -- Welch, Lisa S -- Gomba, Laura -- Wilhelmsen, Catherine L -- Nichols, Donald K -- Nuss, Jonathan E -- Nagle, Elyse R -- Kugelman, Jeffrey R -- Palacios, Gustavo -- Doerffler, Edward -- Neville, Sean -- Carra, Ernest -- Clarke, Michael O -- Zhang, Lijun -- Lew, Willard -- Ross, Bruce -- Wang, Queenie -- Chun, Kwon -- Wolfe, Lydia -- Babusis, Darius -- Park, Yeojin -- Stray, Kirsten M -- Trancheva, Iva -- Feng, Joy Y -- Barauskas, Ona -- Xu, Yili -- Wong, Pamela -- Braun, Molly R -- Flint, Mike -- McMullan, Laura K -- Chen, Shan-Shan -- Fearns, Rachel -- Swaminathan, Swami -- Mayers, Douglas L -- Spiropoulou, Christina F -- Lee, William A -- Nichol, Stuart T -- Cihlar, Tomas -- Bavari, Sina -- R01 AI113321/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI113321/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):381-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17180. Epub 2016 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Therapeutic Development Center, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; Gilead Sciences, Foster City, California 94404, USA. ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. ; Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934220" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alanine/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Ebolavirus/drug effects ; Female ; HeLa Cells ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/*drug therapy/prevention & control ; Humans ; Macaca mulatta/*virology ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Organ Specificity ; Prodrugs/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Ribonucleotides/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/*therapeutic use
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-05-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Watson, Traci -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7602):155. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19864.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172024" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Egypt ; Female ; *Flowers ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Infrared Rays ; *Mummies/history ; Religion/history ; *Symbolism ; Tattooing/*history
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-02-04
    Description: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are physiologically important transmembrane signalling proteins that trigger intracellular responses upon binding of extracellular ligands. Despite recent breakthroughs in GPCR crystallography, the details of ligand-induced signal transduction are not well understood owing to missing dynamical information. In principle, such information can be provided by NMR, but so far only limited data of functional relevance on few side-chain sites of eukaryotic GPCRs have been obtained. Here we show that receptor motions can be followed at virtually any backbone site in a thermostabilized mutant of the turkey beta1-adrenergic receptor (beta1AR). Labelling with [(15)N]valine in a eukaryotic expression system provides over twenty resolved resonances that report on structure and dynamics in six ligand complexes and the apo form. The response to the various ligands is heterogeneous in the vicinity of the binding pocket, but gets transformed into a homogeneous readout at the intracellular side of helix 5 (TM5), which correlates linearly with ligand efficacy for the G protein pathway. The effect of several pertinent, thermostabilizing point mutations was assessed by reverting them to the native sequence. Whereas the response to ligands remains largely unchanged, binding of the G protein mimetic nanobody NB80 and G protein activation are only observed when two conserved tyrosines (Y227 and Y343) are restored. Binding of NB80 leads to very strong spectral changes throughout the receptor, including the extracellular ligand entrance pocket. This indicates that even the fully thermostabilized receptor undergoes activating motions in TM5, but that the fully active state is only reached in presence of Y227 and Y343 by stabilization with a G protein-like partner. The combined analysis of chemical shift changes from the point mutations and ligand responses identifies crucial connections in the allosteric activation pathway, and presents a general experimental method to delineate signal transmission networks at high resolution in GPCRs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Isogai, Shin -- Deupi, Xavier -- Opitz, Christian -- Heydenreich, Franziska M -- Tsai, Ching-Ju -- Brueckner, Florian -- Schertler, Gebhard F X -- Veprintsev, Dmitry B -- Grzesiek, Stephan -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):237-41. doi: 10.1038/nature16577. Epub 2016 Feb 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Focal Area Structural Biology and Biophysics, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland. ; Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland. ; Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26840483" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Agonists/chemistry/pharmacology ; Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology ; Allosteric Regulation/drug effects/genetics ; Animals ; Apoproteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Binding Sites/drug effects ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Drug Partial Agonism ; Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; Movement ; *Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular ; Point Mutation/genetics ; Protein Stability ; Protein Structure, Secondary/drug effects ; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction/drug effects/genetics ; Turkeys
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: It has been known for more than 70 years that synaptic strength is dynamically regulated in a use-dependent manner. At synapses with a low initial release probability, closely spaced presynaptic action potentials can result in facilitation, a short-term form of enhancement in which each subsequent action potential evokes greater neurotransmitter release. Facilitation can enhance neurotransmitter release considerably and can profoundly influence information transfer across synapses, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. One proposed mechanism is that a specialized calcium sensor for facilitation transiently increases the probability of release, and this sensor is distinct from the fast sensors that mediate rapid neurotransmitter release. Yet such a sensor has never been identified, and its very existence has been disputed. Here we show that synaptotagmin 7 (Syt7) is a calcium sensor that is required for facilitation at several central synapses. In Syt7-knockout mice, facilitation is eliminated even though the initial probability of release and the presynaptic residual calcium signals are unaltered. Expression of wild-type Syt7 in presynaptic neurons restored facilitation, whereas expression of a mutated Syt7 with a calcium-insensitive C2A domain did not. By revealing the role of Syt7 in synaptic facilitation, these results resolve a longstanding debate about a widespread form of short-term plasticity, and will enable future studies that may lead to a deeper understanding of the functional importance of facilitation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4729191/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4729191/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jackman, Skyler L -- Turecek, Josef -- Belinsky, Justine E -- Regehr, Wade G -- NS032405/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 NS072030/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS032405/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):88-91. doi: 10.1038/nature16507.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738595" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/*metabolism ; Calcium Signaling ; Female ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Neurons/metabolism/secretion ; Neurotransmitter Agents/*secretion ; Presynaptic Terminals/metabolism ; Synapses/*metabolism/secretion ; *Synaptic Transmission ; Synaptotagmins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, Jun -- Wang, Bo -- Jarzembowski, Edmund A -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):441. doi: 10.1038/532441a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Linyi University, China. ; Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, China. ; Natural History Museum, London, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121830" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amber/*economics ; Animals ; China ; Coal ; *Fossils ; Insects/anatomy & histology/physiology ; Kaolin/isolation & purification ; Mining ; *Paleontology
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-05-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, Jihong -- Liu, Xiang -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 18;533(7603):321. doi: 10.1038/533321d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Shanghai Maritime University, China. ; Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27193671" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Dissent and Disputes ; *Ecosystem ; *Environmental Monitoring ; *Models, Economic ; *Transportation
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are arguably the most extensively characterized tissue stem cells. Since the identification of HSCs by prospective isolation, complex multi-parameter flow cytometric isolation of phenotypic subsets has facilitated studies on many aspects of HSC biology, including self-renewal, differentiation, ageing, niche, and diversity. Here we demonstrate by unbiased multi-step screening, identification of a single gene, homeobox B5 (Hoxb5, also known as Hox-2.1), with expression in the bone marrow that is limited to long-term (LT)-HSCs in mice. Using a mouse single-colour tri-mCherry reporter driven by endogenous Hoxb5 regulation, we show that only the Hoxb5(+) HSCs exhibit long-term reconstitution capacity after transplantation in primary transplant recipients and, notably, in secondary recipients. Only 7-35% of various previously defined immunophenotypic HSCs are LT-HSCs. Finally, by in situ imaging of mouse bone marrow, we show that 〉94% of LT-HSCs (Hoxb5(+)) are directly attached to VE-cadherin(+) cells, implicating the perivascular space as a near-homogenous location of LT-HSCs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, James Y -- Miyanishi, Masanori -- Wang, Sean K -- Yamazaki, Satoshi -- Sinha, Rahul -- Kao, Kevin S -- Seita, Jun -- Sahoo, Debashis -- Nakauchi, Hiromitsu -- Weissman, Irving L -- F30-HL122096/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA086065/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL058770/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007365/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL099999/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):223-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16943.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Ludwig Center for Cancer Stem Cell Research and Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863982" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD/metabolism ; Biomarkers/analysis ; Bone Marrow/metabolism ; Cadherins/metabolism ; Cell Self Renewal ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Genes, Reporter/genetics ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Immunophenotyping ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Stem Cell Niche
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 25
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pincus, Zachary -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):37-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16873. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Developmental Biology and Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26814974" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*physiology ; Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*physiology ; Longevity/*physiology
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-03-31
    Description: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common inherited and sporadic vascular malformations that cause strokes and seizures in younger individuals. CCMs arise from endothelial cell loss of KRIT1, CCM2 or PDCD10, non-homologous proteins that form an adaptor complex. How disruption of the CCM complex results in disease remains controversial, with numerous signalling pathways (including Rho, SMAD and Wnt/beta-catenin) and processes such as endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) proposed to have causal roles. CCM2 binds to MEKK3 (refs 7, 8, 9, 10, 11), and we have recently shown that CCM complex regulation of MEKK3 is essential during vertebrate heart development. Here we investigate this mechanism in CCM disease pathogenesis. Using a neonatal mouse model of CCM disease, we show that expression of the MEKK3 target genes Klf2 and Klf4, as well as Rho and ADAMTS protease activity, are increased in the endothelial cells of early CCM lesions. By contrast, we find no evidence of EndMT or increased SMAD or Wnt signalling during early CCM formation. Endothelial-specific loss of Map3k3 (also known as Mekk3), Klf2 or Klf4 markedly prevents lesion formation, reverses the increase in Rho activity, and rescues lethality. Consistent with these findings in mice, we show that endothelial expression of KLF2 and KLF4 is increased in human familial and sporadic CCM lesions, and that a disease-causing human CCM2 mutation abrogates the MEKK3 interaction without affecting CCM complex formation. These studies identify gain of MEKK3 signalling and KLF2/4 function as causal mechanisms for CCM pathogenesis that may be targeted to develop new CCM therapeutics.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4864035/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4864035/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhou, Zinan -- Tang, Alan T -- Wong, Weng-Yew -- Bamezai, Sharika -- Goddard, Lauren M -- Shenkar, Robert -- Zhou, Su -- Yang, Jisheng -- Wright, Alexander C -- Foley, Matthew -- Arthur, J Simon C -- Whitehead, Kevin J -- Awad, Issam A -- Li, Dean Y -- Zheng, Xiangjian -- Kahn, Mark L -- P01 HL075215/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL120846/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS092521/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01NS092521/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL094326/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL-084516/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL094326/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01NS075168/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- T32HL07439/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):122-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17178. Epub 2016 Mar 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Laboratory of Cardiovascular Signaling, Centenary Institute, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia. ; Neurovascular Surgery Program, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Sydney Microscopy &Microanalysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia. ; Division of Cell Signaling and Immunology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK. ; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and the Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA. ; The Key Laboratory for Human Disease Gene Study of Sichuan Province, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences &Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan 610072, China. ; Faculty of Medicine, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027284" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ADAM Proteins/metabolism ; Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; Carrier Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Endothelial Cells/enzymology/*metabolism ; Female ; Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System/etiology/*metabolism/pathology ; Humans ; Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/deficiency/*metabolism ; MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 3/deficiency/*metabolism ; *MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Male ; Mice ; Protein Binding ; rho GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
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  • 27
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):5. doi: 10.1038/529005a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738571" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bibliometrics ; *Cooperative Behavior ; Developed Countries ; Developing Countries ; *Group Processes ; Humans ; *International Cooperation ; Research/manpower/*organization & administration
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: The integrated stress response (ISR) is a homeostatic mechanism by which eukaryotic cells sense and respond to stress-inducing signals, such as amino acid starvation. General controlled non-repressed (GCN2) kinase is a key orchestrator of the ISR, and modulates protein synthesis in response to amino acid starvation. Here we demonstrate in mice that GCN2 controls intestinal inflammation by suppressing inflammasome activation. Enhanced activation of ISR was observed in intestinal antigen presenting cells (APCs) and epithelial cells during amino acid starvation, or intestinal inflammation. Genetic deletion of Gcn2 (also known as Eif2ka4) in CD11c(+) APCs or intestinal epithelial cells resulted in enhanced intestinal inflammation and T helper 17 cell (TH17) responses, owing to enhanced inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1beta production. This was caused by reduced autophagy in Gcn2(-/-) intestinal APCs and epithelial cells, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), a potent activator of inflammasomes. Thus, conditional ablation of Atg5 or Atg7 in intestinal APCs resulted in enhanced ROS and TH17 responses. Furthermore, in vivo blockade of ROS and IL-1beta resulted in inhibition of TH17 responses and reduced inflammation in Gcn2(-/-) mice. Importantly, acute amino acid starvation suppressed intestinal inflammation via a mechanism dependent on GCN2. These results reveal a mechanism that couples amino acid sensing with control of intestinal inflammation via GCN2.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ravindran, Rajesh -- Loebbermann, Jens -- Nakaya, Helder I -- Khan, Nooruddin -- Ma, Hualing -- Gama, Leonardo -- Machiah, Deepa K -- Lawson, Benton -- Hakimpour, Paul -- Wang, Yi-chong -- Li, Shuzhao -- Sharma, Prachi -- Kaufman, Randal J -- Martinez, Jennifer -- Pulendran, Bali -- R01 DK088227/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK103185/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK042394/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA ES103286-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):523-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17186. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508, Brazil. ; Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India. ; Division of Pathology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Virology Core, Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Degenerative Disease Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037 USA. ; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Mail Drop D2-01 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982722" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/administration & dosage/deficiency/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Animals ; Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology/metabolism ; Autophagy ; Colitis/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epithelial Cells/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Inflammasomes/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Inflammation/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Interleukin-1beta/immunology ; Intestines/*metabolism/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/deficiency/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Stress, Physiological ; Th17 Cells/immunology ; Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes/deficiency/metabolism
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ransohoff, Richard M -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):185-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17881. Epub 2016 Apr 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Neuroimmunology group, Biogen, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049948" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*metabolism ; Female ; Male ; Microglia/*physiology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*metabolism ; Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/*metabolism
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-03-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cyranoski, David -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):424-5. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19590.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27008970" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain Mapping/trends ; China ; Conservation of Natural Resources/trends ; Environmental Pollution/prevention & control ; Humans ; Neurosciences/trends ; Oceanography/trends ; Science/*trends ; Stem Cell Research
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  • 31
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):129-30. doi: 10.1038/530130a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863944" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Disease Eradication/economics/*statistics & numerical data/*trends ; Dog Diseases/epidemiology/parasitology ; Dogs ; Dracunculiasis/*epidemiology/*parasitology/prevention & control/transmission ; *Dracunculus Nematode/isolation & purification ; Drinking Water/parasitology/standards ; Female ; Ghana/epidemiology ; Goals ; Malaria/epidemiology/parasitology/prevention & control/transmission ; Male ; Mosquito Control/methods ; Poliomyelitis/epidemiology ; Time Factors
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  • 32
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Qiu, Jane -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):142-5. doi: 10.1038/529142a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762440" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Husbandry/*economics/legislation & jurisprudence/statistics & numerical ; data/*trends ; Animals ; China ; Climate Change ; Conservation of Natural Resources/methods ; Government Regulation ; *Grassland ; Livestock/physiology ; Policy Making ; Socioeconomic Factors ; Tibet ; Transients and Migrants/*statistics & numerical data ; Water Supply/statistics & numerical data
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  • 33
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dance, Amber -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):S2-3. doi: 10.1038/531S2a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Amphetamines/adverse effects/pharmacology ; Animals ; Benzhydryl Compounds/pharmacology ; Biomedical Enhancement/ethics/*methods ; Caffeine/pharmacology ; Child ; Cognition/drug effects ; Dopamine/metabolism ; Healthy Volunteers ; Humans ; Intelligence/*drug effects ; Intelligence Tests ; Methylphenidate/adverse effects/pharmacology ; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism ; Nicotine/adverse effects/pharmacology ; Norepinephrine/metabolism ; Off-Label Use ; Performance-Enhancing Substances/adverse effects/*pharmacology ; Prefrontal Cortex/drug effects/physiology ; Rats ; Substance-Related Disorders/etiology ; Video Games/psychology
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: Blood vessels define local microenvironments in the skeletal system, play crucial roles in osteogenesis and provide niches for haematopoietic stem cells. The properties of niche-forming vessels and their changes in the ageing organism remain incompletely understood. Here we show that Notch signalling in endothelial cells leads to the expansion of haematopoietic stem cell niches in bone, which involves increases in CD31-positive capillaries and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFRbeta)-positive perivascular cells, arteriole formation and elevated levels of cellular stem cell factor. Although endothelial hypoxia-inducible factor signalling promotes some of these changes, it fails to enhance vascular niche function because of a lack of arterialization and expansion of PDGFRbeta-positive cells. In ageing mice, niche-forming vessels in the skeletal system are strongly reduced but can be restored by activation of endothelial Notch signalling. These findings indicate that vascular niches for haematopoietic stem cells are part of complex, age-dependent microenvironments involving multiple cell populations and vessel subtypes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kusumbe, Anjali P -- Ramasamy, Saravana K -- Itkin, Tomer -- Mae, Maarja Andaloussi -- Langen, Urs H -- Betsholtz, Christer -- Lapidot, Tsvee -- Adams, Ralf H -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):380-4. doi: 10.1038/nature17638. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Tissue Morphogenesis, and University of Munster, Faculty of Medicine, D-48149 Munster, Germany. ; Department of Immunology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. ; Vascular Biology Program, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden. ; Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Division of Vascular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Scheeles vag 2, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074508" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*physiology ; Animals ; Antigens, CD31/metabolism ; Arterioles/cytology/*physiology ; Bone and Bones/*blood supply/cytology/metabolism ; Capillaries/cytology/*physiology ; Cell Count ; Endothelial Cells/metabolism ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Osteogenesis ; Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta/metabolism ; Receptors, Notch/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Stem Cell Factor/metabolism ; *Stem Cell Niche
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: The discovery of four new Xenoturbella species from deep waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean is reported here. The genus and two nominal species were described from the west coast of Sweden, but their taxonomic placement remains unstable. Limited evidence placed Xenoturbella with molluscs, but the tissues can be contaminated with prey. They were then considered deuterostomes. Further taxon sampling and analysis have grouped Xenoturbella with acoelomorphs (=Xenacoelomorpha) as sister to all other Bilateria (=Nephrozoa), or placed Xenacoelomorpha inside Deuterostomia with Ambulacraria (Hemichordata + Echinodermata). Here we describe four new species of Xenoturbella and reassess those hypotheses. A large species (〉20 cm long) was found at cold-water hydrocarbon seeps at 2,890 m depth in Monterey Canyon and at 1,722 m in the Gulf of California (Mexico). A second large species (~10 cm long) also occurred at 1,722 m in the Gulf of California. The third large species (~15 cm long) was found at ~3,700 m depth near a newly discovered carbonate-hosted hydrothermal vent in the Gulf of California. Finally, a small species (~2.5 cm long), found near a whale carcass at 631 m depth in Monterey Submarine Canyon (California), resembles the two nominal species from Sweden. Analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes places the three larger species as a sister clade to the smaller Atlantic and Pacific species. Phylogenomic analyses of transcriptomic sequences support placement of Xenacoelomorpha as sister to Nephrozoa or Protostomia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rouse, Greg W -- Wilson, Nerida G -- Carvajal, Jose I -- Vrijenhoek, Robert C -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):94-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16545.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Western Australian Museum, Locked Bag 49, Welshpool DC, Western Australia 6986, Australia. ; School of Animal Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia. ; Monterey Bay Aquarium and Research Institute, Moss Landing, California 95039, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842060" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/*classification/genetics ; Atlantic Ocean ; Bayes Theorem ; California ; Female ; Genes ; Genome, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Hydrothermal Vents ; Likelihood Functions ; Male ; Mexico ; Models, Biological ; Pacific Ocean ; *Phylogeny ; Species Specificity ; Sweden ; Transcriptome/genetics
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: Microbial viruses can control host abundances via density-dependent lytic predator-prey dynamics. Less clear is how temperate viruses, which coexist and replicate with their host, influence microbial communities. Here we show that virus-like particles are relatively less abundant at high host densities. This suggests suppressed lysis where established models predict lytic dynamics are favoured. Meta-analysis of published viral and microbial densities showed that this trend was widespread in diverse ecosystems ranging from soil to freshwater to human lungs. Experimental manipulations showed viral densities more consistent with temperate than lytic life cycles at increasing microbial abundance. An analysis of 24 coral reef viromes showed a relative increase in the abundance of hallmark genes encoded by temperate viruses with increased microbial abundance. Based on these four lines of evidence, we propose the Piggyback-the-Winner model wherein temperate dynamics become increasingly important in ecosystems with high microbial densities; thus 'more microbes, fewer viruses'.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Knowles, B -- Silveira, C B -- Bailey, B A -- Barott, K -- Cantu, V A -- Cobian-Guemes, A G -- Coutinho, F H -- Dinsdale, E A -- Felts, B -- Furby, K A -- George, E E -- Green, K T -- Gregoracci, G B -- Haas, A F -- Haggerty, J M -- Hester, E R -- Hisakawa, N -- Kelly, L W -- Lim, Y W -- Little, M -- Luque, A -- McDole-Somera, T -- McNair, K -- de Oliveira, L S -- Quistad, S D -- Robinett, N L -- Sala, E -- Salamon, P -- Sanchez, S E -- Sandin, S -- Silva, G G Z -- Smith, J -- Sullivan, C -- Thompson, C -- Vermeij, M J A -- Youle, M -- Young, C -- Zgliczynski, B -- Brainard, R -- Edwards, R A -- Nulton, J -- Thompson, F -- Rohwer, F -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):466-70. doi: 10.1038/nature17193. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, California 92182, USA. ; Biology Institute, Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Av. Carlos Chagas Filho 373, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-599, Brazil. ; Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, California 92182, USA. ; Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 46-007 Lilipuna Road, Kaneohe, Hawaii 96744, USA. ; Computational Science Research Center, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, California 92182, USA. ; Rainbow Rock, Ocean View, Hawaii 96737, USA. ; Radboud University Medical Centre, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Centre for Molecular and Biomolecular Informatics, 6525HP Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ; Viral Information Institute, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, California 92182, USA. ; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 8622 Kennel Way, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Biology, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, USA. ; Marine Sciences Department, Sao Paulo Federal University - Baixada Santista, Av. Alm. Saldanha da Gama, 89, Santos, Sao Paulo 11030-400, Brazil. ; National Geographic Society, 1145 17th St NW, Washington D.C. 20036, USA. ; CARMABI Foundation, Piscaderabaai z/n, Willemstad, Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. ; Aquatic Microbiology, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, 1098XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982729" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anthozoa/physiology/*virology ; Bacteriophages/pathogenicity/physiology ; Coral Reefs ; *Ecosystem ; Genes, Viral/genetics ; *Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Lysogeny ; Models, Biological ; Virulence/genetics ; Viruses/genetics/isolation & purification/*pathogenicity
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Davis, Andrew R -- Broad, Allison -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):36. doi: 10.1038/533036a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Wollongong, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147022" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Aquatic Organisms ; Biodiversity ; Conservation of Natural Resources/*methods/trends ; *Ecosystem ; Ships/*methods
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory decline and subsequent loss of broader cognitive functions. Memory decline in the early stages of AD is mostly limited to episodic memory, for which the hippocampus has a crucial role. However, it has been uncertain whether the observed amnesia in the early stages of AD is due to disrupted encoding and consolidation of episodic information, or an impairment in the retrieval of stored memory information. Here we show that in transgenic mouse models of early AD, direct optogenetic activation of hippocampal memory engram cells results in memory retrieval despite the fact that these mice are amnesic in long-term memory tests when natural recall cues are used, revealing a retrieval, rather than a storage impairment. Before amyloid plaque deposition, the amnesia in these mice is age-dependent, which correlates with a progressive reduction in spine density of hippocampal dentate gyrus engram cells. We show that optogenetic induction of long-term potentiation at perforant path synapses of dentate gyrus engram cells restores both spine density and long-term memory. We also demonstrate that an ablation of dentate gyrus engram cells containing restored spine density prevents the rescue of long-term memory. Thus, selective rescue of spine density in engram cells may lead to an effective strategy for treating memory loss in the early stages of AD.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4847731/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4847731/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Roy, Dheeraj S -- Arons, Autumn -- Mitchell, Teryn I -- Pignatelli, Michele -- Ryan, Tomas J -- Tonegawa, Susumu -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):508-12. doi: 10.1038/nature17172. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉RIKEN-MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory, Department of Biology and Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982728" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Alzheimer Disease/*pathology/*physiopathology ; Amnesia/pathology/physiopathology ; Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics ; Animals ; Dendritic Spines/pathology/physiology ; Dentate Gyrus/*cytology/pathology/*physiology/physiopathology ; *Disease Models, Animal ; Early Medical Intervention ; Humans ; Long-Term Potentiation ; Male ; Memory, Episodic ; Memory, Long-Term/*physiology ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Optogenetics ; Plaque, Amyloid ; Presenilin-1/genetics ; Synapses/metabolism ; Transgenes/genetics ; tau Proteins/genetics
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  • 39
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):8. doi: 10.1038/533008a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27146997" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adiposity/physiology ; Animals ; Athletes ; Bicycling/physiology ; Brain/anatomy & histology/metabolism ; Dietary Fats/administration & dosage/metabolism ; Energy Metabolism/*physiology ; Heart Rate ; Hominidae/anatomy & histology/metabolism ; Humans ; Male
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  • 40
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):281. doi: 10.1038/532281a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27111602" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Welfare/legislation & jurisprudence ; Animals ; *Animals, Laboratory ; Biomedical Research/manpower/*trends ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics ; China ; Cooperative Behavior ; Europe ; *Haplorhini/genetics ; Humans ; *Models, Animal
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  • 41
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ledford, Heidi -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):149. doi: 10.1038/531149a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961633" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/*genetics ; Europe ; Humans ; Patents as Topic/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Time Factors ; United States
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  • 42
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ledford, Heidi -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):156-9. doi: 10.1038/531156a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961639" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; CRISPR-Associated Proteins/metabolism ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/*genetics ; Callithrix/genetics ; Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/genetics ; DNA/genetics ; DNA Repair/genetics ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Genetic Engineering/*methods/*trends ; Genome/*genetics ; Humans ; Neoplasms/genetics ; RNA/genetics ; Substrate Specificity ; Synthetic Biology/methods/trends ; Templates, Genetic
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  • 43
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):139. doi: 10.1038/531139a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961619" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/anatomy & histology ; Carnivory/physiology ; Cooking/history ; Diet/history ; Fires/history ; History, Ancient ; *Hominidae/anatomy & histology/physiology/psychology ; Humans ; *Mastication/physiology ; Masticatory Muscles/anatomy & histology/physiology ; *Meat/history ; Time Factors ; *Tool Use Behavior ; Tooth/anatomy & histology/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: The proteasome is a multi-component protease complex responsible for regulating key processes such as the cell cycle and antigen presentation. Compounds that target the proteasome are potentially valuable tools for the treatment of pathogens that depend on proteasome function for survival and replication. In particular, proteasome inhibitors have been shown to be toxic for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at all stages of its life cycle. Most compounds that have been tested against the parasite also inhibit the mammalian proteasome, resulting in toxicity that precludes their use as therapeutic agents. Therefore, better definition of the substrate specificity and structural properties of the Plasmodium proteasome could enable the development of compounds with sufficient selectivity to allow their use as anti-malarial agents. To accomplish this goal, here we use a substrate profiling method to uncover differences in the specificities of the human and P. falciparum proteasome. We design inhibitors based on amino-acid preferences specific to the parasite proteasome, and find that they preferentially inhibit the beta2-subunit. We determine the structure of the P. falciparum 20S proteasome bound to the inhibitor using cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle analysis, to a resolution of 3.6 A. These data reveal the unusually open P. falciparum beta2 active site and provide valuable information about active-site architecture that can be used to further refine inhibitor design. Furthermore, consistent with the recent finding that the proteasome is important for stress pathways associated with resistance of artemisinin family anti-malarials, we observe growth inhibition synergism with low doses of this beta2-selective inhibitor in artemisinin-sensitive and -resistant parasites. Finally, we demonstrate that a parasite-selective inhibitor could be used to attenuate parasite growth in vivo without appreciable toxicity to the host. Thus, the Plasmodium proteasome is a chemically tractable target that could be exploited by next-generation anti-malarial agents.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4755332/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4755332/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Hao -- O'Donoghue, Anthony J -- van der Linden, Wouter A -- Xie, Stanley C -- Yoo, Euna -- Foe, Ian T -- Tilley, Leann -- Craik, Charles S -- da Fonseca, Paula C A -- Bogyo, Matthew -- MC-UP-1201/5/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- R01 AI078947/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI105106/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI078947/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01EB05011/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):233-6. doi: 10.1038/nature16936.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010, Victoria, Australia. ; MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863983" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antimalarials/adverse effects/*chemistry/*pharmacology/toxicity ; Artemisinins/pharmacology ; Catalytic Domain ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; *Drug Design ; Drug Resistance ; Drug Synergism ; Enzyme Activation ; Female ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Models, Molecular ; Plasmodium/*drug effects/*enzymology/growth & development ; Plasmodium chabaudi/drug effects/enzymology/physiology ; Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects/enzymology/growth & development ; Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/chemistry/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Proteasome Inhibitors/adverse effects/*chemistry/*pharmacology/toxicity ; Protein Subunits/antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/metabolism ; Species Specificity ; Substrate Specificity/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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