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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Versicolorin A ; hemiacetal ; reductase ; Aspergillus ; versicolorin C ; dihydrosterigmatocystin ; aflatoxin G2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Versicolorin A hemiacetal was converted to versicolorin C in cell-free systems fromAspergillus parasiticus. The rate of reaction catalyzed by the 35–70% ammonium sulfate fraction was 0.43 nmol min−1 mg−1 with NADPH as cosubstrate and 0.17 nmol. min−1 mg−1 with NADH at 25°C at pH 7.4. The product from incubation of 17-hdyroxy-16,17-dihydrosterigmatocystin with the 35–70% ammonium sulfate fraction and NADPH was a polar compound which was converted to dihydrosterigmatocystin by 0.4 M HCl. The olar comound is proposed to be the 14,17-hydrated open-chain derivative of dihydrosterigmatocystin. Aflatoxin G2a was also reduced in this system to a polar product tentatively identified as the 13,16-hydrated open-chain derivative of AFG2. The reductase activity may be involved in the formation of reduced intermediates and aflatoxins in cultures ofA. parasiticus.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Alternaria ; Aspergillus ; cytotoxicity ; Fusarium ; Penicillium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The predominant fungi present in samples of reject and retail red kidney beans were Aspergillus glaucus, Penicillium spp. and Alternaria spp. Together with A. ochraceus, A. flavus, Fusarium spp., and Trichoderma, these isolates from the reject beans were screened for numerous mycotoxins by TLC. The most consistently produced mycotoxins were penicillic acid (from A. ochraceus and Penicillium spp.) and Alternaria toxins (tenuazonic acid and alternariol). A. glaucus strains were tested for cytotoxicity in three tissue culture cell lines with positive results.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus ; Chitin ; Fusarium ; Mosquito ; mycopathogens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract During a short survey of soil and mosquito breeding sites in Lucknow, India for potential mycopathogen from a period of August–October 1996, 11 species of fungi in 5 genera were isolated using live mosquito larvae as host. Aspergillus flavus , A. fumigatus and Fusarium semitectum were the most frequently isolated species. Other fungi recorded were A. niger , A. ochraceus , A. terreus , A. versicolor , Geotrichum candidum , Penicillium verrucosum , Paecilomyces sp. and Fusarium sp. (Liseola/Elegans complex). Insect cell walls are known to contain chitin, so fungal isolates were tested for their chitinase activity on semi synthetic medium containing colloidal chitin. High chitinolytic activities were observed with A. flavus and A. ochraceus. Chitinase producers can be considered as potential pathogens. However, the higher incidence of F. semitectum could not be explained by inability to utilize chitin.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: aflatoxin ; antifungal ; Aspergillus ; Fusarium ; Penicillium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Soil is presumed to be a major source of inoculum for Aspergillus flavus which contaminates cottonseed and produces the potent carcinogen, aflatoxin. Little is known about the mycoflora of the low desert soils of cotton fields where aflatoxin is a chronic problem. In this study, soils from cotton fields in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California were assayed for filamentous fungi. Forty-two taxa, predominantly in the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, were isolated. To determine whether or not compounds produced by these fungi could be potential inhibitors of A. flavus, extracts of strains of each taxon were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of A. flavus. Twelve taxa produced compounds inhibitory to A. flavus, including several strains of Fusarium solani, Penicillium vinaceum and Aspergillus auricomus.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 60 (1977), S. 99-104 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Counterimmunoelectrophoresis ; serology ; Absidia ; Aspergillus ; Candida ; Rhizopus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sera from 35 apparently normal humans, 37 compromised human patients, 30 hedgehogs and 30 sheep, were examined for precipitating antibodies to four opportunistic fungi — Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Rhizopus arrhizus — using Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). Precipitins to A. fumigatus were almost exclusively confined to specimens obtained from the compromised human group (51% of those examined) while Candida precipitating antibodies were detected in the sera of both normal (26%) and compromised (49%) humans and in 10% of the hedgehog specimens. Serum precipitins against the two phycomycetes included in the investigations were rare. Because of the complexity of most fungal antigen extracts, it appears essential that sera be tested against a number of different antigen concentrations if CIE is to be used with confidence in fungal serology.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus ; immunogold staining ; biotin-avidin linked immunosorbent assay ; double immunodiffusion ; aspergillosis ; aspergilloma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An immunogold assay (IGA) was developed to detect IgG and IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus. Sixteen sera from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), aspergilloma, and normal controls were studied. All sera were also evaluated for antibodies against A. fumigatus by biotin-avidin linked enzyme immunosorbent assay (BALISA) and by agar gel double diffusion method. A. fumigatus specific IgG and IgE antibodies could be detected by IGA in all the patients' sera but not in the sera of normal controls. Both IgG and IgE antibodies to A. fumigatus could be demonstrated in all the sera by BALISA and normal controls showed only low levels of these antibodies. There was a positive correlation between the degree of reactivity detected by IGA, the BALISA titer and the precipitins by agar gel diffusion. It can be concluded that IGA is a reliable, sensitive and simple method capable of detecting both IgG and IgE antibodies against A. fumigatus in patient serum.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 112 (1990), S. 93-104 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus ; fungal elements
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have attempted to elucidate the natural history of pulmonary aspergillus intracavitary colonization (PAIC) based on more than 350 cases of the disease observed in the last 11 years and on data collected from the literature. The data indicate that PAIC is a dynamic process consequent to the continual growth and death of fungal elements and also with their relationships to the anatomic features of the cavity (valvular mechanisms, vascular alteration). The clinical presentations reflect immunological changes in the host. Metabolites produced by the species of Aspergillus involved affect the clinical presentation of the syndrome.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 116 (1991), S. 149-150 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fungal taxonomy ; new techniques ; ubiquinone systems ; Emmonsiella ; Ajellomyces ; Penicillium ; Aspergillus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An array of new techniques including biochemical, physiological and molecular biological methods are being introduced to modify or improve the systematics of fungi of biotechnological, medical and industrial importance. In some genera e.g. Penicillium and Aspergillus such a multidisciplinary approach has shown to be useful and has resolved confusing species concepts. However, in other cases the significance of new techniques is still unclear and results drawn from such studies may even increase nomenclatural instability. Taxonomists should be careful and users aware and whenever possible a pragmatic approach should be welcomed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Aspergillus ; Versicolorin B ; Versiconal hemiacetal acetate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The sequence of steps versiconal hemiacetal acetate (VHA) to versiconal (VL) catalyzed by an esterase and VL to versicolorin B (VB) catalyzed by VL cyclase has been previously demonstrated in cell-free systems fromAspergillus parasiticus. VHA esterase and VL cyclase activities were estimated by determining the amounts of VL and VB after incubation of VHA in cell-free extracts from mycelia that were either synthesizing or not synthesizing aflatoxins. VHA esterase activity but not VL cyclase activity was present in extracts from cells grown in a nonaflatoxin-producing medium. VHA esterase activity was present in extracts from mycelia grown in aflatoxin-producing medium harvested after one to six days of incubation. VL cyclase activity was absent at one day, low at two days, maximal at three to five days, and lower at six days. VL cyclase activity appears in the later part of the growth period which is also the period of aflatoxin biosynthesis. This supports a role for VL cyclase in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antigen detection ; Aspergillus ; Western blot immunoassay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Western-blot immunoassay of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens of patients with central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis (3), CNS candidosis (1) and bacterial meningitis (2) was carried out using pooled serum from histopathologically proven deep-seated aspergillosis cases to detect unique antigenic fractions for aspergillosis in CSF. No reactivity was observed in patients with non-fungal meningitis. Four cross-reactive bands (40, 90, 200 and 〉200 KD) were detectable in CSF from patients with both aspergillosis and candidosis of the CNS. Four additional bands (90–200 KD) were consistently present only in patients with aspergillosis. One prominent band (110 KD) was found only in the patient with aspergillosis who had a fatal outcome and raised the possibility of being a poor prognostic marker.
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