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  • Aspergillus flavus  (29)
  • Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  (25)
  • Aflatoxin  (22)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: aflatoxin ; Aspergillus flavus ; non-toxigenic O-methylsterigmetocystin ; sterigmetocystin ; nontoxigenic
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Non-aflatoxin-producing isolates ofAspergillus flavus from nature and isolates ofA. flavus that had lost their toxigenic trait following laboratory transfer were compared biochemically. After the addition of aflatoxin B1 precursors sterigmatocystin or O-methylsterigmatocystin to whole cell cultures, the non-toxin producing isolates from nature remained non-toxigenic while toxigenicity was restored in the nontoxigenic laboratory strains. Results imply a lack of enzymes needed for biochemical conversions of precursors to aflatoxin B1 in natural non-producers and suppression of these enzymes in the nonproducing laboratory strains.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus flavus ; aflatoxin ; cytochemistry ; Gossypium ; ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cottonseeds having fluorescent fibers were harvested from fields in Arizona and examined utilizing light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The occurrence of fluorescent fibers indicated that seeds had been infected by Aspergillus flavus during development. Presence of A. flavus was verified by plating portions of seeds with fluorescent fibers. Hyphae, conidial heads, and conidia were identified readily in differentially-stained cotyledon tissue processed for light microscopy. Utilization of transmission electron microscopy permitted observations on lignified seed coats and cotyledons of mature cottonseeds. Hyphae were located throughout the cotyledon and in the nonlignified layers of the seed coat. The identification of hyphae in cross sections of vessel elements within the seed coat provided ultrastructural evidence supporting the hypothesis that A. flavus may enter seeds via the vascular tissue. Controls for the microscopy studies included observations on cottonseeds with no visual signs of infection and on laboratory-grown cultures of A. flavus. These observations demonstrated that the hyphae localized within fluorescent seeds had features characteristic of A. flavus and that fungal-like structures do not occur within uninfected seeds.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Storage fungi ; mycotoxins ; food contaminants ; Aspergillus flavus ; Aspergillus Candidas ; aflatoxin ; rice bran ; raw rice ; parboiled rice
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thirty four samples of rice bran, of which 9 were from raw (untreated) rice (RR) and 25 from parboiled rice (PbR) were collected from commercial rice mills in and around Madras and analysed for storage mycoflora and mycotoxins. Fungi of the Aspergillus flavus group were present in 29 of the 34 samples (8 from RR and 21 from PbR) in quantities ranging from 〈1–432 thousand propagules/g, though not always as the dominant mycoflora. Fungal numbers were usually higher in RR than in PbR samples. Five of the 9 RR samples and 6 of the 25 PbR samples were positive for aflatoxins. Among 29 isolates of A. flavus obtained from the bran samples, 16 isolates −6 from RR bran and 10 from PbR bran — were found to be toxigenic in vitro. Some isolates of A. candidus also seemed to produce aflatoxin and other fluorescent substances.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Alterations in pathogenicity ; in vitro growth ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; reisolation ; subcultivation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thein vitro subcultivation of some microorganisms for long periods causes measurable loss of their pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from infected hosts. We compared the pathogenicity and thein vitro growth pattern of oneP. brasiliensis isolate (Pb 18) in its yeast phase, using the following samples: 1) The original pathogenic Pb 18 (OP). 2) Pb 18 attenuated by continuousin vitro subcultivation (AT). 3) Pb 18 (AT) reisolated from susceptible B 10.A mice (RS). 4) Pb 18 (AT) reisolated from resistant A/SN mice (RR). Pathogenicity was evaluated by anatomopathology and mortality of mice infected i.p. with 5×106 fungi. Median survival times of mice infected with OP ranged from 74 to 117 days during the first 51 months of subculturing; with more cycles of subculturing the median survival time increased, reaching 250 days at the 64th month. This indicated decreasing virulence of OP during this period of subculturing. Survival of mice infected with RS and RR was respectively 112 and 123 days, which is similar to the behavior of the OP variant. Thein vitro growth curve profile of RR showed significantly higher numbers of total and viable yeasts than the other studied variant. These results show that: 1) Pb 18 isolate loses its pathogenicity by continuous subcultivation. This phenomenon is reverted by reisolation from mice, independently from their susceptibility to the fungus; 2) thein vitro growth patterns of Pb 18 do not correlate with alterations in pathogenicity but are influenced by the host's environment.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; broad bean ; cultivars ; fungi ; hybrid ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred different cultivars and lines of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seed samples were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Link (CMI 102135) to determine varietal differences which may support or resist aflatoxin production. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the chloroform extracts of the different seed samples revealed that 11 cultivars/lines were highly resistant to seed invasion and aflatoxin production while 9 cultivars/lines showed partial resistance. The remaining 80 samples were susceptible to the establishment of A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. All the resistant cultivars/lines seed samples were inoculated also with three local isolates of fungi namely; Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb. ex Link) Hughes, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. The resistant seed samples were also resistant for colonization with these fungi and mycotoxin formation.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus flavus ; Sri Lanka
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The fungal flora of 6 Asian medicinal plants, Aerva lanata (Linn.) Juss. Alyssicarpus vaginalis D.C., Tribulus terrestris Linn. Adhatoda vasica Nees., Centella asciatica (L.) Urb., Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. was determined. After surface disinfection Aspergillus spp. were most frequently observed. Aspergillus flavus, isolated from Alyssicarpus vaginalis and Aerva lanata produced aflatoxins in culture. Aflatoxin B1 was also detected in a sample of Aerra lanata at a level of 0.5 μg/g. Plant material destined for medicinal use should be stored carefully prior to its use to prevent growth of naturally occurring toxigenic mold fungi.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Mycelial conidia ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; scanning electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The conidia produced by the mycelial form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time. Several different conidial types were characterized. These included intercalary arthroconidia, several types of septate conidia that are formed from other conidia, pedunculate conidia, and terminal hyphal conidia. In addition, the ultrastructure of the supporting pedestal of the pedunculate conidium was found to be separated from the mother conidium by a septum in some instances, and at other times it was not.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus flavus ; Aflatoxins ; Culture method ; Glass fiber
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A new method for growingAspergllius flavus for experimental studies is presented. The system consists of a humidified vial with a thick septum pierced by a pin on which a glass fiber disc is affixed. The disc contains the test solution and inoculum plus medium. The method has been used to assess the effect of variations in culture conditions on production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The AFB1 level was affected by the amount of medium placed on the disc and type of disc material. The results for different types of glass fiber and quartz discs were compared with AFB1 produced by fungus grown in liquid medium or on paper discs. When compared to a liquid medium culture there was a 15 to 20-fold increase in AFB1 for one type of disc. Incubations with less than 14 µl of medium gave satisfactory results. A crude phosphatidylcholine preparation at a concentration of 0.7% of the medium resulted in a 4-fold increase in AFB1.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Breast milk ; Ochratoxin A ; Sierra Leone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Breast milks from 113 mothers in two ‘Under-Five Clinics’ in the Southern Province of Sierra Leone, namely, Njala and Bo, were examined for their mycotoxin content. Only 10 were mycotoxin-free. Eighty-eight per cent of samples contained various aflatoxins and 35% contained ochratoxin A (OTA). Few samples (15%) had a single mycotoxin. Thirty-six (32%) had two mycotoxins and 50 (40%) had three or more. The occurrence of OTA in combination with various aflatoxins was recorded. It is concluded that infants in Sierra Leone are exposed to OTA and aflatoxins at levels which in some cases far exceed those permissible in animal feed in developed countries.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus flavus ; Elastase ; Elastinolytic ; Metalloproteinase ; Serine proteinase ; Toxigenic fungus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A survey of the distribution of elastinolytic potential among 32 culture collection isolates ofAspergillus flavus, A. oryzae, A. parasiticus, A. sojae, A. nomius, andA. tamarii revealed this character to be highly conserved withinAspergillus SectionFlavi. Furthermore, 144 isolates ofA. flavus from environmental samples from six separate regions of the United States produced elastase on solid medium. Most previously described polymorphisms in elastinolytic potential were attributed to the toxicity of borate buffers. Replacement of borate with HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid) resulted in detection of elastase production on solid medium by all tested fungal isolates except two that had been in culture over 50 years. In liquid culture, only isolates ofA. flavus, A. tamarii, andA. oryzae accumulated elastase activity. Although isoelectric focusing revealed only one isoform (pI 9.0) of elastase in these culture filtrates, elastinolytic activity in filtrates was partially inhibited by both 1,10-phenanthrolene (2 mM) and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (2 mM), suggesting the presence of both metallo and serine elastinolytic proteinases.
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