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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus ; A. umbrosus ; electron microscopy ; ultrastructure ; farmer's lung
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The fine structure of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus umbrosus by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is described. The fine structure of the ascosporic and asexual stages of A. umbrosus is described for the first time. Dense, homogenous material and fibers were detected on the outer hyphal cell wall of the Aspergilli. Septal pores were found in the hypha of A. umbrosus. Two wall layers were detected in the cell wall of the conidia of the both Aspergilli. The ascospores of A. umbrosus contained thick cell wall and the surface of which was smoother than that of the conidia.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus ; Conidia ; Mycotoxins ; Sawmill ; Tremorgens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred and six strains ofA. fumigatus were isolated from 21 sawmills in Sweden, and 73 of these strains were examined for production of fumitremorgen B and verruculogen (tremorgenic mycotoxins) on YES-medium using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Twenty-three strains (32%) were tremorgen producers and 50 strains (68%) were non-producers. Tremorgenic mycotoxins were detected in conidia of sevenA. fumigatus strains. The amount of toxin varied between 0.6–8.0 µg/108 conidia (mean value 2.3 µg/108 conidia, equivalent with 0.18%). No production of the mycotoxin gliotoxin was detected in 6 strains ofA. fumigatus. No tremorgens were detected during mould growth on wood substrates, in spite of the use of different wood species (Scots pine,Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce,Picea abies and birch,Betula spp.), dried versus non-dried wood, bark (pine), leached wood, and wood after various sterilization methods.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus ; Columba livia ; Humoral immunoresponse ; Pigeon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this study was to develop an immunological model of avian Aspergillosis by studying the humoral response of pigeons toAspergillus fumigatus antigens. Immunization was performed by administering weekly injections ofA. fumigatus extracts for 70 days (10 weeks). A new booster injection was given 270 days (9 months) following the last immunization. Results showed an earlyAspergillus-specific humoral immunoresponse which reached a maximum level at 42–63 days (6–9 weeks) post-immunization. Using the ELISA method, it could be observed thatA. fumigatus-specific IgG became elevated in the 2nd week and reached a maximum titre at 63rd day (9th week). In contrast,A. fumigatus-specific IgM levels appeared early showing maximum levels at the 2nd week, after which they declined despite the maintenance of antigenic stimulation. Termination of immunization resulted in the decrease of specific humoral immunoresponse with minimal levels of specific antibodies detectable 210 days (7 months) later. A booster injection given at 270 days (9 months) induced a very fastAspergillus-specific IgM and IgG immunoresponse, reaching levels of antibodies similar to those observed during the immunization period.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Analytical methods ; Aspergillus fumigatus ; Avian aspergillosis ; Gliotoxin ; Turkeys
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Turkey poults were given either of two different dosages of two different gliotoxin-producing strains ofAspergillus fumigatus. Infected lung tissue was examined postmortem for the presence of gliotoxin. Gliotoxin was found in lung tissue of ten poults infected with one strain and in seven of ten poults infected with the other strain. Concentrations of gliotoxin in the tissue exceeded 6 ppm in some of the infected tissues. The concentration of gliotoxin found in infected tissue did not appear to be correlated with the dosage of organism given. Considering the pathologic changes observed in turkey poults with aspergillosis and the production of gliotoxin during the pathogenic state in turkey poults, gliotoxin is considered likely to be involved in avian aspergillosis.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus ; pulmonary aspergillosis ; bronchoalveolar lavage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A rabbit model of invasive aspergillosis has been used to investigate the pathogenesis of Aspergillus infection in the immunosuppressed host. The animals received hydrocortisone daily and a single dose of cyclophosphamide 2 days prior to intratracheal instillation of conidia from Aspergillus fumigatus. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in 3 infected and 2 control saline treated animals sacrificed on days 1, 2, 4, 7 and 10 following inoculation. Infective load within the lung was quantified using an assay for chitin which is an important component of fungal cell walls (in particular the hyphal cell wall) and is not present in vertebrate tissue. The total BAL white cell count did not discriminate between infected and saline treated animals and Aspergillus was cultured from one lavage specimen only. Infected animals developed a marked neutrophil alveolitis by day 2 in contrast to a near total absence of neutrophils in the lavages of the control animals. Phagocytosis of conidia by alveolar macrophages was prominent but did not prevent progressive infection as confirmed by measurement of lung chitin. This pattern of cellular response within the alveolar airspace reflects the complex nature of the response to Aspergillus infection in the immunosuppressed host.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus ; aspergillosis ; mycotic abortion ; murine model ; foeto-placental unit
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Pregnant female BALB/c mice were inoculated intravenously withAspergillus fumigatus conidia in different concentrations (1×101−1×108) on day 10 of pregnancy. Pregnancy was confirmed by the presence of murine alpha-fetoprotein (m-AFP) in the maternal circulation. Conidia inoculation of 1×103 and greater significantly (p〈0.0001) resulted in abortion or placental lesions. Uterine cell infiltrations were recognized in 75% of the mice which aborted following the inoculation of 1×103 conidia or more. In the placental lesions of mice inoculated with 0.5−1×108 conidia, hyphae, haemorrhage, thrombosis, necrosis, calcification, and inflammation were regular findings. Histopathology of other maternal organs revealed that extrauterine organ lesions were closely correlated with the dose of conidia inoculated, and the following pattern of reaction was found: liver 〉 lung 〉 kidney 〉 brain 〉 heart.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus ; Essential oil ; Growth ; Lipids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Addition of the essential oil ofHyssopus officinalis to the culture medium ofAspergillus fumigatus induced alterations in both growth and lipid composition of this mould. Total lipids and sterols were reduced, whereas total phospholipids were increased. There were alterations in the proportions of fatty acids, neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus ; keratitis histopathology ; experimental keratitis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Histopathological studies in rabbit's eyes, 7 and 14 days after intracorneal inoculation with 1×105 Aspergillus fumigatus conidia have been performed. Similar lesions were found in both periods with fungal hyphae in the anterior third of corneal stroma, round cell infiltration from the sclero-corneal edge and in the anterior chamber and, neovascularization. No lesions were found in the Descemet's membrane. Gomori silver-methenamine stain with hematoxiline-eosine counter-stain was found to be the most reliable stain to detect fungal presence in corneal stroma, and Masson's trichromic stain in the study of pathological changes in ocular elements.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Indirect immunoperoxidase staining ; fungal elements in tissue ; Aspergillus fumigatus ; Fusarium anthophilum ; Candida albicans ; Cryptococcus neoformans
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study was performed in order to identify the fungi of four species (Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium anthophilum, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections by the indirect method of immunoperoxidase staining. Mature albino rabbits were immunized by formalin-killed organisms. The antibodies were prepared by precipitation at a 50% saturation of ammonium sulfate and were checked for cross-reactivities by Ouchterlony's double immunodiffusion and precipitin test. The immunoperoxidase staining was applied to the paraffin-embedded tissue sections of infected mice, human autopsy and biopsy specimens. Although each fungus was stained clearly the cell wall, cross-reactivities appeared among them, however it was possible to identify four fungi by absorption and dilution of the antisera.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antibodies ; Aspergillosis ; Aspergillus fumigatus ; Elastase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Elastase has been implicated as a potential virulence factor involved in the invasion process of the opportunistic pathogen,Aspergillus fumigatus. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, known to inhibit elastase in vitro, were employed in an immunocompromised mouse model of invasive aspergillosis to determine if the antibodies could protect mice from fatal infection. Individual monoclonal antibodies, known to inhibit elastase partially (13 to 23%), or combinations of monoclonal antibodies, known to inhibit elastase 70 to 100%, were tested in the mouse model. No individual nor combination of monoclonal antibodies protected immunosuppressed, infected mice in the doses tested. Similarly, elastase-specific polyclonal antibodies, raised in mice or rabbits, did not exhibit a protective effect, nor did immunization of mice with elastase prior to immunosuppression and infection. Histological examination of the lungs of immunosuppressed, infected mice showed no amelioration of fungal invasiveness by treatment with elastase-specific monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. However, immunocompetent mice, instilled with a spore inoculum much higher than used in the preceding studies and treated with antibodies, survived, while control mice not treated with antibodies were overwhelmed by the massive spore dose and died. Nevertheless, overall evidence suggests that elastase may not be the primary virulence factor involved in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
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