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  • Candida albicans  (70)
  • Aspergillus  (29)
  • dermatophytes  (19)
  • Aspergillus parasiticus  (18)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus ; biorational control ; fungicide ; Fusarium ; Gerlachia ; Penicillium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Bacillus subtilis produces peptidolipid compounds of the iturin group that have been shown to have antifungal properties, but not all fungal species are sensitive to these compounds. In this study, the activity of iturin A, produced by B. subtilis strain B-3, was tested. Paper disks impregnated with various concentrations of iturin A were placed on agar plates seeded with conidia of toxigenic species of Fusarium, Gerlacia, Penicillium or Aspergillus. Most isolates were inhibited at iturin A concentrations as low as 4 μg/disk. Penicillium italicum, P. vindicatum, A. ochraceus and A. versicolor were most strongly inhibited by the iturin whereas P. citrinum and A. parasiticus were least sensitive to iturin A.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus ; Candida ; incidence ; leukemia ; blood ; urine ; sputum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-four patients with acute leukemia were investigated for the incidence of opportunistic fungi. Culture isolations of the sputum and urine samples revealed significant levels of Candida in 14 patients; Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. pseudotropicalis were the predominant ones isolated. Aspergillus flavus was isolated from blood in two cases and C. albicans and a black yeast from the blood of another two. Serological studies showed fungal antibodies in seven patients; precipitins against Candida were detected in five and Aspergillus in two. Both of the Aspergillus positive cases and two patients who had rising antibodies against Candida died during the course of investigation. In this study 13 of 24 patients developed oral candidiasis.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Adherence ; Candida albicans ; Washing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A simple in vitro assay technique was used to determine the effect of post-filtration washing on the adherence ofC. albicans (NCPF 3736) to human buccal epithelial cells (BEC). Washing was carried out with a range of volumes of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), viz. 0, 5, 10 and 20 ml, at a standard flow rate. Both the number ofC. albicans adherent to BEC and the percentage of BEC with adherentC. albicans were significantly decreased (p〈0.001 for each of these measures) after washing with 5 ml PBS. Further increases in the volume of PBS did not significantly decrease either measure of adherence. These data indicate that only a small volume of PBS, 5 ml, is required to achieve the removal of non-adherentC. albicans from the surface of BEC. The result of the adherence assay is not significantly affected by increasing the volume of PBS used. It is concluded that considerable savings in time may be made through using only a small (5 ml) volume of washing buffer at a standard flow rate.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 122 (1993), S. 1-5 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Adherence ; Candida albicans ; Candidiasis ; Gastrointestinal candidiasis ; Mycology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We adapted a rat model of gastrointestinal candidiasis for studies of in vivo gastric colonization withCandida albicans. Whereas normal rats cleared a single intragastric inoculum of 5×106 C. albicans from the stomach within 4 hours, rats pretreated with chloramphenicol and gentamicin achieved stable gastric colonization for at least 5 days after administration of this inoculum. We next used this model to study host modifications hypothesized to alter gastric colonization. A first group received dilute HCl 4 hr before yeast inoculation, to induce acute superficial gastric erosions; another group was treated with glucocorticosteroid beginning 12 days before yeast inoculation; and another group received famotidine therapy beginning 3 days before yeast inoculation, to neutralize gastric acidity. Recovery of yeasts from stomachs was significantly different from the control group only in rats treated with steroids; greater colonization was found in the rats so treated. In a final group of experiments, we attempted to inhibit in vivo gastric colonization with yeasts by preincubation of yeasts in vitro with a polyclonal antiserum raised in rabbits against heat-killedC. albicans. We were not able to demonstrate inhibition of gastric colonization by preincubation with this antiserum in this model system.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Androgens ; Candida albicans ; Hormones ; Malassezia furfur ; Pityrosporum ovale ; Steroids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cells ofPityrosporum ovale that colonize human pilosebaceous units are constantly exposed to cutaneous androgenic steroids. The aim of our study was to find out whetherP. ovale is susceptible to these hormones. Three strains ofP. ovale were grown in vitro in the presence of various concentrations oftestosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, androstanedione, 5-α-dihydrotestosterone andprogesterone (10, 100, and 1000 µg/ml; agar dilution assays). In addition, three strains ofCandida albicans were also exposed to equal concentrations of the same androgens. As a result, allP. ovale strains were suppressed by 1000 µg/mlandrostenedione, which was the strongest inhibitor. The other androgenic steroids also significantly reducedP. ovale growth at different concentrations, depending on the hormone used and the strain tested.Progesterone was inhibitory at the highest concentration for oneP. ovale strain only.Candida albicans was not affected by any of the androgens. These findings demonstrate an in vitro susceptibility ofP. ovale to high concentrations of human androgenic steroids. A relevance of this interaction for the in vivo fungus-host relation is not apparent.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Aspergillus ; Moisture ; Parboiled rice ; Rice bran ; Storage fungi
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The changes in moisture content, storage mycoflora and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in bran from untreated or raw rice (Rr) and parboiled rice (Pbr) stored in small lots in polyethylene bags were studied at 15-day intervals up to 60 days, using five lots of each type of bran. Deterioration was more rapid with reference to all the three parameters, in Rr bran compared to Pbr bran, the former becoming completely overgrown and caked with fungi by the end of 60 days.Aspergillus flavus was the dominant fungus in Pbr bran, whereasA. candidus andTrichoderma viride were abundant in Rr bran. The frequency of incidence as well as concentration of AFB1 increased with storage time in both types of bran, but the rate of increase as well as overall concentration were much higher in Rr bran. Thus raw rice bran is unsuitable for prolonged storage.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Aspergillus ; Versicolorin B ; Versiconal hemiacetal acetate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The sequence of steps versiconal hemiacetal acetate (VHA) to versiconal (VL) catalyzed by an esterase and VL to versicolorin B (VB) catalyzed by VL cyclase has been previously demonstrated in cell-free systems fromAspergillus parasiticus. VHA esterase and VL cyclase activities were estimated by determining the amounts of VL and VB after incubation of VHA in cell-free extracts from mycelia that were either synthesizing or not synthesizing aflatoxins. VHA esterase activity but not VL cyclase activity was present in extracts from cells grown in a nonaflatoxin-producing medium. VHA esterase activity was present in extracts from mycelia grown in aflatoxin-producing medium harvested after one to six days of incubation. VL cyclase activity was absent at one day, low at two days, maximal at three to five days, and lower at six days. VL cyclase activity appears in the later part of the growth period which is also the period of aflatoxin biosynthesis. This supports a role for VL cyclase in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus parasiticus ; averantin ; norsolorinic acid ; secondary metabolic enzyme
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The activity of the enzyme responsible for the conversion of norsolorinic acid to averantin was studied in two strains of Aspergillus parasiticus. Cell-free extracts of the enzyme were purified from different aged mycelia and little activity was found prior to 24 hours after inoculation but this quickly reached a maximum at 48 hours and declined thereafter. Both strains of A. parasiticus, one in aflatoxin producing strain, the other a versicolorin A accumulating mutant, showed this trend. It was concluded that the enzyme responsible for this conversion was a secondary metabolic enzyme and was distinct from alcohol and mannitol dehydrogenases.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; heat shock mannoproteins ; secretory IgA ; stress mannoproteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The presence of heat shock mannoproteins (HSMPs) reactive with sIgA was demonstrated in several C. albicans strains. The subculture of the C. albicans isolated from mucosal surfaces on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 25 °C switched off the HSMP expression. A re-expression of the HSMPs was obtained in the same medium by shifting the temperature of incubation to 37 °C. However, expression of HSMPs in two strains isolated from deep infections was maintained during several subcultures on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 25 °C. A glycoprotein of 200 kDa seemed to be the main HSMP reacting with vaginal sIgA. The data presented in this study suggest that factors other than temperature can influence the expression of C. albicans HSMPs and therefore these antigens should be referred as stress mannoproteins.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; germ tube ; fructose ; metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The influence of different fructose concentrations (5, 3, 1 and 0 g/l) was tested on Germ Tube (GT) production by Candida albicans strain AS3P, using a Minimal Synthetic Medium (MSM) without (NH4)2SO4. The results obtained showed good GT production in the presence of all the different fructose concentrations and in the absence of any nitrogen source. The greatest GT production was obtained with 3 g/l of fructose vs 1 g/l of glucose, after 4 hr of incubation. On the other hand fructose consumption was lower than that of glucose at all concentrations over the 4 hour period. The data obtained may suggest that fructose is metabolized in a different way from glucose for GT production by C. albicans.
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