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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; IN-VITRO ; proliferation ; Germany ; MODEL ; THERAPY ; VITRO ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; TISSUE ; ACTIVATION ; MECHANISM ; MARKER ; ANTIGEN ; mechanisms ; ALPHA ; MEMBRANE ; LINE ; MARKERS ; EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX ; BETA ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; PHENOTYPE ; vimentin ; adenocarcinoma ; GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA ; chronic pancreatitis ; LONG-TERM CULTURE ; FACTOR-BETA ; molecular ; MATRIX ; fibrosis ; pancreas ; RE ; immortalization ; basement membrane ; BASEMENT-MEMBRANE ; collagen ; HUMAN-FIBROBLASTS ; TRANSFECTION ; TGF-BETA ; VITAMIN-A ; DESMIN ; ACIDIC PROTEIN ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISMS ; DUCT CELLS ; TGF beta ; ABILITY ; PLUS ; CYCLE ARREST ; HEPATIC-FIBROSIS ; LIVER FIBROSIS ; pancreatic stellate cells ; TRANSFORMING GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA-1
    Abstract: Tissue fibrosis is one of the characteristics of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) play a central role in this process. However, analysis of the molecular mechanisms leading to PSC activation is hampered by the lack of an established human PSC line. To overcome this problem, we immortalized and characterized primary human PSC. The cells were isolated by the outgrowth method and were immortalized by transfection with SV40 large T antigen and human telomerase ( hTERT). Primary human PSC served as controls. An immortalized line, RLT-PSC, was analyzed for the expression of stellate cell markers. Moreover, the effects of transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF beta 1) or platelet-derived growth factor stimulation and of cultivation on basement membrane components or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment on gene and protein expression and proliferation were analyzed. Immortal RLT-PSC cells retained the phenotype of activated PSC proven by the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA), vimentin, desmin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). TGF beta 1 treatment upregulated the expression of alpha SMA, collagen type I (Col I), fibronectin and TGF beta 1. Incubation of RLT-PSC cells and primary human activated PSC on Matrigel plus NAC treatment resulted in a deactivated phenotype as evidenced by a decrease of aSMA, connective tissue growth factor and Col I expression and by a decreased proliferation of the cells. Moreover, this treatment restored the ability of the cells to store vitamin A in cytoplasmic vesicles. In conclusion, we have established an immortal pancreatic stellate cell line, without changing the characteristic phenotype. Importantly, we were able to demonstrate that besides soluble factors, the matrix surrounding PSC plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of the activation process of PSC. Cultivation of activated PSC on a reconstituted basement membrane plus treatment with NAC was able to deactivate the cells, thus pointing to the possibility of an antifibrosis therapy in chronic pancreatitis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16127427
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  • 2
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; SYSTEM ; DEATH ; CLONING ; GENE ; GENES ; transcription ; MICE ; PATIENT ; SERA ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; animals ; MOUSE ; DNA-BINDING ; BETA ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; AP-2-GAMMA ; DROSOPHILA HOMOLOG ; FACTOR AP-2 ; KIDNEY-FUNCTION ; LINEAGES ; MOUSE EMBRYOGENESIS ; PARATHYROID- HORMONE
    Abstract: Inactivation of the transcription factor AP-2beta in a genetically mixed C57BU6/129S1 mouse strain resulted in perinatal lethality as a consequence of massively enhanced apoptotic death of renal epithelial cells (Genes Dev 1997;11:19381948). Recently, we observed that the phenotype is modulated by genetic background because AP-2beta mutant mice, backcrossed onto 129P2 background, survive approximately 2 weeks after birth, allowing for a detailed analysis of kidney function. Here we show that kidneys reveal Varying amounts of cysts derived from all tubular structures (proximal and distal tubuli, collecting ducts). However, all mice died irrespective of the degree of cyst formation. Serum analysis of AP-2beta mutant animals revealed defective tubular secretory function and ion homeostasis including severe hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperuremia. Because hormonal calcium regulation was not impaired, the mice developed secondary renal hyperparathyroidism as typically observed in patients with terminal renal failure. We further demonstrate that molecular defects in the collecting duct system lead to insufficient water retention and urinary concentration. In summary, our studies reveal essential, nonredundant roles of AP-2beta in renal tubular functions
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12695560
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