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  • Barley  (114)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Rust resistance ; rp1 ; Barley ; Maize ; Rpg1 ; Puccinia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A number of agronomically important grasses (sorghum, wheat, panicum, sugar cane, oats, rice and barley) are shown to contain sequences homologous to rp1, a maize gene that confers race-specific resistance to the rust fungus Puccinia sorghi. Mapping of rp1-related sequences in barley identified three unlinked loci on chromosomes 1HL, 3HL and 7HS. The locus located on chromosome 7HS comprises a small gene family of at least four members, two of which were isolated and are predicted to encode nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins that are respectively 58% and 60% identical to the maize rp1 protein. Evidence of positive selection for sequence diversification acting upon these two barley genes was observed; however, diversifying selection was restricted to the carboxy terminal half of the LRR domain. One of these rp1 homologous genes cosegregated with the barley Rpg1 stem rust resistance gene amongst 148 members of the Steptoe × Morex double haploid mapping family. Three other unrelated resistance gene-like sequences, potentially encoding NBS-LRR proteins, are also shown to be linked to the Rpg1 locus but not cosegregating with the gene.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Barley ; Hordeum vulgare ; Irradiated pollen ; Plant breeding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Second generation progenies (M2) derived from crosses using barley pollen irradiated at 500, 1,000 1,500 and 2,000 rads increasingly resembled the maternal parent. ‘Golden Promise’, but contained some characteristics derived from the paternal parent, ‘Magnum’.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Barley ; Gum Content ; Genetics ; Genotype ; Environment Interaction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A diallel cross analysis of gum content in barley (Hordeum vulgare) was made using six cultivars of two-rowed spring barley as parents. A Jinks-Hayman analysis of F2 progeny means showed that gum content was controlled by a simple additive-dominance genetic system and that low gum content was strongly dominant. The analysis suggested that gum content was principally controlled by two or three genes showing a high degree of dominance. Some genotype-environment interaction was detected in a comparison between the F2 and F3 generations which were grown in different years and locations. However, the character was found to be highly heritable both within and between generations, suggesting that the selection and breeding of barleys of reduced gum content should not be difficult.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Diallel analysis ; Recurrent selection ; Barley
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary An analysis is derived for a diallel experiment in which each cross is represented by a number of homozygous Unes developed by the doubled haploid method. Both additive and additive x additive genetic variances can be estimated with this analysis. A population-improvement scheme involving the doubled haploid or single seed descent methods is also proposed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Genetic architecture ; Gene action ; Triple test cross ; Barley
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The triple test cross analysis of Jinks and Perkins (1970) was used to study different components of genetic variation in four barley F2 populations, C 164x IB 226, C 164xJyoti, IB 226xP 113 and DL 3xP 113, for final plant height, spike length, 100-kernel weight, grain yield per plant and harvest index. The overall epistasis (i type) was, in general, a minor component but the j & 1 type epistasis was an important element for all five characters in cross 3 (IB 226xP 113). Both the additive (D) and dominance (H) components were highly significant for all the five characters in all four crosses. The dominance was directional in all cases except for 100-grain weight in crosses 1 (C 164xIB 226), 2 (C 164xJyoti) and 4(DL 3xP 113).
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Nucleolar dominance ; Translocation lines ; Nucleolus ; Nucleolus association ; Barley
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Diploid homo- and heterokaryotypes of barley translocation lines with only one satellite chromosome pair containing two nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in opposite arms were found to show repressed nucleolus formation by the transposed NOR as evident from the formation of only micronucleoli. The same was true for auto-tetraploid homokaryotypes and for translocation lines with all NORs tandemly arranged into the same chromosome arm. When NORs were transposed to chromosomes without NOR in the standard karyotype, the normal pattern of nucleolus formation remained unaffected. The modified mode of nucleolus formation after the combination of all NORs in one chromosome pair is interpreted to be due to intrachromosomal nucleolar dominance analogous to interchromosomal nucleolar dominance observed in certain interspecific hybrids.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 55 (1979), S. 269-272 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Barley ; Protein and lysine content ; Cytoplasmic male sterility ; Maternal effect ; Partial spike fertility
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The effect of the msm1 cytoplasm of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on kernel protein and lysine was studied using the near-isogenic, unrestored derivatives of seven barley varieties. With normal lysine varieties, ‘Adorra’, ‘Bomi’, ‘CI 4362’, and ‘Hankkija's Eero’, the msm1 cytoplasm produced an average of one percentage point more protein than did the normal cytoplasm of the same varieties. There was no difference between the two cytoplasms with respect to their effect on the lysine content. With high lysine varieties, ‘Bomi Risø mutant 13’, ‘Bomi Risø mutant 1508’, and ‘CI 3947’, msm1 produced almost one percentage point more protein but protein with a somewhat decreased lysine content. Induced partial spike fertility in normal ‘Adorra’ was found to be associated with lysine in meal (r=−0.999), with protein in meal (r=−0.984), and with lysine in protein (r=0.941). Removal of the spikes on the secondary tillers affected both the protein and its lysine content. It is suggested that good spike fertility is an important pre-requisite when selecting high lysine and/or high protein segregants or mutants.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: SCE ; Intrachromosomal distribution of SCEs ; Barley
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A mean frequency of 20.6 sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) per cell has been observed in a reconstructed karyotype of Hordeum vulgare by application of the FPG technique after unifilar incorporation of BrdU into chromosomes. The involvement in SCEs of the 48 segments into which the chromosome set had been subdivided was, with a single deviation, length proportional and independent of the segment's heterochromatin content. Asymmetric bands, indicative of an uneven distribution of adenine and thymidine between the DNA strands in adenine (A)-thymidine (T) rich chromosome regions, could not be detected after incubation of the cells in BrdU for one cycle of DNA replication.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Plant tissue culture ; Cytogenetics ; Plant breeding ; Barley
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Spontaneous polyploidy, aneuploidy, and chromosomal rearrangements were observed in callus and suspension cultures of Hordeum vulgare, H. jubatum, and their interspecific hybrid. The extent to which each class of chromosomal variability was present in a culture depended upon differentiated state, age, and history. Cytological and isozymic analysis of subdivided callus cultures revealed spatial segregation of chromosomal variability. Cytogenetic analyses were performed to determine the expression of this in vitro chromosomal variability in corresponding regenerated plant tissues. A complete loss of polyploidy and a decrease in aneuploidy and chromosomal rearrangements were observed. Analyses of specific isozyme activities in regenerates suggested that a quantitative segregation of H. vulgare and H. jubatum genomes had occurred in tissue cultures of their interspecific hybrid. Possible uses of in vitro chromosomal variability for plant breeding and genetical studies are discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Autopolyploidy ; Protein estimation ; Barley
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The range and mean protein content of autotetraploids of high-lysine Notch-2 mutants of barley were consistently higher than the diploids in C3 and C4 generations of colchicine treated seeds. Amino acid analysis of whole grain meal of diploid Notch-2 and one strain of its autotetraploid revealed differences in the amino acid composition. The proportion of albumin in the diploid and the autotetraploid Notch-2 was higher by 21% and 45% respectively, in comparison to the parent ‘N.P. 113’, whereas the glutelin fraction was significantly higher in the autotetraploid. The autotetraploid, with increased glutelin and decreased prolamin, showed no increase in lysine. It is possible that the recessive high-lysine gene may be lacking dosage effect, resulting in no increase in lysine in the autotetraploid, whereas protein content, a polygenically controlled trait, is enhanced due to genome duplication.
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