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  • General Chemistry  (10,869)
  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (4,620)
  • 1990-1994  (10,248)
  • 1970-1974  (5,241)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: ribonuclease T1 ; functional cooperativity ; double mutant cycle ; subsite ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We report on the functional cooperativity of the primary site and the sub-site of ribonuclease T1 (RNase T1; EC 3.1.27.3). The kinetic properties of the single Tyr-38-Phe and Asn-98-Ala mutants have been compared with those of the corresponding double mutant. The Tyr-38-Phe mutation has been used to probe enzyme-substrate interactions at the primary site; the Asn-98-Ala mutation monitors subsite interactions.1 In addition to the dinucleoside phosphate substrate GpC, we measured the kinetics for GpMe, a synthetic substrate in which the leaving nucleoside cytosine has been replaced by methanol. All data were combined in a triple mutant box to analyze the interplay between Tyr-38, Asn-98, and the leaving group. The free energy barriers to kcat, introduced by the single Tyr-38-Phe and Asn-98-Ala mutations are not additive in the corresponding double mutant. The energetic coupling between both mutations is independent of the binding of the leaving cytosine at the subsite. We conclude that the coupling of the Tyr-38-Phe and Asn-98-Ala mutations arises through distortion or reorientation of the 3′-guanylic acid moiety bound at the primary site. The experimental data indicate that the enzyme-substrate interactions beyond the scissile phosphodiester bond contribute to catalysis through the formation of new or improved contacts in going from ground state to transition state, which are functionally independent of primary site interactions. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: protein structure ; secondary structure ; peptide geometry ; Ramachandran plot ; β-turns ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The polypeptide of a protein molecule can be considered as a chain of Cα atoms linked by pseudobonds between the Cα atoms of successive amino acid residues. This paper presents an analysis of the angle and dihedral angles made by these pseudobonds in protein structures determined at high resolution by X-ray crystallography. This analysis reveals a strong correlation between Cα geometry and the protein fold. The regular features of protein secondary structure such as α-helix and α-sheet are very clearly defined. In addition, it is possible to identify with some confidence the discrete populations of particular conformations of α-turn. Comparison with the traditional Ramachandran type of plot demonstrates that an analysis of protein structure on the basis of Cα geometry provides a richer description of protein conformation. In addition, the characteristics of this geometry could be a useful guide in model building of protein structure. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: tertiary structure prediction ; reduced protein model ; lattice protein models ; dynamic Monte Carlo simulations ; potentials of mean force ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A new hierarchical method for the simulation of the protein folding process and the de novo prediction of protein three-dimensional structure is proposed. The reduced representation of the protein α-carbon backbone employs lattice discretizations of increasing geometrical resolution and a single ball representation of side chain rotamers. In particular, coarser and finer lattice backbone descriptions are used. The coarser (finer) lattice represents Cα traces of native proteins with an accuracy of 1.0 (0.7) Å rms. Folding is simulated by means of very fast Monte Carlo lattice dynamics. The potential of mean force, predominantly of statistical origin, contains several novel terms that facilitate the cooperative assembly of secondary structure elements and the cooperative packing of the side chains. Particular contributions to the interaction scheme are discussed in detail. In the accompanying paper (Kolinski, A., Skolnick, J. Monte Carlo simulation of protein folding. II. Application to protein A, ROP, and crambin. Proteins 18:353-366, 1994), the method is applied to three small globular proteins. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: staphylococcal nuclease ; nonproductive substrate binding to ; subsites of ; active site mutants of ; oligonucleotide binding to ; Ca2+ binding to ; Mn2+ binding to ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: By a combination of NMR docking and model building, the substrate binding site on staphylococcal nuclease was found to accommodate a trinucleotide and to consist of three subsites, each interacting with a single nucleotidyl unit of DNA. Binding of the essential Ca2+ activator and substrate cleavage occur between subsites 1 and 2. Hence, catalytically productive binding would span subsites 1 and 2 while nonproductive binding would span subsites 2 and 3. Lys-49 is near subsite 1, and Lys-84 and Tyr-115 interact with substrates at sub site 3 [Weber, D. J., Gittis, A. G., Mullen, G. P., Abeygunawardana, C., Lattman, E. E., Mildvan, A. S. Proteins 13:275-287, 1992]. The proposed locations of these subsites were independently tested by the effects of the K49A, K84A, and Y115A mutations of staphylococcal nuclease on the binding of Mn2+, Ca2+, and the dinucleotide and trinucleotide substrates, 5′-pdTdA, dTdA, and dTdAdG. These three mutants have previously been shown to be fully active and to have CD and 2D NMR spectra very similar to those of the wild-type enzyme (Chuang, W.-J., Weber, D. J., Gittis, A. G., Mildvan, A. S. Proteins 17:36-48, 1993). All three mutant enzymes and their pdTdA and dTdA complexes (but not their dTdAdG complex) bind Mn2+ and Ca2+ more weakly than the wild-type enzyme by factors ranging from 2 to 11. The presence of a terminal phosphate as in 5′-pdTdA raises the affinity of the substrate for staphylococcal nuclease and its three mutants by two orders of magnitude and for the corresponding enzyme-metal complexes by three to four orders of magnitude, suggesting that the terminal phosphate is coordinated by the enzyme-bound divalent cation. Such complexation would result in the nonproductive binding of 5′-pdTdA at subsites 2 and 3. Accordingly, the K84A and Y115A mutations significantly weaken the binding of 5′-pdTdA and its metal to staphylococcal nuclease by factors of 2.2 to 37.8, while the K49A mutation has much smaller or no effect. Such nonproductive binding explains the low activity of staphylococcal nuclease with small substrates, especially those With a terminal phosphate. Similarly, the K84A and Y115A mutations weaken the binding of dTdA and its metal complexes to the enzyme by factors of 3.4 to 13.1 while the K49A mutation has smaller effects indicating significant nonproductive binding of dTdA. The trinucleotide dTdAdG binds more tightly to wild-type and mutant staphylococcal nuclease and to its metal complexes than does the dinucleotide dTdA by factors of 2.4 to 12.2, reflecting the occupancy of an additional subsite. Predominantly productive binding of dTdAdG is indicated by the 1.7- to 8.3-fold lower affinities of the K49A, K84A, and Y115A mutants for the trinucleotide and its metal complexes. The largest effects on dTdAdG binding are seen with the Y115A mutation presumably reflecting the dual role of Tyr-115 both in donating a hydrogen bond to a phosphodiester oxygen between subsites 2 and 3 and in stacking onto the guanine base at subsite 3. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: serine carboxypeptidase ; protein modeling ; mutation analysis ; comparative modeling ; cathepsin A ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The deficiency of the lysosomal protective protein/carboxypeptidase L (CARB L) causes the lysosomal storage disorder, galactosialidosis, characterized by neuraminidase and β-galactosidase deficiencies in patients' cells. The three enzymes form a complex inside the lysosome, and the neuraminidase and β-galactosidase deficiencies are secondary to CARB L deficiency. Sequence similarity and common enzymological properties suggest that the protomeric tertiary structure of CARB L is conserved within a family of serine carboxypeptidases which includes the yeast carboxypeptidase Y, killer expression I gene product and several plant carboxypeptidases. We used this homology to build a model of the CARB L structure based on the recently published X-ray atomic coordinates of the wheat carboxypeptidase II (CPDW-II) which shares 32% primary structure identity with CARB L. Small insertions and deletions were accommodated into the model structure by energy minimization using the DREIDING II force field. The Cα atomic-coordinates of the final CARB L model have a RMS shift of 1.01 Å compared to the corresponding conserved residues in the CPDW-II template structure. The correct orientation of the homologous catalytic triad residues Ser150, His429 and Asp392, the potential energy calculations and the distribution of hydrophobic and hydrophillic residues in the structure all support the validity of the CARB L model. Most missense mutations identified in galactosialidosis patients were located in secondary structural elements except for the Tyr211→Asn mutation which is in a loop. The other mutant residues have their side chains deeply buried in the central β-sheet of the model structure except for the Phe412→Val mutation which is located in the dimer interface. The predicted effects of specific mutations on CARB L structural stability correlates well with recently published transient expression studies of mutant CARB L (Shimmoto, M. et al., J. Clin. Invest., 91:2393-2399, 1993). © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: electrostatics ; protein conformation ; DelPhi ; hydrophobicity ; RNase H ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In this paper we discuss the problem of including solvation free energies in evaluating the relative stabilities of loops in proteins. A conformational search based on a gas-phase potential function is used to generate a large number of trial conformations. As has been found previously, the energy minimization step in this process tends to pack charged and polar side chains against the protein surface, resulting in conformations which are unstable in the aqueous phase. Various solvation models can easily identify such structures. In order to provide a more severe test of solvation models, gas phase conformations were generated in which side chains were kept extended so as to maximize their interaction with the solvent. The free energies of these conformations were compared to that calculated for the crystal structure in three loops of the protein E. coli RNase H, with lengths of 7, 8, and 9 residues. Free energies were evaluated with a finite difference Poisson-Boltzmann (FDPB) calculation for electrostatics and a surface area-based term for nonpolar contributions. These were added to a gas-phase potential function. A free energy function based on atomic solvation parameters was also tested. Both functions were quite successful in selecting, based on a free energy criterion, conformations quite close to the crystal structure for two of the three loops. For one loop, which is involved in crystal contacts, conformations that are quite different from the crystal structure were also selected. A method to avoid precision problems associated with using the FDPB method to evaluate conformational free energies in proteins is described. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: protein crystallography ; four helix bundle ; iron ; macromolecular assembly ; regulation ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Ferritin is a 24 subunit protein that controls biomineralization of iron in animals, bacteria, and plants. Rates of mineralization vary among members of the ferritin family, particularly between L and H type subunits of animal ferritins which are differentially expressed in various cell types. To examine ferritin from a highly differentiated cell type and to clarify the relationship between ferritin structure and function, bullfrog red cell L ferritin has been cloned, overexpressed in E. coli, and crystallized under two conditions. Crystals were obtained at high ionic strength in the presence of MnCl2 at a concentration comparable to that of the protein and in the presence of MgCl2 at a concentration much higher than that of the protein. Under both crystallization conditions, the crystals are tetragonal bipyramids in the space group F432 with unit cell dimensions a=b=c= 182 ± 0.5 Å. Crystals obtained in the presence of manganese and ammonium sulfate diffract to 1.9 Å, while those obtained in the presence of magnesium and sodium tartrate diffract to 1.6 Å. Isomorphous crystals have been obtained under similar conditions for a site-directed mutant with a reduced mineralization rate in which Glu-57, -58, -59, and -61 are all replaced by Ala. The structure of wild type L-subunit with magnesium has been solved by molecular replacement using the calcium salt of human liver H subunit (Lawson et al., Nature (London) 349:541-544, 1991) as the model. The crystallographic R factor for the 6-2.2 Å shell is 0.21. The overall fold of human H and bullfrog L ferritins is similar with an rms difference in backbone atomic positions of 0.97 Å. The largest structural differences occur in the D helix and the loop connecting the D and E helices of the four helix bundle. Because red cell L ferritin and liver H ferritin show differences in both rates of mineralization and three-dimensional structure, more detailed comparisons of these structures are likely to shed new light on the relationship between conformation and function. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: myoglobin ; simulation ; hydration ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: An analysis of a molecular dynamics simulation of metmyoglobin in an explicit solvent environment of 3,128 water molecules has been performed. Both statics and dynamics of the protein-solvent interface are addressed in a comparison with experiment. Three-dimensional density distributions, temperature factors, and occupancy weights are computed for the solvent by using the trajectory coordinates. Analysis of the hydration leads to the localization of more than 500 hydration sites distributed into multiple layers of solvation located between 2.6 and 6.8 Å from the atomic protein surface. After locating the local solvent density maxima or hydration sites we conclude that water molecules of hydration positions and hydration sites are distinct concepts. Both global and detailed properties of the hydration cluster around myoglobin are compared with recent neutron and X-ray data on myoglobin. Questions arising from differences between X-ray and neutron data concerning the locations of the protein-bound water are investigated. Analysis of water site differences found from X-ray and neutron experiments compared with our simulation shows that the simulation gives a way to unify the hydration picture given by the two experiments. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: myoglobin ; solvation ; dynamics ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The dynamics of water at the protein-solvent interface is investigated through the analysis of a molecular dynamics simulation of metmyoglobin in explicit aqueous environment. Distribution implied dynamics, harmonic and quasiharmonic, are compared with the simulated macroscopic dynamics. The distinction between distinguishable solvent molecules and hydration sites developed in the previous paper is used. The simulated hydration region within 7 Å from the protein surface is analyzed using a set of 551 hydration sites characterized by occupancy weights and temperature B-factors determined from the simulation trajectory. The precision of the isotropic harmonic and anisotropic harmonic models for the description of proximal solvent fluctuations is examined. Residence times and dipole reorientation times of water around the protein surface are compared with NMR and ESR results. A correlation between diffraction experiment quantities such as the occupancy weights and temperature factors and the residence and correlation times resulting from magnetic resonance experiments is found via comparison with simulation. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: carboxypeptidas ; molecular dynamics ; enzymatic mechanisms ; peptidase mechanism ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: An MD simulation of the system carboxypeptidase A (CPA) with the tetrapeptide Val-Leu-Phe-Phe has been performed in order to learn about the substrate disposition just prior to nucleophilic attack. We have explored the model in which the substrate does not substitute the zinc-coordinated water (the “water” mechanism). The simulations do suggest as feasible that the Zn-OH2 group performs a nucleophilic attack on the Phe-Phe peptidic bond. We have also investigated the model in which the carbonyl oxygen displaces the zinc-coordinated water. In this case the substrate and Glu-270 orient themselves to allow an anhydride intermediate during the peptidic bond cleavage (the “anhydride” mechanism). Based on the results of the simulations, both “water” and “anhydride” mechanisms are structurally feasible, although the former model seems more probable on chemical grounds. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: computer modeling ; protein structure prediction ; α-carbons ; structure evaluation ; molecular dynamics ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Generation of full protein coordinates from limited information, e.g., the Cα coordinates, is an important step in protein homology modeling and structure determination, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations may prove to be important in this task. We describe a new method, in which the protein backbone is built quickly in a rather crude way and then refined by minimization techniques. Subsequently, the side chains are positioned using extensive MD calculations. The method is tested on two proteins, and results compared to proteins constructed using two other MD-based methods. In the first method, we supplemented an existing backbone building method with a new procedure to add side chains. The second one largely consists of available methodology. The constructed proteins are compared to the corresponding X-ray structures, which became available during this study, and they are in good agreement (backbone RMS values of 0.5-0.7 Å, and all-atom RMS values of 1.5-1.9 Å). This comparative study indicates that extensive MD simulations are able, to some extent, to generate details of the native protein structure, and may contribute to the development of a standardized methodology to predict reliably (parts of) protein structures when only partial coordinate data are available. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: X-ray crystallography ; disulfide oxidoreductases ; FAD ; NADPH ; drug target ; Chagas' disease ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The three-dimensional structure of trypanothione reductase (TR) (EC 1.6.4.8) from Trypanosoma cruzi has been solved at 0.33 nm resolution by molecular replacement using the structure of C. fasciculata TR as a starting model. Elucidation of the T. cruzi TR structure represents the first step in the rational design of a drug against Chagas' disease. The structure of T. cruzi TR is compared with those of C. fasciculata TR as well as human and E. coli glutathione reductase (GR). In the FAD-binding domain, TR has two insertions, each about 10 residues long, which do not occur in GR. The first one is a rigid loop stabilizing the position of helix 91-117 which is responsible for the wider active site of TR as compared to GR. The second insertion does not occur where it is predicted by sequence alignment; rather the residues extend three strands of the 4-stranded β-sheet by one or two residues each. This increases the number of hydrogen bonds within the sheet structure. The structure of the NADPH.TR complex has been solved at 0.33 nm resolution. The nicotinamide ring is sandwiched between the flavin ring and the side chain of Phe-198 which undergoes the same conformational change upon coenzyme binding as Tyr-197 in GR. In addition to Arg-222 and Arg-228, which are conserved in TR and GR, Tyr-221 - the last residue of the second β-sheet strand of the βαβ dinucleotide binding fold - is in hydrogen bonding distance to the 2′ phosphate group of NADPH. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: catalytic antibody ; chorismate mutase ; crystallization ; X-ray diffraction ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The Fab′ fragment of a catalytic antibody with chorismate mutase activity has been crystallized as a complex with the transition-state analog hapten. The complex was crystallized by the vapor diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121 with unit cell dimensions a = 37.1 Å, b = 63.3 Å, c = 178.5 Å, and there is one Fab' molecule per asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract X-rays to at least 3.0 Å and are suitable for X-ray crystallographic studies. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: peptide folding ; disulfide framework ; insect toxins ; NMR ; distance geometry ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: An analysis of the sequences of scyllatoxin and charybdotoxin suggested that it would be possible to design a core peptide sequence which would still fold to give the β-hairpin and helix seen in the toxins, but which would eliminate one disulfide and connecting residues. The core sequence was modeled, then synthesized and purified. The cysteines oxidize in air to give the same disulfide pairings as seen in the parent toxins as the major product. The three-dimensional structure of the core sequence peptide, termed Max, was determined using proton NMR spectroscopy and found to be identical in secondary structure to the toxins. However differences were found in the relative orientation of the β-hairpin and helix. The use of this structural motif, found in many insect toxins, as a disulfide framework for exploring sequence/structure/activity relationships is discussed. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: Fab structures ; viral epitopes ; foot-and-mouth disease virus ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The Fab fragment of the neutralizing monoclonal antibody SD6 elicited against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) C-SBcl and its complex with a peptide, corresponding to the major antigenic site of FMDV (VPl residues 136-150, YTASARGDLAHLTTT), have been crystallized using the hanging drop vapor diffusion techniques. For the isolated Fab, crystals diffracting to 2.5 Å resolution were obtained at room temperature using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. These crystals are monoclinic, space group C2, and unit cell parameters a = 109.53 Å, b = 89.12 Å, c = 64.04 Å, and β = 112.9° and contain one Fab molecule per asymmetric unit. Crystals from the complex diffract, at least, to 2.8 Å resolution and were obtained, at room temperature, using PEG as precipitant. These crystals are monoclinic, space group P2, and unit cell parameters a = 56.11 Å, b = 60.67 Å, c = 143.45 Å, and β = 95.4°, Density packing considerations indicate that there are two Fab molecules in the asymmetric unit. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: microcalorimetry ; heat capacity ; enthalpy ; hydrogen bonding ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The energetics of ubiquitin unfolding have been studied using differential scanning microcalorimetry. For the first time it has been shown directly that the enthalpy of protein unfolding is a nonlinear function of temperature. Thermodynamic parameters of ubiquitin unfolding were correlated with the structure of the protein. The enthalpy of hydrogen bonding in ubiquitin was calculated and compared to that obtained for other proteins. It appears that the energy of hydrogen bonding correlates with the average length of the hydrogen bond in a given protein structure. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: nonlinear elliptic equations ; nonlinear multigrid ; inexact Newton methods ; damped Newton methods ; crambin ; BPTI ; HyHEL-5 ; superoxide dismutase ; rhinovirus ; tryptophan synthase ; electrostatic steering ; Brownian dynamics ; antibody-antigen complex ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation (NPBE) provides a continuum description of the electrostatic field in an ionic medium around a macromolecule. Here, a novel approach to the solution of the full NPBE is developed. This robust and efficient algorithm combines multilevel techniques with a damped inexact Newton's method. The CPU time required for solution of the full NPBE, which is less than that for standard single-grid approaches in solving the corresponding linearized equation, is proportional to the number of unknowns enabling applications to very large macromolecular systems. Convergence of the method is demonstrated for a variety of protein systems. Comparison of the solutions to the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation shows that the damping of the electrostatic field around the charge is increased and that the potential scales logarithmically with charge. The inclusion of the full nonlinearity thus reduces the impact of highly charged residues on protein surfaces and provides a more realistic representation of electrostatic effects. This is demonstrated through calculation of potential around the active site regions of the 1,266-residue tryptophan synthase dimer and in the computation of rate constants from Brownian dynamics calculations in the superoxide dismutase-superoxide and antibody-antigen systems. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: molecular dynamics ; protein simulation ; Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase ; electrostatic loop ; mutants ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations have been performed on mutants of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on some residues present in the electrostatic loop. These calculations have provided the solution structures for the mutants Thr-137 → IIe and Arg; Lys-136 → Ala; Glu-132 → Gln; Glu-133 → Gln; Glu-132, Glu-133 → Gln-132, Gln-133 and → Gln-132, Lys-133. The structural and dynamic properties of these mutants have been correlated with the catalytic properties and available spectroscopic data. The water molecule present in the active site close to the copper ion in wild type (WT) SOD is missing in the MD average structure of the Thr-137 → IIe mutant, while this molecule is present in the MD average structures of all the other mutants and of WT SOD. This agrees with the experimental data. This is an important result that shows the validity of our calculations and their ability to reproduce even subtle structural features. Addition of one or more positive charges on the 132 and/or 133 positions does not sizably perturb the structure of the active site channel, while the introduction of a positively charged residue (Arg) on position 137 has a large effect on the structure of the electrostatic loop. Analysis of the MD average structures of these mutants has pointed out that the simple electrostatic effects of charged residues in the channel are not the only factor relevant for enzymatic behavior but that the structure of the electrostatic loop and the location of the charged residues also contribute to the catalytic properties of SOD. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: protein secondary structure prediction ; pleckstrin homology domain ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A consensus prediction for the secondary structure of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain is presented. The prediction is based on an analysis of patterns of conservation and variation of homologous protein sequences. The structure is predicted to be formed largely from beta strands with a single alpha helix. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: phospholipase A2 ; n-dodecylphosphorylcholine ; complex ; inhibitor ; X-ray crystal analysis ; molecular dynamics simulation ; interaction ; calcium-binding ; catalytic network ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The crystal structure of n-dodecylphosphorylcholine (n-C12PC)-bovine pancreas phospholipase A2 (PLA2) complex provided the following structural.characteristics: (1) the dodecyl chain of n-C12PC was located at the PLA2 N -terminal helical region by hydrophobic interactions, which corresponds to the binding pocket of 2-acyl fatty acid chain (β-chain) of the substrate phospholipid, (2) the region from Lys-53 to Lys-56 creates a cholinereceiving pocket of n-C12PC and (3) the N-termillal group of Ala-1 shifts significantly toward the Tyr-52 OH group by the binding of the n-C12PC inhibitor. Since the accuracy of the X-ray analysis (R = 0.275 at 2.3 Å resolution) was insufficient to establish these important X-ray insights, the complex structure was further investigated through the molecular dynamics (M D) simulation, assuming a system in aqueous solution at 310K. The M D simulation covering 176 ps showed that the structural characteristics observed by X-ray analysis are intrinsic and also stable in the dynamic state. Furthermore, the M D simulation made clear that the PLA2 binding pocket is large enough to permit the conformational fluctuation of the n-C12PC hydrocarbon chain. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: coiled-coils ; keratin ; intermediate filament proteins ; link segments ; heptad phasing ; computer modeling ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Structural discontinuities have previously been identified in four regions of the coiled-coil rod domain structure present in intermediate filament (IF) protein molecules. These include a point at which a phase shift occurs in the heptad periodicity characteristic of the sequence of polar and apolar residues in α-helical coiled-coils, and three links that lack a heptad substructure. We have studied these regions by computer-based molecular modeling and comparative sequence analysis and conclude that the phasing discontinuity can be accommodated without significant distortion of the overall double-helical chain conformation; the L2 link has a similar conformation in all different types of IF molecules, a favorable conformation being one in which the two strands wrap tightly around each other; the L12 links vary in length between different IF types but contain important sequence similarities suggestive of a partial β structure; the L1 links show larger variations in length, a lower degree of similarity, and probably diverse structures. Variations in the overall charges of the different links suggest that ionic interactions may playa significant role in filament assembly. The results also have general significance for other α-fibrous proteins in which either the characteristic heptad phasing undergoes a discontinuity or where a short non-coiled-coil sequence occurs within a coiled-coil rod domain structure. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: hydrophobicity ; effective backbone interactions ; folding ; avian pancreatic polypeptide ; parathyroid hormone-related protein ; Monte Carlo ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: ABSTRACT A simplified description and a corresponding force field for polypeptides is introduced. Each amino acid residue is reduced to one interaction site, representing the backbone, and one or two side chain sites depending on its size and complexity. Site-site interactions are parameterized after a hydrophobicity criterium. The treatment of backbone sites is in addition designed to reproduce typical polypeptide hydrogen bonding patterns, as well as yielding conformations in accord with the allowed φ and ψ angles through an effective angle potential. There are no explicit charges in the model. The derived energy functions, which are based on thermodynamic data and sterical consideration of allowed backbone conformations, correspond to the introduction of an effective potential. The model is tested on two small proteins, avian pancreatic polypeptide and a parathyroid hormone-related protein, by simulating folding from an initially extended state using Monte Carlo methods. The reduced amino acid description is able to satisfactorily reproduce the experimentally determined native structures. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: membrane ; protein ; structure ; prediction ; G-protein coupled receptor ; rhodopsin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Integral membrane proteins (of the α-helical class) are of central importance in a wide variety of vital cellular functions. Despite considerable effort on methods to predict the location of the helices, little attention has been directed toward developing an automatic method to pack the helices together. In principle, the prediction of membrane proteins should be easier than the prediction of globular proteins: there is only one type of secondary structure and all helices pack with a common alignment across the membrane. This allows all possible structures to be represented on a simple lattice and exhaustively enumerated. Prediction success lies not in generating many possible folds but in recognizing which corresponds to the native. Our evaluation of each fold is based on how well the exposed surface predicted from a multiple sequence alignment fits its allocated position. Just as exposure to solvent in globular proteins can be predicted from sequence variation, so exposure to lipid can be recognized by variable-hydrophobic (variphobic) positions. Application to both bacteriorhodopsin and the eukaryotic rhodopsin/opsin families revealed that the angular size of the lipid-exposed faces must be predicted accurately to allow selection of the correct fold. With the inherent uncertainties in helix prediction and parameter choice, this accuracy could not be guaranteed but the correct fold was typically found in the top six candidates. Our method provides the first completely automatic method that can proceed from a scan of the protein sequence databanks to a predicted three-dimensional structure with no intervention required from the investigator. Within the limited domain of the seven helix bundle proteins, a good chance can be given of selecting the correct structure. However, the limited number of sequences available with a corresponding known structure makes further characterization of the method difficult. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: triglyceride lipase ; proenzyme ; molecular replacement ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A neutral lipase from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus delemar has been crystallized in both its proenzyme and mature forms. Although the latter crystallizes readily and produces a variety of crystal forms, only one was found to be suitable for X-ray studies. It is monoclinic (C2, a = 92.8 Å, b = 128.9 Å, c = 78.3 Å, β = 135.8) with two molecules in the asymmetric unit related by a noncrystallographic diad. The prolipase crystals are orthorhombic (P212121, with a = 79.8 Å, b = 115.2 Å, c = 73.0 Å) and also contain a pair of molecules in the asymmetric unit. Initial results of molecular replacement calculations using the refined coordinates of the related lipase from Rhizomucor miehei identified the correct orientations and positions of the protein molecules in the unit cells of crystals of both proenzyme and the mature form. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chicester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Neuraminidase-treated porcine pancreatic β-kallikrein-B ; Bovine α-chymotrypsin ; Native bovine basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor ; [Homoserine lactone-52]-52,53-seco-bovine basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor ; Serine proteinase inhibition ; Thermodynamics ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Values of the association equilibrium constant (Ka) for the binding of the native and of the cyanogen bromide-cleaved bovine basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (native BPTI and [Hse lactone-52]-52,53-seco-BPTI, respectively) to neuraminidase-treated porcine pancreatic β-Kallikrein-B (kallikrein) and bovine α-chymotrypsin (chymotrypsin) have been determined between pH4.0 and 9.0, and 20.0°C. Over the whole pH range explored, native BPTI and [Hse lactone-52]-52,53-seco-BPTI show the same affinity for kallikrein. On the other hand, the affinity of [se lactone-52]-52,53-seco-BPTI for chymotrypsin is high4er, around neutrality, than that found for native BPTI by about one order of magnitude, coverging in the acidic pH limb. The simplest mechanism accounting for the observed data implies that, on lowering the pH from 9.0 to 4.0 (i) the decrease in affinity for the binding of native BPTI to kalikrein and chymotrypsin, as well as for the association of [Hse lactone-52]-52,53-seco-BPTI to kalikrein, reflects the acidic pK shift, upon inhibitor association, of a single inozing group; and (ii) the decrease of Ka values for [Hse lactone-52]-52,53-seco-BPTI binding to chymotrypsin appears to be modulated by the acidic pK shift, upon inhibitor association, of two non-equivalent proton-binding residues. On the basis of the stereochemistry of the serine proteinase/inhibitor contact region(s), these data indicate that long-rang structural changes in [Hse lactone-52]-52,53-seco-BPTI are energetically linked to the chymotrypsin: inhibitor complex formation. This observation represents an important aspect for the mechanism of molecular recognition and regulation in BPTI.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Monoclonal antibodies ; Idiotypes ; Enthalpy and entropy ; Conformational change ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The reaction between the mouse (BALB/c) anti-idiotiopic monoclonal antibodies E225 and E5.2 and idiotopes on the (BALB/c) anti-lysozyme monoclonal antibody D1.3 has been characterized by titration calorimetry, by equilibrium sedimentation and by the determination of binding association and dissociation rates. The reaction between E5.2 and D1.3 is driven by a large negative enthalpy and its rate and equilibrium association constants are comparable to those observed in other antigen-antibody reactions. In contrast, the reaction between E225 and D1.3 is entropically driven and characterized by slow association kinetic (1 × 103 M-1 sec-1) and a resulting low equilibrium constant (Ka = 2 × 105M-1). A correlation of these properties with the three-dimensional structure of the Fab225-FabD1.3 complex, previously determined by X-ray diffraction methods to 2.5 Å resolution, indicates that conformational changes of several D1.3 contacting residues, located in its complementarity determining regions, may explain these features of the reaction.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Polymerase ; AIDS ; Crystallography ; DNA-protein interactions ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The p66/p51 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase is a heterodimer with identical N-terminal amino acid sequences. The enzyme contains two polymerization domains and one RNase H domain, which is located at the C-terminus of the p66 subunit. Both polymerization domains fold into four individual subdomains that are not arranged in a similar fashion, forming an unusually asymmetric dimer. The complexity of the RT p66/p51 heterodimer structure is simplified using solvent-accessibility surface areas to describe the buried surface area of contact among the different subdomains. In addition, the RT/DNA contacts in the recently published RT/DNA/Fab structure. [Jacobo-Molina et al., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 90, 6320-6324 (1993)] are described using the same approach. Finally, the RT/DNA complex is compared with other dimeric DNA-binding proteins. It was found that the size of the protein and the extent of the dimer interface were not directly related to the extent of contact between the protein and the DNA. Furthermore, RT, the only protein that is not a sequence specific DNA binding protein in this analysis, had the largest surface of interaction with the nucleic acid.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Reverse transcriptase ; Pharmacophore ; Nucleoside analog inhibitors ; HIV-1 ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: An ‘active analog’ approach to receptor mapping was used to identify a pharmacophore for a set of thymidine nucleoside analog inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. The preliminary results indicate that the O2, O4′, and O5′ atoms are capable of adopting a unique pharmacophoric pattern which may be the key to their recognition by reverse transcriptase.
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  • 34
    Electronic Resource
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    Chicester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Anti-cancer drugs ; Molecular modelling ; Cleavable complex ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The sequence specificity of topoisomerase-II-mediated DNA cleavage, stimulated by 2-methyl-9-hydroxy ellipticinium and 4′, 5′,7-trihydroyflavone (genistein) was investigated by sequencing analysis of DNA cleavage sites and molecular modeling techniques. The former drug exhibits a marked preference for a T base at the position immediately preceding the cleavage site (-1). The latter shares the preference for the same base, with an additional preference for a thymine at position +1. The cleavage intensity patterns for the two drugs differ considerably. From a conformational point of view, ellipticinium and genistein exhibit similar overall shape and dimensions. However, the fused ring system in the former generates a planar structure whereas the single bond, connecting the two aromatic portions in the latter, allows internal rotation. The most stable conformation of genistein corresponds to a deviation of about 40° from planarity. A computer-assisted analysis was carried out to compare the steric and electrostatic properties of the two compounds. Two types of preferred (energetically almost degenerate) alignment for the two molecules were found. One corresponds to overlapping of the 9-hydroxyl containing ring of ellipticinium with the 4′-hydroxyphenyl moiety of genistein, the other envisages the same moiety of ellipticine superimposed to the hydroxyl-benzopyrone portion of genistein. The structural similarities of the test drugs might account for the common preference for stimulation of DNA cleavage at position +1, whereas the different possible arrangements of genistein in the cleavable complex could explain both the additional +1 specificity exhibited by this compound and the differences in cleavage intensity patterns observed in comparison to ellipticinium.
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  • 36
    Electronic Resource
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    Chicester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Molecular Recognition 7 (1994), S. 265-272 
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Malate dehydrogenase ; Binding ; NADH channelling ; Submitochondrial particles ; Complex I ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: As previously reported, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH) binds to purified complex I of the electron transport system. With conditions used in previous reports, MDH binds even more extensively, but probably predominantly non-specifically, to the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane of submitochodrial particles (SMP). Herein we report experimental conditions for highly specific binding of malate dehydrogenase to complex I within SMP. These conditions permit us to demonstrate NADH channelling from malate dehydrogenase to complex I using the completing reaction test. This test, though not ideal for all situations, has several advantages over the enzyme buffering test previously used. These advantages should facilitate further studies elucidating NADH channeling to complex I from MDH and other dehydrogenases. Independent evidence of NADH channelling to the electron transport chain and the potential advantages of substrate channelling in general are also discussed. Substrate channelling from MDH in particular may be especially beneficial because of the unfavourable equilibrium and kinetics of this enzyme reaction.
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  • 37
    Electronic Resource
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    Chicester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Molecular Recognition 7 (1994), S. 199-206 
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: RecA ; Homologous recombination ; DNA-protein complexes ; Isoelectric focusing ; Linear dichroism ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The interaction of RecA protein with short single-stranded oligonucleotides is characterised by flow linear dichroism (LD), isoelectric focusing (IEF) and electron microscopy (EM). From LD and EM it is evident that RecA forms long filaments with at least some 50 oligonucleotides in a ‘train formation’. The tendency to form trains is substantially lower when an amino group is attached to the 5′ end of the oligonucleotide, suggesting that the modification impairs protein-protein interactions at the interface between two oligomers. From LD it is also evident that no bridging occurs between RecA-Oligonucleotide complexes containing more than one oligomer strand per RecA filament. This property make them manageable in polyacrylamide gels, hence allowing characterisation by IEF. RecA was found acidic with a pI of 5.0. The pI was not dependent on the presence of bound cofactor (ATPγS) and oligonucleotides suggesting that protonation of the protein readily occurs to compensate for the negative charges provided by bound cofactor and DNA.
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  • 38
    Electronic Resource
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    Chicester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Molecular Recognition 7 (1994), S. 215-220 
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Intercalation ; α-helical ; Peptide conformation ; DNA ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The design and synthesis of a water-soluble 14-residue peptide, in which a quinoline intercalator is attached to the peptide backbone via alkylation of a central cysteine residue, is reported. 600 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy and circular dichroism indicate that the peptide forms a nascent helix in aqueous solution, ie. an ensemble of turn-like structures over several adjacent residues in the peptide. A large number of sequential dNN(i, i+1) connectivities were observed in NOESY spectra, and titration of trifluoroethanol into a solution of the peptide resulted in the characteristic CD spectrum expected for an α-helix. At low DNA concentrations, CD spectroscopy indicates that this helical conformation is stabilized, presumably due to folding of the peptide in the major groove of DNA.
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  • 39
    Electronic Resource
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    Chicester [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Molecular Recognition 7 (1994), S. 233-241 
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: DAPI ; Minor-groove binding ligands ; DNA ; Long-range interactions ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We have studied the interaction of the A:T specific minor-groove binding ligand 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) with synthetic DNA oligomers containing specific binding sites in order to investigate possible long-range interactions between bound ligands. We find that DAPI binds cooperatively to the oligomers. The degree of cooperativity increases with increasing number of binding sites and decreases with the separation between them. This dependence is paralleled by changes in the induced circular dichroism spectrum of DAPI, which decreases in intensity at 335 nm and increases at 365 nm. These results are consistent with an allosteric interaction of DAPI with DNA, where bound ligands cooperatively alter the structure of the DNA molecule. This structural change seems possible to induce under various conditions, including physiological. One consequence of allosteric binding is that ligands bound at a distance from each other sense each other's presence and influence each other's properties. If some regulatory proteins the same conformational change as DAPI, novel mechanisms for controlling gene expression can be anticipated.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: Angiotensin analogues ; Structure-activity studies ; Rat uterus Bioassay ; Role of tyranophore ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A triad of interacting group (TyrOH—His\documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$ \underline\ominus$ \end{document}O2C) in angiotensin II (ANG II) has been postulated to create the tyrosinate anion pharmacophore (tyanophore) responsible for receptor activation/triggering (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1991, 1065, 21). In the present study we investigated the effects on bioactivity of substituting the Tyr4 residue in [Sar1]ANG II with other anionic or electronegative amino acids, and with a number of aromatic amino acids lacking a hydroxyl group. [Sar1 Nva(δ-OH)4]ANG II, [Sar1 Nva(δ-OCH3)4]ANG II, [Sar1 Met4]ANG II, [Sar1 Gln4]ANG II, [Sar1 Glu4]ANG II and [Sar1 DL-Alg4]ANG II had agonist activities in the rat isolated uterus assay of 4, 3, 19, 10, 〉 0.1 and 〉 0.1%, respectively, of that of ANG II. [Sar1 Nal4]ANG II, [Sar1 Pal4]ANG II, [Sar1 DL-Phg(4′-F)4]ANG II, [Sar1 Phe(4′-F)4]ANG II, [Sar1 Phe(F5)4]ANG II and [Sar1 His4]ANG II had agonist activities of 4.5, 7, 〈 0.1, 0.2, 1 and 0.6%, respectively. All peptides investigated were devoid of measurable antagonist activity except [Sar1] Phe(4′-F)4 ANG II (pA2 = 7.7). These findings illustrate that anionic or electronegative aliphatic side chains replacing tyrosinate at position 4 can partially activate the angiotension receptor. For ANG II analogues containing an aromatic amino acid other than Tyr at position 4, ligand binding and agonist activity are not dependent on the electronegativity or dipole moment of the aromatic ring, or on the ability of the 4′ ring substituent to accept a proton. Modelling based on ab initio calculations of aromatic ring multipoles illustrate that the apparent binding affinity (PA2) of ANG II analogues is associated with a perpendicular electrostatic interaction of the position 4 aromatic ring with a receptor-based group. In addition, intramolecular interactions providing for the conformation of the ligand as it approaches its receptor appear to have a role in determining agonist vs antagonist activity.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0952-3499
    Keywords: IL-6 receptor ; gp130 ; basophil ; IL-3 ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In addition to specific ligand binding elements, receptor assembly for interleukin(IL)-6, oncostatin-M, leukaemia inhibitory factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor and IL-11 includes and additional unit, gp130. This molecule is a transmembrane glycoprotein of 130 kDa. In this paper, reviewing molecular, biochemical and functional data on gp130, we describe the dissimilar action of IL-3 on the expression of the binding unit of the IL-6 receptor and that of gp130. According to FACS studies, resting basophils express only IL-6 receptors and no gp130 molecules on the plasma membranes. After incubation with IL-3, the surface appearance and de novo transcription of gp130 was shown by FACS and mRNA polymerase chain reaction analysis.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: protein ; ribosome ; inactivation ; toxin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Single crystals of the protein gelonin isolated from the seeds of Gelonium multiforum have been grown at room temperature by vapor diffusion method. The crystals are monclinic with a = 49.4 Å, b = 44.9 Å, c = 137.4 Å, and β = 98.3°. The space group is P21, with two molecules in the asymmetric unit which are related by a noncrystallographic 2-fold axis along ψ =13° and φ =88°. The crystals diffract X-rays to high resolution, making it possible to obtain an accurate structure of this single chain ribosome inactivating protein. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: thermodynamic parameters ; cytochrome c ; protein folding ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The hydrogen exchange (HX) rates of the slowest peptide group NH hydrogens in oxidized cytochrome c (equine) are controlled by the transient global unfolding equilibrium. These rates can be measured by one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and used to determine the thermodynamic parameters of global unfolding at mild solution conditions well below the melting transition. The free energy for global unfolding measured by hydrogen exchange can differ from values found by standard denaturation methods, most notably due to the slow cis-trans isomerization of the prolyl peptide bond. This difference can be quantitatively calculated from basic principles. Even with these corrections, HX experiments at low denaturant concentration measure a free energy of protein stability that rises above the usual linear extrapolation from denaturation data, as predicted by the denaturant binding model of Tanford. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: hemodynamic integration ; RISM theory ; alchemical path ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A theoretical analysis is made of the decomposition into contributions from individual interactions of the free energy calculated by thermodynamic integration. It is demonstrated that such a decomposition, often referred to as “component analysis,” is meaningful, even though it is a function of the integration path. Moreover, it is shown that the path dependence can be used to determine the relation of the contribution of a given interaction to the state of the system.To illustrate these conclusions, a simple transformation(Cl- to Br- in aqueous solution) is analyzed by use of the Reference Interaction Site Model-Hypernetted Chain Closure integral equation approach; it avoids the calculational difficulties of macromolecular simulation while retaining their conceptual complexity. The difference in the solvation free energy between chloride and bromide is calculated, and the contributions of the Lennard-Jones and electrostatic terms in the potential function are analyzed by the use of suitably chosen integration paths. The model is also used to examine the path dependence of individual contributions to the double free energy differences (ΔΔG or ΔΔA) that are often employed in free energy simulations of biological systems. The alchemical path, as contrasted with the experimental path, is shown to be appropriate for interpreting the effects of mutations on ligand binding and protein stability. The formulation is used to obtain a better understanding of the success of the Poisson-Boltzmann continuum approach for determining the solvation properties of polar and ionic systems. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: nuclear magnetic resonance ; defensin ; hydrogen exchange ; antimicrobial peptides ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The exchange kinetics for the slowly exchanging amide hydrogens in three defensins, rabbit NP-2, rabbit NP-5, and human HNP-1, have been measured over a range of pH at 25°C using 1D and 2D NMR methods. These NHs have exchange rates 102 to 105 times slower than rates from unstructured model peptides. The observed distribution of exchange rates under these conditions can be rationalized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding of the individual NHs, solvent accessibility of the NHs, and local fluctuations in structure. The temperature dependencies of NH chemical shifts (NH temperature coefficients) were measured for the defensins and these values are consistent with the defensin structure. A comparison is made between NH exchange kinetics, NH solvent accessibility, and NH temperature coefficients of the defensins and other globular proteins. Titration of the histidine side chain in NP-2 was examined and the results are mapped to the three-dimensional structure. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: Monte Carlo docking ; antibody/antigen recognition ; antibody binding ; induced fit ; substrate binding ; drug design ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Antibody-antigen interactions are representative of a broad class of receptor-ligand interactions involving both specificity and potential inducible complementarity. To test possible mechanisms of antigenantibody recognition and specificity computationally, we have used a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm to dock fragments of the epitope Glu-Val-Val-Pro-His-Lys-Lys to the X-ray structures of both the free and the complexed Fab of the antibody B13I2 (raised against the C-helix of myohemerythri). The fragments Pro-His and Val-Pro-His, which contain residues experimentally identified as important for binding, docked correctly to both structures, but all tetrapeptide and larger fragments docked correctly only to the complexed Fab, even when torsional flexibility was added to the ligand. However, only tetrapeptide and larger fragments showed significantly more favorable energies when docked to the complexed Fab coordinates than when docked to either the free Fab or a non-specific site remote from the combining site. Comparison of the free and complexed B13I2 structures revealed that atoms within 5 Å of Val-Pro-His showed little movement upon peptide binding, but atoms within 5 Å of the other four epitope residues showed greater movements. These results computationally distinguish recognition and binding processes with practical implications for drug design strategies. Overall, this new fragment docking approach establishes distinct roles for the “lock-and-key” (recognition) and the “handshake” (binding) paradigms in antibody-antigen interaction, suggests an incremental approach to incorporating flexibility in computational docking, and identifies critical regions within receptor binding sites for ligand recognition. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: enzymology ; protein structure ; biochemical properties ; gene characterization ; bacterial diagnosis ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Pyrrolidone carboxyl peptidase (EC 3.4.11.8) is an exopeptidase commonly called PYRase, which hydrolytically removes the pGlu from pGlu-peptides or pGlu-proteins.pGlu also known as pyrrolidone carboxylic acid may occur naturally by an enzymatic procedure or may occur as an artifact in proteins or peptides. The enzymatic synthesis of pGlu suggests that this residue may have important biological and physiological functions. Several studies are consistent with this supposition.PYRase has been found in a variety of bacteria, and in plant, animal, and human tissues For over two decades, biochemical and enzymatic properties of PYRase have been investigated. At least two classes of PYRase have been characterized. The first one includes the bacterial and animal type I PYRases and the second one the animal type II and serum PYRases. Enzymes from these two classes present differences in their molecular weight and in their enzymatic properties.Recently, the genes of PYRases from four bacteria, have been cloned and characterized, allowing the study of the primary structure of these enzymes, and their over-expression in heterelogous organisms. Comparison of the primary structure of these enzymes revealed striking homologies.Type I PYRases and bacterial PYRases are generally soluble enzymes, whereas type II PYRases are membrane-bound enzymes. PYRase II appears to play as important a physiological role as other neuropeptide degrading enzymes. However, the role of type I and bacterial PYRases remains unclear.The primary application of PYRase has been its utilization for some protein or peptide sequencing. Development of chromogenic substrates for this enzyme has allowed its use in bacterial diagnosis. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: electrostatics ; titration curves ; solvation ; linear response theory ; free energy ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Molecular dynamics simulations of triclinic hen egg white lysozyme in aqueous solution were performed to calculate the intrinsic pKas of 14 ionizable residues. An all-atom model was used for both solvent and solute, and a single 180 ps simulation in conjunction with a Gaussian fluctuation analysis method was used. An advantage of the Gaussian fluctuation method is that it only requires a single simulation of the system in a reference state to calculate all the pKas in the protein, in contrast to multiple simulations for the free energy perturbation method. pKint shifts with respect to reference titratable residues were evaluated and compared to results obtained using a finite difference Poisson-Boltzmann (FDPB) method with a continuum solvent model; overall agreement with the direction of the shifts was generally observed, though the magnitude of the shifts was typically larger with the explicit solvent model. The contribution of the first solvation shell to the total charging free energies of the titratable groups was explicitly evaluated and found to be significant. Dielectric shielding between pairs of titratable groups was examined and found to be smaller than expected. The effect of the approximations used to treat the long-range interactions on the pKint shifts is discussed. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: side chain conformation ; protein folding ; protein binding ; helix formation ; helix stability ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Theoretical estimations of changes in side chain configurational entropy are essential for understanding the different contributions to the overall thermodynamic behavior of important biological processes like folding and binding. The configurational entropy of any given side chain in any particular protein can be evaluated from the complete energy profile of the side chain. Calculations of the energy profiles can be performed using the side chain single bond dihedrals as the only independent variables as long as the structures at each value of the dihedrals are allowed to relax through small changes in the valence bond angles. The probabilities of different side chain conformers obtained from these energy profiles are very similar to the conformer populations obtained by analysis of side chain preferences in the proteins of the Protein Data Bank. Also, side chain conformational entropies obtained from the energy profiles agree extremely well with those obtained from the Protein Data Bank conformer populations. Changes in side chain configurational entropy in binding and folding can be computed as differences in conformational entropy because, in most cases, the frequency of the rotational oscillation around the energy minimum of any given conformer does not appear to change significantly in the reaction. Changes of side chain conformational entropy calculated in this way were compared with experimental values. The only available experimental data-the effect of side chain substitution on the stability of α-helices-were used for this comparison. The experimental values were corrected to subtract the solvent contributions. This comparison yields an excellent agreement between calculated and experimental values, validating not only the theoretical estimates but also the separability of the entropic contributions into configurational terms and solvation related terms. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 50
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: X-ray diffraction ; aspartic protease ; AIDS ; recombinant protein ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: For therapeutically relevant targets, the evaluation of enzymes in complex with their inhibitors by cocrystallization and high resolution structural analysis has become a vital component of structure-driven drug design and development. Two approaches, hanging drop vapor diffusion and a novel microtube batch method, were utilized in parallel to grow crystals of recombinant HIV -2 protease and recombinant human renin in complex with inhibitors. In the case of HIV -2 protease in complex with a reduced amide inhibitor, crystallization was achieved only by the microbatch method. In the case of human renin, the addition of precipitant was required for crystal growth. The microbatch method described here is a useful supplementary or alternative approach for screening parameters and generating crystals suitable for high resolution structural analysis. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: structure prediction ; helix to helix packing ; coiled coils ; leucine zippers ; heptad repeats ; molecular dynamics ; simulated annealing ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A simulated annealing method for atomic resolution structure prediction of α-helical coiled coil proteins is described which draws upon knowledge of the oligomerization state, the helix directionality, and the properties of heptad repeat sequences. Unknown structural parameters, such as the coiled coil twist angle and the side chain conformations, are heavily sampled while allowing for flexibility in the helix backbone geometry. Structures of the wild-type GCN4 dimer [O'Shea et al., Science 254:539-544, 1991] and a mutant tetramer [Harbury et al., Science 292:1401-1407, 1993] have been generated and compared with the X-ray crystal structures. The wild-type dimer model has a root mean square coordinate deviation from the crystal structure of 0.73 Å for nonhydrogen atoms in the dimerization interface. Structures of a mutant dimer and a mutant trimer have been predicted. Packing energetics were analyzed for core leucine and isoleucine side chains in dimeric and tetrameric coiled coils. Strong packing preferences were found in the dimers but not in the tetramers. Thus, packing in the dimer may be responsible for the switch from a two-stranded to a four-stranded coiled coil caused by the GCN4 leucine zipper mutations. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 53
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: globular proteins ; tertiary structure ; quaternary structure ; folding determinants ; disulfide bonds ; polypeptide conformation ; homology modeling ; inverse folding problem ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Over the last few years we have developed an empirical potential function that solves the protein structure recognition problem: given the sequence for an n-residue globular protein and a collection of plausible protein conformations, including the native conformation for that sequence, identify the correct, native conformation. Having determined this potential on the basis of only some 6500 native/nonnative pairs of structures for 58 proteins, we find it recognizes the native conformation for essentially all compact, soluble, globular proteins having known native conformations in comparisons with 104 to 106 reasonable alternative conformations apiece. In this sense, the potential encodes nearly all the essential features of globular protein conformational preference. In addition it “knows” about many additional factors in protein folding, such as the stabilization of multimeric proteins, quaternary structure, the role of disulfide bridges and ligands, proproteins vs. processed proteins, and minimal strand lengths in globular proteins. Comparisons are made with other sorts of protein folding problems, and applications in protein conformational determination and prediction are discussed. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 54
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: leghemoglobin ; hydrophobic ; interactions ; hydrophobicity ; protein folding ; structure prediction ; protein dynamics ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The essential features of the in vitro refolding of myoglobin are expressed in a solvable physical model. Alpha helices are taken as the fundamental collective coordinates of the system, while the refolding is assumed to be mainly driven by solvent-induced hydrophobic forces. A quantitative model of these forces is developed and compared with experimental and theoretical results. The model is then tested by being employed in a simulation scheme designed to mimic solvent effects. Realistic dynamic trajectories of myoglobin are shown as it folds from an extended conformation to a close approximation of the native state. Various suggestive features of the process are discussed. The tenets of the model are further tested by folding the single-chain plant protein leghemoglobin. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: hardware ; molecular dynamics ; simulation ; special-purpose computer ; supercomputing ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Molecular dynamics simulations have been extensively used in research of proteins. Since these simulations are quite computer intensive, their acceleration is of main interest of the research. In molecular dynamics simulations, almost all computing time is consumed in calculating the forces between particles, e.g., Coulomb and van der Waals forces. We have designed and built GRAPE-2A (GRAvity PipE 2A), a special-purpose computer for use in simulations of classical many-body systems. GRAPE-2A calculates forces exerted on a particle from the other particles. GRAPE-2A can calculate force of an arbitrary functional form of a central force. The host computer, which is connected to GRAPE-2A through the VME bus, performs other calculations such as time integration. The peak speed of GRAPE-2A is 180 Mflops. We can also stimulate systems with periodic boundary conditions by the Ewald method, using GRAPE-2A and another special-purpose computer, WINE (Wave space INtegrator for the Ewald method). © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: crystal structure ; cold adaption ; catalytic efficiency ; protein stability ; anionic ; ectotherm ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The crystal structure of an anionic form of salmon trypsin has been determined at 1.82 Å resolution. We report the first structure of a trypsin from a phoikilothermic organism in a detailed comparison to mammalian trypsins in order to look for structural rationalizations for the cold-adaption features of salmon trypsin. This form of salmon trypsin (T II) comprises 222 residues, and is homologous to bovine trypsin (BT) in about 65% of the primary structure. The tertiary structures are similar, with an overall displacement in main chain atomic positions between salmon trypsin and various crystal structures of bovine trypsin of about 0.8 Å. Intramolecular hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions are compared and discussed in order to estimate possible differences in molecular flexibility which might explain the higher catalytic efficiency and lower thermostability of salmon trypsin compared to bovine trypsin. No overall differences in intramolecular interactions are detected between the two structures, but there are differences in certain regions of the structures which may explain some of the observed differences in physical properties. The distribution of charged residues is different in the two trypsins, and the impact this might have on substrate affinity has been discussed. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: heme ; secondary structure ; conformation ; hemopexin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000