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  • DKFZ Publication Database  (3,475)
  • CANCER  (3,475)
  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; VISUALIZATION ; DISEASE ; QUALITY ; PROGRESSION ; RECURRENCE ; SOMATOSTATIN RECEPTOR SCINTIGRAPHY ; NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS ; PET/CT ; OCTREOSCAN
    Abstract: Background. Ga-68-DOTATOC-PET/CT is a well-established method for detecting and targeting the volume definition of meningiomas prior to radiotherapy. Moreover, there is evidence that this method is able to detect meningiomas with higher sensitivity than the goldstandard MRI. Since the hybrid PET/MRI scanner became available in the past few years, the next stage of development could consequently evolve by evaluating the feasibility of a hybrid PET/MRI scanner using Ga-68-DOTATOC for detecting meningiomas. Methods. Fifteen patients received Ga-68-DOTATOC-PET/CT (0.5 h post injection [p.i.]) followed by PET/MRI 2 hours p.i. Both investigations were analyzed separately and then compared with respect to image quality, detection of intracranial meningiomas, and radiotracer uptake values (RUVs). In addition, ratios between radiotracer uptake in meningiomas and pituitary glands were compared between both PET/CT and PET/MRI. Results. Overall, 33 intracranial meningiomas were detected. All were visible with high contrast in both PET/CT and PET/MRI. Ga-68-DOTATOC-PET/MRI provided flawless image quality without artefacts. Calculated RUV in meningiomas, as well as the ratios of RUVs in meningiomas to those of pituitary glands, were higher in PET/CT. As a result, meningiomas can be distinguished from pituitary glands better in early images. Conclusions. Ga-68-DOTATOC-PET/MRI provided flawless image quality and presented an ideal combination of high sensitivity/specificity (PET) and the best possible morphological visualization of meningiomas (MRI). In addition, excellent detection of meningiomas is already possible at 0.5 hours p.i. Later images do not improve the distinction between pituitary gland and adjacent meningiomas. However, RUVs need to be carefully compared between both imaging modalities.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25008094
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GENE ; transcription ; DIFFERENTIATION ; AMPLIFICATION ; ONCOGENE ; REVEALS ; genomics ; MicroRNAs
    Abstract: MYCN is a transcription factor that plays key roles in both normal development and cancer. In neuroblastoma, MYCN acts as a major oncogenic driver through pleiotropic effects regulated by multiple protein encoding genes as well as microRNAs (miRNAs). MYCN activity is tightly controlled at the level of transcription and protein stability through various mechanisms. Like most genes, MYCN is further controlled by miRNAs, but the full complement of all miRNAs implicated in this process has not been determined through an unbiased approach. To elucidate the role of miRNAs in regulation of MYCN, we thus explored the MYCN-miRNA interactome to establish miRNAs controlling MYCN expression levels. We combined results from an unbiased and genome-wide high-throughput miRNA target reporter screen with miRNA and mRNA expression data from patients and a murine neuroblastoma progression model. We identified 29 miRNAs targeting MYCN, of which 12 miRNAs are inversely correlated with MYCN expression or activity in neuroblastoma tumor tissue. The majority of MYCN-targeting miRNAs in neuroblastoma showed a decrease in expression during murine MYCN-driven neuroblastoma tumor development. Therefore, we provide evidence that MYCN-targeting miRNAs are preferentially downregulated in MYCN-driven neuroblastoma, suggesting that MYCN negatively controls the expression of these miRNAs, to safeguard its expression.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25294817
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; TUMORS ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; GLIOMA ; temozolomide ; TELOMERASE ACTIVITY ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; SECONDARY GLIOBLASTOMAS ; PHASE-3 TRIAL
    Abstract: Background. Activating somatic mutations in the promoter region of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) have been detected in several cancers. In this study we investigated the TERT promoter mutations and their impact on patient survival in World Health Organization grade IV glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods. The TERT core promoter region containing the previously described mutations and a common functional polymorphism (rs2853669) was sequenced in tumors and blood samples from 192 GBM patients. O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status was assessed by pyrosequencing in 177 (92.2%) cases. Relevant clinical data were obtained from a prospectively maintained electronic database. Results. We detected specific (-124 C〉T and -146 C〉T) TERT promoter mutations in 143/178 (80.3%) primary GBM and 4/14 (28.6%) secondary GBM (P〈 .001). The presence of TERT mutations was associated with poor overall survival, and the effect was confined to the patients who did not carry the variant G-allele for the rs2853669 polymorphism. An exploratory analysis suggested that TERT mutations might be prognostic only in patients who had incomplete resections and no temozolomide chemotherapy. Conclusions. In this study, specific TERT promoter mutations were markers of primary GBM and predicted patient survival in conjunction with a common functional polymorphism. The prognostic impact of TERT mutations was absent in patients with complete resections and temozolomide chemotherapy. If confirmed in additional studies, these findings may have clinical implications, that is, TERT mutations appear to characterize tumors that require aggressive treatment.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25140036
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; DIAGNOSIS ; chemotherapy ; POSITRON-EMISSION-TOMOGRAPHY ; DACARBAZINE ; GUIDELINES ; SOLID TUMORS ; immune therapy ; CRITERIA ; PSEUDOPROGRESSION
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Ipilimumab is a newly approved immunotherapeutic agent that has been shown to provide a survival benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma. 18F-FDG PET/CT has demonstrated very satisfying results in detecting melanoma metastases in general. Using 18F-FDG PET/CT we monitored patients with metastatic melanoma undergoing ipilimumab therapy during the course of treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT performed after two cycles of ipilimumab in predicting the final response to therapy. METHODS: In 22 patients suffering from unresectable metastatic melanoma, scheduled for ipilimumab treatment PET/CT scanning was performed before the start of treatment (baseline scan), after two cycles of treatment (early response) and at the end of treatment after four cycles (late response). Evaluation of the patient response to treatment on PET was based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 1999 criteria. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) data are presented. RESULTS: After the end of treatment, 15 patients were characterized as having progressive metabolic disease (PMD) and five as having stable metabolic disease (SMD), and two patients showed a partial metabolic response (PMR). Early PET/CT performed after two ipilimumab cycles predicted treatment response in 13 of the 15 PMD patients, in five of the five SMD patients and in neither of the two PMR patients. Both patients with PMR showed pseudoprogression after the second cycle and were therefore wrongly classified. According to the patients' clinical outcome, patients with late PMD had a median PFS of 3.6 months (mean 5.6 months), while patients with late SMD had a median PFS of 9.8 months (mean 9.0 months). In comparison, patients with early PMD had a median PFS of 2.7 months (mean 5.5 months) and patients with early SMD had a median PFS of 6.3 months (mean 7.5 months). The difference in PFS between the two groups was statistically significant for both early and late responses (log-rank p 〈 0.001). Median OS among patients with late PMD was 9.1 months (mean 11.2 months) and among those with late SMD 9.8 months (mean 10.7 months). The difference in OS between the two groups was statistically significant (log-rank p = 0.013). The median OS among patients with early PMD was 8.8 months (mean 12.0 months) and among those with early SMD 9.8 months (mean 10.0 months). The difference in OS between the two groups was statistically significant (log-rank p 〈 0.001). CONCLUSION: 18F-FDG PET/CT after two cycles of ipilimumab is highly predictive of the final treatment outcome in patients with PMD and SMD.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25359635
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; PROTEINS ; IDENTIFICATION ; IMMUNE-RESPONSE ; IMMUNOTHERAPY ; INTERFERON ; glutathione-S-transferase ; RETINOPATHY ; LYMPHOCYTE
    Abstract: Distribution, patterns and prognostic impact of spontaneous antibody responses against different tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in malignant melanoma patients are unknown so far and were investigated in this study for the first time in a large cohort at different stages of the disease, identifying new prognostic biomarkers for malignant melanoma. Serum samples from 365 melanoma patients (97 Stage I melanoma patients, 87 Stage II, 92 Stage III and 89 Stage IV) and 100 age and gender matched healthy control donors were analyzed. Samples were drawn at the time of diagnosis (Stages I-III) or at time of diagnosis of distant metastasis (Stage IV). Applying a novel multiplex assay, humoral immune responses against 29 TAAs were determined and the association between response and patient survival was investigated. Antibody responses were mainly found in melanoma patients and all tested antigens elicited immune responses in all disease stages. Antibody responses against single antigens were either associated with poor prognosis and/or shorter progression-free survival (PFS) or had no influence. While in Stages I-III significant associations were observed between an antibody response and overall survival or PFS, among Stage IV patients, no significant association was found. Multivariate analyses identified specific humoral immune responses as prognostic factors independently of age, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Antibody responses against specific TAA in Stage I-III melanoma patients correlate with poor prognosis and/or shorter PFS. These results may help to design clinical studies in order to evaluate the potential of these responses as prognostic serological biomarkers.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24839182
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  • 6
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; antibody ; IDENTIFICATION ; IMMUNOTHERAPY ; EFFECTOR ; CYTOKINE PRODUCTION ; CCR9
    Abstract: The success of T cell-based cancer immunotherapy is limited by tumor's resistance against killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Tumor-immune resistance is mediated by cell surface ligands that engage immune-inhibitory receptors on T cells. These ligands represent potent targets for therapeutic inhibition. So far, only few immune-suppressive ligands have been identified. We here describe a rapid high-throughput siRNA-based screening approach that allows a comprehensive identification of ligands on human cancer cells that inhibit CTL-mediated tumor cell killing. We exemplarily demonstrate that CCR9, which is expressed in many cancers, exerts strong immune-regulatory effects on T cell responses in multiple tumors. Unlike PDL1, which inhibits TCR signaling, CCR9 regulates STAT signaling in T cells, resulting in reduced T-helper-1 cytokine secretion and reduced cytotoxic capacity. Moreover, inhibition of CCR9 expression on tumor cells facilitated immunotherapy of human tumors by tumor-specific T cells in vivo. Taken together, this method allows a rapid and comprehensive determination of immune-modulatory genes in human tumors which, as an entity, represent the immune modulatome' of cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25691366
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; INHIBITION ; PATHWAY ; COMPLEX ; beta-catenin ; GLYCOGEN-SYNTHASE KINASE-3 ; HEDGEHOG ; TONGUE
    Abstract: BackgroundThe Wnt/beta-catenin and the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway interact in various cell types while eliciting opposing or synergistic cellular effects. Both pathways are known as exclusive drivers of two distinct molecular subtypes of medulloblastoma (MB).In sonic hedgehog (Shh)-driven MB, activation of Wnt signaling has been shown to suppress tumor growth by either beta-catenin-dependent or -independent inhibition of Shh signaling. However, mechanistic insight in how beta-catenin inhibits the Hh pathway is not known.FindingsHere we show that beta-catenin stabilization by the glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitor lithium chloride (LiCl) reduced growth of primary hedgehog-driven MB tumor spheres from patched heterozygous mice (Ptch+/-) in vitro. LiCl treatment of MB spheres down-regulated the Hh target Gli1, whereas the repressive Gli3 protein (Gli3R) was increased. Mechanistically, we show by co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay that stabilized beta-catenin physically interacts with Gli1, leading to Gli1 sequestration and inhibition of its transcriptional activity. Reduction of Hh signaling upon LiCl stimulation resulted in reduced proliferation, sphere self renewal, a G2/M arrest and induction of a senescent-like state, indicated by p21 upregulation and by increased staining of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-betaGal). Moreover, LiCl treatment of subcutaneously transplanted MB cells significantly reduced tumor initiation defined as inverted question marktumor take inverted question mark. Although tumor progression was similar, LiCl-treated tumors showed decreased mitotic figures and phospho-histone H3 staining.ConclusionWe propose that beta-catenin stabilization increases its physical interaction with Gli1, leading to Gli1 degradation and inhibition of Hh signaling, thereby promoting tumor cell senescence and suppression of inverted question marktumor take inverted question mark in mice.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25645196
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; REPAIR ; MARKERS ; LYMPHOCYTES ; DNA-DAMAGE ; GSTT1
    Abstract: Nonspecific chromosomal aberrations (CAs) are found in about 1% of lymphocytes drawn from healthy individuals. They include chromosome-type aberrations (CSAs), which are increased in exposure to ionizing radiation, and chromatid-type aberrations (CTAs) which in experimental systems are formed by DNA binding carcinogens and mutagens. The frequency of CAs is associated with the risk of cancer, but the causes of CAs in general population are unknown. Here, we want to test whether variants in metabolic genes associate with CAs in healthy volunteers. Cases were considered those whose total CA (CAtot) frequency was 〉2% and for CSA and CTA the limit was 〉1%. Controls had lower frequencies of CAs. Functional polymorphisms in seven genes were selected for analysis: cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), epoxide hydrolase 1 (EPHX1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), each coding for phase 1 enzymes, and glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1), coding for enzymes which conjugate reactive metabolites, that is, phase 2 enzymes. The number of volunteers genotyped for each gene varied from 550 to 1,500. Only EPHX1 was individually associated with CAtot; high activity genotypes decreased CAtot. A total of six significant (P 〈 0.01) pair-wise interactions were observed, most including a GST variant as one of the pair. In all genotype combinations with significant odds ratios for CAs a GST variant was involved. The present data provide evidence that variants in genes coding for metabolic enzymes, which individually have small effects, interact and are associated with CA frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes of healthy volunteers. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25622915
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; PROTEINS ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; murine ; RAGE ; ROLES ; PROMOTES
    Abstract: The S100A8/A9 heterodimer (calprotectin) acts as a danger signal when secreted into the extracellular space during inflammation and tissue damage. It promotes proinflammatory responses and drives tumor development in different models of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis. S100A8/A9 is strongly expressed in several human tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Apart from this evidence, the role of calprotectin in hepatocyte transformation and tumor microenvironment is still unknown. The aim of this study was to define the function of S100A8/A9 in inflammation-driven HCC. Mice lacking S100a9 were crossed with the Mdr2(-/-) model, a prototype of inflammation-induced HCC formation. S100a9(-/-) Mdr2(-/-) (dKO) mice displayed no significant differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity compared to Mdr2(-/-) animals. Chronic liver inflammation, fibrosis and oval cell activation were not affected upon S100a9 deletion. Our data demonstrate that, although highly upregulated, calprotectin is dispensable in the onset and development of HCC, and in the maintenance of liver inflammation. What's new? Liver cancers often overexpress a protein, S100A9, which functions as a danger signal during inflammation. It promotes inflammation and can drive the development of some tumors. In this paper, the authors sought to define the role of S100A9 in liver cancer. When they eliminated the protein from mice prone to inflammation-driven hepatocellular cancer, the liver tumors continued to develop unabated. Although it's highly upregulated in liver cancers, S100A9 isn't required for liver tumors to form, and wouldn't be useful as a therapeutic target.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25331529
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  • 10
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; PATHWAY ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR ; resistance ; microenvironment ; RADIORESISTANCE ; EGFRVIII ; MALIGNANT MAMMARY ; AKT ACTIVATION
    Abstract: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is frequently characterized by high resistance to radiotherapy, which critically depends on both altered signaling pathways within tumor cells and their dynamic interaction with the tumor microenvironment. This study evaluated the prognostic value of the phosphorylation status of AKT on Ser473 and Thr308 for the clinical outcome of patients with advanced HNSCC on radiotherapy. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of AKT(Ser473) phosphorylation [p-AKT(Ser473)] in the context of radioresistance using ex vivo tissue cultures that resemble the complex tissue architecture and paracrine interaction with the tumor microenvironment. In a cohort of 120 patients with advanced HNSCC, who were treated with primary or adjuvant radiotherapy, a significant association was found between relative p-AKT(Ser473) levels and overall survival (p=0.006) as well as progression-free survival (p=0.021), while no significant correlation was revealed for relative p-AKT(Thr308) levels. In ex vivo tissue cultures p-AKT(Ser473) levels were increased upon irradiation and treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 inhibited both basal and irradiation induced AKT(Ser473) phosphorylation. Strikingly, pretreatment with LY294002 sensitized tissue cultures derived from primary and recurrent tumors to radiotherapy as determined by impaired tumor cell proliferation and enhanced DNA damage. In conclusion, phosphorylation status of AKT(Ser473) in tumor specimens serves as a novel biomarker to identify patients with advanced HNSCC at high risk for treatment failure following radiotherapy, and our data from ex vivo tissue cultures support the assumption that pharmacological inhibition of AKT(Ser473) phosphorylation might circumvent radioresistance to improve efficiency and reduce toxicity of current treatment modalities. What's new? Patients with head and neck squamous cell cancers often develop resistance to radiotherapy. To figure out how, these authors investigated AKT phosphorylation in the tumor cells. AKT kinase boosts cell proliferation when it is activated by phosphorylation at two possible sites. Could the location of phosphorylation predict whether the tumor will develop resistance? These results suggest it could. The authors show that patients with more phosphorylation at serine 473 had worse survival; furthermore, they showed that reducing phosphorylation at this site increased cancer cells' vulnerability to irradiation. Phosphorylation at the other site, threonine 308, did not affect survival.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25388642
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  • 11
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; TUMORS ; TRIAL ; MUTATIONS ; SAFETY ; IMMUNOTHERAPY ; LYMPHOCYTE ; INTRAVENOUS FOTEMUSTINE ; CONJUNCTIVAL
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Up to 50% of patients with uveal melanoma (UM) develop metastatic disease with limited treatment options. The immunomodulating agent ipilimumab has shown an overall survival (OS) benefit in patients with cutaneous metastatic melanoma in two phase III trials. As patients with UM were excluded in these studies, the Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group (DeCOG) conducted a phase II to assess the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in patients with metastatic UM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We undertook a multicenter phase II study in patients with different subtypes of metastatic melanoma. Here we present data on patients with metastatic UM (pretreated and treatment-naive) who received up to four cycles of ipilimumab administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg in 3 week intervals. Tumor assessments were conducted at baseline, weeks 12, 24, 36 and 48 according to RECIST 1.1 criteria. Adverse events (AEs), including immune-related AEs were graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) v.4.0. Primary endpoint was the OS rate at 12 months. RESULTS: Forty five pretreated (85%) and eight treatment-naive (15%) patients received at least one dose of ipilimumab. 1-year and 2-year OS rates were 22% and 7%, respectively. Median OS was 6.8 months (95% CI 3.7-8.1), median progression-free survival 2.8 months (95% CI 2.5-2.9). The disease control rate at weeks 12 and 24 was 47% and 21%, respectively. Sixteen patients had stable disease (47%), none experienced partial or complete response. Treatment-related AEs were observed in 35 patients (66%), including 19 grade 3-4 events (36%). One drug-related death due to pancytopenia was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Ipilimumab has very limited clinical activity in patients with metastatic UM. Toxicity was manageable when treated as per protocol-specific guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01355120.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25761109
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  • 12
    Keywords: CANCER ; MAGNETIC-RESONANCE-SPECTROSCOPY ; BRAIN-TUMORS ; human glioma ; PH ; TRANSFER CEST ; WEIGHTED MRI ; EXCHANGE SATURATION-TRANSFER ; TUMORS IN-VIVO ; PERITUMORAL EDEMA
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25789657
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  • 13
    Keywords: CANCER ; KINASE ; DISEASE ; MICE ; T-CELLS ; IDENTIFICATION ; FUSION ; TRANSFORMATION ; HEMATOPOIETIC STEM-CELLS ; NPM-ALK
    Abstract: Cancer stem cells or tumour-propagating cells (TPCs) have been identified for a number of cancers, but data pertaining to their existence in lymphoma so far remain elusive. We show for the first time that a small subset of cells purified from human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive and -negative, anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell lines and primary patient tumours using the side population (SP) technique have serial tumour-propagating capacity both in vitro and in vivo; they give rise to both themselves and the bulk tumour population as well as supporting growth of the latter through the production of soluble factors. In vivo serial dilution assays utilising a variety of model systems inclusive of human cell lines, primary human tumours and nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK-induced murine tumours demonstrate the TPC frequency to vary from as many as 1/54 to 1/1336 tumour cells. In addition, the SP cells express higher levels of pluripotency-associated transcription factors and are enriched for a gene expression profile consistent with early thymic progenitors. Finally, our data show that the SP cells express higher levels of the NPM-ALK oncogene and are sensitive to an ALK inhibitor.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24814516
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  • 14
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; SURVIVAL ; MALIGNANCIES ; INVOLVEMENT ; microenvironment ; AUTOLOGOUS TRANSPLANTATION ; BONE-DISEASE ; FDG PET/CT ; CXCR4/SDF-1
    Abstract: CXCR4 is a G-protein-coupled receptor that mediates recruitment of blood cells toward its ligand SDF-1. In cancer, high CXCR4 expression is frequently associated with tumor dissemination and poor prognosis. We evaluated the novel CXCR4 probe [(68)Ga]Pentixafor for in vivo mapping of CXCR4 expression density in mice xenografted with human CXCR4-positive MM cell lines and patients with advanced MM by means of positron emission tomography (PET). [(68)Ga]Pentixafor PET provided images with excellent specificity and contrast. In 10 of 14 patients with advanced MM [(68)Ga]Pentixafor PET/CT scans revealed MM manifestations, whereas only nine of 14 standard [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT scans were rated visually positive. Assessment of blood counts and standard CD34(+) flow cytometry did not reveal significant blood count changes associated with tracer application. Based on these highly encouraging data on clinical PET imaging of CXCR4 expression in a cohort of MM patients, we conclude that [(68)Ga]Pentixafor PET opens a broad field for clinical investigations on CXCR4 expression and for CXCR4-directed therapeutic approaches in MM and other diseases.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25736399
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  • 15
    Keywords: CANCER ; THERAPY ; RESPONSES ; CD8(+) T-CELLS ; BONE-MARROW-TRANSPLANTATION ; IMMUNITY ; ADHESION MOLECULE ; STEM-CELL TRANSPLANTATION ; ACUTE MYELOID-LEUKEMIA ; MEDIATED TUMOR DESTRUCTION
    Abstract: PURPOSE: The graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) reaction is an important example of immune-mediated tumor destruction. A coordinated humoral and cellular response accomplishes leukemia cell killing, but the specific targets remain largely uncharacterized. To learn more about the antigens that elicit antibodies during GVL reactions, we analyzed patients with advanced myelodysplasia (MDS) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who received an autologous, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting tumor cell vaccine early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A combination of tumor-derived cDNA expression library screening, protein microarrays, and antigen-specific ELISAs were used to characterize sera obtained longitudinally from 15 patients with AML/MDS who were vaccinated early after allogeneic HSCT. RESULTS: A broad, therapy-induced antibody response was uncovered, which primarily targeted intracellular proteins that function in growth, transcription/translation, metabolism, and homeostasis. Unexpectedly, antibodies were also elicited against eight secreted angiogenic cytokines that play critical roles in leukemogenesis. Antibodies to the angiogenic cytokines were evident early after therapy, and in some patients manifested a diversification in reactivity over time. Patients that developed antibodies to multiple angiogenic cytokines showed prolonged remission and survival. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal a potent humoral response during GVL reactions induced with vaccination early after allogeneic HSCT and raise the possibility that antibodies, in conjunction with natural killer cells and T lymphocytes, may contribute to immune-mediated control of myeloid leukemias.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25538258
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  • 16
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; IN-VIVO ; CRE RECOMBINASE ; GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEIN ; POLARITY ; THERAPEUTIC TARGETS ; ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY ; ORIENTED CELL-DIVISION ; CDC42 GEF
    Abstract: Morphogenesis, homeostasis, and regeneration of epithelial tissues rely on the accurate orientation of cell divisions, which is specified by the mitotic spindle axis. To remain in the epithelial plane, symmetrically dividing epithelial cells align their mitotic spindle axis with the plane. Here, we show that this alignment depends on epithelial cell-cell communication via semaphorin-plexin signaling. During kidney morphogenesis and repair, renal tubular epithelial cells lacking the transmembrane receptor Plexin-B2 or its semaphorin ligands fail to correctly orient the mitotic spindle, leading to severe defects in epithelial architecture and function. Analyses of a series of transgenic and knockout mice indicate that Plexin-B2 controls the cell division axis by signaling through its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain and Cdc42. Our data uncover semaphorin-plexin signaling as a central regulatory mechanism of mitotic spindle orientation necessary for the alignment of epithelial cell divisions with the epithelial plane.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25892012
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  • 17
    Keywords: CANCER ; DISEASE ; POLYMORPHISMS ; AGE ; LIFE-SPAN ; LENGTH ; METAANALYSIS ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; OLDEST-OLD ; NORMAL HUMAN-CELLS
    Abstract: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been observed to be hereditable and correlated with longevity. However, contrasting results have been reported in different populations on the value of LTL heritability and on how biology of telomeres influences longevity. We investigated whether the variability of genes correlated to telomere maintenance is associated with telomere length and affects longevity in a population from Southern Italy (20-106 years). For this purpose we analyzed thirty-one polymorphisms in eight telomerase-associated genes of which twelve in the genes coding for the core enzyme (TERT and TERC) and the remaining in genes coding for components of the telomerase complex (TERF1, TERF2, TERF2IP, TNKS, TNKS2 and TEP1). We did not observe (after correcting for multiple testing) statistically significant associations between SNPs and LTL, possibly suggesting a low genetic influence of the variability of these genes on LTL in the elderly. On the other hand, we found that the variability of genes encoding for TERF1 and TNKS2, not directly involved in LTL, but important for keeping the integrity of the structure, shows a significant association with longevity. This suggests that the maintenance of these chromosomal structures may be critically important for preventing, or delaying, senescence and aging. Such a correlation was not observed in a population from northern Italy that we used as an independent replication set. This discrepancy is in line with previous reports regarding both the population specificity of results on telomere biology and the differences of aging in northern and southern Italy.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25631672
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  • 18
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; SYSTEM ; metastases ; RESECTION ; TRENDS
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Malignant neoplasms of the liver are among the most frequent cancers worldwide. Given the diversity of options for liver cancer therapy, the choice of treatment depends on various parameters including patient condition, tumor size and location, liver function, and previous interventions. To address this issue, we present the first approach to treatment strategy planning based on holistic processing of patient-individual data, practical knowledge (i.e., case knowledge), and factual knowledge (e.g., clinical guidelines and studies). METHODS: The contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) a formalized dynamic patient model that incorporates all the heterogeneous data acquired for a specific patient in the whole course of disease treatment; (2) a concept for formalizing factual knowledge; and (3) a technical infrastructure that enables storing, accessing, and processing of heterogeneous data to support clinical decision making. RESULTS: Our patient model, which currently covers 602 patient-individual parameters, was successfully instantiated for 184 patients. It was sufficiently comprehensive to serve as the basis for the formalization of a total of 72 rules extracted from studies on patients with colorectal liver metastases or hepatocellular carcinoma. For a subset of 70 patients with these diagnoses, the system derived an average of [Formula: see text] assertions per patient. CONCLUSION: The proposed concept paves the way for holistic treatment strategy planning by enabling joint storing and processing of heterogeneous data from various information sources.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25847671
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  • 19
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; TRIAL ; ANTITUMOR IMMUNITY ; PHASE-III ; BLOCKADE ; ADVANCED MELANOMA ; CTLA-4 ; DOSE INTERLEUKIN-2
    Abstract: Recombinant VLP-based vaccines have been successfully used against 3 diseases caused by viral infections: Hepatitis B, cervical cancer and hepatitis E. The VLP approach is attracting increasing attention in vaccine design and development for human and veterinary use. This review summarizes the clinically relevant epitopes on the VLP antigens in successful human vaccines. These virion-like epitopes, which can be delineated with molecular biology, cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystallographic methods, are the prerequisites for these efficacious vaccines to elicit functional antibodies. The critical epitopes and key factors influencing these epitopes are discussed for the HEV, HPV and HBV vaccines. A pentamer (for HPV) or a dimer (for HEV and HBV), rather than a monomer, is the basic building block harboring critical epitopes for the assembly of VLP antigen. The processing and formulation of VLP-based vaccines need to be developed to promote the formation and stabilization of these epitopes in the recombinant antigens. Delineating the critical epitopes is essential for antigen design in the early phase of vaccine development and for critical quality attribute analysis in the commercial phase of vaccine manufacturing.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25751641
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  • 20
    Keywords: CANCER ; METABOLISM ; fibroblasts ; ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA ; MUTATIONS ; PURIFICATION ; CHILDREN ; ENZYME ; PHOSPHORIBOSYLPYROPHOSPHATE SYNTHETASE SUPERACTIVITY ; NOVO NUCLEOTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS
    Abstract: Relapse is the leading cause of mortality in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Among chemotherapeutics, thiopurines are key drugs in ALL combination therapy. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified relapse-specific mutations in the phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1 gene (PRPS1), which encodes a rate-limiting purine biosynthesis enzyme, in 24/358 (6.7%) relapsed childhood B cell ALL (B-ALL) cases. All individuals who harbored PRPS1 mutations relapsed early during treatment, and mutated ALL clones expanded exponentially before clinical relapse. Our functional analyses of PRPS1 mutants uncovered a new chemotherapy-resistance mechanism involving reduced feedback inhibition of de novo purine biosynthesis and competitive inhibition of thiopurine activation. Notably, the de novo purine synthesis inhibitor lometrexol effectively abrogated PRPS1 mutant-driven drug resistance. These results highlight the importance of constitutive activation of the de novo purine synthesis pathway in thiopurine resistance, and they offer therapeutic strategies for the treatment of relapsed and thiopurine-resistant ALL.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25962120
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  • 21
    Keywords: CANCER ; INHIBITION ; mechanisms ; LIFE-SPAN ; ANTIOXIDANT ; FLAVONOIDS ; NATURAL-PRODUCT METHYLTRANSFERASES ; STRUCTURE REFINEMENT ; TISSUE-INJURY ; PHENIX
    Abstract: Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as important signaling molecules, but in excess they can damage biomolecules. ROS regulation is therefore of key importance. Several polyphenols in general and flavonoids in particular have the potential to generate hydroxyl radicals, the most hazardous among all ROS. However, the generation of a hydroxyl radical and subsequent ROS formation can be prevented by methylation of the hydroxyl group of the flavonoids. O-Methylation is performed by O-methyltransferases, members of the S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent O-methyltransferase superfamily involved in the secondary metabolism of many species across all kingdoms. In the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina, a well established aging model, the O-methyltransferase (PaMTH1) was reported to accumulate in total and mitochondrial protein extracts during aging. In vitro functional studies revealed flavonoids and in particular myricetin as its potential substrate. The molecular architecture of PaMTH1 and the mechanism of the methyl transfer reaction remain unknown. Here, we report the crystal structures of PaMTH1 apoenzyme, PaMTH1-SAM (co-factor), and PaMTH1-S-adenosyl homocysteine (by-product) co-complexes refined to 2.0, 1.9, and 1.9 A, respectively. PaMTH1 forms a tight dimer through swapping of the N termini. Each monomer adopts the Rossmann fold typical for many SAM-binding methyltransferases. Structural comparisons between different O-methyltransferases reveal a strikingly similar co-factor binding pocket but differences in the substrate binding pocket, indicating specific molecular determinants required for substrate selection. Furthermore, using NMR, mass spectrometry, and site-directed active site mutagenesis, we show that PaMTH1 catalyzes the transfer of the methyl group from SAM to one hydroxyl group of the myricetin in a cation-dependent manner.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25979334
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  • 22
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; DIFFERENTIATION ; DNA methylation ; KAPPA-B ; HYPOMETHYLATION ; MICRORNA TARGETS ; HUMAN CELL-TYPES
    Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and their deregulation is involved in tumor development. Epigenetic gene silencing in cancer by DNA methylation contributes to the silencing of tumor-suppressor genes, including miRNAs. We have recently shown that the promoter of miR-708 is aberrantly methylated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To characterize the molecular signaling networks that are influenced by miR-708, we performed a luciferase-based screen evaluating the effects of ectopic miR-708 expression on leukemia-relevant signaling pathways. We found that miR-708 strongly repressed NF-kappaB signaling, a pathway known to be deregulated in CLL. Among the predicted miR-708 targets was IKKbeta (inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells, kinase-beta/IKBKB), a key kinase facilitating NF-kappaB signaling. We validated the interaction of miR-708 with the 3'-untranslated region of IKKbeta and found that miR-708 overexpression represses endogenous IKKbeta. Phosphorylation of the IKKbeta target IkappaBalpha and expression of known NF-kappaB target genes were impaired by miR-708. Furthermore, we identified an enhancer region downstream of the miR-708 promoter that displays a distinct DNA methylation status in CLL. High enhancer methylation is significantly correlated with lower miR-708 expression and is predominantly found in patients with poor prognosis and shorter time to treatment. These results demonstrate that miR-708 regulates the NF-kappaB pathway by targeting IKKbeta, and that methylation of a key enhancer region contributes to its suppression in CLL.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25704289
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  • 23
    Keywords: CANCER ; RISK ; IMPACT ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; MEN ; SMOKERS ; PRODUCTS ; SMOKING-CESSATION ; 4 COUNTRY SURVEY
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To examine if exclusive Roll-Your-Own (RYO) tobacco use relative to factory-made (FM) cigarette use has been rising over time, to determine the extent to which economic motives and perceptions that RYO cigarettes are less harmful act as primary motivations for use, and to examine the association of income and education with the level of RYO tobacco use among smokers in four European countries. METHODS: Data were obtained from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys, and a cohort sample of 7070 smokers from the Netherlands, Germany, France and UK were interviewed between June 2006 and December 2012. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used to assess trends in RYO use, and whether RYO consumption varied by socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: Exclusive RYO use over the study period has increased significantly in the UK from 26.4% in 2007 to 32.7% in 2010 (p〈0.001); France from 12.2% in 2006 to 19.1% in 2012 (p〈0.001); and Germany from 12.7% in 2007 to 18.6% in 2011 (p=0.031), with increased borderline significantly in the Netherlands (31.7% to 34.3%, p=0.052), from 2008 to 2010. Over three-quarters of users in each of the study countries indicated that lower price was a reason why they smoked RYO. Just over a fourth of smokers in the UK, less than a fifth in France, and around a tenth in Germany and the Netherlands believed that RYO is healthier. Compared with exclusive FM users, exclusive RYO users were more likely to have lower incomes and lower education. CONCLUSIONS: Effective tobacco tax regulation is needed in the European Union and elsewhere to eliminate or reduce the price advantage of RYO tobacco. Additional health messages are also required to correct the misperception that RYO tobacco is healthier than FM cigarettes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26101043
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  • 24
    Keywords: CANCER ; carcinoma ; NETWORK ; MELANOMA ; INSIGHTS ; Langerhans cell histiocytosis ; BRAF V600E MUTATION ; MEK INHIBITION
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare form of histiocytosis characterised by uncontrolled chronic inflammation. The oncogenic BRAF(V600E) mutation has been reported in biopsies in 19 out of 37 patients with ECD from the largest published cohort, but never found in the patients' peripheral blood. Also, the role of the mutation in the pathogenesis of the disease has not been elucidated yet. BRAF(V600E) has been associated with oncogene-induced senescence (OIS), a protective mechanism against oncogenic events, characterised by the induction of proinflammatory pathways. METHODS: We verified the BRAF status in biopsies and peripheral blood from 18 patients with ECD from our cohort and matched controls by means of immunohistochemistry and of an ultrasensitive assay, based on the combination of a locked nucleic acid PCR and pyrosequencing. Droplet digital PCR was used to confirm the findings. We also evaluated the presence of senescence markers in ECD histiocytes. RESULTS: BRAF(V600E) mutation was present in all the biopsy and peripheral blood samples from patients with ECD and in none of the controls. ECD histiocytes and a fraction of circulating monocytes from patients with ECD showed signs of a constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Moreover, BRAF-mutated histiocytes expressed markers of OIS. CONCLUSIONS: The oncogenic BRAF(V600E) mutation is present in biopsies and in the peripheral blood from all patients with ECD who were evaluated and is associated with OIS. These findings have significant implications for the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of ECD.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24671772
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  • 25
    Keywords: CANCER ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; BONE-MARROW ; STEM-CELLS ; NK cells ; ADIPOSE-TISSUE ; UMBILICAL-CORD BLOOD ; PEDIATRIC-PATIENTS ; MARROW-DERIVED MYOFIBROBLASTS ; GROWTH IN-VITRO
    Abstract: The clinical use of bone marrow derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in different settings ranging from tissue engineering to immunotherapies has prompted investigations on the properties of these cells in a variety of other tissues. Particularly the role of MSCs in solid tumors has been the subject of many experimental approaches. While a clear phenotypical distinction of tumor associated fibroblasts (TAFs) and MSCs within the tumor microenvironment is still missing, the homing of bone marrow MSCs in tumor sites has been extensively studied. Both, tumor-promoting and tumor-inhibiting effects of BM-MSCs have been described in this context. This ambiguity requires a reappraisal of the different studies and experimental methods employed. Here, we review the current literature on tumor-promoting and tumor-inhibiting effects of BM-MSCs with a particular emphasis on their interplay with components of the immune system and also highlight a potential role of MSCs as cell of origin for certain mesenchymal tumors.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26273308
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  • 26
    Keywords: CANCER ; DISEASE ; ASSOCIATION ; MARKERS ; VARIANT ; V600E mutation ; CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES ; BRAF(V600E) MUTATION ; PROMOTER MUTATIONS ; DISTANT METASTASIS
    Abstract: The tall cell (TC) variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has an unfavorable prognosis. The diagnostic criteria remain inconsistent, and the role of a minor TC component is unclear. Molecular diagnostic markers are not available; however, there are two potential candidates: BRAF V600E and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations. Using a novel approach, we enriched a collective with PTCs that harbored an adverse outcome, which overcame the limited statistical power of most studies. This enabled us to review 125 PTC patients, 57 of which had an adverse outcome. The proportion of TCs that constituted a poor prognosis was assessed. All of the tumors underwent sequencing for TERT promoter and BRAF V600E mutational status and were stained with an antibody to detect the BRAF V600E mutation. A 10% cutoff for TCs was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. Multivariate analysis showed that TCs above 10% were the only significant factor for overall, tumor-specific, and relapse-free survival. Seven percent of the cases had a TERT promoter mutation, whereas 61% demonstrated a BRAF mutation. The presence of TC was significantly associated with TERT promoter and BRAF mutations. TERT predicted highly significant tumor relapse (P〈0.001). PTCs comprised of at least 10% TCs are associated with an adverse clinical outcome and should be reported accordingly. BRAF did not influence patient outcome. Nevertheless, a positive status should encourage the search for TCs. TERT promoter mutations are a strong predictor of tumor relapse, but their role as a surrogate marker for TCs is limited.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25870252
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  • 27
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROTEINS ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; MUTATIONS ; SUBGROUPS ; MYC
    Abstract: Genomic characterization of medulloblastoma has improved molecular risk classification but struggles to define functional biological processes, particularly for the most aggressive subgroups. We present here a novel proteomic approach to this problem using a reference library of stable isotope labeled medulloblastoma-specific proteins as a spike-in standard for accurate quantification of the tumor proteome. Utilizing high-resolution mass spectrometry, we quantified the tumor proteome of group 3 medulloblastoma cells and demonstrate that high-risk MYC amplified tumors can be segregated based on protein expression patterns. We cross-validated the differentially expressed protein candidates using an independent transcriptomic data set and further confirmed them in a separate cohort of medulloblastoma tissue samples to identify the most robust proteogenomic differences. Interestingly, highly expressed proteins associated with MYC-amplified tumors were significantly related to glycolytic metabolic pathways via alternative splicing of pyruvate kinase (PKM) by heterogeneous ribonucleoproteins (HNRNPs). Furthermore, when maintained under hypoxic conditions, these MYC-amplified tumors demonstrated increased viability compared to non-amplified tumors within the same subgroup. Taken together, these findings highlight the power of proteomics as an integrative platform to help prioritize genetic and molecular drivers of cancer biology and behavior.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25970789
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  • 28
    Keywords: CANCER ; GENE ; MYCN ; EXPRESSION PROFILES ; receptor tyrosine kinase ; SYMPATHETIC NEURONS ; THERAPEUTIC TARGET ; ACTIVATING MUTATIONS ; MEK INHIBITION ; MUTATED NEUROBLASTOMA
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Activating ALK mutations are present in almost 10% of primary neuroblastomas and mark patients for treatment with small-molecule ALK inhibitors in clinical trials. However, recent studies have shown that multiple mechanisms drive resistance to these molecular therapies. We anticipated that detailed mapping of the oncogenic ALK-driven signaling in neuroblastoma can aid to identify potential fragile nodes as additional targets for combination therapies. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To achieve this goal, transcriptome profiling was performed in neuroblastoma cell lines with the ALK(F1174L) or ALK(R1275Q) hotspot mutations, ALK amplification, or wild-type ALK following pharmacologic inhibition of ALK using four different compounds. Next, we performed cross-species genomic analyses to identify commonly transcriptionally perturbed genes in MYCN/ALK(F1174L) double transgenic versus MYCN transgenic mouse tumors as compared with the mutant ALK-driven transcriptome in human neuroblastomas. RESULTS: A 77-gene ALK signature was established and successfully validated in primary neuroblastoma samples, in a neuroblastoma cell line with ALK(F1174L) and ALK(R1275Q) regulable overexpression constructs and in other ALKomas. In addition to the previously established PI3K/AKT/mTOR, MAPK/ERK, and MYC/MYCN signaling branches, we identified that mutant ALK drives a strong upregulation of MAPK negative feedback regulators and upregulates RET and RET-driven sympathetic neuronal markers of the cholinergic lineage. CONCLUSIONS: We provide important novel insights into the transcriptional consequences and the complexity of mutant ALK signaling in this aggressive pediatric tumor. The negative feedback loop of MAPK pathway inhibitors may affect novel ALK inhibition therapies, whereas mutant ALK induced RET signaling can offer novel opportunities for testing ALK-RET oriented molecular combination therapies. Clin Cancer Res; 21(14); 3327-39. (c)2015 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25805801
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  • 29
    Keywords: CANCER ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; IDENTIFICATION ; FUSION ; SOFT-TISSUE SARCOMAS ; TIME RT-PCR ; CHOP ; receptor tyrosine kinase ; THERAPEUTIC TARGETS ; SELECTIVE INHIBITOR
    Abstract: Myxoid liposarcomas account for more than one third of liposarcomas and about 10% of all adult soft tissue sarcomas. The tumors are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations leading to the chimeric oncogenes FUS-DDIT3 or EWS1R-DDIT3. The encoded fusion proteins act as aberrant transcription factors. Therefore, we implemented comparative expression analyses using whole-genome microarrays in tumor and fat tissue samples. We aimed at identifying differentially expressed genes which may serve as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers or as therapeutic targets. Microarray analyses revealed overexpression of FGFR2 and other members of the FGF/FGFR family. Overexpression of FGFR2 was validated by qPCR, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis in primary tumor samples. Treatment of the myxoid liposarcoma cell lines MLS 402 and MLS 1765 with the FGFR inhibitors PD173074, TKI258 (dovitinib) and BGJ398 as well as specific siRNAs reduced cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and delayed cell migration. Combination of FGFR inhibitors with trabectedin further increased the effect. Our study demonstrates overexpression of FGFR2 and a functional role of FGFR signaling in myxoid liposarcoma. As FGFR inhibition showed effects on proliferation and cell migration and induced apoptosis in vitro, our data indicate the potential use of FGFR inhibitors as a targeted therapy for these tumors.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26036639
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  • 30
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    Clinical Epigenetics 7 (1), 94- 
    Keywords: CANCER ; HETEROGENEITY
    Abstract: Scientific data has been transformed into music in order to raise awareness in the non-scientific community. While the general public is nowadays familiar with the genetic code, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding epigenetic regulation. By making use of the binary nature of the methylome, we here describe a method that transforms methylation patterns into music. The resulting musical pieces show decent complexity and allow the audible recognition between music and underlying methylation state. This approach might therefore facilitate the recognition of complex methylation patterns and increase awareness for epigenetic regulation in the general public.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26357527
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  • 31
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; BRAF INHIBITION
    Abstract: Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is marked by near 100% mutational frequency of BRAFV600E mutations. Recurrent cooperating genetic events that may contribute to HCL pathogenesis or affect the clinical course of HCL are currently not described. Therefore, we performed whole exome sequencing to explore the mutational landscape of purine analog refractory HCL. In addition to the disease-defining BRAFV600E mutations, we identified mutations in EZH2, ARID1A, and recurrent inactivating mutations of the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1B (p27). Targeted deep sequencing of CDKN1B in a larger cohort of HCL patients identify deleterious CDKN1B mutations in 16% of patients with HCL (n = 13 of 81). In 11 of 13 patients the CDKN1B mutation was clonal, implying an early role of CDKN1B mutations in the pathogenesis of HCL. CDKN1B mutations were not found to impact clinical characteristics or outcome in this cohort. These data identify HCL as having the highest frequency of CDKN1B mutations among cancers and identify CDNK1B as the second most common mutated gene in HCL. Moreover, given the known function of CDNK1B, these data suggest a novel role for alterations in regulation of cell cycle and senescence in HCL with CDKN1B mutations.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26065650
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  • 32
    Keywords: CANCER ; VARIANTS ; IDENTIFICATION ; etiology ; ORIGIN ; METAANALYSIS ; susceptibility loci ; DMRT1 ; WIDE ASSOCIATION ; MISSING HERITABILITY
    Abstract: A sizable fraction of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) risk is expected to be explained by heritable factors. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified a number of common SNPs associated with TGCT. It is however, unclear how much common variation there is left to be accounted for by other, yet to be identified, common SNPs and what contribution common genetic variation makes to the heritable risk of TGCT. We approached this question using two complimentary analytical techniques. We undertook a population-based analysis of the Swedish family-cancer database, through which we estimated that the heritability of TGCT at 48.9% (CI:47.2%-52.3%). We also applied Genome-Wide Complex Trait Analysis to 922 cases and 4,842 controls to estimate the heritability of TGCT. The heritability explained by known common risk SNPs identified by GWAS was 9.1%, whereas the heritability explained by all common SNPs was 37.4% (CI:27.6%-47.2%). These complementary findings indicate that the known TGCT SNPs only explain a small proportion of the heritability and many additional common SNPs remain to be identified. The data also suggests that a fraction of the heritability of TGCT is likely to be explained by other classes of genetic variation, such as rare disease-causing alleles.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26349679
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  • 33
    Keywords: CANCER ; DIAGNOSIS ; MORTALITY ; radiation ; EXPERIENCE ; MEN ; pathology ; GUIDELINES ; ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE ; FUSION BIOPSY
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Gleason grading is the strongest predictor of prostate cancer outcome and commonly used to decide for or against the different treatment options. However, Gleason upgrading between systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-GB) and radical prostatectomy (RPE) has frequently been observed. With respect to the high accuracy of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) for high-grade cancers and the higher percentage of cancer involvement per biopsy core in targeted MR-guided prostate biopsy (MR-GB), we hypothesized that MR-GB reduces the risk of Gleason upgrading on RPE as compared to the gold standard. The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of Gleason upgrading on RPE for MR-GB, TRUS-GB, and the combination of both biopsy modalities. METHODS: Overall, 52 consecutive patients with RPE had received an mpMRI of the prostate and subsequently underwent targeted MR-GB prior to surgery. All patients underwent an additional TRUS-GB during the same biopsy session. Gleason grading was measured by two different methods: the conventional Gleason score (cGS = primary + secondary pattern) and the highest Gleason pattern (hGP). RESULTS: In relation to TRUS-GB, MR-GB alone showed lower rates of upgrading when comparing the cGS (40.4 vs. 50.0 %) and the hGP (21.2 vs. 32.7 %). The combination of MR-GB and TRUS-GB showed the lowest rates of upgrading (cGS: 28.8 %; hGP: 11.5 %), and compared to TRUS-GB, significantly reduced the risk of upgrading for both measurements of Gleason grading (cGS: OR 0.41, 95 % CL 0.18-0.91, p = 0.0289; hGP: OR 0.27, 95 % CL 0.10-0.75, p = 0.0123). CONCLUSION: MpMRI and targeted MR-GB are useful tools to better characterize and stage the extent of disease, and therefore enable the urologist to better risk-stratify and counsel the patient. The combined use of targeted MR-GB and TRUS-GB presents the least risk of Gleason underestimation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26013424
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  • 34
    Keywords: CANCER ; KINASE ; MELANOMA ; MUTATIONS ; TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION ; TUMOR-GROWTH ; DEHYDROGENASE ; HAIRY-CELL LEUKEMIA ; LYSINE ACETYLATION ; KETONE-BODY METABOLISM
    Abstract: Many human cancers share similar metabolic alterations, including the Warburg effect. However, it remains unclear whether oncogene-specific metabolic alterations are required for tumor development. Here we demonstrate a "synthetic lethal" interaction between oncogenic BRAF V600E and a ketogenic enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HMGCL). HMGCL expression is upregulated in BRAF V600E-expressing human primary melanoma and hairy cell leukemia cells. Suppression of HMGCL specifically attenuates proliferation and tumor growth potential of human melanoma cells expressing BRAF V600E. Mechanistically, active BRAF upregulates HMGCL through an octamer transcription factor Oct-1, leading to increased intracellular levels of HMGCL product, acetoacetate, which selectively enhances binding of BRAF V600E but not BRAF wild-type to MEK1 in V600E-positive cancer cells to promote activation of MEK-ERK signaling. These findings reveal a mutation-specific mechanism by which oncogenic BRAF V600E "rewires" metabolic and cell signaling networks and signals through the Oct-1-HMGCL-acetoacetate axis to selectively promote BRAF V600E-dependent tumor development.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26145173
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  • 35
    Keywords: CANCER ; INHIBITION ; KINASE ; CELL-SURVIVAL ; MUTATION ; METASTATIC MELANOMA ; MALIGNANT-MELANOMA ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR ; RAPAMYCIN ; AKT PHOSPHORYLATION
    Abstract: Several studies have highlighted the importance of the PI3K pathway in melanocytes and its frequent over-activation in melanoma. However, little is known about regulation of the PI3K pathway in melanocytic cells. We showed that normal human melanocytes are less sensitive to selective PI3K or mTOR inhibitors than to dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors. The resistance to PI3K inhibitor was due to a rapid AKT reactivation limiting the inhibitor effect on proliferation. Reactivation of AKT was linked to a feedback mechanism involving the mTORC2 complex and in particular its scaffold protein RICTOR. RICTOR overexpression in melanocytes disrupted the negative feedback, activated the AKT pathway and stimulated clonogenicity highlighting the importance of this feedback to restrict melanocyte proliferation. We found that the RICTOR locus is frequently amplified and overexpressed in melanoma and that RICTOR over-expression in NRAS-transformed melanocytes stimulates their clonogenicity, demonstrating that RICTOR amplification can cooperate with NRAS mutation to stimulate melanoma proliferation. These results show that RICTOR plays a central role in PI3K pathway negative feedback in melanocytes and that its deregulation could be involved in melanoma development.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26356562
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  • 36
    Keywords: CANCER ; RESPONSES ; antibodies ; PARTICLES ; EFFICACY ; EPITOPE ; IMMUNOGENICITY ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS VACCINES ; CAPSID PROTEIN L2
    Abstract: Current prophylactic virus-like particle (VLP) human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are based on the L1 major capsid protein and provide robust but virus type-restricted protection. Moreover, VLP vaccines have a high production cost, require cold-chain storage, and are thus not readily implementable in developing countries, which endure 85% of the cervical cancer-related death burden worldwide. In contrast with L1, immunization with minor capsid protein L2 elicits broad cross-neutralization, and we previously showed that insertion of a peptide spanning amino acids 20-38 of L2 into bacterial thioredoxin (Trx) greatly enhances its immunogenicity. Building on this finding, we use, here, four different neutralization assays to demonstrate that low doses of a trivalent Trx-L2 vaccine, incorporating L2(20-38) epitopes from HPV16, HPV31 and HPV51, and formulated in a human-compatible adjuvant, induce broadly protective responses. Specifically, we show that this vaccine, which uses a far-divergent archaebacterial thioredoxin as scaffold and is amenable to an easy one-step thermal purification, induces robust cross-neutralization against 12 of the 13 known oncogenic HPV types. Immune performance measured with two different in vitro neutralization assays was corroborated by the results of mouse cervico-vaginal challenge and passive transfer experiments indicating robust cross-protection also in vivo. Altogether, our results attest to the potential of Trx-L2 as a thermostable second-generation HPV vaccine particularly well suited for low-resource countries. Cancer Prev Res; 8(10); 932-41. (c)2015 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26170394
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  • 37
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELL ; CLASSIFICATION ; DIFFERENTIATION ; DEHYDROGENASE ; CEREBRAL BLOOD-VOLUME ; GLIOBLASTOMA ; tumor grade ; GROWTH-FACTOR EXPRESSION ; ONCOMETABOLITE 2-HYDROXYGLUTARATE
    Abstract: The recent identification of IDH mutations in gliomas and several other cancers suggests that this pathway is involved in oncogenesis; however effector functions are complex and yet incompletely understood. To study the regulatory effects of IDH on hypoxia-inducible-factor 1-alpha (HIF1A), a driving force in hypoxia-initiated angiogenesis, we analyzed mRNA expression profiles of 288 glioma patients and show decreased expression of HIF1A targets on a single-gene and pathway level, strong inhibition of upstream regulators such as HIF1A and downstream biological functions such as angio- and vasculogenesis in IDH mutant tumors. Genotype/imaging phenotype correlation analysis with relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) MRI - a robust and non-invasive estimate of tumor angiogenesis - in 73 treatment-naive patients with low-grade and anaplastic gliomas showed that a one-unit increase in rCBV corresponded to a two-third decrease in the odds for an IDH mutation and correctly predicted IDH mutation status in 88% of patients. Together, these findings (1) show that IDH mutation status is associated with a distinct angiogenesis transcriptome signature which is non-invasively predictable with rCBV imaging and (2) highlight the potential future of radiogenomics (i.e. the correlation between cancer imaging and genomic features) towards a more accurate diagnostic workup of brain tumors.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26538165
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  • 38
    Keywords: ANGIOGENESIS ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH-FACTOR ; PERFUSION ; PROGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE ; POOR-PROGNOSIS ; ENDOCRINE TUMORS ; INTRATUMORAL MICROVESSEL DENSITY
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model-derived parameters and histologically determined microvascularity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From April 2013 to May 2014, 42 patients with malignant pancreatic tumors were prospectively examined with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging using a breath-hold variant with 9 b values (0-800 seconds/mm). Intravoxel incoherent motion parameters were extracted from 2 types of volumes of interest (VOIs), one VOI encompassing the total tumor volume (TTV) and another VOI corresponding to the histological regional tumor location (RTV). In 36 PDACs and 6 PNETs, microvessel analysis was performed based on representative tissue sections from the resected tumor tissue, and microvessel density (MVD) as well as microvessel area were calculated. We performed a Pearson-correlation test to study the relationship between IVIM-derived and histology-derived parameters. RESULTS: The DWI-IVIM-derived flowing blood volume fraction f was significantly lower in PDACs compared to PNETs (9.9% +/- 5.4% vs 15.5% +/- 5.2%; P 〈 0.0001), the diffusion coefficient D was significantly higher (1.2 +/- 0.18 x 10 vs 1.03 +/- 0.15 x 10 mm/s; P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the pseudodiffusion coefficient D* (44.9 +/- 52.9 x10 vs 53.8 +/- 51.2 x 10 mm/s). Microvessel density was significantly lower in PDACs (36.8 +/- 25.9/mm vs 80.0 +/- 26.1/mm; P = 0.0005) compared to PNETs. When derived from the RTV, the flowing blood volume fraction f and MVD of PDACs and PNETs showed excellent correlation (r = 0.85). The correlation using the TTV was moderate (0.64). f (RTV and TTV) and microvessel area showed moderate correlation (r = 0.54/0.47). CONCLUSIONS: Intravoxel incoherent motion-derived flowing blood volume fraction f and MVD demonstrate an excellent correlation with histological tumor features in PDAC and PNET. Consequently, IVIM DWI may serve as noninvasive marker of tumor vascularity in different types of pancreatic neoplasms.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26186280
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  • 39
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; RISK-FACTORS ; FREQUENCY ; LYMPHOCYTES ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; SUBTYPES ; HEALTHY-INDIVIDUALS
    Abstract: PURPOSE: The strong association between t(14;18) translocation and follicular lymphoma (FL) is well known. However, the determinants of this chromosomal aberration and their role in t(14;18) associated FL remain to be established. METHODS: t(14;18) frequency within the B cell lymphoma 2 major breakpoint region was determined for 135 incident FL cases and 251 healthy controls as part of a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed in DNA extracted from blood samples taken at recruitment. The relationship between prevalence and frequency of the translocation with baseline anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary factors in cases and controls was determined. Unconditional logistic regression was used to explore whether the risk of FL associated with these factors differed in t(14;18)(+) as compared to t(14;18)(-) cases. RESULTS: Among incident FL cases, educational level (chi (2) p = 0.021) and height (chi (2) p = 0.025) were positively associated with t(14;18) prevalence, and cases with high frequencies [t(14;18)(HF)] were significantly taller (t test p value = 0.006). These findings were not replicated in the control population, although there were a number of significant associations with dietary variables. Further analyses revealed that height was a significant risk factor for t(14;18)(+) FL [OR 6.31 (95 % CI 2.11, 18.9) in the tallest versus the shortest quartile], but not t(14;18)(-) cases. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a potential role for lifestyle factors in the prevalence and frequency of the t(14;18) translocation. The observation that the etiology of FL may differ by t(14;18) status, particularly with regard to height, supports the subdivision of FL by translocation status.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26424368
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  • 40
    Keywords: CANCER ; GENOME ; LYMPHOMA ; PATTERNS ; TUMOR PROGRESSION ; REVEALS ; CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC-LEUKEMIA ; HETEROGENEITY ; BRAF MUTATIONS ; DRIVER
    Abstract: Which genetic alterations drive tumorigenesis and how they evolve over the course of disease and therapy are central questions in cancer biology. Here we identify 44 recurrently mutated genes and 11 recurrent somatic copy number variations through whole-exome sequencing of 538 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and matched germline DNA samples, 278 of which were collected in a prospective clinical trial. These include previously unrecognized putative cancer drivers (RPS15, IKZF3), and collectively identify RNA processing and export, MYC activity, and MAPK signalling as central pathways involved in CLL. Clonality analysis of this large data set further enabled reconstruction of temporal relationships between driver events. Direct comparison between matched pre-treatment and relapse samples from 59 patients demonstrated highly frequent clonal evolution. Thus, large sequencing data sets of clinically informative samples enable the discovery of novel genes associated with cancer, the network of relationships between the driver events, and their impact on disease relapse and clinical outcome.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26466571
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  • 41
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; INHIBITION ; PATHWAY ; MIGRATION ; HEPATOCYTE GROWTH-FACTOR ; C-MET ; PEDIATRIC MEDULLOBLASTOMA ; GENETIC PROFILES
    Abstract: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor, with metastases present at diagnosis conferring a poor prognosis. Mechanisms of dissemination are poorly understood and metastatic lesions are genetically divergent from the matched primary tumor. Effective and less toxic therapies that target both compartments have yet to be identified. Here we report that the analysis of several large non-overlapping cohorts of medulloblastoma patients reveal MET kinase as a marker of sonic hedgehog (SHH) driven medulloblastoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of phosphorylated, active MET kinase in an independent patient cohort confirmed its correlation with increased tumor relapse and poor survival, suggesting that SHH medulloblastoma patients may benefit from MET-targeted therapy. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the approved MET inhibitor foretinib could suppress MET activation, decrease tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in SHH medulloblastomas in vitro and in vivo. Foretinib penetrated the blood-brain barrier and was effective in both the primary and metastatic tumor compartments. In established mouse xenograft or transgenic models of metastatic SHH medulloblastoma, foretinib administration reduced the growth of the primary tumor, decreased the incidence of metastases and increased host survival. Taken together, our results provide a strong rationale to clinically evaluate foretinib as an effective therapy for patients with SHH-driven medulloblastoma.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25391241
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  • 42
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; IN-VITRO ; DIFFERENTIATION ; FAMILY ; CARCINOGENESIS ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS ; HEAD ; inflammation ; DEPENDENT PATHWAY
    Abstract: S100/calgranulins (S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12) are key players of innate immune function and elevated levels are a characteristic feature of acute and chronic inflammation, and inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. However, reduced S100A8 and S100A9 expression has been detected for squamous cell carcinoma, including the head and neck region (HNSCC), which originate from mucosal epithelia with abundant expression of both proteins under physiological conditions. In contrast to S100A8 and S100A9, only sparse information is available for S100A12 and a comparative study of all three S100/calgranulins in HNSCC is still missing. We analyzed S100/calgranulin protein levels in a retrospective patient cohort (n=131) of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays. Common characteristics of all three S100/calgranulins were: (i) abundant expression in supra-basal keratinocytes of normal mucosa with predominant nuclear staining, (ii) low expression in 30.4-51.9% of primary OPSCCs and (iii) variable accumulation of S100/calgranulin-positive immune cells in the tumor stroma. These features were associated with histopathological characteristics, such as tumor grade, lymph node metastasis and tumor stage. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analysis revealed worse overall survival of OPSCC patients with simultaneous reduction of S100A8 and S100A12 expression, while expression of S100A9 or presence of the S100A8/S100A9 heterodimer had no impact, suggesting distinct regulation and function of individual S100/calgranulins in the pathogenesis of HNSCCs. What's new? Inflammation can alter the expression of specific proteins, and in the context of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which involves a high degree of inflammation, those changes may be of diagnostic or prognostic significance. Here, reduced expression of calcium-binding S100/calgranulin proteins was found to be a common feature of oropharyngeal SCC. Moreover, simultaneous low protein expression of S100A8 and S100A12 in tumor cells was an independent risk factor for unfavorable overall survival. The regulation and function of S100/calgranulins likely is context-dependent, with differences between mucosal and squamous epithelia.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25302747
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  • 43
    Keywords: CANCER ; OBESITY ; ADIPOSE-TISSUE ; BINDING PROTEIN ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ; CYSTATIN C ; ADIPONECTIN LEVELS ; YOUNG MEN
    Abstract: Purpose To investigate whether blood-based biomarkers can improve the prediction of visceral fat volume as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and thus be used as proxies of visceral adiposity in large-scale epidemiological studies. Methods Whole-body MRI was performed to determine overall and regional body compartments in 542 participants aged 48-80 years (52 % men) of the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Anthropometric measures were taken, and clinical chemistry profiles including 15 routine biomarkers were obtained. Furthermore, nine novel biomarkers of visceral fat were assayed in a discovery sample of 100 participants. Multivariable regression models were calculated to assess associations between anthropometric variables, biomarkers, and visceral fat volume. Results The proportion of variance in visceral fat volume explained by anthropometric measures was 65.2 % in women and 60.8 % in men. By using blood-based biomarkers in addition to anthropometric indices, the variance in visceral fat volume explained could be increased by 4.8 % in women and 4.0 % in men. After backward selection, HbA1c, triglycerides, and adiponectin remained in the final multivariable regression model in women, while in men hsCRP, leukocytes, AST (GOT), GGT, LDL, and adiponectin remained in the final model. Conclusions In the present study, blood-based biomarkers moderately improved the prediction of visceral fat volume. This finding suggests that the underestimation of true associations between visceral fat and disease outcomes in epidemiological studies remains critical, even when using comprehensive sets of anthropometric and biomarker variables as proxies of visceral adiposity.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25098781
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  • 44
    Keywords: CANCER ; PATHWAY ; ACTIVATION ; DNA-DAMAGE ; MULTICENTER TRIAL ; PHOSPHATASE ; PPM1D ; CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR CXCR4 ; P53 FUNCTION ; CHK2 KINASE
    Abstract: Recent studies suggest that medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, is comprised of four disease variants. The WIP1 oncogene is overexpressed in Group 3 and 4 tumors, which contain medulloblastomas with the most aggressive clinical behavior. Our data demonstrate increased WIP1 expression in metastatic medulloblastomas, and inferior progression-free and overall survival of patients with WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma. Microarray analysis identified upregulation of genes involved in tumor metastasis, including the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4, in medulloblastoma cells with high WIP1 expression. Stimulation with the CXCR4 ligand SDF1alpha activated PI-3 kinase signaling, and promoted growth and invasion of WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma cells in a p53-dependent manner. When xenografted into the cerebellum of immunodeficient mice, medulloblastoma cells with stable or endogenous high WIP1 expression exhibited strong expression of CXCR4 and activated AKT in primary and invasive tumor cells. WIP1 or CXCR4 knockdown inhibited medulloblastoma growth and invasion. WIP1 knockdown also improved the survival of mice xenografted with WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma cells. WIP1 knockdown inhibited cell surface localization of CXCR4 by suppressing expression of the G protein receptor kinase 5, GRK5. Restoration of wild-type GRK5 promoted Ser339 phosphorylation of CXCR4 and inhibited the growth of WIP1-stable medulloblastoma cells. Conversely, GRK5 knockdown inhibited Ser339 phosphorylation of CXCR4, increased cell surface localization of CXCR4 and promoted the growth of medulloblastoma cells with low WIP1 expression. These results demonstrate crosstalk among WIP1, CXCR4 and GRK5, which may be important for the aggressive phenotype of a subclass of medulloblastomas in children.Oncogene advance online publication, 17 march 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.37.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24632620
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  • 45
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; GENE ; MICROARRAY DATA ; REVEALS ; POOR-PROGNOSIS ; nephroblastoma ; DICER1 MUTATIONS ; RIBONUCLEASE-III ; CLINICAL IMPACT
    Abstract: Blastemal histology in chemotherapy-treated pediatric Wilms tumors (nephroblastoma) is associated with adverse prognosis. To uncover the underlying tumor biology and find therapeutic leads for this subgroup, we analyzed 58 blastemal type Wilms tumors by exome and transcriptome sequencing and validated our findings in a large replication cohort. Recurrent mutations included a hotspot mutation (Q177R) in the homeo-domain of SIX/and SIX2 in tumors with high proliferative potential (18.1% of blastemal cases); mutations in the DROSHA/DGCR8 microprocessor genes (18.2% of blastemal cases); mutations in DICER1 and DIS3L2; and alterations in IGF2, MYCN, and TP53, the latter being strongly associated with dismal outcome. DROSHA and DGCR8 mutations strongly altered miRNA expression patterns in tumors, which was functionally validated in cell lines expressing mutant DROSHA.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published