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  • CELL  (31)
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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; INHIBITOR ; proliferation ; CELL ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; human ; GENERATION ; SYSTEM ; DISTINCT ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; cell line ; LINES ; ACTIVATION ; RESPONSES ; REDUCTION ; KERATINOCYTES ; SKIN ; CELL-LINES ; ISOFORM ; SUBUNIT ; Western-blot ; MEMBRANE ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; CYTOCHROME-C ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; PROTEIN LEVELS ; western blot ; HaCaT ; MUCOSA ; HOST-DEFENSE ; DEFENSE ; human skin and oral epithelial cells,oxidoreductase,p67phox,spin trapping,superoxide radical ; NAD(P)H OXIDASE ; OXYGEN RADICALS ; P47(PHOX) ; SUPEROXIDE-PRODUCTION
    Abstract: In non-phagocytic cells, superoxide has been implicated in physiological and pathological cellular functions in the skin and mucosa, such as, host defense, mitogenic responses, and malignant conversion. Here, we identify a constitutively expressed heme-flavoprotein NADPH oxidase (Nox) system as a source of superoxide in human skin (HaCaT) and gingival mucosal (GM16) keratinocyte cell lines. Western blot analysis showed that both cell lines expressed the phagocyte oxidase (phox) cytosolic proteins Rac1, p40phox, and p67phox. With respect to the catalytic flavoheme protein subunit, HaCaT membranes, which expressed p22phox, showed an absorbance peak at 558 nm indicative of a b-type cytochrome. At mRNA levels, both GM16 and HaCaT cells expressed gp91phox homologs Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4, however, HaCaT cells expressed very low levels of Nox1 mRNA. At protein levels, Nox1 was readily detected in HaCaT but was nearly undetectable in GM16 cells. Consistently, Nox activity of HaCaT membranes was demonstrated by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping and cytochrome c reduction, and the activity was sensitive to the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. V-max values were 20-fold lower than those reported for phagocytic oxidase. In conclusion, keratinocytes expressed a Nox distinct from the phox isoform of phagocytes providing molecular evidence for a source of superoxide that may regulate cell proliferation and host defense in skin and oral mucosa
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 2
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; PATHWAY ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TUMORS ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; INDUCTION ; CONTRAST ; SKIN ; LOCALIZATION ; BENIGN ; keratin ; skin tumors ; epidermis ; FOLLICLE ; HAIR-FOLLICLES ; HUMAN TYPE-I ; MATRIX ; BETA-CATENIN EXPRESSION ; CORTEX ; HAIR FOLLICLE ; hair follicles,human,transcription factors,tumors ; HOXC13 ; INVOLUCRIN
    Abstract: Human hair follicles exhibit a complex pattern of sequential hair keratin expression in the hair matrix, cuticle, and cortex. In pilomatricomas, that is, benign skin tumors thought to arise from germinative matrix cells of the hair follicle and retaining morphological signs of cortical differentiation, this differential hair keratin pattern has been shown to be faithfully preserved in the lower and upper transitional cell compartments of the tumors. Here we show that also the co-expression of hair keratin hHa5 with its regulatory nuclear homeoprotein HOXC13 in matrix cells of the hair follicle is maintained in lower transitional cells of pilomatricomas. In contrast, the nuclear co-expression of LEF1 and beta-catenin, which in the hair follicle has been postulated to initiate cortex cell differentiation through the induction of hair keratin hHa1 expression (Merill et al, Genes Dev 15:1688-1705, 2001), is not preserved in upper transitional cells of pilomatricomas. Although these cells correctly express hHa1, they are completely devoid of LEF1 and nuclear LEF1/beta-catenin co-expression is shifted to a subpopulation of hair keratin-free basaloid cells of the tumors. These data imply that unlike the normal hair follicle, cortical differentiation in pilomatricomas is not under the control of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15140206
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  • 3
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; proliferation ; CELL ; Germany ; INHIBITION ; VITRO ; SYSTEM ; DEATH ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; DRUG ; DIFFERENTIATION ; EPITHELIA ; ACTIVATION ; MARKER ; CONTRAST ; SKIN ; treatment ; ALPHA ; culture ; MATURATION ; CELL-DEATH ; ADHESION ; CELL-ADHESION ; RECEPTORS ; PROGRAMMED CELL-DEATH ; BARRIER FUNCTION ; TERMINAL DIFFERENTIATION ; AUTOIMMUNITY ; FUNCTIONAL-CHARACTERIZATION ; cell adhesion ; DRUGS ; ORGANOTYPIC COCULTURE ; cholinergic ; DARIERS-DISEASE ; KERATINOCYTE ADHESION ; NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTOR ; PEMPHIGUS-VULGARIS
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of cholinergic and anticholinergic drugs on epidermal physiology using organotypic cocultures (OTCs). Blocking of all acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) by combined treatment with mecamylamine and atropine or treatment with strychnine (blocking alpha 9nAChR) for 7-14 days resulted in a complete inhibition of epidermal differentiation and proliferation. Blockage of nicotinic (n) AChR with mecamylamine led to a less pronounced delay in epidermal differentiation and proliferation than blockage of muscarinic ( m) AChR with atropine, evidenced by reduced epithelial thickness and expression of terminal differentiation markers like cytokeratin 2e or filaggrin. In OTCs treated with atropine, mecamylamine, or strychnine, we could demonstrate intracellular lipid accumulation in the lower epidermal layers, indicating a severely disturbed epidermal barrier. In addition, we observed prominent acantholysis in the basal and lower suprabasal layers in mecamylamine-, atropine-, and strychnine-treated cultures, accompanied by a decreased expression of cell adhesion proteins. This globally reduced cell adhesion led to cell death via intrinsic activation of apoptosis. In contrast, stimulation of nAChR and mAChR with cholinergic drugs resulted in a significantly thickened epithelium, accompanied by an improved epithelial maturation. In summary, we show that epidermal AChR are crucially involved in the regulation of epidermal homeostasis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16810300
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; CELL ; CLINICAL-TRIAL ; COMBINATION ; evaluation ; Germany ; human ; IN-VIVO ; MODEL ; THERAPY ; NEW-YORK ; EFFICIENCY ; TRANSDUCTION ; primary ; prognosis ; DOMAIN ; culture ; GLYCOPROTEIN ; virus ; TRIAL ; TRIALS ; VECTORS ; VECTOR ; MEMBRANE ; CLINICAL-TRIALS ; chemotherapy ; EFFICIENT ; MELANOMA ; MALIGNANT-MELANOMA ; malignant melanoma ; CUTANEOUS MELANOMA ; ADENOVIRUS ; DACARBAZINE ; DOMAINS ; THERAPIES ; MELANOMA-CELLS ; VIROTHERAPY ; USA ; EFFICIENT TRANSDUCTION ; SHORT-TERM ; xenograft ; clinical trial ; ONCOLYTIC ADENOVIRUSES ; B ADENOVIRUSES ; CELLULAR RECEPTOR ; FUSOGENIC MEMBRANE-GLYCOPROTEINS ; REPLICATING ADENOVIRUS ; SUICIDE GENE-THERAPY ; ADENOVIRUS VECTORS ; IMMUNE-MEDIATED CONTROL ; oncolytic adenovirus
    Abstract: Advanced melanoma is associated with poor prognosis warranting the development of new therapeutics, such as oncolytic adenoviruses for immunovirotherapy. Since this approach critically depends on efficient transduction of targeted tumor cells, we screened a panel of 22 different adenovirus types for their internalization efficiency in melanoma cells. We demonstrated that the virions of Ad35, Ad38, and Ad3 have significantly higher internalization efficiency in melanoma cells than Ad5, so far the only adenovirus type used in clinical trials for melanoma. Therefore, we developed a conditionally replication-competent Ad5-based vector with the Ad35 fiber shaft and knob domains (Ad5/35) and compared its therapeutic efficacy with the homologous vector carrying the native Ad5 fiber. To further enhance virotherapy, we combined the oncolytic adenovirus vectors with intratumoral expression of measles virus fusogenic membrane glycoproteins H and F (MV-H/F) and dacarbazine chemotherapy. In a human melanoma xenograft model, established from a short-term culture of primary melanoma cells, we demonstrated that the Ad5/35-based therapy had a significantly greater anti-neoplastic effect than the homologous Ad5-based therapy. Furthermore, the combination of virotherapy, intratumoral expression of MV-H/F, and chemotherapy was clearly superior to single- or double-agent therapy. In conclusion, Ad35-based vectors are promising for the treatment of melanoma
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17960177
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  • 5
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; GENE ; GENES ; transcription ; LIGAND ; SKIN ; BIOLOGY ; fibroblasts ; TARGET ; IN-SITU ; MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; INDIVIDUALS ; TARGETS ; RECEPTORS ; DISSECTION ; SERUM ; mRNA ; hair ; USA ; THYROTROPIN RECEPTOR ; HPA axis ; CONNECTIVE-TISSUE ; CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE ; FUNCTIONAL-ROLE ; PIGMENTARY UNIT ; SMOOTH MUSCLE ACTIN ; TSH RECEPTOR
    Abstract: Pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) regulates thyroid hormone synthesis via receptors (TSH-R) expressed on thyroid epithelial cells. As the hair follicle (HF) is uniquely hormone-sensitive and, hypothyroidism with its associated, increased TSH serum levels clinically can lead to hair loss, we asked whether human HFs are a direct target for TSH. Here, we report that normal human scalp skin and microdissected human HFs express TSH-R mRNA. TSH-R- like immunoreactivity is limited to the mesenchymal skin compartments in situ. TSH may alter HF mesenchymal functions, as it upregulates alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in HF fibroblasts. TSH-R stimulation by its natural ligand in organ culture changes the expression of several genes of human scalp HFs (for example keratin K5), upregulates the transcription of classical TSH target genes and enhances cAMP production. Although the functional role of TSH in human HF biology awaits further dissection, these findings document that intracutaneous TSH-Rs are fully functional in situ and that HFs of female individuals are direct targets for nonclassical, extrathyroidal TSH bioregulation. This suggests that organ-cultured scalp HFs provide an instructive and physiologically relevant human model for exploring nonclassical functions of TSH, in and beyond the skin
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19052559
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  • 6
    Keywords: CELLS ; tumor ; CELL ; human ; COMMON ; DISEASE ; SITES ; PROTEINS ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; TUMORS ; TIME ; PATIENT ; DNA ; SKIN ; papillomavirus ; antibody ; IN-SITU ; LESIONS ; COPY NUMBER ; human papillomavirus ; GENOTYPES ; HPV ; REPLICATION ; glutathione-S-transferase ; PSORIASIS ; EPIDERMODYSPLASIA-VERRUCIFORMIS ; hair ; GENOTYPE ; NONMELANOMA SKIN-CANCER ; USA ; PLUCKED EYEBROW HAIRS ; CLINICAL-ASPECTS ; HAIRS ; HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS-DNA
    Abstract: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare disease, characterized by cutaneous warts and associated with a strong predisposition to beta-genus human papillomavirus (HPV). Earlier studies reported high copy numbers of HPV-DNA in nearly all skin tumors from EV patients, but neither HPV replication status in non-lesional skin nor anti-HPV seroreactivity in these patients have been reported yet. We therefore performed a comprehensive viral load analysis for the more common beta-HPV types on skin samples and plucked eyebrow hairs from four EV patients treated at our dermatology department. The results clearly demonstrate that they carry a multiplicity (up to eighteen types) of beta-HPV genotypes in both skin sites. Worthy of note, a high intrapatient concordance for specific types between hair bulbs and skin biopsies was observed and the same beta-PV profile was maintained over time. Viral load analysis revealed a load range between less than one HPV-DNA copy per 100 cells to more than 400 HPV-DNA copies per cell in both eyebrow hairs and skin proliferative lesions. Evaluation of seroreactivity to beta-HPV types in the four EV patients revealed that antibodies against the 16 beta-HPV were significantly more prevalent and showed higher titers than in the controls
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18923444
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  • 7
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; proliferation ; SURVIVAL ; CELL ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; VIVO ; microarray ; RNA ; ADHESION MOLECULES ; MOLECULES ; TISSUE ; SUPPRESSION ; BREAST-CANCER ; TARGET ; CELL-SURVIVAL ; PROGRESSION ; METASTASIS ; MELANOMA ; ADHESION ; MIGRATION ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; L1 ; MALIGNANT-MELANOMA ; TARGETS ; CELL-ADHESION MOLECULE ; OVEREXPRESSION ; DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION ; AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN ; chemoresistance ; CELL-GROWTH ; E-cadherin ; development ; tissue microarray ; ALPHA-SECRETASE
    Abstract: ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) is involved in the ectodomain shedding of various substrates, including adhesion molecules such as L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1-CAM) and CD44, which are known to have important roles in the development of malignant melanoma. In our Study, we characterized the expression of ADAM10 in melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo Immunohistochemical analysis oil tissue microarrays indicated that ADAM-10 expression was significantly elevated in melanoma metastasis compared with primary melanomas. In vitro downregulation of ADAM10 with specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in a suppression of the anchorage-independent cell growth and reduced the migration of melanoma cells. In addition, overexpression of ADAM-10 induced the migration of melanoma cells. In cell lines from melanoma patients with metastasis, ADAM10 was significantly overexpressed, and ADAM10 expression correlated with increased cell proliferation. Furthermore, we present evidence that ADAM-10 is involved in the release of L1-CAM from melanoma cells. It is important that knockdown of cellular L1-CAM reduced the migration of melanoma cells and abrogated the chemoresistance against cisplatin. In contrast, soluble L1-CAM had no effect on melanoma cell migration or cell survival. Taken together, Our data demonstrate that ADAM10 and L1-CAM have important roles during melanoma progression and both molecules represent attractive targets for therapeutical intervention of melanomas
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19865098
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  • 8
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; DIFFERENTIATION ; DOMAIN ; CONTRAST ; MEMBERS ; antibodies ; antibody ; PATTERNS ; REGION ; keratin ; TERMINAL DIFFERENTIATION ; CUTICLE CELLS ; GENE DOMAIN ; human hair follicle ; MAMMALIAN-TISSUES ; FOLLICLE ; INNER-ROOT-SHEATH ; RE ; keratins ; HAIR FOLLICLE ; hair ; hair keratins ; GENE FAMILY ; EPITHELIAL CYTOKERATINS ; EXPRESSION PATTERNS ; HUMAN ANAGEN HAIR ; EPITHELIAL KERATINS ; I KERATINS
    Abstract: The recent elucidation of the human type I keratin gene domain allowed the completion of the so far only partially characterized subcluster of type I keratin genes, KRT25-KRT28 (formerly KRT25A-KRT25D), representing he counterparts of the type II inner root sheath (IRS) keratin genes, KRT71-KRT74 (encoding proteins K71-K74, formerly K6irs1-K6irs4). Here, we describe the expression patterns of the type I IRS keratin proteins K25-K28 (formerly K25irs1-K25irs4) and their mRNAs. We found that K25 (K25irs1), K27 (K25irs3), and K28 (K25irs4) occur in the Henle layer, the Huxley layer, and in the IRS cuticle. Their expression extends from the bulb region up to the points of terminal differentiation of the three layers. In contrast, K26 (K25irs2) is restricted to the upper IRS cuticle. Apart from the three IRS layers, K25 (K25irs1), K27 (K25irs3), and K28 ( K25irs4) are also present in the hair medulla. Based on previous, although controversial claims of the occurrence in the IRS of various ''classical'' epithelial keratins, we undertook a systematic study using antibodies against the presently described human epithelial and hair keratins and show that the type I keratins K25-K28 (K25irs1-K25irs4) and the type II keratins K71-K74 (K6irs1-K6irs4) represent the IRS keratins of the human hair follicle
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16874310
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; INVASION ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; CELL ; human ; DISEASE ; cell line ; TISSUE ; INFECTION ; DOMAIN ; INDUCTION ; TISSUES ; KERATINOCYTES ; ASSOCIATION ; culture ; STAGE ; ACQUISITION ; PROGRESSION ; DISRUPTION ; MEMBRANE ; SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION ; LINE ; ADHESION ; CELL-ADHESION ; TRANSFORMATION ; NEOPLASTIC PROGRESSION ; DEGRADATION ; INTEGRIN ; CARCINOMAS ; beta-catenin ; ORGANIZATION ; ADENOVIRUS ; ARCHITECTURE ; organotypic culture ; adherens junctions,basement membrane,E-cadherin,organotypic culture,tumor cell invasion ; CATENIN ; HUMAN BREAST ; MELANOMA DEVELOPMENT
    Abstract: The role of cell-cell adhesion in the transition from premalignancy to invasive cancer is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how abrogation of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion influenced early neoplastic progression in tissues that mimic human, premalignant disease. To accomplish this, E-cadherin function was abrogated in a human cell line representing an early stage in the transformation process (HaCaT-II-4 cells) that was grown in three-dimensional, organotypic cultures with intact basement membrane. Before modification, this cell line showed a paucity of cell adhesion structures by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical analysis, whereas immunoblot studies demonstrated that expression and association of E-cadherin and catenins were not diminished when compared with normal keratinocytes. To further reduce functional E-cadherin, II-4 cells were infected with a dominant-negative, recombinant adenovirus, expressing E-cadherin lacking an extracellular domain (AdECadEC). AdECadEC infection resulted in loss of endogenous E-cadherin and completely disrupted II-4 cell adhesion, as seen by loss of beta-catenin from II-4 cell junctions in monolayer culture. In three-dimensional cultures, AdECadEC-infected cells demonstrated disruption of tissue architecture, loss of cell-cell adhesion, and the invasion of individual tumor cells into the stroma. The induction of this invasive phenotype was associated with loss of basement membrane integrity, as seen by degradation of type IV collagen and laminin 5. These studies showed that loss of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion enabled acquisition of an invasive phenotype, suggesting that maintenance of intercellular adhesion and tissue organization plays a crucial part in suppressing the incipient stages of squamous cell cancer progression
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14708624
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  • 10
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; PROSTATE ; TOOL ; GENE ; DIFFERENTIATION ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; MOTIFS ; FAMILY ; MARKER ; BINDING ; MEMBER ; MEMBERS ; SEQUENCE ; TYPE-1 ; TARGET ; ELEMENT ; ASSAY ; VECTOR ; MOBILITY ; PROMOTER ; ELEMENTS ; keratin ; RESPONSIVE ELEMENT ; FOLLICLE ; HAIR-FOLLICLES ; HUMAN SKIN ; CONSTITUTIVE EXPRESSION ; HUMAN TYPE-I ; ABSENCE ; MOTIF ; keratins ; HAIR FOLLICLE ; HOMOLOGY ; adrogens ; ANTIGEN GENE ; DERMAL PAPILLA CELLS ; IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION
    Abstract: Previous work had shown that most members of the complex human hair keratin family were expressed in terminal scalp hairs. An exception to this rule was the type I hair keratin hHa7, which was only detected in some but not all vellus hairs of the human scalp (Langbein et al, 1999). Here we show that hHa7 exhibits constitutive expression in medullary cells of all types of male and female sexual hairs. Medullated beard, axillary, and pubic hairs arise during puberty from small, unmedullated vellus hairs under the influence of circulating androgens. This suggested an androgen-controlled expression of the hHa7 gene. Further evidence for this assumption was provided by the demonstration of androgen receptor (AR) expression in the nuclei of medullary cells of beard hairs. Moreover, homology search for the semipalindromic androgen receptor-binding element (ARE) consensus sequence GG(A)/(T)ACAnnnTGTTCT in the proximal hHa7 promoter revealed three putative ARE motifs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated the specific binding of AR to all three hHa7 AREs. Their function as AR-responsive elements, either individually or in concert within the hHa7 promoter, could be further confirmed by transfection studies with or without an AR expression vector in PtK2 and prostate PC3-Arwt cells, respectively in the presence or absence of a synthetic androgen. Our study detected hHa7 as the first gene in hair follicle trichocytes whose expression appears to be directly regulated by androgens. As such, hHa7 represents a marker for androgen action on hair follicles and might be a suitable tool for investigations of androgen-dependent hair disorders
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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