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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; broad bean ; cultivars ; fungi ; hybrid ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred different cultivars and lines of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seed samples were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Link (CMI 102135) to determine varietal differences which may support or resist aflatoxin production. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the chloroform extracts of the different seed samples revealed that 11 cultivars/lines were highly resistant to seed invasion and aflatoxin production while 9 cultivars/lines showed partial resistance. The remaining 80 samples were susceptible to the establishment of A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. All the resistant cultivars/lines seed samples were inoculated also with three local isolates of fungi namely; Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb. ex Link) Hughes, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. The resistant seed samples were also resistant for colonization with these fungi and mycotoxin formation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Adherence ; Candida ; immobilized protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The adherence of Candida albicans and C. tropicalis to protein-adsorbed surfaces was investigated with surface-modified glass slides to which serum or salivary proteins were covalently bound. A specific adherence like a ligand-receptor interaction was observed between C. albicans and mucin- or salivary protein-immobilized glass slides. This interaction was eliminated by deglycosylation of the slides, suggesting that the receptor may be an oligosaccharide(s) contained mucin or saliva. A similar specific interaction was also observed between C. tropicalis and fibrinogen-immobilized glass surfaces. When the numbers of adherent cells to deglycosylated protein-immobilized glass glides were plotted against zeta potentials and contact angles of these protein-immobilized glass slides, a significant correaltion was observed between the numbers of adherent cells and zeta potentials in the case of C. albicans (r = −0.87), whereas a significant correlation was observed between cell numbers and contact angles (r = 0.82) in the case of C. tropicalis. These results suggest that the forces governing the adherence of fungi to pellicle in dentures may vary depending upon the surface properties of fungi and substrate.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida ; Cryptococcus ; Geotrichum ; Rhodoturula ; Saccharomyces ; Torulopsis spp. ; Pro-Lab ID ring system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We evaluated 151 coded isolates of medically important yeast species belonging to the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Geotrichum, Rhodoturula, Saccharomyces and Torulopsis using the newly developed rapid Pro-Lab Identification Ring, PL 960 system (PLID-Ring). All isolates were concurrently identified by the API 20C and conventional procedures comprising macro- and micromorphology, assimilation and fermentation of various carbon and nitrogen compounds. The PLID-Ring system identified isolates of Candida albicans, C. kefyr, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula rubra, and Torulopsis glabrata with 100% accuracy in 24 h. This system identified C guilliermondii and S. cerevisiae isolates with an accuracy of 90% and 86%, respectively, while those belonging to Cr. neoformans, T. candida (= C. famata), C. rugosa and C. tropicalis were identified with 38.4%, 50%, 12.5% and 50% accuracy, respectively. Three isolates of Cr. laurentii were not identified by the PLID-Ring system. The overall accuracy of the PLID-Ring system was 81.45% (123 of 151 isolates). However, the system does not include species such as Cr. laurentii in its data base. When these three Cr. laurentii isolates were excluded from the evaluation, the accuracy of the PLID-Ring system increased from 81.45% to 83.1%.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida ; Glutathione ; Dimorphism ; Glutathione reductase ; GlutathioneS-transferase ; Glutathione peroxidase ; γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of carbon sources, glucose and sucrose, and nitrogen sources such as ammonia, glutamate andl-citrulline on the activities of glutathione metabolic enzymes has been studied. Yeast and mycelial cells were used to identify changes in activity levels of glutathione reductase (GSSGR), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). Enzyme activities from cells grown in sucrose media were lower than in glucose media regardless of the enzyme tested, morphological form, or the growth interval. In all enzymes except GST, activity was higher in yeast form than in mycelia, regardless of nitrogen source, with lower activity from 24 to 72 h than at 96 h. In citrulline media, yeast form showed the maximum GST, GGT, and GPX activity. In ammonia-amended media, mycelia showed maximum activity in GGT, whereas in glutamate media, mycelia showed the maximum activity in GST. Also, the type of nitrogen source had no effect on GPX activity in the mycelial form. Finally, changing the nitrogen source showed no significant effect on GSSGR activity, either in the yeast or mycelial form.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Breast milk ; Ochratoxin A ; Sierra Leone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Breast milks from 113 mothers in two ‘Under-Five Clinics’ in the Southern Province of Sierra Leone, namely, Njala and Bo, were examined for their mycotoxin content. Only 10 were mycotoxin-free. Eighty-eight per cent of samples contained various aflatoxins and 35% contained ochratoxin A (OTA). Few samples (15%) had a single mycotoxin. Thirty-six (32%) had two mycotoxins and 50 (40%) had three or more. The occurrence of OTA in combination with various aflatoxins was recorded. It is concluded that infants in Sierra Leone are exposed to OTA and aflatoxins at levels which in some cases far exceed those permissible in animal feed in developed countries.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Brain ; Aflatoxin ; Children ; Nigeria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Autopsy brain (cerebrum) specimens from 18 kwashiorkor children and 19 children who had died from a variety of other diseases, at the Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospital complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, were analysed for the presence of aflatoxins using high-performance liquid chromatography. Aflatoxins were detected in 81%, 15 specimens in each group. More than one type of aflatoxin was detected in 14 (37.8%) of all the specimens. Aflatoxin B1 and its reversible metabolite, aflatoxicol, were detected in 11 brain specimens of patients with kwashiorkor and 6 of those who died of other miscellaneous diseases; out of these 6, two died from measles and its complications. The frequent detection of aflatoxins in the brains of these children and sometimes in multiple forms may suggest that aflatoxins are stored in the brain tissue which could be related to the lipophilic nature of these compounds. These findings also suggest that although many children in the tropics are exposed to aflatoxins, the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxicol in the brains of kwashiorkor children may be a result of an impaired metabolism of these compounds by these children.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: β-lactamases ; Candida ; diarrhoea ; infants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred and thirty seven isolates ofCandida species were isolated from antiobiotic associated diarrhoea cases and were examined to study the role ofCandida in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea in infants. The quantitative estimation of yeast population by simple gram stain smear revealed more than 70% of the cases had 3+ score. The isolates further screened for detection ofβ-lactamases. Among the isolatedCandida sp,β-lactamases was secreted byC. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei andC. parapsilosis. Further, 46% of theCandida isolates were found to be produced 741–1110 mU/ml ofβ-lactamases, suggesting that these enzyme would inactivate penicillin group of drugs and cause failure in the therapy directed against other diarrhoegenic bacteria.
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  • 8
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    Mycopathologia 102 (1988), S. 135-138 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida ; adherence ; fibrin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The adherence of six Candida species to fibrin clots was studied using a simple, in vitro technique. Yeast suspensions were incubated with fibrin clots and the number of adherent organisms quantified as follows: after washing, the clots were subjected to vortex mixing and the number of CPU's which subsequently grew on Sabourauds medium were counted. Adhesion was directly proportional to the concentration of Candida species in the suspension (r=0.99 p〈0.001). C. albicans and C. tropicalis exhibited marked adherence whereas C. krusei, C. gulliermondi and C. glabrata adhered less readily. C. parapsilosis was intermediate in its ability to adhere.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Oral cavity ; Candida ; hydrolases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fungi are elements of the ontocenosis of the oral cavity and causal factors of inflammatory lesions in its mucous membrane. The objective of the study was to find differences in the activity of hydrolytic enzymes of Candida albicans isolated from patients with diseases of the periodontium and mucous membrane of the oral cavity. Of 235 patients examined, 31 were diagnosed with gingivitis, 38 with glossitis, 28 with leucoplakia, 37 with adult periodontitis, 25 with juvenile periodontitis, 36 with stomatitis prothetica and 40 with stomatitis atrophica. In 196 patients (83.4 ± 2.4%), fungi belonging to Candida species were detected. In the evaluation of Candida albicans strains (146) properties, bioMerieux API ZYM tests containing substrates for the detection of 19 hydrolases were used. All the investigated strains were characterized by the activity of 14 enzymes, i.e. phosphatase alcaline, esterase (C4), esterase lipase (C8), leucine and valine arylamidase, phosphatase acid, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, α galactosidase, β galactosidase, α glucosidase, β glucosidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, α mannosidase and α fucosidase. Strains isolated from the oral cavity of patients with diseases of periodontium and mucous membrane are characterised by the highest phosphatase acid activity. The greatest enzymatic activity is characteristic of Candida albicans isolated from patients with stomatitis atrophica or stomatitis prothetica, and the lowest in strains from gingivitis or juvenile periodontitis cases. Differences in the activity of hydrolases are statistically significant (p〈0.01) for: esterase (C4), leucine and valine arylamidase, phosphatase acid, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, β glucosidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, of fungi isolated from patients with particular clinical diagnoses.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Adherence ; Candida ; Extracellular matrix ; HEp-2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The presence of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins collagen types I and IV, laminin and fibronectin on the surface of HEp-2 cells was confirmed by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies directed against these ECM proteins reduced the adherence of C. albicans ATCC 44990 to HEp-2 cells, the greatest reductions being evident in assays which incorporated anti-collagen type IV monoclonal antibody. The ability of sugaramines to inhibit the adherence of C. albicans to a variety of cell types has been demonstrated previously and the most significant reduction in C. albicans – HEp-2 adherence was in assays which incorporated 0.2M galactosamine. The combination of anti-collagen IV monoclonal antibody and galactosamine reduced the adherence of C. albicans to HEp-2 cells by approximately 70% (p 〈 0.05).
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