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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Adherence ; Candida ; immobilized protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The adherence of Candida albicans and C. tropicalis to protein-adsorbed surfaces was investigated with surface-modified glass slides to which serum or salivary proteins were covalently bound. A specific adherence like a ligand-receptor interaction was observed between C. albicans and mucin- or salivary protein-immobilized glass slides. This interaction was eliminated by deglycosylation of the slides, suggesting that the receptor may be an oligosaccharide(s) contained mucin or saliva. A similar specific interaction was also observed between C. tropicalis and fibrinogen-immobilized glass surfaces. When the numbers of adherent cells to deglycosylated protein-immobilized glass glides were plotted against zeta potentials and contact angles of these protein-immobilized glass slides, a significant correaltion was observed between the numbers of adherent cells and zeta potentials in the case of C. albicans (r = −0.87), whereas a significant correlation was observed between cell numbers and contact angles (r = 0.82) in the case of C. tropicalis. These results suggest that the forces governing the adherence of fungi to pellicle in dentures may vary depending upon the surface properties of fungi and substrate.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida ; Cryptococcus ; Geotrichum ; Rhodoturula ; Saccharomyces ; Torulopsis spp. ; Pro-Lab ID ring system
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We evaluated 151 coded isolates of medically important yeast species belonging to the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Geotrichum, Rhodoturula, Saccharomyces and Torulopsis using the newly developed rapid Pro-Lab Identification Ring, PL 960 system (PLID-Ring). All isolates were concurrently identified by the API 20C and conventional procedures comprising macro- and micromorphology, assimilation and fermentation of various carbon and nitrogen compounds. The PLID-Ring system identified isolates of Candida albicans, C. kefyr, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula rubra, and Torulopsis glabrata with 100% accuracy in 24 h. This system identified C guilliermondii and S. cerevisiae isolates with an accuracy of 90% and 86%, respectively, while those belonging to Cr. neoformans, T. candida (= C. famata), C. rugosa and C. tropicalis were identified with 38.4%, 50%, 12.5% and 50% accuracy, respectively. Three isolates of Cr. laurentii were not identified by the PLID-Ring system. The overall accuracy of the PLID-Ring system was 81.45% (123 of 151 isolates). However, the system does not include species such as Cr. laurentii in its data base. When these three Cr. laurentii isolates were excluded from the evaluation, the accuracy of the PLID-Ring system increased from 81.45% to 83.1%.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida ; Glutathione ; Dimorphism ; Glutathione reductase ; GlutathioneS-transferase ; Glutathione peroxidase ; γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of carbon sources, glucose and sucrose, and nitrogen sources such as ammonia, glutamate andl-citrulline on the activities of glutathione metabolic enzymes has been studied. Yeast and mycelial cells were used to identify changes in activity levels of glutathione reductase (GSSGR), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). Enzyme activities from cells grown in sucrose media were lower than in glucose media regardless of the enzyme tested, morphological form, or the growth interval. In all enzymes except GST, activity was higher in yeast form than in mycelia, regardless of nitrogen source, with lower activity from 24 to 72 h than at 96 h. In citrulline media, yeast form showed the maximum GST, GGT, and GPX activity. In ammonia-amended media, mycelia showed maximum activity in GGT, whereas in glutamate media, mycelia showed the maximum activity in GST. Also, the type of nitrogen source had no effect on GPX activity in the mycelial form. Finally, changing the nitrogen source showed no significant effect on GSSGR activity, either in the yeast or mycelial form.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: β-lactamases ; Candida ; diarrhoea ; infants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred and thirty seven isolates ofCandida species were isolated from antiobiotic associated diarrhoea cases and were examined to study the role ofCandida in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea in infants. The quantitative estimation of yeast population by simple gram stain smear revealed more than 70% of the cases had 3+ score. The isolates further screened for detection ofβ-lactamases. Among the isolatedCandida sp,β-lactamases was secreted byC. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei andC. parapsilosis. Further, 46% of theCandida isolates were found to be produced 741–1110 mU/ml ofβ-lactamases, suggesting that these enzyme would inactivate penicillin group of drugs and cause failure in the therapy directed against other diarrhoegenic bacteria.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 102 (1988), S. 135-138 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida ; adherence ; fibrin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The adherence of six Candida species to fibrin clots was studied using a simple, in vitro technique. Yeast suspensions were incubated with fibrin clots and the number of adherent organisms quantified as follows: after washing, the clots were subjected to vortex mixing and the number of CPU's which subsequently grew on Sabourauds medium were counted. Adhesion was directly proportional to the concentration of Candida species in the suspension (r=0.99 p〈0.001). C. albicans and C. tropicalis exhibited marked adherence whereas C. krusei, C. gulliermondi and C. glabrata adhered less readily. C. parapsilosis was intermediate in its ability to adhere.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Oral cavity ; Candida ; hydrolases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fungi are elements of the ontocenosis of the oral cavity and causal factors of inflammatory lesions in its mucous membrane. The objective of the study was to find differences in the activity of hydrolytic enzymes of Candida albicans isolated from patients with diseases of the periodontium and mucous membrane of the oral cavity. Of 235 patients examined, 31 were diagnosed with gingivitis, 38 with glossitis, 28 with leucoplakia, 37 with adult periodontitis, 25 with juvenile periodontitis, 36 with stomatitis prothetica and 40 with stomatitis atrophica. In 196 patients (83.4 ± 2.4%), fungi belonging to Candida species were detected. In the evaluation of Candida albicans strains (146) properties, bioMerieux API ZYM tests containing substrates for the detection of 19 hydrolases were used. All the investigated strains were characterized by the activity of 14 enzymes, i.e. phosphatase alcaline, esterase (C4), esterase lipase (C8), leucine and valine arylamidase, phosphatase acid, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, α galactosidase, β galactosidase, α glucosidase, β glucosidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, α mannosidase and α fucosidase. Strains isolated from the oral cavity of patients with diseases of periodontium and mucous membrane are characterised by the highest phosphatase acid activity. The greatest enzymatic activity is characteristic of Candida albicans isolated from patients with stomatitis atrophica or stomatitis prothetica, and the lowest in strains from gingivitis or juvenile periodontitis cases. Differences in the activity of hydrolases are statistically significant (p〈0.01) for: esterase (C4), leucine and valine arylamidase, phosphatase acid, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, β glucosidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, of fungi isolated from patients with particular clinical diagnoses.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Adherence ; Candida ; Extracellular matrix ; HEp-2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The presence of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins collagen types I and IV, laminin and fibronectin on the surface of HEp-2 cells was confirmed by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies directed against these ECM proteins reduced the adherence of C. albicans ATCC 44990 to HEp-2 cells, the greatest reductions being evident in assays which incorporated anti-collagen type IV monoclonal antibody. The ability of sugaramines to inhibit the adherence of C. albicans to a variety of cell types has been demonstrated previously and the most significant reduction in C. albicans – HEp-2 adherence was in assays which incorporated 0.2M galactosamine. The combination of anti-collagen IV monoclonal antibody and galactosamine reduced the adherence of C. albicans to HEp-2 cells by approximately 70% (p 〈 0.05).
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida ; identification ; PCR ; phylogeny ; RAPD
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fast and reliable identification of different species of the genus Candida is important to define adequate therapeutic decisions, because the different species have highly variable susceptibilities to antifungal drugs; azoles and amphothericin B. Accurate statistical records on case history and epidemiological studies also depend on effective identification. To address this problem we established a RAPD method that enabled direct identification of five very common species of Candida. Initially, reference band patterns were established for C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. krusei. One of the primers, M2, showed remarkably conserved intra-specific patterns of approximately 10 bands each, ranging in size from 2.0 to 0.1 kb. These patterns were significantly different and species-specific. Few bands were conserved between different species of Candida, which was assumed to be consistent with their phylogenetic relatedness. In addition, band patterns were constant and reproducible and DNA isolated from single colonies yielded sufficient DNA for identification. The reference band patterns were then used, in blind experiments, to identify species of Candida in 50 randomly chosen samples, including clinical isolates and ATCC strains. RAPD results were 100% consistent with results obtained by conventional diagnostic methods and were achieved in one day instead of several days taken by conventional methods. Because ideal identification methods should be consistent with phylogeny and taxonomy we tested whether RAPD could be used to calculate genetic distances. Comparison of RAPD phylogenetic trees with 18S rRNA trees showed significant differences in tree topologies which indicated that RAPD data could not accurately measure the relative distances between different species. Also, computer simulations of RAPD random patterns were used to test whether the observed degree of RAPD band pattern similarities could occur at random. These simulations suggested that the level of inter-specific band pattern similarities observed in our data could be obtained at random, while intra-specific pattern similarities could not. RAPD would be helpful to discriminate between isolates but not to quantitate the differences. We suggest that the inaccurate estimate of genetic distances from RAPD is a general limitation of the technique and not a specific problem of our identification method. Because of the repetitive character of the target sequences, genetic distances calculated from RAPD could be affected by paralogy, namely, recombination and duplication events not parallel with speciation events.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: chlorhexidine ; Candida ; ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Chlorhexidine is widely used as a bacterial drug whose method of action has been well described in bacteria. Its fungicidal properties have been proved. We show here the effects of a sublethal dose of a preparation of digluconate of chlorhexidine on buddingCandida albicans. A fungistatic action is revealed by a decrease in the percentage of budding cells, and two main types of alterations can be observed with transmission electron microscopy (T.E.M.): a loss of cytoplasmic components and a coagulation of nucleoproteins. With scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.), the cell walls show morphological modifications.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 60 (1977), S. 99-104 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Counterimmunoelectrophoresis ; serology ; Absidia ; Aspergillus ; Candida ; Rhizopus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sera from 35 apparently normal humans, 37 compromised human patients, 30 hedgehogs and 30 sheep, were examined for precipitating antibodies to four opportunistic fungi — Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Rhizopus arrhizus — using Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). Precipitins to A. fumigatus were almost exclusively confined to specimens obtained from the compromised human group (51% of those examined) while Candida precipitating antibodies were detected in the sera of both normal (26%) and compromised (49%) humans and in 10% of the hedgehog specimens. Serum precipitins against the two phycomycetes included in the investigations were rare. Because of the complexity of most fungal antigen extracts, it appears essential that sera be tested against a number of different antigen concentrations if CIE is to be used with confidence in fungal serology.
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