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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (428)
  • 1990-1994
  • 1970-1974  (428)
  • 1972  (428)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The relation between muscle action and the mechanical properties of motor units has been explored in the main digit flexors of the cat hind limb: plantaris (PL); flexor digitorum brevis (FDB); flexor hallucis longus (FHL); and, flexor digitorum longus (FDL). General observations on muscle action revealed that PL is an ankle extensor as well as a digit flexor. PL and FHL were shown to be the major force contributors to digit flexion with FDL playing a lesser but still significant role.The mechanical properties of PL, FHL and FDB motor units were studied by noting twitch and tetanic tensions produced by electrical stimulation of single alpha axons, functionally isolated from the ventral root filaments. These data were compared to similar data reported by Olson and Swett (1966) for flexor digitorum longus (FDL). Our sample (114 PL, 60 FDB and 124 FHL units) disclosed that PL, FDB and FHL have units of uniformly fast contraction times (means 22, 27 and 27 msec respectively). PL units developed the most tetanic tension (3 to 160, mean 62 gm-wt) followed by FHL (2 to 87, mean 31 gm-wt) with FDB units producing very little tension (1 to 20, mean 6 gm-wt). Swett and Olson's FDL sample (108 units) showed tensions ranging from 0.3 to 100 gm-wt (mean 10 gm-wt).A division of labor among the four muscles is proposed. The large PL units are advantageous for forceful phasic inputs to the digits during the locomotion and in keeping with PL's additional role as an ankle exstensor. The low output forces of FDB units are optimal for discrete input to the digits during subtle adjustments of posture. We propose that the larger fast contracting units of FHL are used primarily for forceful digit flexions required in locomotion and for phasic protrusion of the claws while the predominately small and slow contracting units of FDL are used for sustained claw protrusion.
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  • 2
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 137 (1972), S. 365-383 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The venom apparatus of the scorpion, C. sculpturatus (Ewing) was studied with light and electron microscopy. Each of the paired glands is lined by secretory epithelium made up of a single layer of columnar cells. Extensive folding in the epithelial layer creates a primitive acinar gland. The secretory products are either membrane-bound or unbound vesicles with discrete morphologies and are observed in the extruded venom, within the lumen of the gland, and within single secretory cells.The venom apparatus, including connective tissues, nerve cells, and muscle tunic is described and correlations are made with observations in other Athropods.
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  • 3
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 137 (1972) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The anatomy of the nasal cavities and lateral nasal gland (functioning as a salt gland) are similar in the four species of Acanthodactylus studies. Nasal cavities are not histologically different from those of other squamates. The vestibule is covered with a multilayered, stratified, squamous epithelium. The nasal gland is situated in the conchal space, lateral to the principal cavity and the vestibule. It is a tubular branched gland, highly vascularized. Innervation is derived from the N. trigeminus and was observed to reach only the anterior, small portion of the gland. The collecting duct opens to the vestibule, anterior to its connection to the principal cavity. Secretion of the nasal salt gland probably collects in lower anterior part of the vestibule. From there, liquid can either dry out while moistening the inspired air or be blown out by “sneezing.” Histological differences were observed between a non-active and an active salt gland.
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  • 5
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 137 (1972), S. 385-415 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This investigation presents the ultrastructural changes that occur during previtellogenic and vitellogenic growth of the oocyte of a telotrophic ovary. The ovarioles of a newly emerged adult Rhodnius have their full complement of oocytes located at the base of the tropharium. These oocytes are in cytoplasmic continuity with the syncytial tropharium via trophic cords. The nuclei of these oocytes are in prophase of meiosis I with condensed chromosoes; synaptonemal complexes are visible in many. During oocyte growth the nucleus or germinal vesicle enlarges from a 3-4 μ diameter to a 45-50 μ diameter and the chromosomes become diffuse and arrested in late prophase I. Small previtellogenic oocytes are limited by a morphologically unspecialized oolemma and contain a pair of centrioles, rough endoplasmic reticulum, a few small Golgi complexes and clusters of mitochondria. By the end of previtellogenesis there has been an increase in the volume of the oocyte due to the transport of ribosomes and mitochondria into the oocyte from the tropharium. During vitellogenesis the oolemma develops a microvillous border and yolk precursors are internalized by pinocytosis. Small stacks of annulate lamellae, numerous ribosomes and the other organelles are restricted to the thin layer of cortical ooplasm; the lipid protein-carbohydrate yolk spheres and glycogen are located centrally. In oocytes not stimulated, autolysis occurs as dense local areas within the ooplasm.
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  • 6
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 137 (1972), S. 433-447 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A cytological and cytochemical survey was made of nucleolar changes during oocyte development in several different species of crickets (Gryllidae) representing the subfamilies Gryllinae and Nemobiinae. A large mass of extrachromosomal DNA is characteristic of the pachytene stage nuclei of all species examined. Nucleolar material accumulates at the periphery of the DNA body as the cells proceed into the diplotene stage of development. As the oocytes proceed through diplotene, the nucleoli reorganize into many small masses which eventually disperse in the nucleoplasm. These changes reflect both an increase in number and in size of the nucleolar material during the diplotene stage and the mode by which dispersal of nucleolar material is accomplished. These differences probably reflect differences in the organization of extrachromosomal nucleolar DNA.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A study of the integument of the aquatic mite Arrenurus major Marshall is presented. When the cuticle is examined with the unaided eye and the light microscope, it appears to possess numerous tiny pits. However, scanning electron micrographs of the cuticle reveal that it is a solid surface with topographical sculpturing of the epicuticle, indicating that the “pits” are an internal phenomenon. In cuticle which has been sectioned, areas devoid of cuticular material beneath the thin exocuticle are revealed. These areas are the pits which are goblet-shaped.The integument consists of five major strata. These are from the outside to the inside: (1) a superficial layer with a maximum observed thickness of 725 Å, (2) an epicuticle with a thickness of about 900 Å and composed of at least four sublayers, (3) an exocuticle with a thickness of about 1.5 Å. Fibers of the exocuticle are arranged in a Bouligand pattern and exhibit a regularly occurring discontinuity with a spacing of 200 Å. (4) An endocuticle ranging from 15 to 20 μ in thickness. The endocuticle is characterized by bandings which superficially resemble the lamellae of insects but are not homologous, microfibers which exhibit a preferred orientation, and the presence of the pits; and (5) an epidermis lying beneath the endocuticle and extending into the pits.Pore canals are present only in the exocuticle and have their origin at the apices of the pits. The pore canals contain a central filament, and a plug is present just beneath the epicuticle.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A cephalic organ of presumed sensory function is described in nauplii and copepodids of the ascidicolous copepod Doropygus seclusus Illg. The receptor, located bilaterally in the anterodorsal head region, is composed of dendrites of extra optic protocerebral origin which have ciliary protrusions with basal bodies, no rootlets, and a basal infrastructure of the 9 + 0 type. The cilia do not branch and their distal terminations contain only one to four microtubules. In nauplii and free-living copepodids, a large epidermal supporting cell encapsulates the end of one dendrite and its cilia in a sac. Other dendrites and their cilia pass through the supporting cell and, terminally, the cilia escape to form a whorled fascicle which contacts the anterolateral cephalic cuticle. The latter end organ reaches its greatest development in the second copepodid stage  -  the stage which infects the ascidian. All of the symbiotic stages of the copepod have only a proportionately smaller end organ of the saccular type and apparently lack the end organ consisting of whorls of ciliary ends. The function of the receptor is unknown, but it is suggested that the end organ which disappears in the symbiotic stages functions in second copepodids in host recognition.
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  • 9
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 138 (1972), S. 451-456 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The scanning electron micrographs show the external morphology of the maxillae of Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, they illustrate the patterning of the different types of chemo-receptive sensilla on the maxillary palpi making possible a clearer understanding of the structure of the tiny maxillary lobes. It appears that the maxillary lobes act as “cleaning brushes” during the feeding process.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The midgut epithelium of larval and early postlarval brown shrimp has been studied with light and electron microscopy. Ultrastructurally the features of the midgut do not change during these stages of development. On the basis of electron density, two epithelial cell types can be distinguished, and these are referred to as light and dark cells. The dark cells contain more rough endoplasmic reticulum and more free ribosomes than the light cells. Mitochondria in the dark cells have a matrix which is less electron dense than the mitochondrial matrix of the light cells. Both cell types have a microvillous border with a surface coat. The microvilli lack microfilaments within their core, and a terminal web is not differentiated in the stages examined. Tubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum is abundant in the basal portions of the cells. Electron dense, membrane bound vesicles are consistently seen in association with the Golgi apparatus, apical cell surface, and gut lumen and therefore are believed to be secretory granules. Cells in the anterior portion of the midgut often contain very large lipid droplets in the cytoplasm.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: One hundred and twenty-two larvae of Xenopus laevis, the South African clawed toad, at developmental stages 48, 50, 52 and 54, were implanted in the tail with two allografts from adult tissues. In each case, one allograft was from kidney, while the other was either from kidney, thymus, spleen, or liver. In any particular host the two implants were always from the same donor and the implants were all visually matched in size. The experimental period was a maximum of nine days, so as to minimize the large numbers of changes normally accompanying larval progress from stage to stage. We are concerned with the timing of allograft response initiation under the implant conditions of each experimental group at a particular point in development. An allograft response was defined as an infiltration and accumulation of small lymphocytes in the “test” kidney allograft. Larvae of all stages developed allograft responses within one week post-implantation when the variable implant was from kidney, but implants from spleen and thymus suppressed both the timing of initiation and the subsequent intensity of the response. Spleen was more effective in this regard than thymus and both were more effective in the earlier larval stages. Liver proved to be toxic to the larvae. The relationship between the maturation of the lymphomyeloid tissues and external morphological staging is also discussed.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This report presents light microscopic descriptions of lymphoid organs and aggregates in the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina. The thymus and spleen were found to be similar to those of other ectothermic vertebrates. Certain gut associated lymphoid aggregates suggest the presence of reptilian equivalents of tonsils, Peyer's patches and the avian bursa of Fabricius. Lymphoid aggregates located in the axillary and inguinal regions were apparent for the first time in an ectothermic vertebrate. These are of particular interest since they may represent ancestors of true lymph nodes in analogous locations in mammals. It is concluded that the snapping turtle is not deficient in lymphoid tissue, although there is a conspicuous absence of typical germinal centers, characteristic of mammalian organs.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The neurosecretory system and retrocerebral endocrine glands of Nezara viridula Linn. have been described on the basis of in situ preparations and histological sections employing the paraldehyde fuchsin (PF) and performic acid-victoria blue (PAVB) techniques.In the brain of N. viridula, there are two medial groups-each consisting of five neurosecretory cells which belong to A-type. The lateral neurosecretory cells are absent. The axons of the two groups of medial neurosecretory cells (MNC) compose the two bundles of neurosecretory pathways (NSP) that decussate in the anterodorsal part of the protocerebrum. The two pathways, after the cross-over, run deep into the protocerebrum and deutocerebrum and emerge as NCC-I from the tritocerebrum. The nervi corporis cardiaci-I (NCC-I) of each side which are heavily loaded with NSM terminate in the aorta wall. Thus, the neurosecretory material (NSM), elaborated in the medial neurosecretory cells of the brain, is stored in the aortic wall and nervi corporis cardiaci-I (NCC-I). The NCC-II are very short nerves that originate from the tritocerebrum and terminate in the corpora cardiaca (CC) of their side. Below the aorta, but dorsal to the oesophagus, lie two oval or spherical corpora cardiaca. A corpus allatum (CA) lies posterior to the corpora cardiaca (CC). The corpora cardiaca do not contain NSM; only the intrinsic secretion of their cells has been occasionally observed which stains orange or green with PF staining method. The corpus allatum sometimes exhibits PF positive granules of cerebral origin. A new connection between the corpus allatum and aorta has been recorded. The suboesophageal ganglion contains two neurosecretory cells of A-type which, in structure and staining behaviour, are similar to the medial neurosecretory cells of the brain. The course and termination of axons of suboesophageal ganglion neurosecretory cells, and the storage organ for the secretion of these cells have been reported. It is suggested that the aortic wall and NCC-I axons function as neurohaemal organ for cerebral and suboesophageal secretions.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The cell type mainly involved in the phagocytic uptake of melanosomes from iris epithelial cells during Wolffian lens regeneration in the adult newt is identified on the basis of electron and light microscopic evidence as a macrophage of monocytic origin. Appearance of macrophages in iris and ciliary epithelia following lentectomy is a part of leucocytic infiltration of the area, in which granulocytes, mast cells, and other cell types also participate. The general pattern of leucocytic infiltration was studied as a function of time after lentectomy. Infiltration of the iris epithelium by macrophages is reduced when most of the melanosomes have been removed from the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells and finally ceases when depigmentation has been completed. The possibility that an immune mechanism mediated by macrophages is involved in dedifferentiation of iris epithelial cells is discussed.
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  • 15
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 136 (1972), S. 421-431 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The morphology of the ventricle of the fresh-water lamellibranch, Elliptio complanatus, was investigated. Contrary to the condition reported previously in Tritogonia verrucosa, the two atria in Elliptio communicate with the ventricular lumen through separate openings, each guarded by an atrio-ventricular valve. Fixation of ventricle for electron microscopy with 2.5% buffered glutaraldehyde did not appear to shrink the tissue, in spite of the low blood osmolarity to which the muscle is adapted. Ventricle tissue is composed of smooth muscle fibers, containing a central nucleus, glycogen, mitochondria, paramyosin, dense bodies and “attachment plaques,” much like the ventricle of the salt-water clam, Venus (Mercenaria) mercenaria.
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  • 16
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 136 (1972), S. 385-420 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The masticatory apparatus of the vespertilionid bat Myotis lucifugus appears generalized. Principal modifications for more efficient trituration have involved accessory tooth cusps. Chewing strokes pass through orbits (up to 7/sec) involving translations along and rotation about three axes. Direction of chewing typically reverses by at least the fifth or sixth consecutive orbit. Reversal involves modification of the downstroke at varying positions along its course. Compared to certain other bats, which do not utilize oral phonation for echolocation, Myotis chews much more rapidly, with many more degrees of freedom in orbital configuration. The overall envelope of motion is remarkably similar in all these species. The jaw muscles of Myotis act asymetrically, and in more than one direction as the orbit progresses. They overlap in their periods of activity forming a continually-modified muscular sling. Unilateral force couples facilitate orthal rotation at the condyles and movements of them. Bilateral couples, pitting protrusors of one side against retrusors of the other, facilitate lateral translation. The pterygoids are instrumental in continuing motion across the top and bottom of the orbit. Countercontractions are particularly important in stabilizing and protecting the temporomandibular joints. The mandibular symphyseal joint appears to act passively, providing additional flexibility for the system. Higher nervous control beyond the simple jaw-opening reflex appears necessary to explain the firing order of the digastrics and the phase relationship of orbital reversal to overall muscular firing intensity. Control mechanisms, ancillary phenomena and comparative aspects are discussed.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The relatively undifferentiated cells comprising the prefollicular epithelium of the fourth and fifth instar of the reduvid bug Rhodninus prolixus are flattened and contain the regularly occurring organelles, lipid droplets, and aggregates of glycogen-like particles. These cells transform into the adult prefollicular tissue.During vitellogenesis there is a gradual shortening of the cells of the follicular epithelium and an increase in the size of the intercellular space between them and between follicle cells and oocyte. The follicle cells are binucleate, contain numerous microtubules, rough endoplasmic reticulum, many free and aggregate ribosomes, and Golgi complexes. They are associated with each other by gap junctions. Only the follicle cells on the lateral aspects of the oocyte exhibit the development of large extracellular spaces while those at the apical end, that produces the cap, remain tall and closely apposed to each other during vitellogenesis. The normal morphology of the follicle cells over various areas of the oocyte suggests that shape and/or volume changes of these cell may be important in regulating the access of yolk proteins to the colemma.Subsequent to vitellogenesis the follicle cells become cuboidal and once again become closely apposed to each other. They contain much rough endoplasmic reticulum and produce the secondary coat.
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  • 18
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 137 (1972) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The atresia of post-ovulatory and pre-ovulatory follicles of the viviparous smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis, is compared for approximately the first fourth of an 11 month gestation. A thick collagenous sheath and numerous tubules in the theca identify the large, folded stage A post-ovulatory follicle. In stage B the tubules have been filled by cells to form “islands.” In stage C the entire structure is greatly diminished, adjacent islands tend to fuse, the collagenous sheath is virtually gone and the granulosa is degenerating. Preovulatory follicles from large, yolky oocytes pass through four stages beginning with yolk phagocytosis by granulosa cells of the villi (stage I), which are long and granular in stage II; villi fuse, theca cells increase greatly, fill with granules (stage III), encroach on the granulosa and disperse it into small groups of cells which finally disappear (stage IV) leaving a mass of thecal cells. A special type of pre-ovulatory follicle from small non-yolky oocyte atresia exhibits prominent thecal tubules and an unusual arrangement of granulosa cells. This follicle appearrs to enlarge during the summer, becoming multilobed; few granules are present.The distribution of lipid in frozen sections, stained by Oil red O, is described for all types of follicles. Schultz and Lewis and Lobban tests for steroids were made on frozen sections with corresponding results. Positive green tests indicating the presence of steroids or possible steroidogenesis were limited to: (1) one post-ovulatory follicle, in the islands; (2) four stage III and seven late stage IV pre-ovulatory yolky atretic follicles; (3) two special atretic follicles. The special atretic follicle appears to be a unique feature of M. canis and it is suggested tentatively that it may be related to viviparity.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The results of histochemical tests performed on the type “B” dermal gland in Rhodnius and the Verson's gland in Calpodes at different stages in their secretory cycle are presented. The secretions of both glands are slightly acidic sulphated mucosubstances. They differ in their main carbohydrate component which in Rhodnius is hyaluronic acid and in Calpodes is sialic acid. The glands, though structurally similar, differ in size, number, and development.
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  • 21
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 137 (1972), S. 1-27 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The release vibration and release call of Bufo valliceps have been studied by electromyography of the muscles involved, coupled with pressure and sound recording. The sequences are powered by contraction of the muscles of the body envelope and with the energy transmitted via the compressed pulmonary contents. Each pulse of a call starts as the laryngeal muscles relax and pulmonary pressure forces the arytenoid cartilages apart. Sound emission ceases when the laryngeal dilators pull the arytenoids out of the airstream. Reverse flow of air from buccal cavity to lungs may occur within prolonged release sequences. Inflation of the vocal sac results in marked increase in amplitude of the radiated sound without equivalent increase in amplitude of the myograns. The call is intimately associated with the pulsepumping method of breathing used by frogs.
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  • 22
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 137 (1972), S. 29-48 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The ultrastructure of the follicle cells and oocyte periplasm is described during the stages of oogenesis immediately prior to, during, and immediately subsequent to, vitellogenesis. A number of features have not been described previously in Drosophila. Some yolk appears prior to pinocytosis of blood proteins. However, most of the protein yolk forms while the periplasm is filled with micropinocytotic invaginations and tubules derived from the oolemma. These tubules retain the internal layer of material characteristic of coated vesicles and are found to fuse with yolk spheres. No accumulation of electron-dense material in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi of the oocyte is found. Both trypan blue and ferritin are accumulated by the oocyte.The follicle cells have an elaborate endoplasmic reticulum during the period of maximum yolk accumulation. Adjacent cells are joined at their base by a zonula adhaerens, forming a band around the cells, and by plaques of gap junctions. Gap junctions are also present between nurse cells and follicle cells. During chorion formation, septate junctions also appear between follicle cells, adjacent to the zonula adhaerens.
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  • 23
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 137 (1972), S. 49-62 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The facial musculature and rhinarial anatomy of a tayassuid, Dicotyles, and four suids, Sus, Hylochoerus, Phacochoerus and Babirussa, are described. Differences found include the lack of m. zygomaticus in Hylochoerus and Phacochoerus and several modifications of the rostral muscles, mm. levator rostri, dilator naris, and depressor rostri. These differences are related to behavioral characteristics of the animals, particularly the occurrence of toothbaring and rhinarial mobility.The missing m. zygomaticus and relatively small mouth of Hylochoerus and Phacochoerus are probably associated with behavioral patterns which do not necessitate a large gape. In these genera the canines are exposed even when the mouth is closed. The development of the rostral musculature is correlated with movements of the rhinarium. Similarly, the distribution of terminal tendons depends on the shape of the nostril. In Hylochoerus and Phacochoerus, mobility of the rhinarium, especially the dorsal part, is less than in other suoids because of the firmer attachment of the rostral bone to the skull and the weaker development of the rostral muscles.
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  • 24
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 137 (1972), S. 63-69 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The formed elements of the blood of L. corrianus are comprised exclusively of amoebocytes, whose total number is approximately 758 per cubic mm of blood. The blood cells are of three types, viz. acidophils, large basophils and small basophils, which are respectively 26.32%, 60.20% and 13.48% of the total blood cell population. The cytoplasm of the acidophils is filled with large acidophilic granules, while that of the basophils contains fine basophilic granules. Acidophils are the largest (7.6 μ × 6.7 μ), large basophils are smaller (6.5 μ × 4.9 μ), and small basophils are the smallest (4.1 μ × 3.8 μ). The nucleus occupies a very small volume of the cell (approx. 1/9th) in acidophils, a larger volume (approx. 1/4th) in large basophils, and a major volume (approx. 3/4th) in small basophils. The blood cells show amoeboid movement, which is brought about by means of broad lamellate pseudopodia. Large basophils move very slowly, acidophils move faster, and small basophils move quite fast. Fine bristle-like filipodia help the blood cells in getting entangled to form clumps. Filipodia are more abundant in large basophils and acidophils which pertake more actively in clumping than small basophils which rarely possess filipodia. Clumping is a reversible process which is promoted by mechanical agitation of blood.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 137 (1972), S. 161-179 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The hamster nasal cavity consists of vestibular, non-olfactory and olfactory portions. Much of the non-olfactory nasal cavity surface is lined by cuboidal, stratified cuboidal, and low columnar epithelia, devoid of cilia. Goblet cells and ciliated respiratory epithelium are present over only a small portion of the nasal cavity surface.The largest glandular masses in the hamster nose are the maxillary recess glands, the vomeronasal glands and the lateral nasal gland 1; these three glands contain neutral mucopolysaccharides (PAS-positive). Other nasal glands contain both acidic and neutral mucopolysaccharides; the staining reaction for acidic mucopolysaccharide is stronger in goblet cells and olfactory glands than in the other nasal glands.The ducts which open into the nasal vestibule are the excretory ducts of compound tubuloacinar serous glands. The one major PAS-positive gland whose duct opens into the nasal vestibule is the lateral nasal gland 1. The ducts of the compound tubuloacinar vomeronasal glands open into the lumen of the vomeronasal organ, which is connected to the ventral nasal meatus by means of the vomeronasal duct. The ducts of the branched tubuloacinar maxillary recess glands open into the maxillary recess. Few ducts open into the caudal half of the nasal cavity.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A differentiated segment, analogous in location and structure to the first portion of the sexual segment of the males, but much smaller, is observed in the renal collecting ducts of female C. lemniscatus. In addition to this first portion, with cells full of granules strongly positive to periodic acidleucofuchsin, males have a consecutive second portion, with granules localized only in the apical part of the cells, moderately positive to the reaction mentioned and with a marked affinity for orange G. The two portions of the male sexual segment are considered to correspond to the middle and final parts of the collecting ducts; the initial part in both sexes and the final one in the female are mucigenous.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Development of villi in the duodenum of the chick was studied in stages ranging from 11 days of incubation to one week after hatching. Formation of definitive villi is preceded by development of a set of previllous ridges that run lengthwise along the duodenum. The first set of 16 previllous ridges (Set I) is complete by about 13 days of incubation; all ridges in the set are fairly uniform and proceed through their subsequent development in synchrony. Previllous ridges in Set I fold into a highly regular zigzag pattern between 14 and 16 days of incubation. Definitive villi develop from Set I ridges beginning at about 17 days when populations of distinct cells appear on the crests of the ridges between angles in the zigzag folds. Cells in these populations lack the rounded appearance of cells seen in earlier stages; their apical surfaces are densely covered with microvilli. A second set of villi (Set II) develops at about 16 days of incubation when about 16 rows of tongue-like flaps erupt between the previllous ridges of Set I. At hatching, Set II villi are still smaller than villi of Set I; this distinction disappears by about the fourth day after hatching. The significance of the morphological changes in epithelial cells is discussed in terms of several hypotheses bearing on the mechanisms of villus formation.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The fine structure of the ovary in the serpulid Spirorbis borealis has been described. The ovarian wall consists of from one to several layers of peritoneal cells. Peritoneal cell processes extend deep into the ovary and may be seen between developing oocytes. Although young oocytes may also be in close apposition to one another, intercellular bridges have not been observed. When primary oocytes at the surface of the ovary reach a diameter of about 20 μ, they start to erupt into the coelom. Ovulation results from a simple separation of overlying peritoneal cells which lack specialized cell-to-cell contacts. Once a free surface of an ovulating oocyte is exposed to the coelom, microvilli and primary coat develop. Previtellogenic coelomic oocytes are often observed in close proximity to putative neoblasts (perivasal cells), which suggests a possible functional relationship. The confusion that extists between germ cells, peritoneal cells, and so-called neoblasts in polychaetes is discussed.
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  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 137 (1972), S. 229-241 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The ultrastructure of the centriolar satellite complex in the spermatozoon of the hydroid, Pennaria, is presented. The complex consists of nine spoke-like arms which emanate from the distal centriole and of nine wedgeshaped connectives which extend into the flagellum joining each of the alpha doublets and the flagellar plasmalemma. Based upon these observations a new model for the structure of the centriolar satellite complex is proposed. In addition, similar centriolar satellite complexes are reported in the spermatozoa of two echinoderms, Ctenodiscus crispatus and Thyone briareus, in support of the proposed model.
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  • 30
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 137 (1972) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 31
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The postnatal development of the retina in control (CBA/S) and rodless (CBA/Ki) mice was studied by light and electron microscopy. In the control mice, the major increase in retinal thickness occurs between birth and seven days. The inner and outer segments begin to grow into the optic ventricle between seven and ten days with their most rapid growth occurring between 12 to 15 days; by 35 days the retina appears mature. During development, the nuclear layers become thinner while the optic ventricle (layer of rods) and the plexiform layers become thicker. At birth, the mutant or rodless retina is indistinguishable from the control; however, the inner and outer segments fail to develop beyond the primitive seven- to ten-day stage. At 15 days the outer nuclear layer becomes reduced to only a few nuclei in thickness. Many degenerating elements are found in the cavity of the optic ventricle and in the outer nuclear and plexiform layers. By 35 days the mutant retina lacks photoreceptors and is reduced in thickness to less than that at birth. The pigment epithelium is heightened in regions where degeneration is incomplete but becomes highly attenuated in regions where visual cell degeneration is complete. The optic ventricle contains the villous processes of the pigment epithelium and the fringe processes of the Müller cells. The outer limiting membrane is contiguous with remnants of the outer plexiform layer. Between the outer plexiform layer and the inner limiting membrane, the mutant retina is normal in appearance and dimension. The delayed appearance of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum of the pigment epithelium is implicated in the failure of outer segment maturation. The role of both Müller and pigment epithelial cells in removal of the products of retinal degeneration is discussed.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Absence of membranes from the secretion granules of the acinar cells of the submaxillary gland of the mouse had led to speculation concerning mechanisms of secretion of these cells. By means of rapid perfusion fixation, smooth membranes have been identified around the secretion granules, and the mode of secretion proves to be similar to that of the other exocrine glands. The evidence suggests that potent membranolytic agents of unknown nature, capable of rapidly destroying the membranes are present in these secretory granules.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The fine structure of ultimobranchial bodies in the rat has been studied from the fifteenth to the twentieth day of gestation. At 15 days, the ultimobranchial bodies were still separated from the median thyroid primordium by connective tissue. Their lumina were filled with cellular debris and their thick walls were made up of one type of cell in which rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum was scanty. Early in the sixteenth day, cell cords from the median thyroid primordium came in direct contact with the ultimobranchial bodies; no basal lamina separated them. At 17 days the walls of the ultimobranchial bodies were composed of C cells, glycogen-rich cells and cells that were poor in rough-surfaced membranes and glycogen. At 18 days three types of cells were present in cell cords in direct contact with the ultimobranchial bodies: C cells, glycogen-rich cells and follicular cells. The first two cell types had migrated from the ultimobranchial bodies while the follicular cells had originated from the median primordium. In the same cell cords, follicular cells containing glycogen granules were interpreted as being an intermediate stage between glycogen-rich cells and true follicular cells. In follicular cells of the isthmus region, which presumably originate from the median primordium alone, glycogen granules were not observed after the fifteenth day of development. It is concluded that C cells and few follicular cells are of ultimobranchial origin.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Implantation in the ferret occurs during the 24 hours between 12 and 13 days post coitus. The thinned zona pellucida is disrupted irregularly along the lateral aspects of implantation chambers. Some of the trophoblastic cells enlarge and develop into plaques of syncytium. Protoplasmic projections from these syncytial plaques intrude between adjacent uterine luminal epithelial cells to which the syncytium is adhering. Interesting ectoplasmic pads from the syncytial trophoblast indent the uterine epithelial cells prior to adhesion, and there are ectoplasmic regions where trophoblast cell membrane is closely applied to uterine cell membranes at all sites of epithelial penetration. Intrusion of trophoblast between uterine luminal epithelial cells is apparently the major mechanism of epithelial penetration in the ferret.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Fusion of atrioventricular endocardial cushions begins during Hamburger-Hamilton stage 27 and is completed during stage 28 (5 to 6 days incubation age). Connective tissue cells of these cushions are derived from the proliferating endocardial cell layer. The character of the organelles in cells of these cushions changes progressively as the cushions approach, meet and fuse: granular endoplasmic reticulum accumulates; Golgi complexes become extensive, and nuclei develop irregular shapes. These occur first in the connective tissue cells of the cardiac jelly and later in the endocardial cells. Fusion apparently is accomplished by liberation of the endocardial endothelial cells into the cardiac jelly, where, along with pre-existing connective tissue cells, they become cells of the membranous interventricular septum. Gradually the cells appear to merge into one morphological population and thus become indistinguishable from each other. Both endocardial cells and connective tissue cells exhibit uptake of tritiated thymidine and undergo mitosis before, during and after fusion of the cushions. An outstanding characteristic of these cells is their continuing vitality throughout the entire process of fusion.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The deep layers of the transversospinal back muscles were studied in 25 healthy human subjects. Bipolar fine wire electrodes were inserted bilaterally at the level of the sixth thoracic and the third lumbar spinous processes. Activity was registered simultaneously in sitting and standing, and during movements while in these positions. It was shown that the same muscle group displayed different patterns of activity in the thoracic compared to the lumbar level. Variations in the pattern of activity during forward flexion, extension and axial rotation suggest that the transversospinal muscles adjust the motion between individual vertebrae. The experimental evidence confirms the anatomical hypothesis that the multifidi are stabilizers rather than prime movers of the whole vertebral column.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The nasal cavities of 14 deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, were examined histologically to determine the variability in surface area of the olfactory epithelium and its correlation with nasal cavity volume, area of non-olfactory epithelial surface, and body size.Forty-four per cent of the nasal cavity surface of P. maniculatus is covered by a non-olfactory epithelium with an area of 129.8 mm2; the epithelial surface consists of gradations in type from keratinized stratified squamous rostrally to ciliated pseudostratified columnar caudally. An extensive portion of this epithelium is non-ciliated and devoid of goblet cells. Situated dorsocaudal to the non-olfactory epithelium is the olfactory epithelial surface measuring 166.8 mm2 in area.The areas of total, non-olfactory and olfactory epithelial surfaces are highly variable in a sample of mice containing two subspecies, both sexes and various ages. Surface area measurements of non-olfactory and olfactory epithelia are correlated significantly with body length, body weight and volume of the nasal cavity. A relatively constant epithelial area to volume ratio is present in the nasal cavity of P. maniculatus. It is surmised that a stable ratio of molecules in the air to epithelial area may occur within a species.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The sequence of degeneration in colchicine-poisoned or in transected peripheral nerve fibers is reported. The results lead us to conclude that the Schwann cell is the predominant agent of axon and myelin destruction. The Schwann cytoplasm burgeons, swells the Schmidt-Lanterman clefts and the adaxonal layer of cytoplasm, and invades the electron-dense bands of myelin. The axolemma and adaxonal membranes are eroded and Schwann organelles invade the axoplasm commingling with those of the axon to form a peripheral “reactive zone.” The reactive zone of organelles surrounds a core of compacted neurofilaments which may persist for days. Eventually the entire contents, commingled organelles and neurofilaments, are destroyed. The myelin sheath is destroyed without being separated from its Schwann cell of origin.
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  • 40
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Tissue containing the attachment of nerve roots to the spinal cord was dissected from seven rats perfused with buffered aldehydes. Both dorsal and ventral roots were obtained from all cord levels. All tissues were prepared routinely for electron microscopy.The outer layers of the root sheath are homologous with the outer layers of the pia mater and are essentially continuous with it. The inner layers of the root sheath, which are a structurally modified and centrally directed continuation of the perineurium across the subarachnoid space, terminate as an open-ended tube near the junction of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Here there is direct continuity between the endoneurial connective tissue space and the pial connective tissue space. The latter, in turn, communicates directly with the subarachnoid space through fenestrations between pial cells. The relationship of this to certain clinical manifestations is briefly discussed.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Fiber-caliber analysis of the facial nerve was made in the Japanese lesser shrew-mole and the Japanese shrew-mole possessing muscle spindles in the snout muscles and in the shinto shrew with no spindles. Using an enlarged photographic scale (× 250) prepared from the object-micrometer (1/100 mm), the measurement of the fiber-caliber was made on the enlarged photograph (× 1250) of the cross paraffin section treated with a modified myelin-sheath staining procedure by Pettersen et al. ('70). The facial nerves of the shrew-moles contained fibres of 1 to 10 μ in diameter, while the facial nerve of the shrew consisted of fibers of 1 to 6 μ The spectra of the former have a slight bimodality with the highest peak at 2 μ and smaller one at 6 μ. The spectrum of the latter has a unimodality with a greater peak at 2 μ. Each peak revealed a log-normal distribution curve. Statistically, it can be said that there is a significant difference in the caliber-spectra between the facial nerves supplying the snout muscles with muscle spindles and without spindles.For testing whether the skew of the spectrum can be the result of a truly bi-modal distribution, the left facial nerve of the Japanese shrew-moles was cut at the site beneath the auditory capsule. Complete degeneration of spindle innervation in the snout muscles was observed histologically in animals seven days after operation.
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  • 43
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 173 (1972), S. 391-403 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The fate of the secondary cartilage present on the membrane bones of the embryonic chick has been studied after immobilization. Immobilization was achieved by the in vivo injection of paralysing drugs (tubocurare or decamethonium), by grafting membrane bones onto the chorioallantoic membrane, or by organ-culturing membrane bones in vitro. In all three situations the cartilage was transformed into a bone-like tissue, the matrix losing its acid muco-polysaccharide, accumulating collagen and undergoing calcification. The chondrocytes shrank in size, came to resemble osteoblasts (osteocytes) and acquired alkaline phosphatase activity.In normal development this cartilage is not transformed into bone but is partly replaced by bone and partly converted into a fibrocartilage which forms the definitive articular cartilage. Immobilization prevented this normal sequence.Past studies on the transformation of cartilage to bone are reviewed and are seen to be adaptations of a highly labile tissue to functional demands.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Mature female golden hamsters, which had demonstrated regular reproductive cycles, when exposed to 23,000 feet simulated altitude for eight or more days became acyclic. Their ovaries, which were polyfollicular, suggested that LH release or synthesis by the hypophysis had been blocked. Human chori-onic gonadotrophin (which has LH activity) caused similarly exposed animals to ovulate. When animals which were exposed to high altitude for nine days were returned to control altitude, they ovulated five days later. Starvation for nine days, which has no significant effect on adrenal weight but does cause increased LH dependent ovarian interstitial development at control altitude, failed to do so at 23,000 feet. It is hypothesized that high altitude selectively blocks LH secretions by the hypophysis.High altitude also interrupted pregnancy when treatment lasted four or more days and was begun before day 12. Since follicular development of pregnancy continued normally but corpora lutea regressed and both FSH and prolactin are needed to maintain the hamster corpus luteum, this study suggests the possibility that prolactin secretion is blocked in the pregnant animal at high altitude.
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  • 45
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 173 (1972), S. 173-180 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Rabbit anti-rat-brain serum immunoglobulins injected into pregnant rats on the ninth, tenth, eleventh or twelfth day of gestation resulted in a fetal resorption rate 15 to 30 times higher than that found in normal untreated pregnant rats. Human serum immunoglobulins obtained from normal postpartum mothers produced a similar percentage of fetal resorption when injected by the same routes into pregnant rats of the same gestational age. In neither of the above experiments were malformations detected among the delivered 20-day fetuses. Injection of human serum immunoglobulins obtained from mothers of children with spina bifida manifesta into pregnant rats along similar routes and periods gave comparable fetal resorption rates. Injection of the above immuno-globulin into the lumen of the uterus adjacent to implantation sites gave a low fetal resorption rate and produced varying degrees of skeletal and soft tissue malformations among the viable survivors.The only difference which could be discerned between normal postpartum immunoglobulins and those obtained from mothers of spina bifida manifesta children was characterized in the latter by a two-fold increase in the IgG levels and the immunoelectrophoretic reactivity of its immunoglobulins with human spinal cord antigens. The developmental defects observed were: 1. Cranial-thinning and bleb formation of skull bones; widening of the foramen magnum; descent of the obex closer to the foramen magnum. 2. Skeletal-delayed or inhibited calcification of the bodies and spinous processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae; widening of the vertebral canal and central canal of the spinal cord.
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  • 46
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 173 (1972), S. 213-219 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Capillaries of the skin have been thought to be of a nonfenestrated type according to studies of previous investigators. However, the present study revealed that fenestrations exist in the endothelium of cutaneous vessels. Capillary fenestrations are numerous in the human finger and the mouse sole and are moderately frequent in the guinea pig sole and ear. In the skin of the human chest, however, they are rarely encountered. Sometimes, endothelial fenestrations are encountered in venules as well.
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  • 47
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 173 (1972), S. 189-203 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Development of placental site and uteroplacental arteries was studied in Tarsiidae, Ceboidea, Cercopithecoidea, and Hominoidea. In Tarsiidae the placental attachment and single artery remain essentially unchanged from early on, and the placenta grows beyond the original site in the shape of a button. In Tarsiidae and Ceboidea maternal arteries and their branches are incorporated in the placenta and their wall is replaced later by a layer of fibrin, Ceboidea have several arteries in the original placental site; this site is enlarged including additional arteries by ingrowth of villi from the chorion in an area surrounding the original site. Further growth is by centrifugal spread; the basal endometrium is stretched and no new arteries are tapped. In Cercopithecoidea the placenta has a sharp border from early on. Spread with stretching of the underlying endometrium occurs here, too. Additional arteries running in this stretched endometrium are secondarily tapped and increase the total number. The disc of Hominoidea, remaining after formation of the chorion laeve, also stretches the underlying decidua, but then trophoblast pervades much of it until it taps arteries in a much larger area than in the other forms.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The lens epithelium of 30 gm male albino CF1 mice was characterized by determining the area dimensions and the mitotic rate of the total and of the several different regions of whole-mount preparations. A ring of nonpigmented iris cells is found to adhere to the outer surface of the lens cuticle, which serves to delineate an inner central zone from an outer peripheral zone of the epithelium. A high number of dividing cells in the peripheral area, especially immediately adjacent to the meridional rows, but including the area overlain by the iridial fringe of cells, identifies this wide region as the proliferative zone. The mitotic rate, furthermore, undergoes marked diurnal variation, rising in the late evening through the early morning hours and diminishing during the late morning and afternoon hours.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The present study was undertaken to determine what structural changes hypophysectomy would cause in the rat kidney. Proximal convoluted tubule cells from hypophysectomized rats were smaller and their length was decreased when compared to kidneys from control animals of approximately the same weight as the hypophysectomized animals. Electron microscopic observation of the kidneys from the hypophysectomized rats revealed that the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules had (1) an increase in size and number of dense bodies (type II cytosome); (2) a decrease in smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER); (3) a decrease in basilar infoldings; (4) an increase in the frequency of mitochondria cristae aligned in their longitudinal axis and (5) a change in the character of the profiles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) related to microbodies (type I cytosome) from a vesicular to tubular arrangement. The changes noted in the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules of hypophysectomized rats were similar to previously described changes observed in tubular atrophy.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A quantitative time study of the incorporation of choline-3H, leucine-3H and galactose-3H in lung epithelial cells, was undertaken in vivo with electron microscopic autoradiography. Type II pneumocytes were selectively labeled with choline-3H, a specific precursor of phosphatidylcholine, which is the main component of pulmonary surfactant. Choline was initially localized in endoplasmic reticulum, then was rapidly transferred through the Golgi complex and stored in lamellar bodies. Previously undescribed small lamellar bodies are suggested as phospholipid carriers between Golgi complex and lamellar bodies. After initial incorporation in the endoplasmic reticulum, the leucine label migrated through the Golgi complex into lamellar bodies by fusion of multivesicular bodies, which are the carriers between the two structures. Galactose was modestly incorporated into lamellar bodies via the Golgi complex. Intra-alveolar myelin figures, recognized as excreted surfactant, were labeled 120 minutes after injection with the three precursors.These findings indicate that the synthesis of a secretory product by type II pneumocytes involves phospholipid, protein and polysaccharide precursors; the secretory product is segregated as lamellar bodies which are destined to be excreted into the alveolar cavity to become part of the lining layer.
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  • 51
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 174 (1972), S. 389-397 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A three dimensional reconstruction of the basal end of the rat incisor, together with analytical data attesting to the reproducibility of the method is presented. The size and shape of the tooth varies little from animal to animal, while the sizes of the functional compartments are much less uniform.The odontogenic sheath is divided into three zones: Proliferation, differentiation and apposition. The proliferative zone is subdivided into two segments: The basal segment which gives rise to ameloblasts shows the highest cell production; an anterior segment located around the pulp opening which will give rise to the part of the tooth covered by cementum and has a much lower cell production.Total cell production can be obtained only in transverse sections, while mid-sagittal sections can serve only for comparative purposes.
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  • 52
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 174 (1972) 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The pattern of arterial supply to the cat's lumbosacral spinal cord was examined in a dozen latex-injected specimens with a view to determining what precautions might be taken in the procedure of rhizotomy to minimize embarrassment of the cord's circulation. The single ventral spinal artery was found to receive on an average 4.1 significant radicular contributions, of which one or two arteries at the fourth or third lumbar levels on the left were invariably of especially large size. Equal numbers, about six to eight, of contributions to the two dorsolateral arterial trunks were present. Anastomotic channels greater than 50 m̈ in diameter were rather poorly developed between dorsolateral and ventral arterial channels, especially across the middorsum. The dorsal radicular artery in 82 of 97 roots examined was seen to pierce the ventral root in order to reach a position along the ventral aspect of the dorsal root. In most cases this penetration occurred central to the ganglion. The bearing of this feature on reported differences in behavioral effects from rhizotomy by intradural section and by ganglionectomy is discussed, as well as other aspects of the effect of rhizotomy on cord criculation.
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  • 54
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 173 (1972), S. 453-468 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The width and thickness of hydroxyapatite crystals and the crystal density at various stages of rat incisor amelogenesis were studied using electron microscopy. The cross-sectional profile of the crystals increased from 259 × 12.7 Å at the surface of the ameloblast to 454 × 249 Å in the completely mineralized enamel. In agreement with previous observations, many crystals had a regular, flattened hexagonal profile during the matrix formation stage. During enamel maturation, the crystals assumed more irregular surface contours, the crystals tending to adapt themselves to the available space. In completely mineralized enamel, the crystals were as irregular in shape as the crystals in human enamel, and they occupied around 85% of the volume. While the crystals at the onset of mineralization were separated by a distance of 120-150 Å, the crystals eventually became relatively closely packed, separated by a fine space only 10-25 Å in width. A lower number of crystals per unit cross-sectional area of the enamel prisms was observed in fully mineralized enamel as compared with the early stages of amelogenesis. Since evidence of fusion of crystals is lacking, the decrease in crystal density appears to result from swelling of the enamel prisms.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Cytoplasmic annulate lamellae are described as occurring in the cells of chick embryo liver during raft-type organ culture on Eagle's minimum essential medium. These transitory structures, prominent in the cells of early (5-day) embryonic liver during culture, were closely associated with the outer nuclear membrane and mitochondria, and were frequently continuous with portions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. In contrast, annulate lamellae were not found in any cell examined during organ culture of older (11-day) embryonic liver. These observations, together with correlative enzymatic studies, are discussed with regard to the possible role of annulate lamellae in the differentiation of the liver cell, in the light of current hypotheses on the origin and function of these widely-occurring organelles.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The effect of stress-induced release of ACTH or suppression of ACTH release on concentric whorls of rough endoplasmic reticulum has been studied in the adrenal gland of the Mongolian gerbil. The border zone between the zona fasciculata and reticularis appears to be a zone of transition, and stress may transform these cells into typical zona fasciculata cells. Absence (hypophysectomy) or reduction (testosterone, dexamethasone) of ACTH however causes neither atrophy nor hypertrophy of whorls. The stress of saline injections for five days caused disappearance of whorls and a rise in blood cortisol to 1.5 times that in controls. Whorls were replaced by a focal accumulation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Testosterone or dexamethasone as well as transaural hypophysectomy prevented the disappearance of whorls in spite of the stress of injection. Testosterone caused a 50% reduction in blood cortisol levels whereas both dexamethasone and hypophysectomy reduced blood cortisol to 25% of that in controls.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Localization of acid phosphatase in trigeminal ganglia of vascularly perfused, young, Wistar rats was demonstrated by Gomori's lead sulfide and Barka and Anderson's azo dye methods. Differences in deposition of reaction product, indicating differences in levels of enzyme activity, were demonstrated between small, intensely reactive (dark) neurons and larger, less reactive (light) neurons. Lengthening the fixation time to lessen the likelihood of artifactual origin of such differences resulted in a decreased reaction in all neurons; relative difference in intensity of large and small neurons was retained. The results indicate that the level of detectable acid phosphatase activity is an additional distinguishing feature between light and dark cells in trigeminal ganglia of the rat and suggest that differences between these cells are not artifactual.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Carbonic anhydrase (CA, carbonate hydro-lyase, EC 4.2.1.1) activity of choroid plexuses (ventricles I + II and IV) and pineal glands of adult male rats was determined by microtitration. Autopsies at precise times in relation to a daily photoperiod 14 hours long allowed in replicate series evaluation of 24-hour rhythmicity. A slightly lower choroid CA activity during the light phase was variable and marginal in significance. A highly significant and reproducible daily fall in pineal CA activity near the onset of light was paralleled by, and probably originated from, a fall in pineal content of erythrocytes. Low pineal CA activity is consistent with its endocrine nature. Its morning changes in hemodynamics are likely to be due to local changes in content and release of norepinephrine and other vasoactive agents.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The dissolution of the nuclear envelope (NE) has been studied ultrastructurally in mouse oocytes maturing in vitro. NE breakdown begins with the undulation of the nuclear envelope followed by the disappearance of nuclear pores. Subsequently, extensive NE convolutions, possibly caused by impinging microtubules, result in the apposition of adjacent NE segments, the appearance of breaks and the formation of NE doublets. Doublets may also be formed by the apposition of intranuclear cisternae to the inner leaflet of the NE. Nuclear envelope breakdown in mouse oocytes takes approximately three and one-half hours in vitro.The fate of the resulting nuclear envelope fragments has been followed in both mouse oocytes and human oogonia. In the mouse, NE doublets separate into individual cisternae, indistinguishable from endoplasmic reticulum, by the time of the first meiotic metaphase. A different fate for NE doublets is suggested in human oogonia which retain NE doublets throughout the division cycle. The nuclear envelope of the daughter cells reforms, at least in part, from NE doublets by separation of the apposed cisternae into single units and the re-establishment of chromosomal contact. Thus, at least some of the NE appears to be conserved in actively dividing human oogonia.
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  • 60
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    The @Anatomical Record 174 (1972), S. 381-387 
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Ultimobranchial follicles in the thyroid glands of young Wistar rats, 4 to 12 weeks old, are lined by non-keratinized stratified squamous epithe-lium and contain desquamated cellular material. Mitoses are observed in the epithelium of these follicles which are variable in size, shape and frequency. Thyroid glands of young vitamin A deficient rats also contain ultimobranchial follicles. These follicles differ from those found in animals on a stock diet in that the stratified squamous epithelium produces keratinized concentric whorls of non-nucleated luminal debris. After placing vitamin A deficient rats on a stock diet desquamated cellular material is no longer keratinized and resembles that seen in the control animals. Vitamin A deficient diet apparently keratinizes the stratified squamous epithelium of pre-existing ultimobranchial follicles rather than solely having a metaplastic effect on thyroid-like follicles of ultimobranchial tissue origin.
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  • 61
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 137 (1972), S. 257-277 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Regional variation in the vertebral column of several species of salamanders (families Ambystomatidae, Salamandridae and Plethodontidae) is analyzed. Measurements of three dimensions, centrum length, prezygapophyseal width, and transverse process length, provide the data. Ontogenetic, interspecific, intergeneric and interfamilial patterns of positional variation are diagrammed and discussed. Distinctive patterns of variation characterize the families, genera, and to a lesser extent, the species. The patterns of ambystomatid salamanders are the most generalized, and probably reflect derivation from a primitive ancestral stock. The most specialized conditions occur in the fully terrestrial plethodontids, a group generally considered to be highly derived. Data such as those presented here will aid in the identification of fossils.The patterns described have functional significance. For example, species which have an aquatic larval stage and which return to aquatic breeding sites have vertebrae which taper in length and width behind the pelvis. This is a feature associated with production of a traveling wave in the tail which is necessary for propulsion in water. Fully terrestrial species do not have a tapering column. In them, standing waves, such as occur in the trunk region of all species, typically occur in the tail. The caudal vertebrae of terrestrial species are rather uniform in dimensions for some distance, and the tail is cylindrical in form. Other functionally important features include the narrowing and shortening of some anterior vertebrae, associated with the development of a neck in some species with tongue feeding mechanisms. In contrast, species which use their heads as wedges during locomotion have broadened anterior vertebrae which serve as sites of origin for hypertrophied neck muscles.
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  • 62
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 137 (1972), S. 289-333 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The trabeculae cranii are at first quite separate from each other, after few days their anterior two fifths are connected by a trabecular plate which is obliterated throughout development. The paired origin of the parachordal plate is not observed. The fused posterior orbital cartilages chondrify in the form of a wide short plate, traversed by the oculomotor and trochlear nerves. The basicranial fenestra and fenestra ovalis are formed by the degeneration of pre-existing cartilage. The cochlear portion is completely fused with the parachordal plate from the very beginning. The elements of the pterygoquadrate are fused together. The quadrate and Meckel's cartilage are in close contact from the very beginning. While the lower part of the interorbital septum is derived from the trabecula communis, its upper part is derived from the anterior orbital cartilages. The lateral parts of the fused posterior orbital cartilages give rise to most of the taeniae and pilae of the orbitotemporal region. There is only one commissure between the auditory capsule and parachordal plate. A cartilaginous connection between the distal portion of the columella auris and ceratohyal persists for some time. The parietotectal and paranasal cartilages are fused together from the very beginning. The processus paroticus originates from the columella auris.In the fully formed stage the notochord is completely embedded in the occipital condyle. The union between the condyle and odontoid process persists. The auditory capsules and occipital arches contribute to the formation of the tectum synoticum plus posterius. The prefacial commissure and facial foramen lie in front of the cochlear portion. The columella auris possesses a processus internus (connected with the quadrate), but the processes a dorsalis has completely disappeared. The orbitotemporal region is quite complete. A medial fenestra is formed in the planum supraseptale. A fenestra is observed in each of the interorbital and nasal septa. The lamina transversalis anterior is fused with the parietotectal cartilage. A complete zona annularis is present. The outer wall of the paranasal cartilage is perforated by a large fenestra lateralis. The parietotectal and paranasal cartilages and the posterior process of the lamina transversalis anterior contribute to the formation of the concha nasalis. There is a contact between the planum antorbitale and nasal septum. The pterygoid process has disappeared. The common characters of the lacertid chondrocranuium are deduced.
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  • 63
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 136 (1972), S. 53-77 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Anterior pituitary glands of male rats (2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 25, 36, 52, 56, and 62 days of age) were processed for electron microscopy. During early postnatal stages secretory cells are found in various stages of differentiation and comparatively few secretory granules are seen. Nuclei are mostly irregular, and the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio is large. Many free ribosomes are present; the endoplasmic reticulum is generally sparse and the Golgi complex small or invisible. Cells are of variable shape, and numerous cytoplasmic processes project into large intercellular spaces. Many electron-dense cells which often contain myelinlike figures are seen. Lysosomes and lysosomal precursors are frequently found in secretory cells, predominantly in somatotrophs, of all immature glands. Mitotic figures are numerous in early stages after brith and decrease in number as the gland grows in size. A gradual increase in cytoplasmic volume with concomitant differentiation of cytoplasmic components as well as accumulation of secretory granules, accompanied by loss of myelin-like figures and decrease in the number of electron-dense cells, is observed as the animal reaches the prepuberal stage. Few lysosomes are seen in cells of mature glands. At 36 days of age all secretory cells seem to have differentiated, and morphological features as well as granule content show little change until puberty is reached. Gonadotrophs attain their characteristic morphology later than other cells. Cilia are observed in all developmental stages but are relatively infrequent in the mature gland. The described ultrastructural characteristics reflect the degree of maturation as well as the functional capacities of secretory cells at particular stages of development.
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  • 64
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 136 (1972), S. 79-107 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The circulatory system of Pollicipes polymerus exhibits a high degree of organization which precludes it from being referred to as an open system. The system is arbitrarily divided into four parts: (1) the circulation of the peduncle and mantle; (2) the distributive circulation of the body, which provides hemolymph to most of the cephalic gut, to the maxillary gland, and to the cirri; (3) the peripheral circulation which distributes blood from the cirri to the peripheral areas of the thoracic region, to most of the thoracic gut, and from the scutal sinus to the peripheral areas of the cephalic region; and (4) the collecting circulation, which conveys hemolymph mostly from the peripheral circulation of the body to the peduncle. There also may be a circulation that is comparable to the vertebrate lymphatic system.Pumping of hemolymph can be attributed to three pairs of skeletal muscles that compress the dorsolateral channels. These muscles are unique for crustacean muscles in that they do not appear to be striated.The rostral vessel appears to be a vestige of a heart in which the pump muscles have been lost. There is a similarity of the rostral vessel to the heart of Calanus finmarchicus (a copepod). This is additional evidence linking the cirripeds with the copepods within the Maxillopoda.Electron microscope observations of the walls of the midsagittal vessels indicate that there is a more or less random layering of cellular and noncellular elements within the wall. Muscle cells appear to be incorporated in the vessel wall.
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  • 65
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 136 (1972) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 66
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Embryos of the viviparous teleost, “Characodon” eiseni, have unusual anal processes that function only during gestation and are lost shortly after birth. This study was undertaken to determine if the fine structure of the process epithelium supports the assumption that these cells have an absorptive function. The process epithelium is a single layer of columnar cells. At peak activity intercellular spaces become very large and isolate individual cells which simultaneously lose much of their cell mass. The cells are characterized by microvilli on their free surface, much pinocytic activity and by the formation of at least four different kinds of vesicles. There is much evidence that these vesicles fuse together. A distinctive characteristic of these cells is a system of tubules and flattened cisternae that somewhat resemble the endoplasmic reticulum yet they differ from it in several respects. It is suggested these profiles aid in fragmenting the cell at periods of peak absorptive activity, thereby increasing the cell surface. Possible mechanisms of food absorption are considered. The fine structure of these cells supports the contention that these embryonic processes serve as absorptive organs during gestation.
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  • 67
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Light microscope studies were made on nucleoli of jejunal epithelial cells of normal rats fixed in OsO4, glutaraldehyde, F.A.A. and HgCl2 and stained with basic fuchsin-alkaline methylene blue. Nucleolar reorganization is extensive and clearly resembles the phenomenon of nucleolar segregation. Polymorphous nucleoli of undifferentiated crypt cells show intermingled constituents and stain purple whereas similar nucleoli of definitive absorptive cells show two homogeneous components-A, stained red and B, stained blue. Cytochemical studies indicate that component A is largely protein and acidophilic and component B is largely nucleic acids and basophilic. These nucleoli become compacted, each forming an amphinucleolus with the two components at opposite poles. Further changes occur along the villi and the components generally separate to form a condensed plasmosome and a diffuse karysome. Extruded cells show nucleolar fragmentation.Electron micrographs of OsO4 material were used in preparation of wax models. These, along with electron micrographs of glutaraldehyde material stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, clearly illustrate and duplicate light microscope findings and strongly resemble nucleolar segregation produced by antimetabolites.Cells of the villi with reorganized nucleoli do not undergo mitosis whereas undifferentiated crypt cells do so. Furthermore, nucleolar reorganization is correlated with aging since it begins in crypt cells and culminates in senescent cells at the tips of the villi.A review is given of the extensive evidence showing that, in the intestine certain functional changes occur similar to those demonstrated in experimental nucleolar segregation. These include gradually changing patterns of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis as well as enzyme activity. The accompany and probably result from nucleolar reorganization.
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