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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (12,152)
  • Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics  (2,271)
  • Physical Chemistry  (1,466)
  • 1990-1994  (10,715)
  • 1970-1974  (2,846)
  • 1965-1969  (2,328)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cleavage furrows ; cytokinesis ; actin ; phalloidin ; myosin ; filamin ; talin ; attachment plaques ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: PtK2 cells of exceptionally large size were microinjected with fluorescently labeled probes for actin, myosin, filamin, and talin in order to follow the assembly of the contractile proteins into the cleavage furrows. Whereas in cells of normal size, there is usually a diffuse pattern of localization of proteins in the cleavage furrow, in these large, flat cells the labeled proteins localized in fibers in the cleavage furrow. Often, the fibers were striated in a pattern comparable to that measured in the stress fibers of the same cell type. The presence of talin in discrete plaques along fibers in the cleavage furrows of the large cells suggests a further similarity between cleavage furrow and stress fiber structure. The presence of filamin in the cleavage furrows also suggests the possibility of an overlapping mechanism in addition to that of a talin mediated mechanism for the attachment of actin filaments to the cell surfaces in the cleavage furrow. A model is presented that emphasizes the interrelationships between stress fibers, myofibrils, and cleavage furrows. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 27 (1994), S. 161-168 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: fluorescent nucleotide analogs ; methylanthraniloyl ATP ; anthraniloyl ATP ; Chlamydomonas ; axonemal mutants ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Substrate analogs are useful for studying the structures of active sites and for distinguishing between similar enzyme activities. Fluorescent ribose-modified ATP analogs were used to investigate the functional differences between dynein ATPases. These analogs reactivate (support the movement of) sea urchin sperm axonemes, yet they do not reactivate wild-type Chalmydomonas axonemes. Surprisingly, the analogs reactivate the axonemes of mutants completely missing the outer arm dyneins. Competition experiments using ATP and these analogs provide strong evidence that the analogs bind to all dynein active sites but fail to release a subset of dyneins from rigor. We suggest that this subset of Chlamydomonas outer arm dyneins unable to use the analogs remains in rigor in the presence of the analogs and paralyzes the axoneme. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sliding movement ; 22S dynein ; Tetrahymena cilia ; dynein-track ; singlet microtubule ; ATP ; polarity ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Chlamydomonas and Tetrahymena axonemal dyneins have previously been found to bind to porcine brain microtubules to produce a microtubule-dynein complex. At appropriate microtubule:dynein concentration, microtubules in the complex became covered to saturation by dynein arms of the same polarity and at a spacing of 24 nm [Haimo et al., 1979; Haimo and Fenton, 1988; Haimo, 1989; Porter and Johnson, 1983a].In the present study, two different types of microtubule-dynein complexes (α-and β-complexes) were prepared from Tetrahymena ciliary 22S dynein and porcine brain tubulin. The characteristics of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced extrusion of microtubules from these complexes were analyzed, as a simple and direct in vitro assay for the ATP-induced extrusion of single microtubules. The α-complex prepared by adding dynein to microtubules showed an interrupted sliding movement, which would stop and start several times following the addition of ATP. In the β-complex, prepared by adding dynein bound to DEAE-tubulin to pre-assembled microtubules, microtubules became covered with dynein molecules whose orientation and binding were uniform with respect to microtubule polarity. The microtubules in the β-complex extruded at 12 μm/second following the addition of ATP. Dark-field and electron microscopy indicated that the extruded microtubules had undergone sliding on a dynein-track that had become detached from the complexes and had been absorbed onto the surface of the glass slide. At higher light intensity under a dark-field microscope, the dynein-track was seen to be composed of rows of dynein molecules arranged densely. The orientation of dynein molecules in rows appeared to be uniform considering the images of bound dynein in the β-complex under electron microscope. The higher sliding velocity of the microtubules on these dynein-tracks compared to that seen on slides coated at random with dynein [Vale and Toyoshima, 1988, 1989], may be due to more efficient force generation by this dense arrangement of dynein molecules with the same polarity on the tracks. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 5
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 27 (1994), S. 206-218 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sperm motility ; sperm maturation ; flagella ; protein kinases ; protein kinase inhibitor ; cGMP ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Ejaculated ram sperm were demembranated with Triton X-100, separated from the detergent-soluble matrix, and reactivated [San Agustin and Witman (1993): Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 24:264-273]. The percent motility of models prepared from freshly washed sperm was comparable to that of the washed sample before demembranation, regardless of whether cAMP was included in the reactivation medium. However, demembranated models derived from aging or metabolically inhibited sperm exhibited a lower percent reactivation and required cAMP to attain the level of motility of freshly washed sperm. Cyclic AMP was ∼100 times more effective than cGMP. The requirement for cAMP could be bypassed by addition of porcine heart cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) catalytic subunit to the reactivation medium, demonstrating that cAMP was acting via PKA. The cAMP stimulation of reactivation was not affected by inclusion of the PKA inhibitor PKI(5-24) in the reactivation medium, but was decreased when the models were preincubated with PKI(5-24) prior to reactivation. The cytosol-free models retained 〉90% of the sperm PKA activity; therefore, the PKA appears to be anchored to internal sperm structures. This PKA could not be extracted by cAMP or Triton X-100 alone, but only by cAMP and Triton X-100 in combination. We conclude that cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation is critical for sperm motility, but that the essential protein phosphate sites turn over slowly under our reactivation conditions, so that the cAMP requirement is apparent only in models prepared from sperm having a low internal ATP or cAMP content. Interestingly, reactivation was rapidly blocked by the peptide arg-lys-arg-ala-arg-lys-glu, which has been reported to be a selective inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microtubule-associated protein 2 ; neurons ; microtubule-associated proteins ; cytoskeleton ; dendrites ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) is an abundant component of the cytoskeleton present in dendrites and cell bodies of neurons of the CNS. To examine the biological function of MAP-2, two MAP-2 antisense (AS) oligonucleotides complementary to the 5′ region of the rat MAP-2 cDNA were added to rat primary embryonic day 17-18 (E17-18) cultured cortical neurons 24 h after plating and neurite outgrowth and morphology studied. The treatment of primary cortical cultures with either of the two MAP-2 AS oligonucleotides resulted in decreased MAP-2 and reduction in the number of neuritic processes relative to the control or MAP-2 sense-treated cultures. By immunostaining and light microscopy the AS-treated neurons appeared smaller, more rounded, and less intensely stained for MAP-2 than the untreated or the MAP-2 sense-treated cultures. By electron microscopy disorganized microtubules and a reduction in the number of microtubules within neurites of the AS-treated cultures were observed. We conclude that MAP-2 continues to be required for microtubule spacing and stability within neurites once they have formed. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 7
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 28 (1994), S. 1-24 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: myofibrillogenesis ; directionality ; non-muscle myosin II ; myosin ; α-actinin ; Z-bodies ; zeugmatin ; titin ; C-protein ; premyofibril ; nascent myofibril ; mature myofibril ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: When cardiac muscle cells are isolated from embryonic chicks and grow in culture they attach to the substrate as spherical cells with disrupted myofibrils, and over several days in culture, they spread and extend lamellae. Based on antibody localizations of various cytoskeletal proteins within the spreading cardiomyocyte, three types of myofibrils have been identified: 1) fully formed mature myofibrils that are centrally positioned in the cell, 2) premyofibrils that are closest to the cell periphery, and 3) nascent myofibrils located between the premyofibrils and the mature myofibrils. Muscle-specific myosin is localized in the A-bands in the mature, contractile myofibrils, and along the nascent myofibrils in a continuous pattern, but it is absent from the premyofibrils. Antibodies to non-muscle isoforms of myosin IIB react with the premyofibrils at the cell periphery and with the nascent myofibrils, revealing short bands of myosin between closely spaced bands of α-actinin. In the areas where the nascent myofibrils border on the mature myofibrils, the bands of non-muscle myosin II reach lengths matching the lengths of the mature A-bands. With the exception of a small transition zone consisting of one myofibril, or sometimes several sarcomeres, bordering the nascent myofibrils, there is no reaction of these non-muscle myosin IIB antibodies with the mature myofibrils in spreading myocytes. C-protein is found only in the mature myofibrils, and its presence there may prevent co-polymerization of non-muscle and muscle myosins. Antibodies directed against the non-muscle myosin isoforms, IIA, do not stain the cardiomyocytes. In contrast to the cardiomyocytes, the fibroblasts in these cultures stain with antibodies to both non-muscle myosin IIA and IIB. The premyofibrils near the leading edge of the lamellae show no reaction with antibodies to either titin or zeugmatin, whereas the nascent myofibrils and mature myofibrils do. The spacings of the banded α-actinin staining range from 0.3 to 1.4 μm in the pre- and nascent myofibrils and reach full spacings (1.8-2.5 μm) in the mature myofibrils. Based on these observations, we propose a premyofibril model in which non-muscle myosin IIB, titin, and zeugmatin play key roles in myofibrillogenesis. This model proposes that pre- and nascent myofibrils are composed of minisarcomeres that increase in length, presumably by the concurrent elongation of actin filaments, the loss of the non-muscle myosin II filaments, the fusion of dense bodies or Z-bodies to form wide Z-bands, and the capture and alignment of muscle myosin II filaments to form the full spacings of mature myofibrils. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; microtubule-associated protein (MAP) ; marine egg extracts ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Alkaline pH favors the assembly of microtubules (MTs) in marine egg extracts [Suprenant and Marsh, 1987: J. Cell Sci. 184:167-180; Suprenant, 1989: Exp. Cell Res. 184:167-180; 1991: Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 19:207-220] and mammalian brain extracts [Tiwari and Suprenant, 1993: Anal. Biochem. 215:96-103], even though the assembly of purified microtubule protein (MTP) from both of these sources is favored at slightly acidic pH. The present investigation examines whether alkaline pH has a direct or indirect effect on MT nucleation and growth in soluble brain extracts. Cell-free extracts were prepared from bovine cerebral cortex, and a nucleated assembly assay was used to demonstrate that MT assembly in brain extracts is favored at slightly acidic pH. The increase in MT mass found at alkaline pH is due to an increase in the solubility of tubulin not an increase in the extent of assembly On average, 47.7 ± 11.3% of the total tubulin is soluble at pH 7.2, while only 30.9 ± 8.9% of the tubulin is soluble at pH 6.8. A model is proposed that indicates how microtubule proteins from both mammalian brain and marine eggs may be associated with pH-dependent factors. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Semi-empirical (AM1) calculations on the 12 isomeric products and the corresponding transition states of ketene-1-azabutadiene [4 + 2] and [2 + 2] cycloaddition reactions as a model system for the reaction of ketenes with 4-iminobenzylfuran-2,3-diones are presented. A [4 + 2] type of reaction of the ketene C=C double bond leading to a six-membered lactam compound is found to be highly favoured both thermodynamically and kinetically. [2 + 2] Cycloadducts generally have significantly higher activation energies. Reactions involving the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond proceed in most cases via attack of the nitrogen lone pair leading to a zwitterionic intermediate. Depending on the respective cycloadduct, both two-step and concerted, albeit asynchronous, processes were obtained. Based on the structures of the various transition states, some predictions with respect to substituent effects are made. Similarities to and differences from the analogous reaction of ketenimines with oxa-1,3-dienes are discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Reaction of aryliminodimagnesium [ArN(MgBr)2, IDMg] with nitrobenzene (Ar1NO2) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) gives unsymmetrical (unsym) azoxybenzene, which is deoxygenated to give unsym-azobenzene. The reaction is utilized for the independent preparation of ONN and NNO isomers of unsym-azoxy compounds. The effects of the relative value of the difference between oxidation and reduction potentials of para-substituted reactants, special effects of ortho-substituents of the substrate and also effects of structure and concentration of mono- and bis-IDMg reagents were studied previously, and ‘cooperation of their aggregate excess needed for product formation’ was proposed. This unfamiliar concept for reactions of magnesium reagents was studied further. Supporting evidence was obtained from the retarding effect of trimethylene chains of nitro [3.3] metacyclophanes and the derived azoxy [3.3] metacyclophanes and also from the effect of the length of bis-IDMg's central α,ω-polymethylenedioxy chain appropriate for azoxy deoxygenation. By comparison with deoxygenation by X3P reagents (X = EtO, Me2N), the general needs of cooperation of excess magnesium reagents were confirmed and its role in their reactions is discussed.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The magnitude ρx(ρnuc) is shown to decrease with increase in the extent of bond making estimated by the kinetic isotope effect for the reactions of Y-benzoyl chlorides with anilines, XC6H4NH2, in acetonitrile at 25·0°C.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The role of orbital control in product selectivity during electrophilic aromatic alkylation catalysed by zeolites was studied both theoretically and experimentally. In order to discuss this, the alkylation of toluene and m-xylene by methanol was carried out on a series of large-pore zeolites (HY). The changes in the para to ortho ratio observed on changing the framework Si/Al ratio of the zeolites were related to ab initio molecular orbital calculations of the LUMO energy of structurally alike model clusters but containing different tetrahedral cations around the active site. The observed correlation is discussed in terms of the HSAB principle by taking into account the influence of the catalyst composition on the reactivity of the electrophilic reagent.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: N-Substituted carbonimidodithioic acid dimethyl esters, when reacted with an active methylene compound such as nitromethane, undergo carbon-carbon bond formation followed by carbon-sulphur bond cleavage in the presence of zeolite catalysts to give 1-substituted amino-1-methylthio-2-nitroethenes. This carbon-sulphur bond cleavage is facilitated by the presence of rare earth cations in the zeolite-Y framework. The shape selectivity of the zeolite also plays an important role in this cleavage reaction. Force field calculations adopted for the molecules involved in the reaction indicate the geometry and conformational flexibility of these molecules. The computer-simulated model for the zeolite-Y is correlated with the conformation and shape of the reactant and product molecules to explain the variation in yields obtained in the conversion of substituted dimethyl esters.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The effects of the concentrations of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, Na2CO3 and BaCl2 on the rates of reactions of hydroxide ion with ionized N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHP-) at 30°C and in H2O-MeCN solvents containing 10, 50, 60, 66, 70, 76 and 80% (v/v) MeCN reveal the formation of ion-pair complexes between cations of the salts, which probably exist in solvent-separated loose ion-pair forms (Mn+⃛Xk-) and NHP-. An increase in MeCN content from 2 to 76% (v/v) causes an increase in the association constants (K) by factors of 40, 21 and 9 for LiCl, NaCl and KCl, respectively, while the respective increase in the rate constants (k′s1) for the collapse of the ion-pair complexes to product is ca two-fold. The values of k′s1 remain almost unchanged whereas the values of K increase 7·5-fold with an increase in MeCN content from 2 to 70% (v/v) for CsCl. Ion-pair complex formation was not detected in the presence of Me4NCl at 70% (v/v) MeCN. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constants are highly sensitive to the valence state of cations and almost insensitive to the valence state of the anions of the salts.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The rates and products of solvolyses of 4-methylene-2ax- and -2eq-adamantyl p-toluenesulphonates (tosylates) (4a-OTs and 4e-OTs, respectively) were studied. Compound 4a-OTs solvolysed more slowly than 2-adamantyl tosylate (1) in methanol and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) by factors of 2·3 and 2·5, respectively, at 25°C. However, by taking the inductive decelerating effect of a β-methylene substituent into account, the rates were revealed to be enhanced by α-participation by a factor of 50. The products of solvolyses of 4a-OTs in methanol, 80% acetone and TFE at 100°C were 2ax- and 2eq-alkoxy(or hydroxy)-4-methyleneadamantanes (4a-OR and 4e-OR, respectively), exo-4-alkoxy(or hydroxy)-5-methyleneprotoadamantane (exo-5-OR) and 5-[alkoxy(or hydroxy)methyl]-4-protoadamantene (6-OR) with adamantyl to protoadamantyl product ratio of 39:61 (in methanol), 56:44 (in 80% acetone) and 71:29 (in TFE). Despite the nearly symmetric nature of the intermediate cation, the 4a-OR: 4e-OR product ratio was essentially constant with 83:17 (in methanol), 85:15 (in 80% acetone) and 82:18 (in TFE). The formation of considerable amounts of 4e-OR was interpreted as showing the intermediacy of a pair of rapidly equilibrating classical ions. The rates of 4e-OTs were 2300-4300 times faster than those expected from inductive electron-withdrawing effect of a β-methylene substituent. The major product (84·5% in methanolysis and 98·7% in trifluoroethanolysis) was 4e-OR accompanied by small amounts of 2-alkoxy-2,4-methanoadamantane (9-OR) and 2-(alkoxymethyl)-2,4-didehydroadamantane (10-OR), no formation of 4a-OR having been observed. These results suggested that 4e-OTs solvolyses via a π-bridged intermediate cation.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Molecular mechanics (MM3) calculations were carried out on the title compounds. Comparison between the MM3 results and those of semi-empirical and ab initio calculations and experiment indicates that the MM3 results are at least as good as results of much more expensive calculations. The MM3 calculations predict that unlike corannulene and cyclopentacorannulene, the transition state of the bowl-to-bowl inversion of the related C30H10 is non-planar, and the activation barrier is too high for this motion to occur.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Reactions of benzo-, naphtho- and anthraquinone derivatives (unsubstituted and substituted) with aryliminodimagnesium [ArN(MgBr)2] and aryloxymagnesium of a weak electron-donating ability were studied. In addition to the reduction products (quinhydrones and hydroquinones), nuclear substitution and condensation products were formed. The efficiency of single electron transfer (SET) from ArN(MgBr)2, evaluated by the relative values of the difference between the oxidation and reduction potentials of the reactants (ΔE = Eox - Ered), varies with the electron-accepting power of quinones. ΔE governs the modes of semiquinone appearance (ESR signals) and the relative amounts of the heat of reactions, reflecting the types and yields of the products. It is concluded that condensation products of both components are produced in the reactions of quinones with the lower SET efficiency by the presence of a fused benzene ring or MeO substituent. The structure-reactivity relationship proposed previously for reactions of various magnesium reagents is extended in the reactions with a variety of quinones even in cases of higher SET efficiency.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The low temperature 1H NMR spectra of 2,2-bis(3,5-dibromomesityl)ethenol in CS2-CD2Cl2 (3:7) display new signals which indicate the presence of four enol species whose OH is hydrogen bonded. Oligomerization to intermolecularly hydrogen-bonded enol dimers or tetramers is suggested.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Measurements of absorption and emission spectra, fluorescence quantum yields (Φf) and lifetimes (τf) of ω-(1-pyrenyl)alkyl para-substituted benzoates PnX (X = H, Cl, CF3, CN, NO2, with n = 1-4) were carried out in solvents of various polarity. Intramolecular interaction in the ground state is not observed in any of these compounds. PnCN (n = 2-4) shows an intramolecular exciplex emission in solvents of low to high polarity. The broad, structureless emission at longer wavelength observed in ethyl acetate solution of P1CN is ascribed to an ‘exciplex-type’ emission which does not require actual overlapping of the two chromophores. P2CF3 also shows an exciplex emission in solvents of medium to high polarity. The solvent dependence of both Φf and τf increases as the electron-withdrawing ability of the para-sustituents increases. The relationship between fluorescence quenching by electron transfer and para-substituent of PnX is discussed by means of the free energy for electron transfer, ΔGET, obtained from the oxidation and reduction potentials of pyrene and methyl para-substituted benzoates in acetonitrile, respectively. PnH, with positive ΔGET, does not show a solvent dependence of Φf, except for P1H, in which ca 40% of the fluorescence is quenched in acetonitrile. PnCl, with slightly negative ΔGET, shows more efficient quenching, but does not show exciplex emission. PnCN, PnCF3 and PnNO2 have ΔGET values between -0·36 and -0·65 eV, and their fluorescence is fairly efficiently quenched. The fluorescence of PnCN is concluded to be strongly quenched by intersystem crossing from the singlet exciplex to the locally excited pyrene, and by electron transfer from the pyrene part to the benzoate part. That the formation of a singlet exciplex is necessary for intersystem crossing in bichromophoric compounds containing pyrene is thus clearly illustrated.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The evidence for the mechanisms proposed for aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions by primary and secondary amines in aprotic solvents of low relative permittivity is reviewed.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A rigorous procedure was developed for measuring the relative rates of addition of bromine atoms to eleven substituted α-methylstyrenes (1-Y, with Y = CF3, NO2, F, CN, Cl, Br, CO2Me, Me, COMe, OMe and SMe). The reaction was run in tetrahydrofuran in the presence of HBr, O2 and dibutyl peroxyoxalate at 30°C. All products were derived from the YC6H4CMeCH2Br adduct radicals, which were immediately intercepted by O2. Correlation analysis of all the data confirmed the proposition that in the absence of measurable steric effects, the relative rates for radical additions can be correlated only by a dual-parameter equation and not by a single-parameter equation. Among various combinations of σ* and σx, the (σJJ* + σmb) combination yields the best correlation.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Protonation of tetrafluoro-2,11-dithia [3·3]paracyclophane and tetrafluoro-2,11-dithia [3·3]metaparacyclophane in high-acidity super acid media, namely FSO3H.SbF5 (1:1) ‘magic acid’-SO2CIF, gave their corresponding acidic disulfonium ions. Additional ring protonation to give a disulfonium-monoarenium trication was not observed. With the non-fluorinated 2,11-dithia [3·3] cyclophanes, the disulfonium ions can be ring protonated in equilibrium to give a dynamic disulfonium-monoarenium trication. Tetrafluoro [2·2]-metaparacyclophane is monoprotonated at the meta ring and gives a complex mixture of conformational isomers. Multinuclear magnetic resonance data on the cyclophane precursors and their derived cations are compared and analysed. The energies, conformations and charge distributions of the isometric fluorinated and non-fluorinated [2·2] - and dithia [3·3] cyclophanes were calculated by the AM1 and PM3 methods, respectively. In all but one case the cyclophane arenium ions predicted by theory to be energetically most favoured are those observed in solution under stable ion conditions. In agreement with experiment, the instabilities of S,S,C-cyclophane trications are also theoretically predicted.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Ionization constants for 214 dye molecules were calculated from molecular structures using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry). These models used fundamental chemical structure theory to predict chemical reactivities for a wide range of organic molecules from molecular structure. The energy differences between the protonated state and the unprotonated state for a molecule of interest are factored into mechanistic components including the electrostatic and resonance contributions and any additional contributions to these energy differences. The RMS deviation was found to be less than 0·62 pKa units, which is similar to the experimental error.
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  • 26
    Electronic Resource
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 169-169 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Solvent effects on the absorption spectra of N-(p-nitrophenyl)dimethylenediamine (Ia), N-(p-nitrophenyl)trimethylenediamine (Ib), N-(p-nitrophenyl)tetramethylenediamine (Ic). N-methyl-N-(p-nitrophenyl)tetramethylenediamine (II), N-butyl-p-nitroaniline (III) and N-(o-nitrophenyl)trimethylenediamine (IV) were studied at different temperatures. Whereas II, III and IV do not show any variation in their spectra characteristics with changes in temperature, I shows a hypsochromic shift with a hypochromic effect when the temperature is increased. The Kamlet and Taft solvatochromic comparison method was applied. A strong effect of the β parameter on I and III was interpreted as being due to the hydrogen bond donor ability of the H atom in the aromatic amino groups. In I, the β influence increases with increase in temperature. These facts are explained by proposing the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds between amine groups in all compounds I, besides the intermolecular interactions between compounds I and the solvent. On the other hand, the values of vo, s and b for Ib are smaller than the corresponding values for Ia and Ic. Since in Ib a six-membered ring may be formed, a more stable bond is expected. Comparative 1H NMR of the aniline hydrogen for I and IV (in non-hydrogen bond acceptor solvents) shows a particular downfield chemical shift for I which suggests hydrogen bond formation. Since this effect is independent of concentration, the hydrogen bond is assumed to be intramolecular, in agreement with solvatochromic and thermochromic studies. These conclusions were corroborated by IR spectroscopy in the solid state and in chloroform solutions.
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  • 28
    Electronic Resource
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The secondary α-deuterium isotpe effect on the equiliburium constant (KD/KH) for the hydration of p-nitrobenzaldehyde is 1·39 ± 0·05. The Kinetic secondary α-deuterium isotope effect (KD/KH) for the addition of water to p-nitrobenzaldehyde is 1·18 ± 0·07. This result demonstrates that there is extensive carbon-oxygen bond formation in the transition state for addition of water to the carbonyl group of p-nitrobezaldehyde.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The rate of the reaction of 2-chloroquinoxaline with piperidine in dimethyl sulphoxide was measured over a wide range of amine concentrations and at several temperatures. It was found that the order with respect to the nucleophile is close to 1 between 300 and 320 K, but is definitely less at lower and higher temperature. It is suggested that below 300 K an unreactive charge-transfer complex is formed between the reactants which dissociates at higher temperatures, whereas at temperatures higher than 320 K an unproductive σ complex is formed, the concentration of which increases with increase in temperature.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The enthalpic contribution to the anomeric effect in r-2-carboethoxy-trans-4,trans-6- and r-2-carboethoxy-cis-4,cis-6-dimethyl-1,3-dithianes was determined by reaction-solution calorimetry. The enthalpy of solution of both isomers in pure p-dioxane and the enthalpy of solution and isomerization in the same solvent and in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid were experimentally measured. From these results the corresponding enthalpies of isomerization in solution were calculated, and were found to be ΔHax→eq = -0·16 ± 0·04 kcal mol-1 (-0·67 ± 0·18 kJ mol-1) and ΔSax→eq = -2·68 ± 0·1 cal K-1 mol-1 (-11·2 ± 0·4 J K-1 mol-1). The slightly negative ΔH term nevertheless reflects a substantial anomeric effect owing to the countervailing steric effects in the axial isomer. The significant entropy loss in the equatorial isomer was explained in terms of intramolecular electrostatic effects. The results are in agreement with those obtained from NMR studies of the conformational behaviour of 2-carboethoxy-5-methyl-5-aza-1,3-dithiacyclohexane.
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  • 32
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 591-609 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The MM3 molecular mechanics program calculates a fair representation of hydrogen bonding interactions, but to improve the MM3 hydrogen bond potential, a directional term has been added to the hydrogen bonding function. The resulting total function was reoptimized. Comparisons of the hydrogen bonding potential functions from ab initio, the original MM3, the current MM3(92) force field and the reoptimized MM3 force field MM3(94) for a variety of C,N,O systems are described.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The title sulphenamides were pyrolysed in a stirred-flow reactor at temperatures of 310-410°C, pressures of 8-15 Torr and residence times of 0·4-2 s using toluene as the carrier gas. N-(tert-Butylthio)allylamine formed 73 ± 4% isobutene, 23 ± 3% propene and N-allylthiohydroxylamine. The first-order rate coefficients for the formation of isobutene and propene, respectively, followed the Arrhenius equations kC4(s-1) = 1012·52 ± 0·36 exp(-163 ± 5 kJ mol-1 RT) and kC3(s-1) = 1010·99 ± 0·29 exp(-151 ± 4 kJ mol-1 RT) N-(tert-Butylthio)diethylamine gave 97 ± 1% isobutene, 1·9 ± 0·4% isobutane and N,N-diethylthiohydroxylamine. The first-order rate coefficients for isobutene elimination followed the Arrhenius equation k(s-1) = 1013·45 ± 0·24 exp(-164 ± 3 kJ mol-1 RT). The formation of the products is interpreted in terms of an elimination reaction with a unimolecular, four-centered, cyclic transition state. The reactivity of these sulphenamides was found to be much higher than that of previously studied alkyl or aryl tert-butyl sulphides and disulphides.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The aromatic odd-alternant phenalenyl anion and a number of its derivatives were prepared in order to study the perturbation of this conjugated anion by methyl and methoxy groups. The conjugated anions were studied by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, alkylation experiments and semi-empirical calculations. It was found that a substituent at a charged carbon atom perturbs the entire conjugated system, whereas substituents at inactive (uncharged) carbon atoms have a large effect on the positions ortho to the substituent.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The spontaneous hydrolysis of p-nitrobenzyl cellulose xanthate (CelXNB) with a degree of substitution (DS) in the range 2-9 was studied in 10% aqueous ethanol at pH 10, and was followed spectrophotometrically by the appearance of p-nitro-α-toluenethiol, in a continuous-flow system where the reactor was shaken. CelXNB was characterized by solid-state 13C NMR spectra. The reaction occurs through two parallel processes due to two xanthate ester groups with different reactivities. The fast hydrolysis was ascribed to the reaction of the C-2 + C-3 isomers, whereas the slow hydrolysis was due to the C-6 isomer. The percentage of the latter is much higher than C-2 + C-3. The solvent isotope effect of the fast hydrolysis (k′H2O/)k′H2D 11 was 2·22 ± 0·16 and the proton inventory indicated that there is only one proton transfer involved in the transition state, where a second water (or a neighbouring OH group) acts as a general base. The entropy of activation of the fast hydrolysis was only 3·3 ± 0·8 e.u., suggesting that the water molecules involved are highly oriented with respect to the coordinates required to reach the transition state. It is proposed that they form part of the three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded ice-like structure that involves the cellulose matrix.
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  • 36
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    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 316-322 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Rates of hydrolysis of the vinyl ether functional groups of (Z)- and (E)-β-methoxyacrylic acid and (Z)-and (E)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid and their methyl esters were measured in aqueous perchloric acid solution. Additional rate measurements were also made for one substrate, (Z)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid, in buffer solutions down to pH 7, and a rate profile was constructed. The results show that the β-carboxy and β-carbomethoxy substituents produce strong rate retardations, ranging from 2000- to 25 000-fold, for both Z- and E-isomers in both the acrylic and methacrylic acid series. The rate profile for (Z)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid indicates that ionization of this substrate to the carboxylate ion form rises the rate of hydrolysis by a factor of 240. It is argued that this difference in reactivity of ionized and non-ionized forms of the substrate is due to conjugative and inductive effects of the substituents, rather than β-lactone formation as suggested in an earlier observation of the same phenomenon in a different system.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The stereochemistry and kinetics of the methoxide ion substitution reactions (Z)- and (E)-methylbenzohydroximoyl cyanidc [PhC(CN)=NOCH3] were investigated. The reaction of the (Z)-hydroximoyl cyanide with sodium methoxide in DMSO-methanol (9:1) solution at 44·8°C gives a mixture of methyl (Z)-O-methylbenzohydroximate [PhC(OCH3)=NOCH3] and the O-methyloxime of α-ketophenylacetamide PhC(CONH2)=NOCH3. The (E)-hydroximoyl cyanide undergoes methoxide ion-catalyzed isomerization to the E-isomer faster than it undergoes nucleophilic substitution. These observations were interpreted in terms of an addition-elimination mechanism in which the rate-limiting step is elimination of the nucleofuge (AN + DN#).
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  • 38
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 394-394 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The reaction of nitrosobenzene with aniline, to give azobenzene, in basic conditions was studied. It was shown that the reaction exhibits general base catalysis by different buffers giving a Brønsted coefficient β = 0·318. As in previous studies, a two-step process with a first step of attack of aniline on nitrosobenzene to give an addition intermediate and a second step of dehydration of this intermediate is proposed to interpret the mechanism of the reaction. The analysis of the Brønsted relationship and of the intermediate of the reaction led to the suggestion that hydoxide ion catalyses the reaction by a mechanism of general base catalysis in the dehydration step.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Imidazole (Imz)-catalysed hydrolysis of benzoate esters proceeds via the intermediate formation of N-benzoylimidazoles. This paper considers the second step of this reaction, viz., Imz-catalysed hydrolysis of N-(4-X-benzoyl)imidazoles, X = CH3, H, Cl, CN and NO2, and N-(disubstituted benzoyl)imidazoles, 2-chloro-4-nitro, 2, 4-dinitro and 3,5-dinitro, in water-acetonitrile mixtures (10% or 14%, v/v, in organic solvent). On the basis of catalytic rate constants and the kinetic solvent isotope effect, it is shown that catalysis by Imz is of the general-base type. Unexpectedly, the hydrolysis of N-(2,4-dinitrobenzoyl)imidazole was found to be slower than that of N-(4-nitrobenzoyl)imidazole. It is shown that this reactivity order is due to a combination of a steric effect and stabilization of the reactant state due to a donor-acceptor interaction between the Imz moiety and the 2,4-dinitrophenyl ring.
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  • 41
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The rates of the solvolysis of 3-R-4-homoadamantyl methanesulphonates (mesylates) (3) were determined in 80% aqueous ethanol. The relative first-order rate constants at 25 °C were 1·0 (R = H), 2·29 (R = Ph), 3·26 (R = p-anisyl), 73·6 (R = Me) and 209 (R = Et). The methanolysis of 3 gave rearranged methyl ethers and rearranged olefins as major products together with small amounts (0·9-3·4%) of unrearranged products. The order of the accelerating effect suggests that the transition states involve significant σ-participation, despite the fact that 3 (R = H) solvolyses via a classical ion intermediate. The logarithms of the solvolysis rate constants of 3 showed linear correlations with those of 1-R-2-adamantyl tosylates (1) and 1-R-exo-2-norbornyl tosylates (2), indicating that the linear free-energy relationship between the β-substituent effects on the solvolysis rate is not a definite measure to distinguish between classical and non-classical intermediates.
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  • 43
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    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 518-524 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The kinetics of the nucleophilic cleavage of phthalimide (PTH) in buffer solutions of ammonia and pyrrolidine were determined. The reaction rates for ammonolysis of PTH revealed a buffer-catalysed second-order term in the rate law, but the reaction rates for pyrrolidinolysis of PTH showed buffer-catalysed second- and third-order terms in the rate law. Both ammonia and pyrrolidine revealed nucleophilic reactivity towards ionized PTH (S-) only within the pH range of the present study. This is attributed to the occurrence of intramolecular general base-acid catalysis. General base catalysis is detected in the reactions of pyrrolidine with both non-ionized PTH (SH) and S-. The general base-catalysed third-order rate constant for pyrrolidinolysis of SH is nearly 28 times larger than that of S-.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The bisporphyria N,N′-bis[4″-(meso-triphenylporphyrinyl)benzyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 and its mono- and dizinc derivatives were synthesized in 66%, 46% and 53% yields, respectively, from 5-(4′-bromomethylphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin or its zinc derivative and 4,13-diaza-18-crown-6. The zinc-containing bisporphyrins form dimers in solution at low temperature or at high concentration. The unsymmetrical bisporphyrin; monozinc N,N′-bis[4″-(meso-triphenylporphyrinyl)benzyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 shows singlet-singlet energy transfer from the zinc porphyrin moiety to the free base moiety in both the monomeric and the dimeric form. The energy transfer rates were determined using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and were found to be 1·26 × 109 and 2·29 × 109 s-1 for the monomeric and dimeric form, respectively. The difference in energy transfer rates between the two forms can be rationalized by the difference in overlap between the donor fluorescence spectrum and acceptor absorption spectrum, donor-acceptor distance and donor-acceptor orientation.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Xenopus ; SP5 ; cDNA cloning ; Translational control ; Poly(A) tail ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: As part of our continuing program to understand the molecular mechanisms controlling the synthesis of sperm-specific nuclear proteins (SPs1-6) during spermatogenesis in Xenopus, we report here on the isolation of a cDNA clone for SP5, the partial sequencing of the amino acids in the SPs, and the expression of the mRNA for SP5. A cDNA clone (pXSP633) was isolated from a cDNA library, previously prepared from poly (A)+ mRNA obtained from Xenopus round spermatids. Determination of the amino acid sequence of the N-terminal regions of all the SPs(1-6) suggested that pXSP633 encodes SP5, whereas SPs3, 4, and 6 are derived from a second mRNA species, and SPs1 and 2 from a third mRNA species. Thus it seems likely that the six SPs are derived from three different mRNA species. Northern blot analyses of RNA, extracted from primary spermatocytes and round spermatids, was performed with oligonucleotide probes specific for SPs4 and 5 mRNAs. The results showed that whereas both SPs4 and 5 mRNAs are expressed in primary spermatocytes, the amount of SP5 mRNA is only about one-fifth of that of SP4 mRNA. However, both mRNA species undergo a similar size change in the length of their poly (A) tracts during spermatogenesis: the size of the mRNA in cultured round spermatids on day 0 was longer than that in primary spermatocytes, but the size of the mRNA in round spermatids on day 6 was shorter than that in round spermatids on day 0. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Follistatin ; cDNA ; Bovine ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Bovine follistatin cDNA sequences were derived using a cloning strategy based entirely on reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification of RNA derived from bovine ovarian and testicular tissues. Complete bovine follistatin cDNA coding sequences are presented including 1,029 bases of open reading frame, the 5′ translational start codon, and the 3′ translational stop codon. Homologies of bovine follistatin cDNA with pig, human, rat, and partial sheep sequences are 94.3%, 92.4%, 89.9%, and 98.4% at the nucleic acid level and 98.3%, 97.1%, 95.6%, and 100% at the deduced amino acid level, respectively. Northern blot analysis on a survey of bovine reproductive tissues showed strongest expression in ovaries collected from superovulated cows and major RNA species at 2.8 Kb and 1.75 Kb. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Sex determination ; Sex determining region Y ; Postmeiotic expression ; HMG box containing proteins ; Interstitial cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Although its expression in adult testis was immediately apparent, the role for Sry (sex determining region, Y) in testicular function remains elusive. We have performed transcriptional studies in an effort to elucidate potential roles of Sry by studying the time and location of its transcription in mouse testes. Northern analyses and more sensitive nuclease protection assays detected transcripts in 28-day-old testes and beyond. The highly sensitive technique of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) could not detect Sry expression in 14-day testes when primers for the most conserved portion of the gene, the high mobility group (HMG) box, were used, but primers for the circular form detected Sry transcription at all postnatal stages studied. The same HMG box primers were able to detect expression of Sry in XX, Sxra or Sxrb testes. This suggested that Sry is expressed in cells other than germ cells, which was confirmed with studies on fractionated cells - RTPCR detected transcription of Sry in the highly pure interstitial cell fraction. However, Leydig cells and a Leydig cell tumor were negative for Sry expression. We performed in situ studies in an attempt to localize the expression of Sry in the testes. Abundant expression of an Sry cross-hybridizing transcript was found in spermatogonia, in early spermatocytes, and in some interstitial cells with antisense probes to the HMG box or a more specific, 3′ region, whereas the sense probe gave little or no hybridization. It is probable that the circular transcripts, which are seen in reverse transcriptase positive (RT+) and RT- reactions by PCR because of the RT activity of Taq polymerase, are responsible for the hybridization seen in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, whereas linear and circular forms are detected later. Thus Sry is expressed in pre- and postmeiotic germ cells and in somatic cells of the testes. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Insulin-like growth factors ; Diabetes ; Embryos ; Mouse ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) play an important regulatory role in fetal growth and development. Alterations in expression of these growth factors may result in developmental abnormalities, macrosomia, and intrauterine growth retardation, which occur with a higher incidence in diabetic pregnancies. In situ hybridization histochemistry was employed to investigate the distribution and abundance of IGF-I and IGF-II in peri-implantation and postimplantation conceptuses from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic mice. Animals were sacrificed on gestational days 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. The entire uterine horn was prepared for hybridization with antisense and sense α-35S-dATP labeled oligonucleotide probes for IGF-I, IGF-II, and mouse β-actin. IGF-I transcript was apparent only in myometrium at 6 days of gestation in normal and diabetic mice. IGF-II transcripts were restricted to trophoectoderm cells within the implantation chamber on day 5. Following implantation, IGF-II transcripts were found in trophoectodermal derivatives, primitive endoderm, mesoderm, heart, walls of the foregut, and mesenchyme in normal and diabetic postimplantation conceptuses. There were no apparent differences between normal and diabetic samples in the distribution and abundance of the IGF-II transcript from gestational days 7, 8, and 9. The embryos from the diabetic mother at day 6 were growth retarded and had a significant decrease in the expression of IGF-II. These results suggest that maternal hyperglycemia may retard development of the early implanting conceptus in a narrow window around day 6 through a mechanism involving decreased IGF-II expression. Fetuses from diabetic pregnancies that escape this critical period appear to develop and express IGF-II in an equivalent manner to those of the control group. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Embryo culture ; Blastocyst formation ; Galactose ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: One-cell mouse embryos that block at the 2-cell stage can progress to the morula stage in CZB medium, but fail to cavitate and then swell and lyse. A 1-min exposure to 27 mM glucose at the 4-cell stage (∼42 hr) will support a high frequency of development to the blastocyst stage (75%) in the same medium. A glucose exposure is beneficial anytime between 30 and 54 hr of culture (67-73% blastocysts). Of a group of additional sugars and glucose analogues tested for their ability to replace glucose, only galactose was equivalent in promoting embryo development to the blastocyst stage (64% blastocysts). © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Preimplantation embryo ; Insulin ; IGFs ; Protein synthesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Previously constructed protein databases for two stages of preimplantation mouse embryogenesis, the compacted eight-cell stage and the fully expanded blastocyst stage, have been used to analyze the effects of insulin, IGF-I, and IGF-II on protein synthesis in these developmental stages. Proteins were labeled by placing, for 2 hr, synchronous cohorts of 35-50 embryos into human tubal fluid (HTF) medium containing L-[35S]-methionine (1 mCi/ml) in the presence or absence of one of the growth factors. The embryos were then washed with medium and lysed. Samples were processed for 2-D gel analysis. For each embryonic stage and each growth factor, four or five experimental replicates were done and the gel images were compared using the PDQUEST system. Using the computer-assisted analysis, we were able to identify proteins that showed a statistically significant (P 〈 0.05) change in synthesis. At the eight-cell stage of development insulin caused increased synthesis of two proteins and decreased synthesis in three proteins. Insulin-treated blastocyst stage embryos exhibited an increased synthesis in eight proteins and decreased synthesis for one protein. The effect of IGF-I at the eight-cell stage of development was mostly inhibitory; the synthesis of only one protein increased and the synthesis of five proteins showed a decrease. Similar results were obtained with blastocyst stage embryos; four proteins demonstrated an increase in synthesis while 14 proteins showed a decrease. Eight-cell stage embryos incubated with IGF-II had seven proteins with a decreased synthesis, although in blastocyst stage embryos, nine proteins showed increased synthesis. However, seven IGF response proteins were found to be proteins that showed significant changes in isotope incorporation during the eight-cell to blastocyst stage of development (Shi et al., 1993). In all, 54 proteins were affected, and these were unique; thus, protein synthesis in preimplantation mouse embryos is influenced by insulin and the IGFs, and further, each growth factor affects specific proteins. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 51
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 37 (1994), S. 413-424 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Primordial germ cell ; Oogonia ; Fetus ; Cattle ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Gonadal cell suspensions were made from bovine fetuses of 35-55-, 56-80-, and 80-130-day age groups corresponding to the periods predominated by primordial germ cells (PGCs), oogonia, and meiotic cells, respectively. Germ cells identified on morphological criteria prior to their isolation from suspensions were compared histochemically and morphologically with cells in cryosections, impression smears, and semithin sections of similar gonads. Oocytes were distinguished by their chromosomal configurations in cell spreads.In suspensions from 35-55-day fetuses, cells considered to be PGCs stood out by their size, large nucleus, intracytoplasmic vesicles, and occasional blebbing. The somatic cells were smaller and contained little cytoplasm and few vesicles. In bovine gonads, in contrast to murine gonads, alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity was not specific enough to identify germ cells once they had entered the gonad. In ovaries from the 56-80-day age group, cells similar to PGCs, but slightly larger and with more cytoplasmic vesicles, were identified as oogonia. The cytoplasmic vesicles stained positively for lipid. In ovaries of 80-130-day fetuses, oogonia, oocytes, degenerating germ cells, and multinucleate germ cells were recognized. Degenerating germ cells exhibited a variety of morphological characteristics and were consistently positive for acid-phosphatase activity. Binucleate germ cells appeared around day 85 of gestation, while multinucleate germ cells were seen from day 95. It was concluded that bovine mitotic germ cells can be isolated from gonadal cell suspensions and that the best time to recover them is between 50 and 70 days of gestation. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Seminal fluid proteins ; Isoelectric focusing ; Molecular heterogeneity ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Recently, we demonstrated that the major proteins from bovine seminal plasma BSP-A1, -A2, -A3 and -30-kDa (collectively called BSP proteins) specifically interact with choline phospholipids. These proteins coat the surface of the spermatozoa after ejaculation and are believed to play an important role in membrane modifications occurring during capacitation. In this study we determined the isoelectric point (pl) and analysed the molecular heterogeneity of BSP proteins. Total protein from bovine seminal plasma (CBSP) and purified BSP proteins were iodinated using chloramine T. Samples were reduced, denatured, separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), and visualized by autoradiography. Analysis of CBSP proteins demonstrated the presence of polypeptides migrating in the pH range of 3.5-7.8 and at molecular weights (Mr) between 6 and 100 kDa. Many isoforms of each BSP protein were found when purified iodinated proteins were analysed by 2D-PAGE. BSP-A1 was found at a Mr of 16.5 kDa and in the range of pl of 4.7-5.0; BSP-A2 at 16 kDa and at a pl of 4.9-5.2; BSP-A3 at 15 kDa and at a pl of 4.8-5.2, and BSP-30-kDa at 28 kDa and at a pl of 3.9-4.6. Similar results were obtained with immunolocalization of BSP proteins after Western blot using specific antibodies. The treatment of purified iodinated BSP proteins with neuraminidase increased the pl of BSP-30-kDa to 4.8-5.0 and decreased its Mr to 25 kDa, but no change was observed for BSP-A1, -A2 and -A3. The treatment of BSP proteins with sulfatase or acid phosphatase modified neither their Mr nor their pl. Furthermore, when CBSP proteins were separated in 2D-PAGE and the gels stained for glycoproteins with dansyl hydrazine, BSP proteins were among the major glycoproteins found in the bovine seminal plasma. In conclusion, BSP proteins are acidic and have several isoforms. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of BSP-30-kDa is mainly due to its sialic acid content. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Boar ; Spermatozoa ; Anti-agglutinin ; Epididymal protein ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The present report identifies epididymal boar anti-agglutinin and examines its effect on sperm motility. Boar spermatozoa from the cauda epididymidis were washed and incubated in modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate at 37°C (5% CO2 in air). In the samples washed three or five times and then incubated for 3-5 h, higher rates (72-79%) of spermatozoa were associated with one another at the acrosomal region, mainly in groups of 2-5 cells (head-to-head agglutination), and many cells exhibited intensively flagellant and/or circular types of movement but rarely progressive motility. The addition of epididymal plasma or 25 kDa protein purified from it markedly inhibited the occurrence of head-to-head agglutination in washed spermatozoa, whereas heat treatment and subsequent removal of insoluble materials reduced the anti-agglutination activity of epididymal plasma. The percentages of progressively motile cells in the samples incubated with epididymal plasma or 25 kDa epididymal protein rose coincident with the reduction of sperm agglutination. These findings demonstrate that the 25 kDa epididymal protein is an anti-agglutinin for the cauda spermatozoa and that it effectively functions to maintain progressive motility of the cells in vitro. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: In vitro fertilization ; Fertilization-specific antibody ; Immunohistochemistry ; Mouse-hamster-human cross-reacting antibodies ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Several intrasplenic immunizations with batches of ∼15 or ∼30 zona-free, unfertilized mouse oocytes resulted in 200-300 hybrids, respectively, among which about 20 positive clones were selected from each fusion between splenic plasma cells and SP2/0 myeloma cells. When nonimmunized splenic plasma cells were used, only one antibody, showing weak immunoreaction, was obtained from ∼370 hybrids collected from 2 fusions. From one immunization with a total of 12 zona-free, unfertilized mouse oocytes, 15 positive clones were selected for further study. Eleven of these 15 antibodies reacted with antigens only in unfertilized oocytes but not in fertilized, pronuclear stage oocytes. Three antibodies, which recognized antigens in paraffin-embedded oocyte sections, did not label growing ovarian oocytes, indicating that the antibodies were specific to ovulated, unfertilized oocytes. These antibodies did not detect any antigen epitopes in the panel of tissues examined. The molecular weight of one antigen, corresponding to a IgM antibody that is present both in ooplasma and zona pellucida, was ∼116 kDa. Cross-reactivity to blots of unfertilized zona-free hamster oocytes was demonstrated by 6 antibodies and to unfertilized human oocytes by 7 antibodies. Three antibodies cross-reacted with both hamster and human oocytes. The study indicates that the intrasplenic immunization is an appropriate means of raising antibodies against unfertilized, zona-free mouse oocytes and that the method applied offers an easy way to select antibodies against human oocytes for functional studies. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Frozen-thawed spermatozoa ; Capacitation ; Acrosome reaction ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of caffeine and casein phosphopeptides (CPPs). One experiment tested the ability of frozenthawed epididymal spermatozoa from boar (A, B, C), of proven low in vitro fertilization rates, to penetrate pig follicular oocytes. The other experiment tested the ability of ejaculated spermatozoa to uptake Ca2+. In Experiment 1, oocytes matured in vitro were inseminated with spermatozoa (Boar A) in medium that contained 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mM caffeine and CPPs (1 mg/ml), or in medium that contained the same caffeine concentrations without CPPs. When CPPs were added to the caffeine-containing medium, significantly higher penetration rates were obtained than when the oocytes were inseminated in the CPPs-free medium. When the oocytes were inseminated with the spermatozoa (Boar A, B, C) in medium that contained 5 mM caffeine and dephosphorylated CPPs (dCPP:1 mg/ml), the penetration rate was significantly lower than when the oocytes were inseminated with the spermatozoa in medium containing 5 mM caffeine and CPPs (1 mg/ml). In Experiment 2, the concentration of Ca2+ in ejaculated spermatozoa of proven low in vitro fertilization rates during incubation in the fertilization medium was determined with fluorescence, Fura2/AM. When the medium contained CPPs, the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ in spermatozoa increased with a peak of 113 nM after 90 min of incubation. The concentration of Ca2+ was gradually decreased in the medium without CPPs. However, addition of CPPs in the medium had no effect on the motility of spermatozoa in Experiments 1 and 2. These results indicate that CPPs promote Ca2+ uptake by spermatozoa and are effective for capacitation and/or acrosome reaction of spermatozoa leading to sperm penetration when caffeine is present in the medium and that the effect is reduced by dephosphorylation of CPPs. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Canine sperm ; Pyospermia ; Ultrastructure ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The red wolf (Canis rufus) is an endangered species with 194 individuals remaining in the wild and in various captive facilities. Breeding efforts at the Graham, WA site (Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium) have involved artificial insemination with fresh or frozen semen in an effort to increase population and maximize the genetic potential of the stock. Electron microscopic observations were made in semen specimens obtained by electroejaculation from mature males prior to their use in an effort to determine semen parameters that might be useful in guiding breeding procedures. Sperm samples were either fixed immediately or treated with capacitating media and fixed after 4 to 7 hr of incubation. Many of the specimens examined were pyospermic (white cell in semen) and showed evidence of spermophagy, primarily by neutrophils. Of the six animals surveyed, only one showed little evidence of spermophagy, and three had extensive pyospermia and spermophagy but this finding was not correlated with fertility. Samples fixed immediately as well as those incubated for several hours showed evidence of spermophagy, indicating that the phagocytosis was not the result of culture. Gene pool restriction and/or captive stress may be contributing factors of reduced semen quality. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 57
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Molecular Reproduction and Development 37 (1994), S. 477-477 
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Sulfogalactoglycerolipid ; Insulin-like growth factor 1 ; Spermatogenesis ; Phosphorylation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The synthesis of sulfogalactosyl-glycerolipid (SGG) is a differentiation marker in spermatogenesis restricted to the zygotene and early pachytene spermatocytes. The galactolipid sulfotransferase responsible for the synthesis of SGG is regulated by a phosphorylation mechanism. The activity of this enzyme is reduced in cells later in spermatogenesis by a low molecular weight inhibitor, which can be extracted in organic solvents and purified by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). This purified inhibitor is a potent postreceptor insulin-mimetic, which stimulates adipocyte lipogenesis more effectively than does insulin. Phosphoinositol (PI) glycolipids have been proposed as second messengers of the insulin phosphorylation cascade. These species contain a nonacetylated glucosamine, which renders them liable to cleavage by deamidation. The activity of the sulfotransferase inhibitor was lost following nitrous acid deamidation and was labile to PI specific phospholipase C digestion. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I were found to inhibit germ cell synthesis of SGG in vitro to some degree but had no direct effect on the testicular galacto-lipid sulfotransferase assay. These results indicate that the sulfotransferase inhibitor is a glycosyl phosphoinositide similar to the lipid species, which mediate insulin signal transduction and suggest that germ cell SGG biosynthesis may be regulated by a receptor-mediated phosphorylation pathway. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Fertilization channels ; Ascidian oocytes ; Gating ; Second messengers ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Neomycin, injected into ascidian oocytes to a final concentration of 10-50 mM, inhibits both the fertilization current and the surface contraction, showing that phosphoinositide hydrolysis is required for these early activation events. Sperm-activated fertilization currents are not inhibited in the presence of 100 μg/ml intracellular heparin, suggesting that these currents are not directly gated by InsP3. The sulfhydryl reagent thimerosal at 100 μM, in contrast, significantly increases the fertilization current presumably by sensitizing the channel receptor. Since heparin inhibits the surface contraction, InsP3 receptors are shown to play a role in the propagation of the activation response in ascidian oocyte. Depleting intracellular calcium stores by microinjecting 50 mM EGTA into oocytes does not activate fertilization channels; however, subsequent fertilization of these EGTA loaded oocytes leads to a significantly larger and faster fertilization current. Thus in contrast to somatic cells studied to date, second messenger operated plasma membrane channels in ascidian oocytes are not gated by calcium released from intracellular stores. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 60