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  • Chemical Engineering  (17,092)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. S3 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 9-15 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The design and deflagration pressure relief vents is based on correlations developed for various types of combustible materials and for enclosures of different strengths. The primary guideline for deflagration vent design in the US is NFPA 68 Guide for Venting of Deflagrations [5]. That document gives guidance for the design of vents for enclosures containing flammable gases, specifically hydrogen, coke oven gas, propane, and methane. Application of the guide to other gases is achieved using the KG value. Values of KG are published for a relatively small number of gases, as seen in Table D-1 of NFPA 68. This work present KG data on several additional gases obtained in a laboratory scale test vessel along with analysis of the results with respect to published values of fundamental burning velocity.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 20-22 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Most audits try to look at a representative selection of the plant procedures and equipment. An alternative is a survey, a look in depth at selected procedures (such as those for testing alarms and trips, issuing permits-to-work, controlling modifications, taking samples or testing relief devices) or selected equipment (such as level glasses or equipment for handling LPG). If the procedure or equipment is well-chosen, surveys may make a bigger contribution to safety, per person-hour, than a conventional audit.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 23-31 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In May 1996, the Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code Committee of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) proposed for adoption by the Association a new edition of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. This new edition was the culmination of two and one-half years' work by the Committee and included one of the most significant changes to that document in some twenty years: the incorporation of mandatory fire protection criteria for warehouses and other inside areas that store flammable and combustible liquids in containers and portable tanks.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Under OSHA 1910.119, all Process Safety Management (PSM) facilities are required to keep their pressure relief system design information current. This article demonstrates why a pressure relief system design verification effort must be based on an equipment list, rather than a relief device list, in order to ensure that every piece of equipment is adequately protected. The formerly common practice of simply checking the design bases of all existing relief devices is deficient is deficient since this technique does not systematically ensure that every piece of equipment is protected.The “Berwanger Method” is a step by step process for designing or analyzing a pressure relief system to meet OSHA 1910.119 Process Safety Information (PSI) and Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) mandates. The method uses a relational database which tracks the relationships between protected equipment, potential overpressure scenarios, and protective devices.The challenge facing an operating company does not end once the design basis has been “verified” - the design basis information must also be maintained and be readily accessible to avoid costly reinvention of the wheel down the road. The “Berwanger Method” also addresses these maintenance issues.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 43-48 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper defines situation awareness (SA) and discusses its importance to operator-machine system safety and functioning in the context of process control activities. Specifically, identified are relationships of human detection of critical process cues converying the status of automated control systems and operator interpretation of the meaning and relevance of such information to the potential for negative incidents in chemical processing. Beyond individual operator SA in interacting with control systems, intra- and inter- work team SA are discussed for supporting individual attainment of process control responsibilities. Factors critical to team SA are discussed. “Road blocks” to team SA are also analytically examined. Lastly, methods for assessing individual and team SA are reviewed and vehicles for relating outcomes of these methods to changes in process control operator and team behavior to improve human-machine system safety and performance are relayed.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 32-38 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper describes the development of a risk ranked Inspection Recommendation procedure that is used by one of Exxon's chemical plants to prioritize repairs that have been identified during equipment inspection.As part of the Company's Safety Management Practices initiative in the late 1980's a procedure was put into place to ensure that an Inspector's repair recommendations were properly addressed by the organization. The initial procedures were successful at “systematizing” the documentation and stewardship-to-completion of the Inspector's recommendation, however, there were complications with the original process: (1)The Inspector made a simple High, Medium or Low assessment of the priority/criticality of the recommendation. Frequently, this resulted in disagreements with Operations about the true priority of the recommendation.(2)If there was agreement on the priority of the recommendation, there was still disagreement on the relative rank within the priority-which high priority was the highest priority?(3)With limited funds to spend on repairs, it was (and is) important to make sure that the money was being spent on the highest risk items that had the greatest risk reduction/cost benefit ratio.To address these concerns, the procedure was modified to incorporate a risk assessment of the recommendation by both the Inspector and Operations. In the new procedure, the Inspector describes the deficiency that he/she finds and assesses the probability of failure within a certain time-frame. Operations must assess the consequences, from an environmental, safety and economics standpoint, were the failure to occur. These assessments are combined in the typical risk equation (risk = probability × consequences) to arrive at a severity index which serves to rank the recommendation relative to the other recommendations. Because Operations participates in the assessment there is very little disagreement about the priority of the recommendation. The severity index puts the recommendations in order so it is quite clear which are the highest priority recommendations. This process has helped to focus the entire organization on those deficiencies that represent the greatest risk with the result that less time and money is spent correcting items that have a low risk/cost benefit ratio, allowing these savings to be used to reduce the higher risks in the plant.
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  • 9
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 61-67 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Risk assessments have been performed to determine the risk associated with the transportation of hazardous wastes through a city. In the course of these assessments, a number of modeling issues arose relating to transportation accident rates, the characterization of incidents, the effect of thermal radiation, the impact of exposure to toxic chemicals, and the threshold for acceptable risk. This paper discusses these issues.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 196-199 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: From the 1960s onwards, the chemical and oil industries developed and used a number of new safety techniques which, in time, became second nature to those who applied them. They included the use of QRA for deciding priorities, Hazop and audits for identifying problems, inherently safer design for avoiding hazards, and more thorough investigation of incidents for identifying underlying causes. However, it has not yet become second nature to remember the accidents of the past and the actions needed to prevent them happening again.I joined industry in 1944 and moved to production in 1952. Then, and for at least 15 years afterwards, safety was a non-technical subject that could be left to arts graduates and elderly foremen. There was concern that people should not be hurt - great attention was paid to the lost-time accident rate - but there was no realization, that it was a subject worthy of systematic study by experienced technologists.This view changed at the end of the 1960s. A new generation of plants had been built, operating at higher temperatures and pressures and containing larger inventories of hazardous chemicals; the result was a series of fires and explosions and a worsening fatal accident rate. Figure 1 shows the situation in ICI, at the time the UK, s largest chemical company. Other companies experienced a similar state of affairs.As a result in 1968, I was appointed one of the company's first technical safety advisers, an unusual appointment at the time for someone with my experience, and if the reason for my appointment had not been so obvious I would have wondered what I had done wrong. I and my colleagues tried to apply the same sort of systematic thinking to safety that we applied in our other professional work. We developed some new concepts and techniques and adopted others. A common feature of our ides, realized only in restrospect, was that they consisted of more than mere problem-solving techniques. Once people had got used to these new concepts and used them a few times, they began to look at a whole range of problems in a different way.
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  • 11
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 219-224 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has refined a process for developing inherently safer system designs based on methods used by Sandia to design detonation safety into nuclear weapons. The process was created when Sandia realized that standard engineering practices did not provide the level of safety assurance necessary for nuclear weapon operations, with their potential for catastrophic accidents. A systematic approach, which relies on mutually supportive design principles integrated through fundamental physical principles, was developed to ensure a predictably safe system response under a variety of operational and accident-based stesses. Robust, safe system designs result from this thematic approach to safety, minimizing the number of safety critical features. This safety assurance process has two profound benefits: the process avoids the need to understand or limit the ultimate intensity of off-normal environments and it avoids the requirement to analyze and test a large array of accident environment scenarios (e.g., directional threats, sequencing of environments, time races, etc) to demonstrate conformance to all safety requirements.
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  • 12
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. W3 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new method is described to enhance the management of process safety risks such that the number and type of safety systems protecting against any hazard are consistently predicated upon risk. Further, that such an assignment of safety systems can be made consistent throughout an organization. This consistency is gained through standardization of qualitative risk ranking and by setting company guidelines.
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  • 14
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 259-262 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Case histories of 65 incidents in runaway reactions and emergency relief in Taiwan were analyzed and classified into several categories according to their causes, materials involved, equipment types, reaction types, and ignition sources. The cases in reactors and storage tanks were examined in more detail owing to the higher probability or larger potential hazard in these two types of equipments. The most common consequence of the incidents are explosions, fires, and atmospheric release of toxic chemicals. The most severe case was a thermal explosion from an organic peroxide storage area which caused the death of 33 persons. Popping and direct releasing of process chemicals to the atmosphere from relieving devices cause the greatest environmental concerns to the community close to the plants. Runaway reactions in batch type reactors occur frequently due to various operational mistakes. Heat of reaction is the most frequent ignition source of runaway reactions and emergency relief.
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  • 15
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 272-277 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: EPA's Risk Management Program regulation, promulgated in June 1996 as 40 CFR Part 68 requires subject industries to submit Risk Management Plans by June 1999. This plan requires hazard assessment of the operations of a facility using worst case scenarios and alternative releases. EPA has provided an Off-site Consequence Analysis (OCA) guidance to help facilities in their hazard assessment.OxyChem will be significantly impacted by the RMP rule. This paper outlines OxyChem's general experience and its strategy in planning to comply with this rule. OxyChem's approach in the development of the scenarios required by the rule is described in this paper. Limitations involved in the use of EPA's look-up tables or a single modeling solution for conducting all of the OCA are discussed. A three tiered OCA approach is presented as a possible alternative.
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  • 16
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 288-296 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An ammonia storage tank was built at the BASF Antwerp site in 1969 on land reclaimed from the sea. After several years of operation uneven foundation settlement, of up 2, occurred. In order to assure stability of this area for the next operation period (at least 10 years) measures were taken to ensure continued safe operation. One key measure was strain gauge monitoring at the location of maximum stress.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The Baker-Strehlow methodology was developed to provide an objective approach to prediction of blast pressures from vapor cloud explosions. The complete methodology was first published in 1994 [1]. Since then, it has evolved through ongoing research and use in VCE hazard analyses, facility siting studies and accident investigations. This article gives a brief overview of a paper on recent developments in the Baker-Strehlow methodology presented at the 31st Loss Prevention Symposium in Houston on March 9-13, 1997. Because the entire paper is too lengthy to be presented here, the following discussions may be lacking in some details. A copy of the complete paper can be obtained from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).Since the Baker-Strehlow method was first published, it has been used extensively in VCE hazard assessments in refineries and chemical plants. As expected, many practical lessons have been learned during the course of the hazard assessments, and the Baker-Strehlow method has evolved as a result. The changes have been evolutionary, not revolutionary. In keeping with the goals of the original study in which the methodology was developed, all changes have been incorporated with the intent of achieving an objective methodology to provide consistent prediction of VCE blast effects.The revisions to the Baker-Strehlow method resulting from experience gained during plant walk-downs and hazard assessments include: Systematic identification of “potential explosion sites” or “PESs,”Selection of the level of confinement for mixed zones of 2D and 3D confinement,Deciding on flame expansion when confinement is elevated above the vapor cloud,Selecting the reactivity for a fuel that is a mixture of fuels with differing reactivities,Predicting blast loads when there are multiple PES's within a vapor cloud considering different ignition source locations.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Two major accidents in the 80's: the summit Tunnel Fire, England and Piper Alpha disaster, an offshore platform in the North Sea; and very recently, possible explosion of the Boeing, TWA flight 800 at New York, makes it imperative that further research into the mechonisms of the ignition of flammable vapor/air mixture in contact with hot surfaces needs to be done. There have been a number of studies of ignition by hot surfaces, but in all these studies the ignition sources were wire, sphere or strip, i.e., most of them were flat surfaces. But to the authors' knowledge, other variables which affect the ignition mechanism such as irregular geometrical shapes have not been studied. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the degree of confinement (or, configuration), size and orientation, of the heated surface affects the ignition temperature of the flammable vapors. The results were obtained by experimentnal and by computational fluid dynamics.
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  • 19
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 49-60 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper reports on a comprehensive literature search and small scale experimental work on the reaction characteristics of phosphorous trichloride and water. More than 30 tests were conducted, including both closed and open test cells. The water to phosphorus trichloride molar ratio was varied from 1 to 25. When in contact, water and phosphorus trichloride will form two liquid layers with a reaction starting at the interface. The impact of variables on reaction rates including the interface surface area, layer depth, and stirring were investigated experimentally. A reaction rate model that fits all the measured data is presented. Case studies illustrating the use of this data for emergency relief systems and vent containment design are presented in reference. [1].
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The knowledge of the ingition behavior of dust-air mixtures due to electrical sparks (MIE, Minimum Ignition Energy) and hot surfaces (MIT, Minimum Ignition Temperature) is important for risk assessments in chemical production plants. The ignition behavior determines the extent and hence the cost of preventive protection measures.This paper describes the use of the minimum ignition energy and minimum ignition temperature as very important safety indexes in practice.Based on the latest results from large scale experiments on pneumatic filling of silos with polymeric materials and new results of full scale filling tests using Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers (FIBC) manufactured from a variety of materials, guidance can be given to ensure safe operation in different situations such as filling, emptying operations, type of powder handled.The aim of this paper is to assist people dealing with product. It reflects the present state of the art and current knowledge of the assessment and measures associated with powder handling.
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  • 21
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. S3 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 22
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 107-123 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the risk assessment parlance, especially with reference to chemical process industries, the term “domino effect” is used to denote “chain of accidents,” or situations when a fire/explosion/missile/toxic load generated by an accident in one unit in an industry causes secondary and higher order accidents in other units. The multi-accident catastrophe which occurred in a refinery at Vishakhapatnam, India, on September 14, 1997, claiming 60 lives and causing damages to property worth over Rs 600 million, is the most recent example of the damage potential of domino effect.But, even as the domino effect has been documented since 1947, very little attention has been paid towards modeling this phenomena. In this paper we have provided a conceptual framework based on sets of appropriate models to forecast domino effects, and assess their likely magnitudes and adverse impacts, while conducting risk assessment in a chemical process industry. The utilizability of the framework has been illustrated with a case study.
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  • 23
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 134-137 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: National Advisory Committee's Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for ammonia are critically evaluated. The technical bases for concern about AEGL-2 and AEGL-3 values derived by the committee are summarized recommendations made.
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  • 24
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 127-133 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An explosion and flash fire in a fixed bed reactor occurred at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Two employees were injured in the accident. The accident occurred in an ozone treatment building where ozone was used to treat odors from the offgas of the sludge concentration units. Excess ozone manually was routed to the fixed bed reactor (ozone destruct unit) where the ozone is catalytically transformed into oxygen before being discharged to the atmosphere.An investigation of the accident was conducted to determine the root cause of the explosion and flash fire and identify corrective actions which the WWTP management could undertake to prevent a recurrence. This investigation included site inspections, interview with the injured employees, sampling and analysis of various materials, an explosion dynamics analysis, and a root cause analysis.It was concluded that cooling oil from one of the ozone generation units entered the main ozone gas line due to a crack in one of the reactor's dielectric tubes. The cooling oil was vented into the ozone destruct unit when an employee opened a ball valve on the main ozone gas line. The cooling oil, essentially a saturated hydrocarbon mixture, reacted exothermically when it contacted the manganese dioxide catalyst. The exothermic reaction resulted in an explosion which propelled the access panel outwards and dispersed the catalyst pellets. A flash fire followed the explosion. The flash fire burned two employees and caused thermal damage to a nearby control panel.Although this accident was the first of its kind at this facility, this was not the first time that the ozone generator had experienced a failure of a dielectric tube. Thus, there was a significant probability that a dielectric tube failure could leak cooling oil into the main ozone gas line. This failure event could, in turn, result in another explosion and flash fire. The WWTP staff neither designed nor fabricated the ozone generator-destructor system. Therefore, it did not seem appropriate for the WWTP staff to modify the ozone system. Instead, it was recommended that the ozone destruct unit be taken out of service. The WWTP management acted on this recommendation.
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  • 25
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 26
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 138-148 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A large and potentially hazardous decrease in aldehyde autoignition temperature (AIT) occurs with increased pressure. The AIT-pressure curve determined in a 5 L stainless steel sphere was similar for propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde in air, falling from about 185°C at atmospheric pressure to 90°C at 140 psia. Reduction of oxygen concentration had little effect on propionaldehyde AIT. At 100°C and 140 psia, autoignitions accompanied by at least a doubling of pressure were observed above 4% oxygen. In the presence of a few grams of free liquid, propionaldehyde vapor ignited in air at initial conditions significantly below the AIT. The mechanism appears to involve rapid Fe-catalyzed exothermic liquid-phase oxidation leading to autoignition of the adjacent heated gas layer. An acetaldehyde vapor-air mixture in the presence of free liquid and rust exploded at room temperature when air pressure was increased to 95 psia; this result is discussed with reference to a cylinder overpressurization that occurred while making up an ostensibly sub-LFL calibration mixture with compressed air. Propionaldehyde's limiting oxygen concentration (LOC) was investigated in the near-autoignition region using the same 5L apparatus; the findings are discussed with reference to an overpressurization incident in an air-liquid partial oxidation reactor. The general results are used to illustrate the application of LOC in partial oxidation processes subject to autoignition and to discuss elements of the current ASTM draft test method for LOC, which does not address test difficulties associated with condensable and/or reactive gas systems.
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  • 27
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. F3 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 28
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 149-154 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This article deals with fire protection for water miscible flammable liquids stored in plastic containers packaged in boxes located on pallets. A series of fire tests was conducted with palletized rack storage arrangements using in-rack sprinkler protection at various levels. The intent of the paper is to present data from this test series for these types of commodities. The paper will identify various existing water miscible flammable liquid products stored in this fashion and provide background information for protecting this type of storage as it relates to NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. The test data indicates that further research work is needed in the area of plastic containers for use with the storage of combustible and flammable liquids. Included in the paper are discussions concerning possible protection strategies and suggestions for future research which would benefit those involved in risk management of this type of commodity.
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  • 29
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 157-170 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Risk analysis in chemical process industries is an elaborate exercise involving several steps from preliminary hazard identification to development of credible accident scenarios, to preparation of strategies for prevention or control of damage.All this requires substantial inputs of time and money. In order to get an approximate yet workable assessment of risk at much lesser costs, indices have been developed which link typical findings of elaborate risk analysis to scales of risk. The scales, in turn, provide workable measures of hazards/risks/safety.In the past, indices have been reported for swift risk assessment - the noteworthy among them include Dow fire and explosion index, Mond fire, explosion and toxicity index, IFAL index, and mortality index. A few rapid ranking techniques have also been proposed.This paper presents a new system of methodologies for Hazard Identification and Ranking (HIRA). The system consists of two indices: one for fire and explosion hazards and another for the hazard due to likely release of toxic chemical. The magnitudes of these indices indicate the severity of the likely accident; in terms of the size of the impacted area.HIRA has been applied to a typical chemical process industry - a sulfolane plant - and its performance has been compared with that of the Dow's and the Mond's indices. The study reveals that HIRA is more sensitive and accurate than the other indices.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 171-175 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An explosion occurred in a petroleum product storage tank at a refinery. The liquid petroleum product was a heavy oil used as an asphalt extender. There were no injuries, but the cleanup was costly. The storage tank was one of several which received the product stream from a dehydration unit. The accident occurred shortly after the refinery was brought back on-line following a shutdown for schduled maintenance.This was the first incident of this kind to occur at this facility. Analysis of the process data and eyewitness observations indicated that the dehydration tower, which was supposed to be maintained at a minimum of 100°C during the shutdown, was allowed to drift below 100°C for an unknown period of time. This deviation enabled liquid water to enter the storage tank. Three operational factors contributed to the accident. Corrective actions were recommended to prevent a recurrence of a similar incident.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 176-183 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The safest method to prevent fires and explosions of flammable mixtures in the first place. This method requires detailed knowledge of the flammability region as a function of the fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen concentrations. A triangular flammability diagram is the most useful tool to display the flammability region, and to determine if a flammable mixture is present during plant operations.This paper describes how to draw and use a flammability diagram. A procedure to estimate the flammability region using the available and sometimes limited data is discussed. The paper also shows how to use the flammability diagram with plant operations involving inerting and purging, and from bringing vessels into and out of service. A compilation of flammability diagrams for 30 materials, based on previously published data is provided.An automated apparatus for acquiring data for a flammability diagram is described. The apparatus consists of a 20-L sphere with an automated gas mixing system, a fuse-wire ignition system, and a high speed pressure measurement and data acquisition system. Data derived from the apparatus includes flammability limits, maximum pressure during combustion, and the maximum pressure rate. The effect of fuse-wire ignitor dynamics on the results is studied. A flammability diagram for methane drawn from data obtained from the apparatus, is presented.
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  • 32
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 184-189 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Dust explosions have been with us for a long time. The first record of a dust explosion occurred in Turin, Italy, on December 14, 1785 [1]. The detailed record of this event is left to us by Count Morozzo. The event took place in Mr. Giacomelli's bakery. We know from his account that the weather was unseasonably dry, that a boy who worked in the bakery was using a shovel to stir and transfer the flour to a chute from a store room to the bakery and he had a lighted lamp to work by. The rest, as the saying goes, is history. No one was killed, and the building was saved by the sagacious fact of having plenty of windows. Since that first record, of course, there have been many explosions with much loss of life and significant economic consequences.
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  • 33
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 190-195 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The RSST DIERS vent sizing methodology is revised to provide realistic design equations for reactive systems consistent with available large-scale experience. Using easy to obtain RSST data such as rate of temperature rise and rate of pressure rise excellent agreement is illustrated for hybrid, vapor and gassy reactive systems.
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  • 34
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 200-208 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 35
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 209-212 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: HFC-227ea (CF3CHFCF3;1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3-heptafluoropropane) is an effective replacement for Halon 1301 in fire suppression systems, providing rapid extinguishment of flames through a combination of physical and chemical mechanisms. The vast majority of applications for HFC-227ea involve the protection of Class A hazards, which are characterized by low fuel loadings and low energy output, with fire sizes often in the range of 5-10 kW. Mid- and large-scale testing has demonstrated that HFC-227ea, at its minimum design concentration of 7.0% v/v, is effective at extinguishing fires typical of those expected to occur in electronic data processing (EDP) facilities, telecommunication facilities and anechoic chambers. The levels of HF produced following extinguishment of typical Class a fires with HFC-227ea were well below the estimated mammalian LC50 and the human Dangerous Toxic Load (DTL), and do not appear to present a threat to electronic equipment.
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  • 36
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 213-218 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: On October 31, 1987 a crane lifting a heat exchanger convection section failed and severed a 4″ loading line and a 2″ pressure relief line to an HF alkylation reactor settler drum at a petroleum refinery in Texas City, Texas. Vapors were emitted under pressure for about two hours and the vessel was plugged and drained aproximately 44 hours later. A plume from this accidental release passed through residential areas, damaging some vegetation (brown lawns), and spawning a class action law suit. An extensive analysis was conducted to determine the total inventory loss and to model the blowdown process and the concentrations of HF in the plume. Since the discharge rate was decreasing with time, a peak concentration of HF in the emitted vapors occurred just before the water spray mitigation system became fully operative. Consequently, the mitigation efforts were more effective late in the response when concentrations were already low. The predicted plume concentrations are consistent with observed vegetation damage effects, with concentrations below Emergency Response Planning Guideline Level 3 past 3/4 mile from the source. These results support a policy of sheltering in place during such an event.
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    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A fifty-five gallon steel drum of a liquid organic peroxide pressurized and ruptured in the mix room of a manufacturing plant. The head of the drum blew off and the ejected material ignited. The resulting fire was extinguished by the building sprinkler system and operating personnel. Although there were no injuries, the fire caused significant damage in the mix room. The investigation of this incident, its likely cause, and the corrective actions will be discussed.
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  • 39
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 238-242 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The Brazoria County Petrochemical Council, 13 companies that are working together to enhance relations between industry and the community, united in a joint effort at complying with the EPA's Risk Management Program. One of the significant issues the group had to address was the need to develop meaningful hazard assessment for presentation to the public. The EPA's “Table Look-Up Approach” found in the Offsite Consequence Analysis Guidance document is certainly a good tool; however, the built-in conservatism results in over-estimates of potential hazard areas. Much more meaningful results are shown to be obtained using one of the hazard release models.The value of using a credible scenario with realistic meteorological data is demonstrated through the consistently smaller areas predicted by the PHAST Model for planning purposes. Realistic scenarios/failure modes and realistic model parameters are important so that the risk to the public is not overstated. Proprietary models such as PHAST are invaluable in providing more meaningful consequences for planning purposes.
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  • 40
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 243-258 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Research was carried out to develop improved protection guidelines for silane handling systems through enhanced understanding of the behavior of releases of this pyrophoric gas. The approach involved addressing three aspects of the problem: the prompt ignition behavior of silane; the reactivity characteristics of quiescent silane/air mixtures; and the rates of reaction of silane leaked into enclosures with and without explosion venting, in the presence of ventilation air flow. A first conclusion, reached from tests in a ventilated cabinet, was that, contrary to prevailing belief, the ventilation flow has no measurable effect on the prompt ignition of the release. From experiments in a 5.1-liter (311-in.3) sphere it was found that silane/air mixtures of concentrations between 1.4 and 4.1% (by volume) are explosive but stable. In this case, piloted ignition tests yielded laminar burning velocities up to 5 m/s (1000 ft/min). Mixtures between 4.5 and 38% (the maximum reached in the tests) were found to be metastable, and would undergo spontaneous ignition after a delay ranging from 15 to 120 seconds, with the shorter values corresponding to higher silane concentrations. Experiments were also performed in a 0.645-m3 (22.8-ft3) vessel both with and without explosion venting, to measure the rates of energy release associated with impulsively-started silane leaks from 1/8 and 1/4-in. (3.2 and 6.4-mm) lines. A method for the prediction of the venting requirements of partial-volume deflagrations (PVD) was evolved into a tool to quantify the pressure rise from ignition of silane leaks in enclosures. These results represent a significant step toward updating existing design recommendations which prescribe ventilation requirements that are based on outdated and, in some instances, misinterpreted data.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Some of the hazards encountered by process plant operators involve the operation of in-line valves to control, start, and to stop flow. Torque required to operate valves may vary according to valve wheel size, in-line pressure, and valve flange position (open/closed). This study determined how valve wheel size, in-line pressure and valve position (open/closed) affect torque required to actuate a valve. Data were gathered with each combination of size, pressure and position for 336 valves in an operating petrochemical process facility. The results indicate that the main effects of valve wheel size, the in-line pressure, and open/closed valve position significantly affect operational torque requirements. In addition, the interaction between position and pressure was significant for operational torque. The implication of these results is that operators are exposed to operational torque requirements that exceed maximum acceptable capabilities that have been determined in previous studies.
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  • 42
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 43
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 1-8 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Recent guidelines released by the U.S. EPA define a worst-case scenario as a release under stable atmospheric conditions defined as Pasquil-Gifford stability class F. Unfortunately, very few tests at F stability have been available heretofore to provide a basis for models. Recent test data with propane releases by the German research organization TUV provide a set of 60 experiments conducted specifically to define the effects of atmospheric stability class on dispersion. Of these, 25 tests were at F stability. A comparable number were at each other stability class A through E. In addition 23 tests were at wind speeds under 1.5 m/s in stable atmospheres. This paper reports on adjustments made to our models based on these new data by reducing the originally-postulated sensitivity to stability class. In spite of considerable scatter in the TUV data, particularly between two different types of propane analyzers, the model allows us to extract information by averaging over the tests.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 16-19 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A multi-disciplinary team developed a guideline for determining access restriction zones around vented solids handling equipment. The guideline provides a method for ensuring the discharge from a vented explosion will not cause injury to personnel. The steps in this method include: calculating the extent of external hazards from vented explosions; identifying potential areas where personnel could be exposed to a hazard; identifying ways to eliminate or reduce the hazard area; and establishing and documenting any access restrictions needed. Hazard zone calculations use the latest knowledge from research into fireball size, flame length and external pressure equations in VDI 3673. The guideline provides guidance for using this information. Options for mitigating or reducing external hazards from vented explosions are also described. As part of the project, the team audited several solids handling systems to look for potential oversights in existing restricted access areas. Some of the team's learnings from these audits are reviewed.
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  • 45
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 83-85 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Safety, health and loss prevention are major areas of interst for the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE). There has been an evolution of these concerns over the years in the Institute just as it has in industry. This article chronicles this evolution.
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  • 46
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 98-103 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper presents the design of ribbon wound pressure vessels useful for Ammonia, Urea and Methanol plants. The design is to create a thin shell of 1/5 the total wall thickness required, weld it to the end pieces, and wind 4 to 8 mm thick ribbons of 80 mm width at an angle of 15 to 30 degrees on the inner shell, using a prestress. The ribbons are welded at the ends and an even number of layers are wound cross-helically on to the shell. With more than 7000 vessels over the pressure range of 50 to 350 atmospheres in use in the various chemical industries in China over the past 30 years, their safety record has been excellent. Of particular interest has been the application of this technology in the Ammonia and Urea plants, where the design allows fabrication of these vessels at substantial reduction in cost, and early delivery, when compared to the mono wall technology.
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  • 47
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 86-97 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Regulatory issues related to material safety have made the accurate measurement and/or prediction of flash points essential. The flash point is one of the major physical properties used to determine the fire and explosion hazards of a liquid. Flash points are used by virtually all governmental entities worldwide to define “flammable” and “combustible” materials for shipping and safety regulations.A model is described here for the calculation of closed cup flash points for multicomponent, single liquid phase, mixtures. The model is based upon rigorous vapor/liquid equilibrium calculations supplemented with information about the lower flammable limits (LFL's) and heats of combustion (ΔHc's) for the mixture's constituent components. The closed cup flash points predicted with this model are typically within ± 5°C of the experimentally reported values. Such a model is useful as a means of verifying experimental data and as a tool for screening product formulations prior to experimental flash point determination. The model should considerably enhance the safety evaluation portion of the product development cycle, thus leading to shortened product time-to-market cycles. While flash points calculated with this model are in excellent agreement with experiment, experimental determination is still encouraged for critìcal safety applications.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 104-106 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In mid-1997, an Advanced Process Control (APC) scheme was implemented at a resins manufacturing complex with the goal of minimizing flare fuel gas usage while maintaining sufficient energy (BTU/SCF flare gas) to be in environmental regulatory compliance. Prior to APC implementation, the flare system was manually controlled by plant operators with minor attention paid to the minimization of fuel gas usage. Since implementation, APC has saved the plant thousands of dollars in fuel gas costs and reduced unnecessary combusted fuel gas emissions.Hazard analysis techniques were used in the development of the control scheme. An overview of the APC used, the economic evaluation, and the hazard analysis techniques used in the project are presented here.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 124-126 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A simple analytical method is presented for estimating the hybrid minimum ignition energy (HMIE) of dust-gas mixtures, based on the assumed generality of Bartknecht's well-known test data for mixtures of propane with a series of dusts in air. Since the HMIE equation requires input data which might be unavailable, the use of conservative default methods is discussed.
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    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Gas explosion simulators are often used as tools in process plant design. This article presents some properties of gas explosions found using the EXSIM simulation software on three offshore modules with a total of nearly 10,000 simulations. The selected results are chosen for their supposed applicability to structural design in the process industries.Generalized data are presented for the effect of gas cloud size, explosion impulse vs. explosion pressure, pressure and impulse vs. duration, the probability of a “short” explosion, loading rate, pressure-time “shape” function, and the effect of introducing louvers.
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    AIChE Journal 43 (1997) 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 52
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    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 268-272 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 54
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    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 303-310 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The convective diffusion equations were used to obtain mean concentrations and concentration fluctuation covariances during turbulent reactive mixing of fast reversible reactions. The mean concentrations are directly applicable to reactions that are much faster than the mixing, while the covariances can serve as a first approximation closure for slower reactions. The covariances should also be useful for testing more general closure models. Numerical examples are presented for the simple mass-action rate law with stoichiometric coefficients of unity.
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    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 328-338 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Past research shows that for the same power per unit volume, flocculation performance varies with tank size and impeller type. This study was performed to characterize effects of scale and impeller design on turbulence produced in the flocculation process. The study was performed with a Rushton turbine and an A310 foil impeller in three square tanks of 5-, 28- and 560-L volume. Fluid velocities were measured using a dual-channel laser Doppler velocimeter with an enhanced burst spectrum analyzer. Flocculation tanks were operated at a constant average unit-mass energy-dissipation rate of 0.0016 m2/s3. The results show that the turbulence intensity and local turbulent energy-dissipation rate were higher for the Rushton turbine than for the A310 impeller. The turbulence intensity was found to increase with increasing tank size regardless of impeller type. The local turbulent energy dissipation rate decreased for the Rushton turbine and remained constant for the A310 impeller with increasing tank size.
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  • 56
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    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 339-344 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the boiling heat-transfer characteristics in a thermosyphon condenser-reboiler of air-separation plants. The test section was a plate-fin heat exchanger of practical size of 0.106 m width and 2.56 m length. The testing fluid was nitrogen. Experiments were carried out within a range of pressure from 150 to 300 kPa, submergence from 1.95 to 2.80 m, and heat flux up to 11 kW/m2 under constant wall-temperature condition. The liquid superheat at the onset of boiling was rather significant. The boiling heat-transfer coefficients obtained agreed well with Chen's correlation modified by Colburn's J factor within a mean deviation of 9.3%.
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  • 57
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    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 374-387 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The attainable region approach for reaction - mixing systems is combined with geometric methods for the feasibility of separations. The result is a systematic approach to identify the feasible compositions that can be achieved in processes combining simultaneous reaction, mixing, and separation. An activity-based formulation for both nonideal VLE and reaction-rate expressions is applied to develop hybrid reactor-separator models for the multiphase CSTR and PFR with simultaneous vapor removal. A reaction-separation vector is defined that satisfies the same geometric properties as the reaction vector. Therefore, the attainable region can be constructed following the existing procedure for reaction-mixing systems. This approach provides a method to generate feasible process alternatives. The technique is demonstrated on two nonideal ternary mixtures: the production of dimethyl ether by dehydration of methanol, and the production of methyl tert-butyl ether from isobutene and methanol. It is shown that for hybrid reaction-separation devices the entire composition space is not always attainable. In such cases, combining a hybrid device with traditional nonreactive separation is required to attain certain products.
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    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 409-418 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Resolution in chromatographic separations can be compromised by nonuniform flow distribution, heterogeneous packing, or flow instabilities such as viscous fingering. In this work, the displacement of solutes within a chromatographic column was monitored with an advanced magnetic-resonance technique, echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI). Unlike conventional magnetic-resonance imaging, this approach allows multiple solutes to be observed simultaneously, providing separate “chemical images” for each component. Qualitative chemical images were obtained in approximately 1 min with approximately 1 mm3 spatial resolution. EPSI allowed us to examine the multi-component viscous fingering problem for the first time. While many features of the instability are preserved, solute retention appears to slow the growth of solvent fingers.
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 440-447 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The concept of robust design involves identification of design settings that make the product performance less sensitive to the effects of seasonal and environmental variations. This concept is discussed in this article in the context of batch distillation column design with feed stock variations, and internal and external uncertainties. Stochastic optimization methods provide a general approach to robust/parameter design as compared to conventional techniques. However, the computational burden of these approaches can be extreme and depends on the sample size used for characterizing the parametric variations and uncertainties. A novel sampling technique is presented that generates and inverts the Hammersley points (an optimal design for placing n points uniformly on a k-dimensional cube) to provide a representative sample for multivariate probability distributions. The example of robust batch-distillation column design illustrates that the new sampling technique offers significant computational savings and better accuracy.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 60
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 475-485 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Strong intraparticle diffusion resistance was observed and the apparent effectiveness factors were measured for the hydrogenation of 3-hydroxypropanal (HPA) to 1,3-propanediol (PD) over Ni/SiO2/Al2O3 catalyst pellets at 45 to 80°C and 2.60 to 5.15 MPa in a stirred reactor with a spinning basket. A mathematical model was proposed to describe the intraparticle diffusion and to estimate the effective diffusion coefficients of HPA, PD and hydrogen under reaction conditions by a maximum likelihood function of the apparent effectiveness factors of HPA and PD. The calculated concentration distributions of HPA, PD and hydrogen in catalyst particles reveal an excess of hydrogen at 80°C and higher temperatures, but an excess of HPA at 45°C. It results in a weak dependence of the consumption formation rate of HPA and PD on the partial pressure of hydrogen at high temperature.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 61
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 505-514 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A sol-gel granulation process was developed to prepare porous nanostructured γ-alumina granules as supports for catalysts and adsorbents. The process, which starts with an aqueous sol of gelatinous boehmite, involves droplet formation, gelation in paraffin oil, conditioning in ammonia solution, and drying and calcination in air under controlled conditions. The γ-Al2O3 granules prepared are 1-3 mm-dia. spherical particles with large surface area (380 m2/g) and pore volume (0.5 cm3/g), uniform pore-size distribution (20-60 Å), and controllable average pore size (35 Å). These sol-gelderived granules have excellent mechanical properties with crush strength (〉100 N per granule) and attrition resistance (〈0.01 wt. %/h), much better than the commercial alumina and zeolite granules. Supported CuO sorbents were prepared on these granules for SO2 removal applications. The alumina-supported CuO sorbents contain higher loading of well-dispersed CuO and better sulfation properties than similar sorbents reported in the literature.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 62
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 525-534 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The molecular thermodynamic model studied is based on the two-state mechanism of inactivation, in which only native folded and polymorphous unfolded protein forms are present at equilibrium. The influence of solvent on protein stability is described in terms of perturbation of the protein distribution between the two conformational states. An expression derived for the chemical potential of the protein accounts for conformational changes, ideal mixing effects, and interaction of the protein with the surrounding medium.Thermal unfolding of lysozyme was then studied in the absence or presence of hydroxylic compounds. Ultraviolet difference spectroscopy was used to monitor the conformational changes induced by heating and to determine the melting temperature of the protein. The additives investigated are ethanol, glycols, and natural osmolytes. Media containing ethanol and glycols destabilized lysozyme, whereas sugars increased the conformational stability of the protein. For all of the systems examined the melting temperature was linearly related to the surface tension of the mixed solvent, supporting the ability of the model to describe the influence of the solvent and composition on lysozyme unfolding. Model predictions agreed fairly well with published differential scanning calorimetric data. The influence of hydroxylic additives on protein's conformational stability does not extend to any special property of these components, but to their ability to perturb the surface tension of water. This model can be used to interpret and correlate thermal unfolding data and to solve the problem of protein stabilization.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 63
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 43 (1997) 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 64
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 565-576 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The phenomenon of colloidally induced fines migration is a challenge of both scientific and industrial importance. Its occurrence impacts permeability reduction and alteration of flow pathways in porous media, particulate contaminant migration in groundwater flow, and filtration. The release of smectitic fines is a threshold type of process resulting from discontinuous jumps, called microquakes in the interlayer spacing. There is a critical salt concentration at which these microquakes occur and produce fines migration in the porous media. The changes in the microstructure with decreasing salt concentration were analyzed using X-ray diffraction. The transition between crystalline and osmotic swelling regime is also shown to depend on the type of cation. A mathematical model developed using colloidal principles predicts the swelling behavior of smectites in aqueous solutions. The model can predict the transition of swelling from crystalline to osmotic regimes and explain the effect of different cations on the transition.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 65
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 598-608 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The traditional way of determining the slip velocity of molten polymers is the classic Mooney technique, which utilizes experimental data obtained from a capillary rheometer. However, measurements of the rheological properties of polymer melts in capillary flow at high shear rates are often complicated by viscous heating, which is not taken into account by this method. A data analysis procedure based on a mathematical model for nonisothermal capillary flow of molten polymers is developed. Conduction, convection, and viscous heating are included, together with the effect of wall slip. The technique provides detailed velocity and temperature fields in the die, and can be used to determine the slip velocity at high shear rates corrected for the effect of viscous heating. It is tested for the capillary flow of several polymers, including polystyrene, polypropylene, high-density, and linear low-density polyethylenes.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 66
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Electrophoresis of a solute through a column in which its transport is governed by the convection - diffusion equation is described. Approximate solutions to the convection - diffusion equation in the limit of small diffusion are developed using perturbation methods. The diffusion coefficient and velocity are assumed to be functions of space and time such that both undergo a sudden change from one constant value to another within a thin transition zone that itself translates with a constant velocity. Two cases are considered: (1) the thickness ∊f of the transition zone is negligible compared to the diffusional length scale, so the zone may be treated as a singular boundary across which the diffusion constant and velocity suffer discontinuous changes; (2) the transition zone is considerably wider than the diffusional length scale, so the diffusion coefficient and velocity, although sharply varying, are smooth functions of position and time. A systematic perturbation expansion of the concentration distribution is presented for case 1 in terms of the small parameter ∊ = 1/Pe. A lowest order approximation is given for case 2. A suitably configured system analyzed here can lead to progressive accumulation, or focusing, of the transported solute. The degree of focusing in case 1 scales with ∊-1, whereas in case 2 it scales with (∊f∊)-1/2, and thus increases much more weakly with increasing Pe. A separation based on this concept requires development of materials and devices that allow dynamic tuning of the mass-transport properties of a medium. This would make it possible to achieve progressive focusing and separation of solutes, such as proteins and DNA fragments, in electrophoretic media with an unprecedented degree of control.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 67
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A pure culture of Pseudomonas putida was grown as a film on carbon particles in a differential fluidized bed biofilm reactor, a new experimental system for the application of diffusion-reaction models. In the active biofilm, effective diffusion coefficients of the essential substrates - phenol and oxygen - were simultaneously calculated. The multisubstrate biokinetic expression used in the model solution was derived by nonlinear regression analysis of the data of continuous system fermenter experiments. The determined biokinetic equations were utilized to solve the diffusion-reaction model for effective diffusion coefficients in the active biofilm. The ratio of the evaluated effective diffusion coefficient through active biofilm to that of water varied between 17-44% and 9-24% for phenol and oxygen, respectively, for different biofilm densities. Results of the study showed a fair agreement with the literature at low biofilm densities.
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  • 68
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 260-262 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 69
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 43 (1997), S. 285-285 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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