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  • Chloroplast DNA  (113)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Coffea ; Coffee-tree evolution ; Chloroplast DNA ; Mitochondrial DNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA from nine species or taxons of coffee-trees were compared as to their phylogenetic relationship by restriction endonuclease fragment analysis. Three types of chloroplast DNA (cp DNA) were detected indicating relationships as follows: (i) C. arabica, C. eugenioides; (ii) C. canephora, C. congensis, “nana” taxon; (iii) C. liberica. The mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) separated into five types: (i) C. arabica, C. eugenioides, C. congensis; (ii) C. canephora, “nana” taxon; (iii) C. excelsa; (iv) C. liberica; (v) Paracoffea ebracteolata. The divergence in organelle DNAs agrees with the phylogenetic relationship deduced by conventional methods and is presented in some detail. Restriction patterns of the cp and mt DNAs isolated from a clone of C. arabusta have been compared to those of the parents and were found to be inherited from the mother. Cp and mt DNA analyses in the genus Coffea support the hypothesis that C. canephora diverged from C. congensis, whereafter the latter species differentiated into C. eugenioides and C. arabica
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Nicotiana debneyi ; Somatic hybrids ; Chloroplast DNA ; Restriction endonucleases ; Nucleocytoplasmic incompatibility
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Plants were regenerated following intraspecific fusion of leaf protoplasts from two naturally occurring genotypes of Nicotiana debneyi. The two genotypes differed in the EcoRl fragmentation pattern of chloroplast DNA and in the nuclear-coded phosphoglucomutase (Pgm) isozymes. There was no conscious selection for hybrid genotypes during protoplast culture or plant regeneration. Among 225 plants screened for Pgm, six were identified as nuclear hybrids. Restriction endonuclease and filter hybridisation analysis revealed that the cytoplasms of the hybrids contained one or other but never both parental chloroplast DNAs. The sorting out of chloroplasts was random and complete; the limit of detecting a rare chloroplast-DNA type in a mixture was 0.1%.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Chloroplast DNA ; RuBPCase ; Ribosomes ; Photosystems ; Tissue culture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Under greenhouse conditions the dark green wild type (su/su) tobacco grows 2–3 times faster than the yellow mutant (Su/su) and contains five-fold more chlorophyll. On a fresh weight basis, however, both genotypes contain similar amounts of RuBPCase and fraction 11 protein in approximately equal proportion and have similar levels of 70s and 80s ribosomes. When seedlings are cultured on agar medium supplemented with sucrose and equal concentrations of IAA and kinetin or kinetin alone, a drastic reduction of RuBPCase and free 70s ribosomes, but not of chlorophyll content, were observed. Moreover, albino (Su/Su) seedlings developed on supplemented media still contain appreciable amounts of RuBPCase and free 70s ribosomes although chlorophyll levels are extremely low indicating no correlation between RuBPCase and chlorophyll content. RuBPCase crystallized from both wild type and yellow mutant plants seem to have identical composition and structure when examined by isoelectric focusing, amino acid analysis or peptide mapping techniques. The slow-growing yellow mutant is apparently deficient only in chlorophyll of the light harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex but with no alteration of the protein moiety or chlorophyll a/b ratio.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Tobacco ; Chloroplast DNA ; Cybrids ; Male sterility ; Tentoxin resistance ; Plastid recombinants ; Nicotiana
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Protoplasts of a mutant line of Nicotiana tabacum having a maternally-transmitted chlorophyll deficiency were fused with protoplasts of two alloplasmic-male-sterile Nicotiana lines by the “donor-recipient” technique. In both fusion experiments variegated plantlets were regenerated which were shown to contain cytoplasms of mixed chloroplast nature. This confirms that with the “donor-recipient” method one can obtain mixed cytoplasms of genetically different chloroplasts. We present a convenient system to assay for genetic recombination between chloroplasts by combining use of several cytoplasmic markers: vis. chlorophyll pigmentation, chloroplast DNA restriction patterns, tentoxin resistance and male sterility. Within the limits of the experiment no recombinant types were recovered.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Somatic hybrid ; Petunia ; Chloroplast DNA ; Plastid segregation ; Restriction endonucleases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Restriction endonuclease cleavage pattern analysis of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of three different interspecific somatic hybrid plants revealed that the cytoplasms of the hybrids contained only cpDNA of P. parodii. The somatic hybrid plants analysed were those between P. parodii (wild type) + P. hybrida (wild type); P. parodii (wild type)+P. inflata (cytoplasmic albino mutant); P. parodii (wild type) + P. parviflora (nuclear albino mutant). The presence of only P. parodii chloroplasts in the somatic hybrid of P. parodii + P. inflata is possibly due to the stringent selection used for somatic hybrid production. However, in the case of the two other somatic hybrids P. parodii + P. hybrida and P. parodii + P. parviflora it was not possible to determine whether the presence of only P. parodii chloroplasts in these somatic hybrid plants was due to the nature of the selection schemes used or simply occurred by chance. The relevance of such somatic hybrid material for the study of genomic-cytoplasmic interaction is discussed, as well as the use of restriction endonuclease fragment patterns for the analysis of taxonomic and evolutionary inter-relationships in the genus Petunia.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 67 (1984), S. 185-193 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Nicotiana ; Chloroplast DNA ; Deletion ; Restriction ; Hot spot ; Inverted repeats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A physical map containing six restriction sites of the Nicotiana tabacum chloroplast genome, together with the BamHI maps of N. tabacum, N. otophora and N. knightiana, and the SmaI maps of N. acuminata, N. plumbaginifolia, N. langsdorffii, N. otophora, N. tabacum, N. tomentosiformis and N. knightiana was constructed. In Nicotiana chloroplast genomes, the most frequently observed variations are point mutations. Deletions are also detected. Most of the observed changes are confined to one area of the large single copy region, which is designated as the “hot spot”. Based on the evidence obtained from Nicotiana chloroplast genomes, an origin of the inverted repeats in this genus is proposed. We suggest that the inverted repeats represent a vestige of what were once two identical, complete chloroplast genomes joined together in a head-to-head and tail-to-tail fashion, and that deletions generated the current chloroplast genome organization.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 69 (1985), S. 567-570 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Pisum sativum ; Chloroplast DNA ; Restriction endonuclease analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The chloroplast DNA of higher plants is suitable for restriction endonuclease analysis due to its size and homogeneity. We have analysed 48 different cultivars of pea (Pisum sativum) with EcoRI and HindIII. Of these, only 24 show the standard genotype, the remaining 24 comprise four different classes of short insertions, three of which are found at the same site. Even though this kind of insertion polymorphism has not been detected elsewhere in the plant kingdom, it is consistent with the discovery that the chloroplast DNA of pea is destabilised through the loss of an inverted repeat.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Potato ; Chloroplast DNA ; Restriction polymorphisms ; Evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Chloroplast DNA (ctDNA) from the tuberbearing Solanum species tuberosum, vernei, phureja, and chacoense has been compared by restriction endonuclease analysis. Digestion by Hind III or Xba I reveal no differences, but digestion with Bam HI and Eco RI reveals minor differences in the ctDNA among these species. The ctDNA restriction patterns of the tetraploid common cultivated potato of North America and Europe, S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum and the South American tetraploid, S. tuberosum ssp. andigena are identical for all four restriction endonucleases. These data suggest that ssp. tuberosum and ssp. andigena contain similar ctDNA and therefore may share a common ancestor, or direct lineage. The ctDNA restriction patterns of S. vernei and S. chacoense are identical for all four restriction endonucleases, and S. phureja ctDNA, can be distinguished from the other diploid ctDNAs by digestion with Bam HI. None of the diploids analyzed contain ctDNA identical to the tetraploids and therefore either did not contribute their chloroplast genomes to the evolution of the tetraploids, or the ctDNA has diverged since this evolutionary event. The ctDNAs studied did not contain restriction polymorphisms which could be correlated to cytoplasmic male sterility in Solanum. This is the first demonstration of ctDNA diversity in the tuber-bearing Solanum species.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Petunia ; Chloroplast DNA ; Mitochondrial DNA ; Somatic hybrid ; Protoplast fusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNAs of Petunia somatic hybrid plants, which were derived from the fusion of wild-type P. parodii protoplasts with albino P. inflata protoplasts, were analyzed by endonuclease restriction and Southern blot hybridization. Using 32P-labelled probes that distinguished the two parental cpDNAs at a BamH1 site and at a HpaII site, only the P. parodii chloroplast genome was detected in the 10 somatic hybrid plants analyzed. To examine whether cytoplasmic mixing had resulted in rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome in the somatic hybrids, restriction patterns of purified somatic hybrid and parental mtDNAs were analyzed. Approximately 87% of those restriction fragments which distinguish the two parental genomes are P. inflata-specific. Restriction patterns of the somatic hybrid mtDNAs differ both from the parental patterns and from each other, suggesting that an interaction occurred between the parental mitochondrial genomes in the somatic fusion products which resulted in generation of the novel mtDNA patterns. Southern blot hybridization substantiates this conclusion. In addition, somatic hybrid lines derived from the same fusion product were observed to differ in mtDNA restriction pattern, reflecting a differential sorting-out of mitochondrial genomes at the time the plants were regenerated.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA ; Mitochondrial recombination ; Chloroplast DNA ; Solanum ; Somatic hybrids ; Protoplast fusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Thirty somatic hybrids between Solanum tuberosum and Solanum brevidens were analysed for mitochondrial and chloroplast genome rearrangements. In all cases, the chloroplast genomes were inherited from one of the parental protoplast populations. No chloroplast DNA alterations were evident but a range of mitochondrial DNA alterations, from zero to extensive intra- and inter-molecular recombinations, were found. Such recombinations involved specific ‘recombination hot spots’ in the mitochondrial genome. Not all hybrids regenerated from a common callus possessed identical mitochondrial genomes, suggesting that sorting out of mitochondrial populations in the callus may have been incomplete at the plant regeneration stage. Sorting out of organelles in planta was not observed.
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