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  • Column liquid chromatography  (1,216)
  • Angiologie
  • Kardiologie
  • Springer  (1,225)
  • Sage Publications  (16)
  • Lippincott Williams & Wilkins  (12)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Amperometric detection ; Clozapine ; Desmethylclozapine ; Drug monitoring
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with amperometric detection has been developed for the determination of levels of clozapine (CLZ) and its active metabolite N-desmethylclozapine (DMC) in human plasma. The analysis was performed on a 5 μm C8 reversed phase column (150×4.6 mm i.d.), with acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), as the mobile phase. The detection voltage was +800 mV and the cell and column temperature were 50°C. Linear responses were obtained between 2 ng mL−1 and 100 ng mL−1. Absolute recovery for both clozapine and desmethylclozapine exceeded 88% and the detection limit was 1 ng mL−1. Repeatability, intermediate precision and accuracy were satisfactory. The method, which is rapid, sensitive and selective, has been applied to therapeutic drug monitoring in schizophrenic patients following administration of Leponex® tablets. In 21 patients in steady state at a mean daily clozapine dosage of 358 mg (ranging from 150 to 500 mg day−1), clozapine levels averaged 379 ng mL−1 (ranging from 102 to 818 ng mL−1) and DMC levels averaged 233 ng mL−1 (ranging from 70 to 540 ng mL−1). The method requires only a very small amount of plasma (100 μL), and thus it is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies, as well as for therapeutic drug monitoring.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Anion-exchange chromatography ; High ph elvents ; Monosaccharides ; Carbopac PA-100
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary We have studied the elution behaviour of six common monosaccharides, fucose, galactosamine, glucosamine, galactose, glucose and mannose, on the CarboPac PA-100 column. The relative elution positions of galactose, glucose and mannose were dependent on the sodium hydroxide concentrations, a phenomenon which was likely to be the result of differential ionisation of the hydroxyl groups at ring positions two and four. The optimal resolution of the monosaccharides studied was achieved by elution with 30 mM sodium hydroxide with no appreciable loss in sensitivity at this low concentration.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin ; Imidazole derivatives ; Retention mechanisms ; Enthalpy-entropy compensation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Two different methods have been used to investigate the retention mechanism of a series of imidazole derivatives in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) over a range of column temperatures and with different concentrations of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) in the mobile phase. The first approach was the separate study of each factor affecting the retention mechanism; the second method was the simultaneous variation of all these factors. Changes in Van't Hoff plots as a function of HP-β-CD concentration were examined. Enthalpy and entropy were determined for two physicochemical processes: (i) solute transfer from the mobile phase to the stationary phase, and (ii) solute complexation by HP-β-CD. These thermodynamic data showed that the mechanism of retention of the solute was dependent on the concentration of HP-β-CD in the mobile phase. For a HP-β-CD concentration,C, greater than to 4 mM, from 28°C to a critical temperature,T *, solute retention was entropy-dominated because of inclusion of the solute in the HP-β-CD cavity. AboveT * retention was enthalpy-dominated, because of interaction of the solute with the RP18 stationary phase. At firstT * increased asC was increased up to a critical value,C **; it the remained relatively constant because of auto-association of the HP-β-CD molecules in the mobile phase. Enthalpy-entropy compensation revealed that HP-β-CD-solute complexation had a greater effect on retention than RP18 stationary phase-solute interaction. This confirms that the main parameter determining retention in RPLC is the distribution of the solute in the mobile phase, and that interactions with the stationary phase play a minor role.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Amino acids ; FMOC derivatives ; Oligopeptides
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary One classical method for quantitation of amino acids in proteins is hydrolysis of the proteins and determination of the free amino acids. Although the drastic experimental conditions necessary for complete hydrolysis always cause degradation of some of the amino acids, if mild hydrolysis conditions are used, a mixture of amino acids and oligopeptides is obtained. If these conditions are adequately tuned, the oligopeptides are almost exclusively dipeptides. For this reason we have initiated a study to find a derivatizing agent suitable for the analysis of amino acids and dipeptides by an absolute method of quantitation already tested for amino acids. FMOC-Cl was found to be a suitable derivatizing agent for this purpose.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; O-alkyl, O-(1-methylthioethylideneamino) phosphoramidates ; Quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) ; Reversed-phase LC
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary By using factor analysis, cluster analysis and multiple linear regression methods, two parameters, FHF and ECCR, were selected from eight solute-related structure parameters as showing the best correlation with retention data. The relationship between the retention data (k) and these two structure parameters were established for ten O-alkyl, O-(1-methylthioethylideneamino) phosphoramidate compounds under the experimental conditions studied. Retention data (k) for six other compounds that have a high correlation with structure parameters were predicted using these QSRR equations. The system was evaluated by comparing the experimentalk values with the predicted ones. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental and predictedk values.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Chiral stationary phases ; Benzophenone imine derivatives ; Amino acid esters ; Enantiomer separation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The liquid-chromatographic separation of the enantiomers of amino acid esters as benzophenone Schiff-base derivatives on polysaccharide-derived chiral stationary phases (CSPs) is described. The performance of Chiralcel OF was superior to that of the other CSPs for resolution of benzophenone imine derivatives of amino acid ethyl and methyl esters. The enantiomers of most of the amino acid esters examined as their benzophenone imine derivatives were resolved to baseline on Chiralcel OF. The L-(−) enantiomers of all the analytes were preferentially retained on Chiralcel OF. The resolution of several imine derivatives of amino acid esters was investigated, as was the effect of eluent composition on the resolution of amino acid ethyl esters as their benzophenone imine derivatives.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) ; Oral contraceptives ; Ethinylestradiol ; Gestodene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method is presented which permits quantification of ethinylestradiol and gestodene in pharmaceutical products. Separation was carried out at 25°C and 25 KV, using a 20 mM borate buffer (pH 9.2), 15 mM sodium dodecylsulfate in 30% acetonitrile-water (v/v). Under these conditions analyses were carried out in 7 min. Four different oral contraceptives were analysed and the results compared favourably with those of a reference liquid chromatographic method.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Zirconium oxide ceramics ; X-ray fluorescence ; Neutron activation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Lanthania-and yttria-stabilized zirconium oxide ceramics have been examined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), thermal neutron activation (NA) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses and thus determine the stabilizer content. Ceramic powders with the composition ZrO2:x mol % La2O3 (x=5, 10, 15, 20 and 33) and ZrO2:x mol % Y2O3 (x=10, 15, 20 and 25) were prepared by the citrate and the co-precipitation techniques, respectively. The lanthanum content was determined by HPLC (x=5.09, 9.78, 14.98, 19.81 and 25.94) and NA (x=5.15, 10.32, 17.25, 21.08 and 27.97) analyses, the yttrium content by HPLC (x=8.5, 13.5, 17.9 and 22.1) and XRF (x=9.9, 15.8, 20.1 and 24.9) analyses. An experimental sequence, based on continuous dilution of ceramic powder solutions, is proposed for preparing samples for HPLC measurements. A swimming pool nuclear reactor is used for NA analysis. The quantitative determinations of yttrium and lanthanum doping levels obtained using those techniques are described.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Cyclodextrin additives ; Fluorescence agents
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary We report four new derivatization agents, acridone-N-acetic acid (ARC), carbazole-9-ylacetic acid (CRA), carbazole-9-ylpropionic acid (CRP), and 2-methyl-2-carbazole-9-ylacetic acid (MCRA), with strong fluorescence emission which has low dependence on solvent polarity. The emission maxima for ARC, CRA, CRP, and MCRA were 430 nm (λex 404 nm), 368 nm (λex 335 nm), 356 nm (λex 340 nm) and 360 nm (λex 330 nm), respectively. The effects of mobile-phase composition, pH, and temperature on the liquid chromatographic retention behavior of the four fluorescence agents were investigated. An experimental model was established for calculating the inclusion constants of cyclodextrin (CD) complexes in the dynamic state, using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as examples, and different mobilephase compositions. On the basis of the model, the inclusion constants of the solutes in pure water (K fw) were determined by extrapolation. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH o and ΔS o) and dissociation constantsK am for the solutes in this chromatographic system were obtained by means of capacity factor (k) values using a corresponding model formulation.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; α-Chymotrypsin immobilized on silica ; In situ immobilization process ; Structural chiral separations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary α-Chymotrypsin was immobilized on an epoxide derivatized silica gel by anin situ immobilization process. Several racemates were resolved by a structural recognition mechanism. The immobilization process and the stability of this α-chymotrypsin stationary phase have been studied. The mobile phase parameters including the ionic strength, pH and the effects of organic modifiers have been also investigated. The retention, efficiency and stereoselectivity of the solutes appear to be related to their molecular structure, hydrophobicity and electrostatic interactions. These relationships determine the recognition mechanism and the position of each enantiomer in the active site.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; α-Chymotrypsin-CSP ; Enzymatic chiral separations ; Loadability evaluation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Several racemates has been resolved according to an enzymatic recognition mechanism on an α-chymotrypsin chiral stationary phase. The loadability of the ACHT-CSP has been evaluated both in buffered and non-buffered mobile phases under the enzymatic process and compared with the loading capacity obtained by the structural recognition process.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Interaction of mobile and stationary phases ; Linear solvation energy relationships ; Triethylamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The effect of triethylamine (TEA) in the mobile phase on the RPLC retention behavior of small organic solutes has been studied on a conventional polymeric octadecylsilica (ODS) and on a horizontally polymerized ODS. Retention factors for a set of solutes were measured on the two phases with methanol-water mobile phases containing triethylamine at different concentrations and analyzed by use of linear solvation energy relationships (LSER). Variation of the resulting LSER coefficients—v (hydrophobicity),r (polarizability),s (dipolarity),b (hydrogen-bond (HB) donating acidity), anda (HB accepting strength)—were examined to see how TEA affects the intermolecular interaction properties of the mobile and stationary phases and hence the retention of the solutes. Addition of TEA to the mobile phase changes the interaction properties of both conventionally polymerized and horizontally polymerized ODS; the effect is greater for the conventional phase. The HB donating acidity (b) of conventional polymeric ODS is significantly reduced by addition of TEA. For the mobile phases studied the magnitudes of theb andv coefficients for the horizontally polymerized ODS phase are greater than for the conventional phase. The different interaction properties of the two polymeric phases arise mainly as a result of differential adsorption of TEA, because of the very different amounts of surface silanol groups present on the two phases.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Evaporative light-scattering detection ; MALDI-TOF ; Polyethylene glycols
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of nominal molecular weight (M) 200, 400, 600, 1000, 1500, 3000, 4000 and 6000 were chosen as model compounds and subjected to reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on an octadecasilyl silica gel (C18) stationary phase using a binary gradient composed of acetonitrile and water and evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). Satisfactory resolution of oligomers up to M of 3000 was accomplished; the higher M samples PEG-4000 and PEG-6000 could not be further resolved into the constituent oligomers and therefore, M=4000 marks the upper limit of oligomer resolution. Despite some peak overlapping as a consequence of the more or less broad oligomer distribution, individual types of PEG samples can be distinguished from each other by their characteristic chromatographic fingerprint patterns, as shown with a mixture consisting of PEG-400, PEG-1000, PEG-3000, PEG-4000 and PEG-6000. For this reason, the method is well-suited for characterization of samples containing PEGs widely differing in M. In addition, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF/MS) performed with PEG-600, PEG-1000 and PEG-3000 revealed that the optimum degree of oligomer resolution has been achieved by use of the present method.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Enantiomer separation ; Chiral-AGP column ; Idrapril ; Temperature effect
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A direct liquid-chromatographic method has been developed for the stereoselective analysis of idrapril and its stereoisomers on a chiral α1 glycoprotein (AGP) column. The influence of flow-rate, temperature, and mobile phase composition on retention and selectivity was evaluated to find the optimum conditions for chiral separation.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Chiral stationary phases ; Crown ether derivatives ; Amino compounds
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The enantiomers of primary amino compounds have previously been resolved on a chiral stationary phase (CSP) CSP-18C6I, prepared by immobilizing (+)-18-crown-6 tetracarboxylic acid. In this study related chiral stationary phases were prepared in an effort to broaden the scope of CSP18C6I. CSP-18C6II, synthesized to investigate the effect of spacer length, resolved the enantiomers of 2-amino-1,2-diphenylethanol and 1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine (1-NEA) (hydrophobic amino compounds) with the largerk values and smaller α values than on CSP-18C6I, probably because of the greater hydrophobicity of CSP-18C6II. Use of CSP-18C6III, synthesized by modification of carboxylic acid functionality of CSP-18C6II by introduction of another chiral moiety,S-1-NEA, resulted in larger α values for 2-amino-1-phenylethanol and 2-amino-1-phenylpropanol than on CSP-18C6II, but the enantiomers of 1-NEA were not resolved, because of steric hindrance between 1-NEA and the chiral moiety. The amide derivativeN-3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-1-(α-naphthyl)ethylamine (DNN) as π-acceptor (3,5-dinitrobenzoyl function) or π-donor (naphthylethylamide function), and no primary amino functionality, was resolved on CSP-18C6III. The mechanism of separation of the enantiomers of DNN was assumed to be the π−π interaction between the 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl function (π-acceptor) of DNN and theS-1-NEA moiety (π-donor) of CSP-18C6III.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; p-tert-Butyl-calix[4]arene-bonded silica ; Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry ; PAHs ; Nucleosides bases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A new method is proposed for preparation of ap-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene-bonded silica stationary phase. The chemically modifiedp-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene is attached to silica gel via the silane coupling reagent γ-(ethylenediamino)-propyl-triethoxyl-silane. The bonded phase has been characterized by29Si and13C cross polarization/magic angle spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic spectrometry. The retention behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nucleosides and bases has been investigated on the bonded phase in the reversed-phase mode.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Polyfluoroalkyl-coated silica ; 29Si CP/MAS NMR ; Polyaromatic compounds ; Fluorinated compounds
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The conditions for reaction of the branched polyfluoroalkylsilane D3CL with silica gel have been examined. From elemental analyses and29Si NMR spectra it was found that the surface coverage and endcapping of D3CL-coated silica gel (Fluofix®) were the same as for ODS packings. The separation behavior of these phases was compared that of a variety of other packings. For polyaromatic compounds and benzene derivatives Fluofix worked in the reversed-phase mode and its retention characteristics were similar to those of C1 or CN packings. For fluorinated compound the retention characteristics of the phases is similar to those of ODS although with MeOH-water and MeCN-water mobile phases the pressure loss was lower for the fluorinated phases than for ODS.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Digoxin and digoxigenin ; Temperature effects ; Pore size effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Increased retention of digoxin has been observed at elevated temperatures on both 10 nm and 30 nm porediamter, RP-18 packing. This result is the opposite effect compared with the decreased retention under the same conditions with digoxin aglycon-digoxigenin. Rotation around the C−C σ-bonds in the digoxin molecule is presumed; the rod-like molecules of the newlyobtained digoxin penetrate stationary phase pores more easily thus increasing retention.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Sep-Pak CN cartridge ; Oxytetracycline ; Sulphadimidine ; Meat and eggs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A rapid method for the simultaneous determination/identification of residual oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulphadimidine (SDD) in meats (beef, pork, chicken) and eggs by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The extraction of OTC and SDD was performed using a Sep-Pak® CN cartridge. The extracts contained OTC/SDD analytes when examined by HPLC using a LiChrospher® 100 RP-8 end-capped column and a mobile phase of acetonitrile-acetic acid-water (28:4:68, v/v/v) with a photodiode array detector. The average recoveries from spiked samples (0.1 μg g−1 and 1.0 μg g−1) were in excess of 80.2% with coefficients of variation between 1.5 and 5.0%. The limits of detection for OTC and SDD were 0.05 and 0.02 μg g−1, respectively.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Evaporative light scatering detection ; APCI mass spectrometry ; Triacylglycerols
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Short- and long-chain triacylglycerols (SLCT) are a family of lipids prepared by chemical or enzymatic interesterification of triacetin, tripropionin and/or tributyrin, and long-chain (C16!18) hydrogenated vegetable oils. In this study, a normal-phase cyanopropyl high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the separation and quantification of SLCT. The method is capable of separating SLCT mixtures, free fatty acids and the neutral lipid classes of saturated long-chain triacylglycerols, diacylglycerols and monoacylglycerols. To characterize the specific SLCT classes, a normal-phase HPLC procedure using a non-modified silica column was developed to separate the SLCT into individual isomers based on total carbon number and position of fatty acids on the glycerol backbone. Online coupling with a mass detector (LC/MS) allowed the identification of the individual triacylglycerol structures.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Fatty alcohol sulfates ; Alkyl polyglycosides ; Trace analysis ; Steam distillation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Acid catalyzed hydrolysis of fatty alcohol sulfates under reflux condition or by microwave heating is compared. Microwave hydrolysis turned out to be faster and more convenient to use. The combination of reflux hydrolysis of fatty alcohol sulfates or alkyl polyglycosides and the simultaneous steam distillation of the generated fatty alcohols gives a very powerful sample preparation and enrichment method for fatty alcohol sulfates and alkyl polyglycosides. The preconcentrated fatty alcohols are derivatized and detected via fluorescence detection. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by the analysis of fatty alcohol sulfates in cosmetics and in river water as matrices spiked with approximately 4 ppb fatty alcohol sulfates.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; DAD and MS detection ; Liquid-solid extraction ; Catechin derivatives ; Myricetin derivatives
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A liquid-solid extraction and purification procedure (LSE) was developed to identify and quantify polyphenols in the leaf tissue ofMyrtus communis L. Identification and quantitation of individual compounds was performed using HPTLC, HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analysis. Leaves ofMyrtus communis L. contain small amounts of phenolic acids (caffeic, ellagic and gallic acids) and quercetin derivatives (quercetin 3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside), whereas catechin derivatives (epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, epicatechin 3-O-gallate) and myricetin derivatives (myricetin 3-O-galactoside, myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside) are present in large amounts. This is the first report on the occurrence of galloyl-derivatives of catechin and gallo-catechin inMyrtus communis L. leaves.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Chiral resolution ; Jasmonic acid ; Plant growth regulators ; Amine conjugates
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Racemic jasmonic acid (3R,7R/3S,7S)-(±)-JA) was chemically conjugated with different biogenic amines originating from aliphatic and aromatic α-amino acids by decarboxylation. The resulting isomeric compounds were subjected to reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and to HPLC on the chiral stationary phases Chiralpak AS and Nucleodex β-PM. Under reversed-phase conditions, all the homologous amine derivatives tested could be separated from each other except the JA-conjugates containing 2-phenyl-ethylamine and 3-methylbutylamine. On both chiral supports the (3R,7R)-(−)-JA conjugates eluted earlier than those of the enantiomeric counterpart (3S,7S)-(+)-JA. On Chiralpak AS all the isomers studied could be separated to baseline with a mobile phase containingn-hexane and 2-propanol. The calculated resolution factors were between 1.80 and 4.17. The pairs of isomers were also chromatographed on the cyclodextrin stationary phase Nucleodex β-PM with methanol-triethylammonium acetate buffer as mobile phase. Under these conditions resolution factors were between 0.74 and 1.29. The individual isomers were chiroptically characterized by measurement of their circular dichroism.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Glycolytic enzymes ; p-Hydroxymercuribenzoate ; 203Hg-labelledp-hydroxymercuribenzoate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The use of hydrophobic-interaction chromatography (HIC) is proposed for the simultaneous determination of more than one thiol-protein after formation of the corresponding mercury mercaptides withp-hydroxymercuribenzoate (PHMB). The new chromatographic procedure, based on the HIC separation of the modified proteins from each other and from excess organomercury reagent has been successfully applied to the quantitative determination of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) and phosphoglucose mutase (PGM) in crude PGI powder, and of L-lactate dehydrogenase, PGM and aldolase in crude pyruvate kinase from rabbit muscle. The suitability of203Hg-labelled PHMB has been tested in the analysis of mixtures, which give barely distinguishable UV-peaks owing to the presence of other non-thiol components in the sample. For this purpose glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHy) and PGIy from bakers yeast have been considered. Results obtained in experiments performed by both procedures are reported.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Ion chromatography ; Monovalent anions determination ; Potentiometric detection ; Ion selective PVC-matrix electrode
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary An all solid-state contact tubular PVC-matrix membrane electrode has been applied for potentiometric detection of inorganic and organic monovalent anions using phosphate and hydrogen phosphate eluents at low concentrations. This is a “monovalent detection method” as the selectivity of the electrode towards monovalent anions results in some other anions being undetected unless the concentration of those other anions is higher than 10−3 mol dm−3 in the sample solution injected. It takes only eight minutes to complete the separation with a good resolution. Theoretical and practical considerations are discussed, and in particular, sensitivity, linearity, detection limit and dynamic behaviour are presented. The use of an all solid-state contact bromide-selective electrode as a detector offers so far the best simultaneous sensitivity toward all anions when compared with other detection methods. Determination of Cl− and NO3 − ions in river, rain and drinking water samples without any further sample preconcentration has been successfully achieved. The detection limit is sub-ppb for most of anions in a 20 μL injection volume.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry ; Plant products ; Silene otites
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary HPLC coupled in parallel to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) has been used to obtain1H NMR and mass spectra of a number of ecdysteroids present in an extract of the plantSilene otites. Reversed phase gradient chromatography was performed using a D20-acetonitrile-based solvent system. NMR and mass spectra were obtained for integristerone A, 20-hydroxyecdysone, 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone and 2-deoxyecdysone to provide structural confirmation using continuous and stopped flow HPLC-NMR. The combined HPLC-NMR-MS system described here provided a more comprehensive analysis of the ecdysteroids present in the extract than HPLC-NMR alone.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Octadecyl titania ; Surface hydrosilation ; Solid-state NMR C7
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The structure of a C18 phase based on titania (C18-A), synthesized by the method of solution polymerization, is investigated by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The findings are compared with the results of a second C18 phase based on titania (C18-B) which was synthesized by the method of surface hydrosilation. The dynamic behavior of both phases is examined by1H MAS NMR detection of spinlattice relaxation times in the rotating frame (T1pH) and conventional spin-lattice relaxation times (T1). Due to a smaller ligand density, phase C18-A appears to be a somewhat more mobile than phase C18-B. The chromatographic capability of the phase C18-A is demonstrated by the separation of samples containing benzene derivates or anilines. The elution order is analogous to the phase C18-B, but for both test mixtures the polarity of the mobile phase has to be increased. Phase C18-A is classified as being polymeric by the Sander and Wise test, whereas phase C18-B shows intermediate retention behavior.
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  • 28
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    Chromatographia 49 (1999), S. 535-538 
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Solid phase extraction ; Herbicides in soil ; Flupoxam
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary High-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was used to determine the residues of flupoxam (a new herbicide) in soils. Soil samples were extracted with aqueous methanol. The soil extracts were cleaned up and concentrated using two solid phase extraction columns: a polymeric stationary phase based on a polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin (Lichrolut EN) and alumina. Recovery experiments were performed at ppb levels in spiked soil samples. The recovery was 76±1.7% for flupoxam in the range 5–100 μg kg−1 of soil. Limit of determination was 3 μg kg−1.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; MS-MS detection ; Electrospray-Ionization (ESI) ; Beer ; Ochratoxin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic and nephrocacinogenic mycotoxin commonly produced by several ubiquitousAspergillus andPenicillium species. OTA is found predominantly in cereals and derived products, and therefore OTA may be transferred into beer from contaminated grain. Thirty-five samples of German beers were analyzed: OTA was extracted with toluene and purified by solid phase extraction using silica cartridges. OTA was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Since of fluorescence detection is not specific in this instance, the beer samples were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). OTA levels in the range of 0.1–0.2 μg L−1 were found in 9 beer samples, 21 samples contained trace amounts of OTA (〈0.1 μg L−1) and in 5 samples no OTA was detectable.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Solid phase extraction ; Doxorubicin ; Cell culture media ; Human plasma ; Fluorescence detection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Doxorubicin is an antineoplastic antibiotic isolated fromStreptomyces peucetius var.cesius clinically used in the treatment of tumors such as lung or breast, Hodgkin's disease and various types of leukemias. The main goal of this study was to develop a simple and sensitive HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the quantitation of doxorubicin in cell culture media collected during an in vitro studies and in human plasma. Solid phase extraction (C2 silica) was applied. The experiment established five-point standard curve (1 ng mL−1 to 100 ng mL−1). The standard curves prepared in blank cell tissue media were linear over the range of doxorubicin assayed and had a mean correlation coefficient of 0.9973±9.43×10−4 and slope 0.02545±1.85×10−3. The standard curves prepared in human plasma were linear and had mean correlation coefficient of 0.997 and slope 0.01885±5.19×10−4. The limit of quantitation for doxorubicin in both specimens was arbitrarily established to be 1 ng mL−1. Intra-day variabilities were determined using 3–4 replicates of control solutions of doxorubicin (3 ng mL−1 and 30 ng mL−1) in blank plasma and cell culture media. Inter-day variabilities were determined over a four day period analyzing replicates of controls. All precision and accuracy values fell within the acceptable range.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Enantioseparations ; Amylose phenylcarbamate phase ; Glycidyl sulfides ; Glycidyl selenides
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The resolution of the enantiomers of a series of glycidyl sulfides and glycidyl selenides has been examined on a chiral stationary phase prepared by coating aminopropylated silica gel with amylose tris-(phenylcarbamate). Most of the enantiomers of glycidyl monosulfides and monoselenides could be resolved satisfactorily but those of the disulfides could not. The effects of solute structure and of the concentration of 2-propanol in the mobile phase on retention and resolution were investigated.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) ; Transdiamminedichloroplatinum (II) ; Amminetri-chloroplatinate ; 4-Methyl-2-thiouracil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary We have developed a simple, rapid, selective and sensitive method for detecting the antitumour agent cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) (CDDP) and its toxic impurities trans-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (transplatin) (TDDP) amminetri-chloroplatinat (ATCP) anion using HPLC in one run. By using 4-methyl-2-thiouracil (MTU) as a derivatizing agent, new compounds have been formed from the Pt compounds and separated on a μ-Bondapak C18 column with isocratic elution and detection at 315 nm. Reactant concentration, methanol content, pH and the reaction time on yield of derivatives were investigated and the optimum conditions for the detection response were defined. The derivatives of each of the three platinum compounds formed in an acetate buffer solution containing 40% (v/v) methanol and 0.9% KCl solution at pH 3.7 and ambient temperature were only stable for one hour.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Capillary zone electrophoresis ; Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry ; Human serum albumin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the most abundant human proteins and has been shown to be heterogeneous. A RP-HPLC method has been developed to separate HSA components in commercially available preparations. Separations were carried out on Aquapore RP-300, C8 columns using gradient elution with a combination of acetonitrile/water mobile phases containing 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid as ion-pairing agent. Optimum resolution was attained on narrow-bore columns using a stepwise, linear gradient that incorporated a shallow intermediate step of 0.20%/min in Mobile Phase B. Under similar elution conditions, separations carried out on standard-size columns showed the expected decrease in resolution due to increased peak widths. A comparative analysis of three commercial products highlighted qualitative and quantitative differences. Capillary zone electrophoresis was used for the analysis of collected RP-HPLC fractions. Results indicated that while the HPLC separation was incomplete, one of the major HPLC peaks was primarily composed of one of the three main components typically separated by CZE. ESI-MS was used to characterize the two major RP-HPLC fractions and also showed that the HPLC separation was incomplete. The MaxEnt transform of the HPLC peaks was consistent with components all being HSA and closely related derivatives.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Alcohols ; Pre-column fluorescence derivatization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A sensitive LC method for the determination of alcohols, using fluorescent condensation agent carbazole-9-N-acetylbenzne-disulfonate(CABS), has been developed. A mixture of alcohols and triethylamine catalyst in dichloromethane or chloroform is treated with CABS to give quantitative yields of esters. Emission maximum for the derivatized alcohols is 365 nm (λex 335 nm). The labeled derivatives are very stable, no significant decomposition is observed after heating in 40% at 40°C for 24 h. The method, in conjunction with a multigradient program, offers baseline resolution of common alcohol derivatives on a reversed-phase C18 column. Studies on derivatization conditions indicate that primary and secondary alcohols react very fast with CABS in the presence of triethylamine in dichloromethane or chloroform to give the corresponding fluorescent derivatives. This method is more convenient and more efficient than previous methods which require prior conversion of carboxylic acids to acyl chlorides. The separation of alcohol derivatives has good reproducibility and the rsd's (n=5) for 50 pmol of each alcohol are 4%. Detection limits are at the fmol level.
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  • 35
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    Chromatographia 49 (1999), S. 671-677 
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Microwave hydrolysis ; Microcystin ; Nodularin ; D- and L-selective amino acid determination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Microwave radiation has been successfully used for hydrolysis of the hepatotoxic cyclic peptides microcystins and nodularin. Set-up of the microwave device and the operating conditions for microwave hydrolysis were optimized. Results of the microwave hydrolysis were compared with results from conventional hydrolysis for 24 h at 110°C. Microwave hydrolysis of microcystins and nodularin for as little as 10 min at 160°C results in complete cleavage of peptide bonds and high recoveries of amino acids. Enantioselective determination of amino acids was achieved by use of a previously described HPLC method after pre-column derivatization withortho-phthaldialdehyde and the chiral thiolN-iso-butyryl-cysteine.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Meropenem in human plasma ; Solid phase extraction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary This paper describes an HPLC method for the determination of meropenem in human plasma. The method uses solid phase extraction (SPE) of the samples and has good sensitivity, precision and accuracy. The limit of quantification in plasma samples is 0.02 μg mL−1. Calibration curves were linear over a large dynamic range, namely within 0.02–50 μg mL−1. The method was applied to the determination of meropenem levels in patients receiving meropenem, as a single dose or at steady state.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography ; Evaporative light-scattering detection ; Octadecyl grafted silica ; Ceramides
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary This paper describes the development of a chromatographic system for analysis of commercial ceramides structurally similar to those found in the stratum corneum. The ceramides used in this study contain different amine based (phytosphingosine, sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine) and fatty acids of different chain lengths and with different functional groups (hydroxylated and unsaturated). Non-aqueous reversed-phase (NARP) liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD) were the techniques chosen in accordance with the nature of the ceramides. The eluent strength and the potential selectivity of different organic solvents were investigated. On a C18-bonded silica, the most promising chromatographic conditions employed a gradient from ACN-THF, 95∶5, to ACN-THF-PrOH, 35∶5∶60, in 15 min with a constant concentration of TEA (10 mM) and a stoichiometric amount of formic acid.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Glucosinolates ; Rapseed-mustard ; Brassica
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A simple, economical and efficient HPLC method has been developed for the separation and determination of the individual glucosinolates in rapessed and mustard. The method involves single-step extraction of glucosinolates with boiling water and separation of the individual glucosinolates on a Novapack RP-18 column (3.9 mm ×150mm) with 0.2 M ammonium sulphate as mobile phase. Peaks were monitored at 229 nm. All major glucosinolates could be eluted within 10 min. The method proved effective for routine analysis of glucosinolates.
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  • 39
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    Chromatographia 47 (1998), S. 373-382 
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Polyaromatic hydrocarbons ; Pitch
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A new high performance liquid chromatography method for the characterisation of toluene-soluble fractions of pitches has been developed. Although a chromatographic system typical of size exclusion chromatography was used, results indicate that, for these structurally complex samples, separation does not follow the usual discrimination by molecular size. A differentiation between several classes of polyaromatic hydrocarbons is achieved instead. Data are reported on the analysis of individual standard polyaromatic hydrocarbons, showing that four different elution ranges can be observed: three ofcata-condensed compounds (Cata1, Cata2 and Cata3) and one ofperi-condensed compounds (Peri). Results are reported proving the capacity of this high performance liquid chromatography method to distinguish between pitches of different origin and nature. It is also effective for the study of the chemical reactions occurring during heat treatment.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Chitin stationary phase ; Marrubiin ; Analgesic activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Marrubiin is the main active compound isolated fromM. vulgare, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to cure several diseases. The present study shows that chitin, an abundant natural polymer, may be successfully in chromatography column to separate marrubiin from complex mixtures. The experimental procedure described here represents an efficient and rapid method to obtain such compound in high yield.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Porous copolymers with hydroxyl groups ; Chemical modification of phases ; Selectivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Dimethyldichlorosilane has been used to deactivate the hydroxyl groups present in the skeleton of the porous polymer formed from the methacrylic ester ofp, p′-dihydroxydiphenylmethane diglycidyl ether and divinylbenzene. The influence of chemical modification of the copolymer on its chromatographic behavior has been studied. The retention indices of five homologous series and test compounds were calculated to determine the selectivity of the packings.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; 4,5-Epoxymorphinan ; Nalbuphine hydrochloride injection ; Stability assays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of nalbuphine hydrochloride, methylparaben, and propylparaben in nalbuphine hydrochloride injection. Reversed-phase chromatography was carried out using a mobile phase containing 0.05 % trifuoroacetic acid, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 280 nm. Validation data for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, and robustness are presented. The chromatographic system resolves nalbuphine from synthetic impurities and degradation products.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Doxycycline ; Human plasma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A simple, low-cost, sensitive and selective HPLC method was developed for the determination of doxycycline in human plasma. The method has a detection limit of 0.008 μg mL−1 and a limit of quantification of 0.02 μg mL−1. Calibration curves were linear over a large dynamic range, namely within 0.02–5.0 μg mL−1, which allowed accurate determination of doxycycline peak levels in human plasma after administration of 50–200 mg tablets and also the low plasma levels obtained 72 hours after drug administration.
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  • 44
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    Chromatographia 48 (1998), S. 360-364 
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Acylated anthocyanins ; Rudbeckia hirta L. ; In vitro cultures
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Conditions were determined for the separation of a complex set of anthocyanins (free aglycones, mono- and multiglycosides and esterified forms) by HPLC. The optimised gradient elution method was then used to carry out qualitative and quantitative analysis of anthocyanin compounds present in the callus tissue ofRudbeckia hirta L. and the tubular flowers of the soil-based plant. The summary content of anthocyanin pigments and the content of the main pigment was identified in the analysed biomass. The method developed is useful for the purposes of monitoring the process of biosynthesis of anthocyanins in tissues obtained through in vitro cultures. The advantages of the method for anthocyanins and its application to other anthocyanin-rich materials are also discussed.
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  • 45
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    Chromatographia 48 (1998), S. 377-382 
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Host-guest complexation ; Temperature effects ; Cyclodextrin inclusion complexes ; Polycyclic aromatics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary High-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet spectroscopy methods were applied to the studies on the influence of temperature on the complexation of β-cyclodextrin with naphthalene and its derivatives. The strong nonlinearity of Van't Hoff plots suggests, that the retention mechanism of hydrocarbons investigated might be different in high and low temperature region. The total lack of correlation (r=−0.230) between chromatographic data (capacity factors ratio:k PAH/k PAH×CD) and spectrophotometric data (ΔA) at high temperature (60°) as well as a significant correlation (r=0.922) at subambient temperature (15°C) suggest, that the inclusion mechanism starts to be important at low temperature region and the predominant mechanism for chromatographic retention is the formation of an inclusion complexes in the mobile phase.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Imidazole derivatives ; β-Cyclodextrin ; Enantioselectivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Using reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), this paper investigates the enantioselectivity variations, in a series of weak polar R, S-imidazole derivatives, with β-cyclodextrin concentration in the mobile phase over a wide range of column temperatures. These compounds are used for the treatment of onychomycosis. The selectivity data obtained were assessed using a chiral recognition model, based on the formation of complexes between the solute molecule and the cyclodextrin cavity. Gibbs Helmholtz parameters (Δ(ΔH), Δ(ΔS)) between R- and S- enantiomers were determined from the logarithm of the separation factor, α, versus the reciprocal of the temperature plots. The thermodynamic results predicted that the enantioselectivity mechanism was related to both the solute's bulkiness and the asymmetric carbon atom configuration.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Short-Column LC ; Environmental water samples ; MS-MS detection ; Pesticide degradation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The applicability of solid-phase extraction-LC using two short columns (SPE-LC) and/or single-short-column liquid chromatography (SSC) combined on-line with tandem mass spectrometry (MS) was demonstrated for the rapid study of pesticide degradation. A fast analytical procedure was developed to provide preliminary information concerning experimental conditions, approximate rates of degradation and identity of the degradation products. Surface water samples were spiked at relevant concentration levels with well-known microcontaminants and photolysis was used to transform parent compounds into their degradation products. In general, the strategy was as follows: at 30-min intervals 10-mL samples were on-line enriched, separated by short-column LC and recorded in full-scan MS to obtain information on the disappearance of the parent compound and the appearance of breakdown products. To obtain structural information, product-ion spectra of selected compounds appearing in the full-scan MS chromatogram were recorded; this enabled the identification of several degradation products. Total analysis time of enrichment/separation and detection was about 10–15 min.
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  • 48
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    Chromatographia 48 (1998), S. 491-496 
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Polypropylene additives ; Extraction methods ; Antioxidants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The polypropylene additives were extracted by dissolution-precipitation and Soxhlet. The Soxhlet method was adapted for the extraction of phosphorous antioxidants. The RP HPLC method with quaternary gradient elution separated five chemical groups of additives: lower molecular mass di-tert-butyl phenol (D.T.B.P.), hindered amine light stabilizers (Tinuvin 326), hindered phenolic antioxidants (Irganox 1010) and phosphorous antioxidants (Irgafos 168 and Ultranox 626) with their degradation products.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; MS detection ; Trace herbicides ; Natural waters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A new method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of base/neutral and acidic pesticides at a low nanogram per liter concentration level in natural waters is presented. The method includes enrichment of the compounds by solid phase extraction on graphitized carbon black, followed by sequential elution of the base/neutral and acidic pesticides. Identification and quantification of the compounds is performed with HPLC-ESI-MS. This procedure involves passing 1 L of ground water and 2 L of drinking water samples through a 0.5 g graphitized carbon black (GCB) extraction cartridge. A conventional 4.6-mm-i.d. reversed phase LC C-18 operating with a 1 mL min−1 flow of the mobile phase was used to chromatograph the analytes. A flow of 100 μL min−1 of the column effluent was diverted to the ESI source. The ESI source was operated in positive ion mode for base/neutral pesticides and in negative-ion mode for acid pesticides. For the analyte considered, the response of the mass detector was linearly related to the amount of the analytes injected between 5 and 250 ng. In all cases, recoveries of the analytes were better than 90%. The limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio=3) of the method for the pesticides considered in drinking water samples was estimated to be about 3–10 ng L−1.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Homocysteine ; Human plasma ; Routine analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Elevated plasma homocysteine is, a known risk factor in arteriosclerotic vascular disease. To measure homocysteine in a large number of samples, we have developed a rapid, simple, robust and inexpensive reversed-phase HPLC method for routine analysis. Mercaptopro-pionylglycine was used as the internal standard and an external calibration in plasma was performed. Improvement was achieved by the use of gradient elution (using a sodium acetate buffer and methanol) resulting in a higher number of samples analyzed per day. Plasma samples were reduced with tributylphosphine and the proteins were precipitated with perchloric acid before addition of internal standard. The analytes were derivatized by use of 7-fluorobenzofurazone-4-sulfonic acid ammonium salt. For calibration human plasma was spiked with nine different concentrations of homocysteine (range 2–50 μmol L−1). The inter-assay precision of replicate (n=29) analysis of the concentration of homocysteine in a sample of pooled plasma was 3.0%. The limit of detection, defined as three times the signal-to-noise ratio, was 0.25 μmol L−1. The linearity of the assay was confirmed for a plasma concentration range of 2–2000 μmol L−1. The variation of duplicate analyses of 842 plasma samples was 2.6±1.7%.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Micellar liquid chromatography ; Diethyldithiocarbamates ; Metal complexes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary This paper presents the, chromatographic retention of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) as diethyldithiocarbamate complexes in the presence of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide/ethanol/water systems, as mobile phase, by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. The presence of an organic modifier reduces the retention times and improves the efficiency. In order to evaluate the interaction between the metal complexes and the mixed micellar system the values of solute binding constants are calculated in, two ways: a) Arunyanart and Cline-Love's treatment and b) multiple regression analysis taking account of the ethanol percentages.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Retention mechanism ; Donor-acceptor complex ; Molecular interactions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Charge-transfer interactions are often assumed to be dominant among the noncovalent interactions that govern the solute retention in electron donor-acceptor chromatography. This popular view, however, has been called into question by recent studies that suggest an important role for electrostatic interactions in the formation of donor-acceptor complexes. We reported here an experimental investigation concerning the question as to whether charge-transfer or electrostatic interactions are the driving force for solute retention in donor-acceptor chromatography. Using three chromatographic systems composed of a dinitrobenzene derived stationary phase and a hexane based mobile phase, we determined retention factors for a range of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and correlated them with molecular properties that describe the solute's dispersion, charge-transfer, and electrostatic characteristics. It was found that the molecular polarizability and ionization potential give either very poor or no correlation with solute retention whereas the molecular quadrupole moment is a linear function of the logarithmic retention factor. These results were interpreted as showing that electrostatic, rather than charge-transfer or dispersion, interactions play a major role in determining solute retention. The dominance of the electrostatic interactions over the other noncovalent interactions was discussed in terms of distance dependency of the interaction energy.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Enantiospecific analysis ; N-Ethyl-N-methylaniline ; N-Oxidation ; N-Dealkylation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A robust, sensitive reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the quantification of the majorin vitro oxidative microsomal metabolites of the prochiral tertiary amineN-ethyl-N-methyllaniline (EMA) is described. The analytes were resolved on a Spherisorb 5 ODS1 HPLC column using an acetonitrile/phosphate buffer system under isocratic conditions. Use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultraviolet (UV) detection at low wavelength (210 nm) enabled the detection of EMAN-oxide simultaneously with the majorN-dealkylated metabolites,N-ethyl andN-methylaniline. Previous chromatographic methods described for the quantification ofN,N-dialkylarylamineN-oxides have generally required sample pretreatment to reduce theN-oxide to its parent tertiary amine prior to analysis. The above method, in combination with a previously reported chromatographic resolution based on the Chiralcel OD chiral stationary phase (CSP), allows accurate and precise determination of both the quantity and stereochemical composition of metabolically derived EMAN-oxide.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Solid Phase Extraction ; RP-HPLC gradient analysis ; Taxus Cell Cultures ; Taxol and Taxanes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Solid phase extraction (SPE) methods are studied for the sample pretreatment for HPLC analysis ofTaxus cell suspension cultures. Various types of SPE materials were tested for the extraction of both the taxane standards and samples of various origin. Comparison between the different cartridges and the different elution solvents are made in terms of extraction recovery and sample clean-up. Selective elution of the taxanes is achieved by a gradient elution scheme.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Carbofuran pesticides ; On-line analysis of milk
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A method has been developed for extraction and determination of carbofuran in milk. The method involved direct injection of raw milk on to a human serum albumin dimethyloctyl-silica gel (HSA-C8) column and the use of 80:20 (v/v) 0.01 M phosphate buffer pH 5.5-acetonitrile as mobile phase. UV spectrophotometric detection was performed at 220 nm. Identification was based on retention time. Quantification was performed by automatic peak-area determination and was calibrated by use of an external standard.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Ligand-exchange chromatography ; Chiral stationary phases ; Enantiomer separation ; Amino acids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Chiral stationary phases (CSPs) were synthesized by reaction of aminopropylsilica (APS) with chiral monochloro-s-triazines (MCTs). MCTs were obtained by reaction of 2,4,6-trichloro-s-triazine (cyanuric chloride) with one equivalent of methanol and, subsequently, with one equivalent of L-prolinetert butyl ester (H-Pro-OtBu) orN-tert butyloxycarbonyl-L-lysinetert butyl ester (Boc-Lys-OtBu). End-capping of unreacted amino groups of APS with acetic anhydride, followed by trifluoroacetolytic cleavage of the protecting groups of amino acids (AAs), afforded two chiral stationary phases bearing either L-proline (CSP-3) or L-lysine (CSP-4) as chiral selector. Using ligand-exchange chromatography matography with addition of Cu2+ to the mobile phase, enantiomers of free DL-AAs and a fewN-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-DL-AAs were separated on CSP-3, whereasN-(dansyl)-DL-AAs were separated on CSP-4.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Atmopheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI) mass ; spectrometry ; Glucuronide-conjugates ; Toxicological compounds
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A new chromatographic method for the direct determination of metabolites (glucuronide-conjugates) of molecules of toxicological relevance in biological media with the minimum sample pre-treatment has been developed. A high performance liquid chromatographyatmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) system was used for this purpose. The separation of four glucuronides Aminophenylglucuronide (APhG), Phenylglucuronide (PhG),p-Nitrophenylglucuronide (NPhG) and α-Naphthylglucuronide (NG) was obtained under ion-suppressed reversed-phase chromatography conditions, by using high-speed (3 cm, 3 μm) columns and formic acid (2 mM) as the acid modifier in the mobile phase. Different C-18 stationary phases (partially endcapped and non-endcapped) were evaluated in order to obtain retention for these very polar, water soluble molecules. The ionization of the analytes was obtained in negativeion (NI) mode. Detection limits were in the range 1–5 mg L−1 and calibration curves were linear over two order of magnitude. Intra-day and inter-day precision were in the range 2.9–10.6% for all the compounds. The method was successfully applied for the determination of PhG in a urine sample of a European Quality Assurance Programme for Organic Solvent Metabolites.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; N-Benzylideneanilines ; Hierarchical ascending classification ; Correspondence factor analysis ; Electronic effects ; Quantitative structure-retention relationships
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A series of 72 substitutedN-benzylideneanilines (NBA) has been studied by normal-phase liquid chromatography by use of an experimental design based on variation of the composition of mobile phases prepared from heptane and three modifiers, tetrahydrofuran, 1-octanol and ethyl acetate, for each of which the specific interactions are different. Seven mobile phases were defined in the experimental design. The chromatographic data obtained are used to discuss the behavior of NBA by application of complementary chemometric methods—hierarchical ascending classification (HAC) and correspondence factor analysis (CFA). Although solute polarity has the greatest effect on retention, construction of HAC and CFA plots shows that solute behavior is also influenced by second-order electronic effects arising as a result of specific interactions between the solutes and the different modifier solvents. A quantitative structure-retention relationship has been established between Hammett's constants and the solutes projection on the first factorial axis of CFA.
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  • 59
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Chromatographia 47 (1998), S. 171-175 
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Lansoprazole ; Enantiomers ; Human serum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A new and simple HPLC method is described for the separation and quantitative determination of the (+)-and (−)-enantiomers of lansoprazole. The analytes were extracted from serum as previously described for whole lansoprazole [K. Borner, Chromatographia 45, 450–452 (1997)]. The enantiomers were separated by chromatography on a CHIRAL-AGPR column which contained covalently bound acid α1-glycoprotein as chiral selector. In the pure drug the (−)/(+) ratio was 0.99:1.01. In serum of twelve human volunteers the concentration of the (−)-enantiomer was 3 to 5 times higher than that of the (+)-enantiomer. Both enantiomers differ remarkably in their pharmacokinetics.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Non-volatile strawberry compounds ; Multivariate analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A procedure is presented for simultaneous extraction of organic acids, vitamin C and sugars from strawberries and analysis by reversed-phase (RP) HPLC and cationexchange (calcium form) chromatography. Recoveries from strawberries spiked at different levels ranged from 96 to 103 % for carbohydrates, 92 to 112 % for organic acids, and 84 % for vitamin C; the repeatability of the method evaluated as the relative standard deviation in the optimum range was 〈5 % for sugars and 7.5 % for organic acids and vitamin C. Multivariate analysis techniques, such as Bayes and SIMCA analyses, have enabled correct classification of the strawberries tested but we were unable to establish adequate models for typifying them according to their geographic origin.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Opium alkaloids ; Papaver somniferum L.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary A reversed phase HPLC method for the separation of the five major alkaloids fromPapaver somniferum L., morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine and noscapine, has been developed and validated. By use of a basedeactivated silica-based stationary phase excellent peak shape was achieved for each substance. The five alkaloids were quantified by internal standardization within 20 min and with good precision. The method is applicable to opium and to poppy straw.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Ion chromatography ; Titania packings ; Inorganic anions and cations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The ion-exchange retention behavior of titania synthesized in our laboratory was investigated by ion chromatography of inorganic anions and cations. Dilute acetic acid-sodium acetate and bicine-sodium hydroxide buffers were used as mobile phases with no use of suppresor. We observed that the titania, although poor at separating monovalent anions expcept nitrite ion in this experiment, was both an anion and a cation exchanger, and selectively retained fluoride and carbonate ions. We concluded that because of its specific retention properties there were possibilites of using this amphoteric exchanger for simultaneous analysis of anions and cations, and of using it as a selective packing material for ion chromatography.
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  • 63