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  • Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling  (8,042)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Roothaan-Hartree-Fock (RHF) calculations are carried out for the ground states of the atoms from helium to xenon using a minimal basis set of Slater-type functions whose principal quantum numbers are allowed to take variationally optimal noninteger values. The resulting energies are substantially superior to those obtained previously under the usual restriction that principal quantum numbers be positive integers. The energy lowering relative to the single-zeta wave functions of Clementi and co-workers ranges from 0.0066 Eh in He to 11.2 Eh in Xe. Our results are superior to those obtained by Höjer using a minimal basis set of unconventional binomially screened basis functions. Noninteger principal quantum numbers benefit d-orbitals the most; physically realistic negative d-orbital energies are obtained in all cases including those transition-metal atoms for which a conventional single-zeta STF basis leads to positive d-orbital energies. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An analysis of the anisotropic Heisenberg model is carried out by solving the Bethe ansatz solution of the model numerically as a function of the anisotropy parameter for finite N. A brief introduction to the limit of the infinite chain is presented. The energy for a few special limiting cases of the anisotropy parameter in the Hamiltonian are worked out. Numerical results for finite cycles as well as for the infinite chain are given. Comparison can then be made with the case of finite increasing N. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An ab initio study on the reaction of the ground state (3D) and the excited state (1D) of Sc+ with methane was performed. Reaction channels on the singlet and triplet potential surface (PES) and the reaction mechanism are examined and discussed. Three regions of the potential surface was studied: the molecular complex, the C(SINGLE BOND)H insertion products, and the transition states for the reaction. Comparisons between singlet and triplet PESs show that the excited state (1D) of Sc+ has more reactivity with methane than does the ground state (3D) due to the spin quantum number conservation with the more stable insertion intermediate. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The H2 interaction with the Pd dimer and trimer were studied using multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MC-SCF) calculations with the relativistic effective core potential (RECP); the correlation energy correction was included in the extended multireference configuration interaction (MRCI), variational and perturbative to second order. Here, we considered the Pd2 first six states: 3Σ+u, 1Σ+g, 3Πg, 3Δxy, 1Σ+u, and 3Σ+g. For them, the four geometrical approaches included were the side-on H2 toward Pd2, for the hydrogen molecule in and out the Pd dimer plane; the perpendicular end-on H2 toward Pd2; and the perpendicular end-on Pd2 to H2. The Pd2 ground state is 3Σ+u, which only captures H2 in the C2v end-on approach, softly relaxing the H(SINGLE BOND)H bond. The closed-shell 1Σ+g captures the H2 molecule in all the approaches considered: The side-on approach of this state presents deep wells and relaxes the H(SINGLE BOND)H bond, and the end-on approach captures H2 with a relatively longer H(SINGLE BOND)H distance and also a deep well. The 3Πg state was the only one which did not capture H2. For the triangular Pd3 clusters, H2 was approached in the C2v symmetry in and out of the Pd3 plane. In the triangular case, H2 was absorbed in both spin states, with deep wells and relaxing the H(SINGLE BOND)H distance. The linear Pd3 singlet and triplet states capture outside of the Pd3 and break the H(SINGLE BOND)H bond. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The MELD program is employed to evaluate the Slater average potential v(r) felt by an electron at the point r within an atom. The characteristic radius R of the atom is then defined by the classical turning point equation v(R) = -I, where I denotes the first ionization potential of the atom. The atomic radii defined in this way have a close correlation with the van der Waals atomic radii. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We compare geometry configurations, vibrational properties, and electronic structures of (HF)2 in a free state and inside argon atom shells Arn. For the first stage, molecular dynamics calculations for the (HF)2 · Ar62 heterocluster are performed with the help of model potentials HF(SINGLE BOND)HF, Ar(SINGLE BOND)Ar, and Ar(SINGLE BOND)HF. Then, ab initio quantum chemistry analysis is carried out for the smaller systems (HF)2 · Ar15 and (HF)2 · Ar6 when keeping the argon atoms closest to the trapped dimer. We conclude that the hydrogen-bonded complex (HF)2 gains some extra stability inside the argon shells, originating primarily from a decrease of intermolecular distance RFF. Electronic structure calculations are in accord with the changes in dynamical properties, namely, a noticeable increase in the vibrational frequency assigned to the F(SINGLE BOND)F stretching mode (+25 cm-1) and decrease in rms deviations for the corresponding coordinate δFF. In addition to these changes, the argon atoms of the nearest solvent shell donate a small fraction of electron charge which is spent for an increase of population of the antibonding orbital σ*Hf(SINGLE BOND)Ff of the free monomer unit and shift orbital energies primarily of the lone-pair fluorine species. These shifts are greater than the changes due to geometry alterations and the possible inaccuracies of the calculation scheme. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We calculate the resonant and antibound state energies for a Morse potential with a centrifugal barrier using Siegert boundary conditions. Starting with a complex wave number k (purely imaginary for bound and antibound states), we integrate numerically from the origin up to a matching point using Numerov's method. The inward integration is performed using the corresponding (first-order) Riccati equation. The complex eigenvalues are found by matching the two logarithmic derivatives. We find narrow shape resonances within the well, above the dissociation limit, and broad resonances above the centrifugal barrier. Antibound states are found even with J = 0. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An efficient expansion method for the evaluation of VB matrix elements is introduced. The overlaps of VB wave functions of N electrons can be treated as algebrants, i.e., generalized determinants, of N × N matrices. An algebrant can be expanded with subalgebrants of lower orders in a successive way. By choosing Rumer spin bases and appropriately arranging the expansion, it is found that the number of unique subalgebrants involved in the expansion increases in a quite moderate way with N. In contrast to the traditional symmetric group approach, which explicitly utilizes all N! representation matrices, the new strategy incorporates the group theoretical factors in a simple way in the successive expansion. As only the unique subalgebrants are further expanded, the computational effort required by the new strategy scales in a very acceptable manner with the increasing number of electrons. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 62: 245-259, 1997
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Characters of irreducible representations (irreps) of the symmetric group corresponding to the two-row Young diagrams, i.e., describing transformation properties of N-electron eigenfunctions of the total spin operators, have been expressed as explicit functions of the number of electrons N and of the total spin quantum number S. The formulas are useful in various areas of theory of many-electron systems, particularly in designing algorithms for evaluation of spectral density moments. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Numerical experiments with a nonlinear (λχ4) oscillator which has its harmonic frequency changing randomly with time reveal certain interesting features of its dynamics of quantum evolution. When λ = 0, the level populations are seen to oscillate. But, as the nonlinear coupling is switched on (λ > 0), a threshold is reached at λ = λc when the evolution is seen to be characterized by an abrupt transition dominantly to the highest available state of the unperturbed (initial) oscillator. It is shown that this transition probability is maximized at a particular value of λ. The time threshold for this transition decreases with increasing nonlinear coupling strength. The numerically obtained structures of the underlying quantum-phase spaces of the linear and nonlinear random oscillators are examined. Possible use of these results in a problem of chemical origin is explored. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Analytical solutions to the Yukawa-like screened Coulomb nuclear attraction and electron repulsion molecular basic integrals, as well as to the basic integrals required to compute the virial coefficient, over Gaussian basis functions, are derived and cast into a practical closed form, suitable to interface with modern codes for the calculation of molecular electronic structure. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Testosterone (17β-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one) was studied by the semiempirical AM1 and PM3 and ab initio STO-3G*, 3-21G*, and 6-31G* methods. The goals were to compare those methods and to know the electronic structure of the hormone. Full geometry optimization was performed, and two crystal conformers (T1 and T2), and experimental dipole moment in solution were used for comparison. One conformer with a dipole moment similar to the solvated conditions was generated. Total energy, entalphies, dipole moments, charges, electrostatic potentials, and highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were calculated. Root-mean-square (RMS) index of the theoretical molecules against T1 and T2 showed best results with the 3-21G* and 6-31G* methods, while AM1 gave better energies than PM3. Dipole moments were directed toward the OH group and the botton face of the A ring. The frontier orbitals were located along the C4-C5 π bond, particularly the LUMO was split between C4 and C5, predicting the action of enzymes at C5 yielding to 5α and 5β-reduced androgens. Electrostatic potentials might be also of biological importance since they are coincidental with the dipole-moment orientation. Finally, it is interesting that the solvatedlike conformer, its properties, and the OH group laid between the same group of T1 and T2 and with a total energy between the crystals and the gas phase or in vacuo conditions. This results might also explain the biology of testosterone and use them to model the hormone-receptor interaction. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The geometries and S-H, S-S, and S-C bond dissociation energies for hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen disulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were calculated with both ab initio (ROHF and MP2), hybrid (BHandH, BHandHLYP, Becke3LYP and Becke3P86), and nonlocal (BLYP and BP86) density functional theory (DFT) methods. In all studies the 6-31 + G(d) basis set is used. The computed results are compared to the experimentally obtained values, targeting the selection of a suitable ab initio or DFT method for the study of these systems. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The mechanism and kinetics for the decomposition of β-hydroxypropaldehyde, primary and secondary β-hydroxyketones, were studied by using ab initio RHF/6-31G and RHF/6-31G* methods. The activation barriers of these reactions were refined to be 39.57, 40.10, and 36.80 kcal mol-1 at the MP2/ /RHF/6-31G* level, respectively. The calculated results show that each decomposition is a concerted process with hydrogen transferring and bond breaking via a six-membered cyclic transition state. The thermal rate constants of the decomposition of primary and secondary β-hydroxyketones were obtained by calculating microcanonical probability fluxes through each transition state. It is theoretically confirmed that methyl substitution at the hydroxyl carbon of β-hydroxyketones causes a small enhancement in rates. The theoretical investigations of the mechanism and the rate constants are in agreement with the experimental results. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: He I photoelectron (PE) spectra of four carboxylic acids and five esters are measured. Semiempirical and ab initio quantum chemical calculations are used for the interpretation of the spectra. The complex approach which uses empirically established relationships (the dependence of valence electron ionization energies on proton affinities in the gas phase, on the core level ionization energies, and on the structure) was developed. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two alternative dehydration reactions C(OH)4 → (HO)2CO + H2O and C(OH)4 + H2O → (HO)2CO + 2H2O are studied by ab initio Becke3LYP/6-311 + G** and MP2/6-31G** methods. Calculated energy and geometry characteristics of intermediates and transition states predict a catalytic effect of one water molecule and the exothermism of the transformations. Relevant HF/6-311 + G**, HF/6-31G**, HF/6-31G, and HF/3-21G calculations were performed for comparison. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Simple molecular orbital calculations are employed in searching electronic parameters which may characterize the chemical carcinogens. Using frontier orbitals, the carcinogen-DNA bond formation is described as an electron transfer from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of DNA to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the carcinogen. Analysis of the DNA bases units shows that the electron donation occurs preferentially at the guanine site. The calculated low LUMO energy of several carcinogens indicate correctly the electrophilic character of these compounds. The difference between the carcinogen and the ultimate carcinogen is analyzed. Epoxides, free radicals, alkylating agents, and other metabolite forms are studied. A reasonable correlation is found between the LUMO energy and the carcinogenic function. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: relativistic pseudopotentials ; heavy atoms ; method of molecular calculation ; electronic structure ; Gaussian approximation ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The Gaussian expansions of the generalized relativistic effective core potential (GRECP) components are reported for elements Hg through Rn. The accuracy of the analytical GRECPs is estimated by calculations of atomic transition energies with the numerical one-configurational wave functions in comparison with Dirac-Fock calculations. The results of the corresponding calculations with the RECPs of other groups are also given. An “averaged error” in the reproduction of the transition energies without the change of the occupation number of the 5d-shell is an order of magnitude smaller than that for the RECPs of other groups. As is demonstrated for the transitions with the change of the occupation number of the 5d-shell in mercury, the largest absolute error of the GRECP is only 1.5-2 times smaller than that of the energy-adjusted pseudopotential (PP) or the RECP of Ross et al. with the same space of explicitly treated electrons. However, the dispersion of these errors is 19⋅10-4 au for the energy-adjusted PP, 35⋅10-4 au for the RECP of Ross et al. and only 4⋅10-4 au for the GRECP. One-configurational spin-averaged calculations of the molecular properties for HgH and HgH+ are carried out and compared with the corresponding results of Häussermann et al.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1107-1122, 1997
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: MD simulations ; liquid surface ; formamide ; molecular orientation ; molecular surface density ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Molecular dynamics simulations of liquid formamide(HCONH2) were carried out using the GROMOS software. The formamide molecule is represented by all of its atoms with all internal degrees of freedom. In contrast to other simulations dealing with bulk properties, this study focuses on the interface liquid-vacuum for the first time. We show that the molecular plane is tilted out of the surface, exposing the HCO group to the vacuum.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1123-1131, 1997
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The importance of the hybridization displacement charge (HDC) in describing molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps was demonstrated by studying six molecules; pyrazine N-oxide, para-nitropyridine, 5-nitropyrimidine, 3-nitropyridazine, N2, and N2O. It is shown that continuously distributed HDC-corrected Löwdin charges reproduce the MEP features of these molecules, most of which have competing electrophilic sites, in agreement with ab initio results. Further, it is found that for homonuclear diatomic molecules MEP minima can be located properly using HDC-corrected Löwdin (or HDC-corrected Mulliken) continuously distributed charges, but these features cannot be obtained using the conventional Löwdin (or Mulliken) charges. It was shown that the order of molecular electric field (MEF) values near the different electrophilic sites becomes changed when one moves away from the molecules. Thus, pyridine-type nitrogen atoms are the preferred binding sites close to the molecules, while at large distances, effects of oxygen atoms of the NO groups become dominant. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Highly accurate upper bounds for several 2Pe states of the Li isoelectronic series obtained by extensive Hylleraas-Cl calculations are given. The best value for the 22Pe state (1s2p2) of Li is -5.21373920 au. The evaluation of the occurring integrals is given explicitly. Additionally, we present some expectation values and isotope energies of the Li isoelectronic series. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We presented a calculation of the total and partial decay widths of vibrational predissociation (VP) of the HeI2 molecule for low initial vibrational excitations from the lowest van der Waals (vdW) state with total angular momentum J = 0. A time-dependent golden rule wave-packet method was employed in our numerical calculations for the decay widths. The computed total decay widths, lifetimes, and rates of VP are in fairly good agreement with those extrapolated from the experimental data available. Predicted total decay widths as a function of initial vibrational levels exhibit a highly nonlinear behavior. These results demonstrate that a quantum mechanical decay mode for low vibrational excitation remains as well. The total propagation time needed in the time-dependent golden rule wave-packet calculations is much shorter than is the lifetime of the predissociation of HeI2. It is shown that the final-state interaction between the fragments is important for determining the final rotational-state distribution (partial decay width). We find that the major peak position in the final rotational-state distribution shifts to lower rotational energy levels with increase of the initial vibrational quantum number, which is evidently different from that for higher vibrational levels. This fact can be clearly explained by the dependence of the amount of kinetic energy released to the product degrees of freedom on the initial vibrational state. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Restricted geometry optimizations at the ab initio SCF level with the 3-21G basis set were employed to investigate the conformation space of flavone acetic acid (FAA) and its related compounds. All the conformations are produced from a conformation which is, according to our previous work, probably the active conformation in terms of antitumor activity shown by these compounds. Detailed studies on FAA were carried out while only brief discussions are made on the analogs. The main results obtained are that (1) FAA is a very flexible molecule, e.g., with the energy barrier up to about 3 kcal mol-1 from the reference conformation, the important torsional angle τ1 can change from 27.0° to 117.0°, τ2 from -168.0° to 2.0°, and τ3 from -50.0° to 30.0°; (2) the hydrogen-bonding effect plays an important role in determining lower-energy conformations; (3) among all the FAA conformations considered, some are active and some are inactive; (4) it seems that the analogs will have similar behavior to FAA when the torsional angle τ3 is restricted to the values which are around the equilibrium values; and (5) the hypothesis put forward previously has been further developed in this work. Now, we postulate that efficient charge transfers will lower the energy and that proper charge transfers will activate the molecule. There are mainly two different types of charge transfer corresponding to two different types of conformation, which are specified in this article. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Some types of atomic vibrations in a chain of the DNA type constructed of G-C pairs were studied. These are the atomic vibrations of the lateral groups of guanine and N(3)H(1)H(2) of cytosine connected by the hydrogen bond h-b-1 and the vibrations of the centers of masses of bases in the direction parallel to bonds h-b-i, i = 1-3. The vibrations mix partially due to the dependence of the energy of the bond h-b-1 on its length and split into two bands because of the interaction between neighboring base pairs. It was shown that the excitation of the bond h-b-1 results in the splitting off of the two local vibrations and in a small deformation of the chain in the vicinity of the pair with the localized hydrogen bond. The law of the dispersion of band vibrations, values of the split-off frequencies, and degree of poly(dG)-poly(dC) chain deformation were determined. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: very precise eigenvalues ; very accurate grid method ; general solution for Schrödinger equations ; rapidly convergent treatment for helium eigenvalues ; superconvergence ; optimization of grids ; treatment of continuum ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An extension to the theory of Schrödinger equations has been made which enables the derivation of eigenvalues from a consideration of a very small part of geometric space. The concomitant unwanted continuum effects have been removed. The theory enables very convergent or “superconvergent” calculations. In the case of the helium ground state, E=-2.90372437703411987 Eh was obtained from 251 terms. The result is comparable to that from the largest variation calculations so far carried out reinforced by extrapolation techniques. The theory is extensible to atoms and molecules irrespectively of the number of electrons or nuclear centers. In these cases, the advantage of “superconvergent” calculations will be more pronounced than in the case of helium.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1065-1078, 1997
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: large-order perturbation theory ; lie algebra ; three-body problem ; symbolic computations ; helium atom ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The method of o(4, 2) operator replacements is generalized. As a result, the series whose limiting values when the variable goes to  +∞ should correspond to the two-electron atom energies now have rational coefficients. This generalization allows one also to compute the series for the case of singlet S symmetry, a case which could not be considered in the previous original formulation of the method. Series with rational coefficients for the helium singlet and triplet S ground-state energy are calculated up to order 41 and 45, respectively. Moreover, symbolic computations also allow one to give the first few coefficients of these series for arbitrary values of the nuclear charge Z. Finally, a new method for analytic continuation to the limit  +∞ is presented for the energies of the helium singlet and triplet ground states.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1079-1089, 1997
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: metathesis reactions ; bond order ; free valence ; minimum energy path ; nonsynchronization ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A few simple atom-transfer reactions (i.e., Ȧ+X-A→A-X+Ȧ) are studied by quantum mechanical ab initio methods. Emphasis is given to the detailed analysis of density matrices rather than to the energetics. Results reveal that during these reactions a small free valence always develops on the migrating atom at the transition state. The barriers in these reactions arise from the greater extent of bond cleavage in the reactant than that of bond formation in the transition state. Analysis of bond orders estimated from bond lengths using Pauling's relation also leads to the fact that the bond-cleavage process is more advanced than is the bond-formation process in these reactions.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1099-1106, 1997
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  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A review is given of many-body perturbation methods, particularly in the all-order and coupled-cluster forms. Relativistic many-body schemes are analyzed in terms of one- and two-photon potentials, derived by means of QED. A complete second-order (nonradiative) calculation for He-like ions is presented, including repeated Breit interactions as well as the effects of retardation and of negative-energy states, but omitting the Lamb shift. Numerical results of some Lamb-shift calculations are also given. From the analysis, conclusions can be drawn concerning the accuracy of certain relativistic many-body approaches. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The results of ab initio RHF/3-21G, RHF/6-31G*, and MP2/6-31G** / / HF/6-31G* calculations for 10 possible configurations of OM4H6 molecules (MO · 3MH2, M = Be, Mg) are reported. Five isomers of OBe4H6 and three isomers of OMg4H6 have been found within an energy range of ã 15 kcal mol-1. The “lanternlike” C3v structure is the most favorable one for both complexes. Both molecules OM4H6 are stable to decomposition through all of the studied pathways. Chemical bonding in the OMk polyhedra containing two-, three-and four-coordinated oxygen atoms is discussed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The dependence of the rotational energy of small argon clusters on the magnitude and direction of their rotational angular momenta is obtained by two different methods, namely, by analytic descriptions parametric in structural variables (centrifugal displacements) and by classical simulations carried out in rotating frames so that rotational angular momenta are conserved. Potential energies are taken as additive Ar2 pair potentials [R. A. Aziz, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 4518 (1993)], augmented in some cases by three-body Axilrod-Teller interactions, thus complementing our earlier studies of rare-gas clusters modeled by additive Lennard-Jones oscillator (LJO) pair potentials [L. L. Lohr and C. H. Huben, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 6369 (1993)]. Quartic and sextic spectroscopic constants are found to be approximately 10% smaller when the Aziz pair potential is used, reflecting its greater stiffness as compared to the LJO potential. The sign of the sextic tensor coefficient for both tetrahedral Ar4 and octahedral Ar6 is such that for sufficiently high J the C2v (or D2h) structures with J parallel to a pseudo-C2 (or true C2) axis (saddle points on the rotational energy surface at low J) become local energy maxima, the D2d (or D4h) structures with J parallel to an S4 (or C4) axis representing the energy minima. The trigonal bipyramidal cluster Ar5 resembles both Ar3 and Ar4 in its rotational characteristics but with reduced manifestations of nonrigidity. As found with an LJO pair potential [D. H. Li and J. Jellinek, Z. Phys. D 12, 177 (1989)], the icosahedral Ar13 cluster displays a very slight preference for D3d structures with J parallel to a C3 axis, while the D5d structures with J parallel to a C5 axis are energy maxima and the D2h structures with J parallel to a C2 axis are saddle points on the rotational energy surface. The scalar quartic spectroscopic coefficient for Ar13 is found to be 2.15 × 10-14 times that for the reference diatomic Ar2. A variety of structural instabilities are described for Ar13 clusters with very high rotational energies. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reaction mechanism of the α, α and α, β elimination of hydrogen fluorides from alkyl fluorides has been studied theoretically. For fluoroethane as a reactant, the transition state (TS) optimized at the level of the 6-31G** basis set shows that the α, β elimination proceeds via a four membered-ring TS with a barrier height 64.6 kcal/mol, while the α, α elimination, via a three-membered ring TS with a 83.7 kcal/mol barrier. Four substituents, CH3, CN, F, and NH2, were used to investigate the substituent effect of elimination by using the 3-21G basis set. The calculated barriers show that NH2-substituted alkyl fluorides favor both the α, α and α, β elimination and these two reactions would be expected to proceed simultaneously. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 32
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three stable tautomeric forms, dienol (DE), ketoenol (KE), and diketo (DK), of 2,2′-bipyridyl-3,3′-diol BP(OH)2 were found in this study, using the semiempirical AM1 and MNDO-PM3 and ab initio (4-31G basis set) methods. All calculations were carried out without any symmetry restrictions. There is a good agreement between the ab initio calculated and experimentally obtained structural parameters for the DE tautomer. Transition structures, corresponding to the DK → KE and KE → DE processes have also been found. On the basis of the results from the present work, an asynchronous (two-step) DK → KE → DE mechanism of the IPT reaction in BP(OH)2 is proposed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ab initio calculations were performed on the N-methylpyridones lithiated on the aromatic ring using a 6-31G* basis set. Whenever the lithium atom is on a carbon adjacent to the carbonylic group, a bridged structure is obtained where lithium is coordinated to both carbon and oxygen; these structures are the most stable isomers. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The system of [Pt(CO)(AuPPh3)8]2+ represents an example of the spheroidal 18-electron cluster which consists of 283 atoms, 817 real-valence orbitals, and, eventually, 1634 complex spin-orbitals. The above system was investigated by an MO-LCAO-SCF study at the all-valence (nonempirical) quasi-relativistic and relativistic CNDO/1 levels. Owing to the complexity of the system under study, instead of an orbital interaction diagram, the density-of-state functions were generated. Their projections, obtained through net orbital populations, bear information about the positioning of MOS and eventual interaction of the AOS composing individual MOS. The platinum 5d orbitals exhibit a mixing with those of gold and contribute to only a few HOMOS; the rest of gold 5d orbitals, however, are situated at lower energies. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A computer modeling of events that occurred under the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip was considered from a chemical standpoint. The DYQUAMOD, semiempirical dynamical-quantum chemical program system, which well manifested itself in a quantitative studying of nano-sized objects, was transformed into the DYQUAFIELD program system involving an external electrostatic field. The fields of changeable configurations were simulated by a set of up to 200 point charges. Atomic system modeling was focused on obtaining local electron density (LED) as well as on the object chemical transformations caused by the field. This article presents the results of simulating LED of differently originated graphite films, of a field action on a set of stable molecules, and of an irreversible in-field reconstruction of the diamondlike film surface, which demonstrates a possible nano-sized memory element creation. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Post-Hartree-Fock calculations were carried out to predict the stabilities and properties of four HClCO … HCl, HClCO … HF, HFCO … HCl, and HFCO … HF molecular complexes. Full geometry optimizations and vibrational frequency calculations were performed for all systems using standard 6-311G(d, p) and 6-311G(2d,2p) basis sets at the MP2 level of theory. Single-point calculations of the interaction energies were carried out for all complexes at the MP4(SDTQ) level with the 6-311G(d, p) basis set. All systems were found to be stable and their predicted molecular parameters match well available (very scarce) experimental data. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The energetically possible ways of water condensation at the molecular level were considered. The quantum chemical calculations of the relative stability of elementary modules of the fractal structure without external fields using AM1, CNDO/2, and MNDO methods were done. It was shown that CNDO/2 gives the most adequate results for simple water clusters. Condensation energy per molecule was chosen as a criterion of the cluster stability. It was shown that the twisted modules are the stable structures with respect to the water dissociation. In comparing the energies of the icelike and twisted structures, we conclude that the latter may exist under certain conditions. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: It has already been shown that the use of the localized many-body perturbation theory (LMBPT) makes its possible to calculate the interaction energy at the correlated level in a straightfoward way. In this article, we show that the correlated part of the interaction energy, furthermore, can simply be decomposed into dispersion and charge-transfer contributions using the LMBPT scheme. The CH2O + NH3 model system was chosen for the above study. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 39
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We describe by approximate MO calculation a number of species for which high spin states are either the ground state or lie very low in energy. These are models for the spin coupling in projected ferromagnetic organic materials. The theory guiding their construction is based on planar conjugated systems, while experimentally realized systems are often far from planarity. We can by appeal to steric decoupling explain the failure of the prediction that methoxy subsitution on metaphenylene-coupled nitroxides should stabilize the triplet. However, we find in general that the qualitative rules derived from discussion of planar systems are robust; drastic departures from planarity are required before they lose their value. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A general ab initio package using Slater-type atomic orbitals is presented. This package, called STOP, uses the one-center two-range expansion method to evaluate the multicenter electronic integrals. Thoroughly optimized numerical techniques, in particular, convergence accelerators and suitable Gauss quadratures, are used in the algorithms which provide accurate numerical values for all these integrals. STOP thus provides wavefunctions for general molecular structures at the self-consistent field level for the first time over a Slater-type orbital basis. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ab initio dynamic polarizabilities per unit cell of infinite stereoregular molecular hydrogen chains are calculated at the coupled Hartree-Fock level of approximation by using the random-phase approximation and the STO-3G and double-zeta atomic basis sets. Comparison with molecular calculations on increasingly large oligomeric chains emphasizes the nice extrapolation property of the polymeric technique that provides asymptotic values very close to the largest oligomeric values. The poles of the polarization propagator associated with the electric dipole polarizability correspond to the singlet excitation energies. Comparisons are performed with other techniques that provide the band gap. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The results of detailed theoretical investigations of the properties of atomic and diatomic H in GaAs were analyzed with the effort to give a unified picture of the H behavior in this semiconductor. All calculations were performed in the pseudopotential density-functional framework using a supercell approach. We studied both shallow impurities (Si and C) and deep point defects (As antisite and Ga vacancy). Generally, a simple scheme may be applied in order to describe the H interaction with shallow impurities, where a key role is played by the amphoteric character of H. More complex mechanisms are involved in the deep impurity case that are related to new, interesting effects of H incorporation in GaAs. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The electrostatic potential and the intensity of the electric field above the isolated layer of the phyllosilicate mineral talc (layer group symmetry C2/m) were computed using the semiempirical INDO/2 method. The electrostatic potential Vc and the intensity of electric field (OVERBAR)Ec, above the surface of semi-infinite crystal were obtained as the sum of the contributions of the infinite number of individual layers. The interaction energy Uint between a noble gas atom and the talc crystal was computed as (a) a pure Lennard-Jones energy ULJ and (b) the sum of ULJ and interaction energy with induced dipole moment: Uind = α|(OVERBAR)E|2, where α is the dipole polarizability of the noble gas atom. The one-particle configurational integral was calculated within the classical mechanics limit. Both the free and adsorbed gas phases were assumed to be ideal. The obtained results demonstrate that in the case of uncharged and nonpolar adsorbate and an uncharged surface the electrostatic part of the interaction energy should be included in the total interaction energy. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ab initio crystal orbital calculations on three-dimensional crystals of tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ), diprotonated deoxycytidine-5′-monophosphate monohydrate (5′-dCMP*2H*1Water), disodium deoxyguanosine-5′-monophosphate tetrahydrate (5′-dGMP*2Na*4Water), disodium uridine-3′-monophosphate tetrahydrate (3′-UMP*2Na*4Water), monosodium monoprotonated deoxyadenosine-5′-monophosphate hexahydrate (5′-dAMP*1H*1Na*6Water), disodium deoxycytidine-5′-monophosphate heptahydrate (5′-dCMP*2Na*7Water), cis-polyacetylene (cis-PA), and polythiophene (PTP) were carried out using the CRYSTAL92 routine package. A suitable basis set has been found that enables one to carry out the above calculations at the STO-3G level of accuracy using SILICON GRAPHICS workstations. However, to obtain reasonable results for three-dimensional crystals of polymers, one has to use much more extended basis sets. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We investigated the adsorption and heterolytic dissociation of H2O and H2 molecules on a (ZnO)22 cluster corresponding to ZnO (0001), (000(OVERBAR)1), and (10(OVERBAR)10) surfaces using MNDO, AM1 and PM3 semiempirical procedures. The geometry of the adsorbed molecule has been optimized in order to analyze binding energies, charge transfer, and preferential sites of interaction. The adsorbed species interact most strongly when it is bonded to the twofold coordinated zinc atom of the cluster surface. The interaction of the H2O molecule with the surface of ZnO has a charge transfer from H2O to the surface ranging between 0.17 and 0.27 au. The neighboring atoms of the surface are the main receptors during the process of charge transfer. Our results indicate that there is a weak bonding of the hydrogen atom from OH with the oxygen surface atom that could produce the O(SINGLE BOND)H·O band. The interaction of the H2 molecule with the surface is generally weak and only the PM3 method yields a strong binding energy for this interaction. There is a charge transfer from the H2 molecule to the surface. The chemisorption of H on oxygen atom of the surface transfer charge from the surface to the H. We also calculated the vibrational analyses for these interactions on ZnO surface and compared our results with available experimental data. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ab initio RHF/STO-3G, 3-21G, and 6-31G band structure calculations were carried out on an extended regular chain of beryllium atoms ((SINGLEBOND)Be2(SINGLEBOND))∞ to study its stability in comparison with corresponding data on finite chains and previously reported results on small elemental beryllium clusters. It is found that, starting from a linear distribution of atoms along the chain, the system evolves toward a regular zigzag planar structure. The total RHF energy per constituent atom is higher for the chains than for the clusters and is thereby suggestive of that isolated chains are unlikely to exist except in constraining channels of host structures. In the limit of the infinite chain, there are signs indicating that the RHF model is no longer an adequate description. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: On the basis of a nonempirical pair potential, the temperature dependencies of the long-range-order parameter of NiTi and AuPd are calculated. The suggested effective potential approach allows one to describe the changes in phase relations. The evaluation of the internal mixing energy of alloys is carried out in the framework of the static concentration waves theory of Khachaturyan. The model outlines the technique to calculate the values of the energy parameters of the ordering process from first principles. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A series of the d6 iron(II) complexes with bulky organic ligands (like [Fe(bipy)2(NCS)2]) can exist in two spin forms: in the low-spin (S = 0) form at low temperature and in the high-spin (S = 2) form at high temperature. In the crystal phase, the transition between these two forms may be either smooth or abrupt. Recently, the abrupt spin transitions were identified with the first-order transitions between different ordered phases occurring in the binary mixtures of the two spin forms of the complex. Here, we apply the method widely used in the field of binary metal alloys to the analysis of the spin transitions. The molecules undergoing the spin transition are modeled by octahedra of variable size which interact when they are immediate neighbors in the crystal lattice. We show that some simple assumptions concerning the intermolecular interaction and crystal geometry relaxation allows one to get the desired first-order phase transitions together with a satisfactory description for the crystal compressibility as a function of temperature. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 50
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The assumption of the concentration dependence of the energy of formation of vacancy-type defects (VTD) in solids is applied to the procedure of the estimation of the defect interaction parameters. The VTD effective interaction is described by the mixing potential. The sign of this potential characterizes the stability of the VTD-atom “alloy.” Employing the example of Nb, we illustrate the ability of the suggested approach to describe the stability of the VTD-atom “alloy.” © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 51
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In the present article, polymethine and annulene electronic spectra are described in a unique way by means of the Pariser-Parr-Pople method. The analytical expressions were derived for the first π-electron transitions energies. The character of the annulene spectra, like the character of the open-chain spectra, was shown to be dependent on the ratio between electron and site numbers. The Dahne's triad theory and the existence of finite energy gap in polymethines are discussed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Extensive self-consistent real-space recursion-method calculations were performed for the Pt overlayer or the Pt7 cluster on the Ni(111) surface and for hydrogen chemisorption on these systems. Correlations between the surface-atom local density of electronic-state properties before chemisorption, surface reactivity, and the initial-state contribution to the metal core-level shifts, respectively, is documented and discussed. The experimentally observed catalytic properties of Pt—Ni alloy surfaces are also briefly considered. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We extend our own previous applications of the microscopic coupled-cluster method (CCM) to quantum antiferromagnets. In particular, we carry out a systematic calculation involving high-order multispin correlations for the spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg models on the one-dimensional chain and the two-dimensional square lattice. Their ground-state properties are obtained as functions of the anisotropy parameter. Our CCM analysis not only produces accurate results for such physical quantities as the ground-state energy which are comparable to the best results from other techniques, but it also enables us to study the quantum phase transitions of the spin models in a systematic and unbiased manner. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The potential energy surfaces of β-hydroxypropionic acid and 3-aminopropionamide have been investigated by means of RHF/4-31G calculations. Structures, reaction paths for internal rotations, and the respective energy barriers are reported. The influence of the various intramolecular interactions on structural and energetical properties is shown and compared to the results previously obtained for β-alanine. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The conformational behavior and the stability of thiazolium and thiamin diphosphate (ThDP) adducts formed by the C2 addition of the substrates pyruvate and glyoxylate to the corresponding thiamin systems are investigated within the force-field version PIMM90 as well as the semiempirical AM1 and PM3 methods. Moreover, the reaction coordinate of the decarboxylation process of the adducts with respect to the C2α(SINGLEBOND)COO- bond are calculated by PM3 and AM1. The calculations on the key intermediates of the Breslow mechanism are performed in order to study the steric aspects of both substrate adducts that show a different pathway in the catalytic cycle. The alternative structural findings for the decarboxylation products are compared with first 6-31C* studies on the corresponding thiazolium model systems. Especially, the PM3 calculations show that the elimination of CO2 is favored if the arrangement of the carboxylate group is nearly perpendicular to the plane of the thiazolium ring. These results support the least-motion maximum-overlap mechanism in the enzymatic decarboxylation reaction, proposed by Kluger. The most stable conformers of the ThDP adducts and its decarboxylation products are characterized by V-like structures and the formation of a significant intramolecular hydrogen bonding under participation of the 4′-aminopyrimidine ring. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ab initio SCF calculations with the 6-31G basis set for the thymine dimer (cys-syn form) and the thymine dimer radical cation are reported. The fusion of the thymine bases at the C5 and C6 positions involves the formation of a cyclobutane ring with puckering. The puckering causes a notable difference in the electronic structures of the two bases of the thymine dimer. The density of the HOMO orbital of the thymine dimer is localized on the O2, N1, and C6 atoms of both thymine rings, with the higher density on one of the rings. The HOMO orbital has a bonding character on the C6(SINGLEBOND)C6 bond. In the thymine dimer radical cation, the unpaired electron is localized mainly on the lengthened C6(SINGLEBOND)C6 bond with the higher density on one of the C6 atoms and to a lesser extent on the N1 atoms of both rings. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 57
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 58
    Electronic Resource
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: For theoretical reasons, and on account of the development of a new interpolation technique, it is useful and important to examine the asymptotic behavior of the solution to the one-dimensional Hubbard model. In this article, it is shown how perturbative expansions for the energy can be developed in the asymptotic region of the relevant coupling for all the relevant excited states of cyclic polyene rings. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Tab.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: One is often led, in quantum mechanics, to a perturbative solution of an eigenvalue problem, which is defined by a given Hamiltonian. The perturbative series for the energy which results will be a function of a coupling constant which appears in the Hamiltonian. In this article, the perturbative series for the energy of a state of a cyclic polyene ring which are valid for the small and large coupling limit of the model are used to construct algebraic functions. These algebraic functions are defined in terms of polynomials which are given as a function of the energy variable and coupling parameter and can be solved to give the energy as a function of coupling. It is found that relatively small polynomials give very good agreement with the exact values and that the accuracy of the results increases rapidly as the degree of the polynomial increases. The final goal of this and subsequent articles is to study energy levels in PPP models of planar conjugated hydrocarbons. In this article, we test an interpolant technique on the case of the one-dimensional Hubbard model, where an exact solution can be obtained by solving a system of nonlinear equations. In the case of the Hubbard model, the correlation effects are overestimated. Therefore, if the technique works for the Hubbard model, it is reasonable to assume that the technique would work even better for the PPP model. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 12 Tab.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The simple BSSE-free SCF method (CHA/F) introduced in the previous parts of this series is extended to the case of three subsystems, which may be either three weakly interacting molecules or a bimolecular system described by using bond functions. The CHA/F formalism is formulated in a more transparent manner, indicating also a straightforward way for generalization to the case of an arbitrary number of subsystems. The illustrative calculations show the viability of using the CHA/F scheme for three-component systems. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The Ising, small-bipolaron (ISB) theory is a strong-coupling theory of cuprate superconductivity which is based on the negative-U, Hubbard Hamiltonian. Its ground state is composed of (small) bipolarons and (small-bipolaron) holes with a vibronically induced, bipolaron-hole exchange interaction, JBH, between them. The energy gap, Δ(0), is taken to be equal to the dissociation energy of a small bipolaron and which, since it is defined spectroscopically, is not an order parameter. The application of the Ising mean-field theory to the highly degenerate ground-state yields a second-order phase change with kTC/2 = JBH and a real order parameter, Ω(T), which is valid over the entire temperature range from zero to TC. Near TC, the Ising free-energy functional takes the same form as does the Landau. In the presence of an electromagnetic field, the Ising functional is a generalization of the Ginzburg-Landau functional which employs a complex order parameter and which is invariant under the electromagnetic gauge transformation. The breaking of the gauge invariance yields the London theory of superconductivity. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 63
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The solvent shift of the π* ← n transition of acetone in water, acetonitrile, and tetrachloromethane was calculated in a combined quantum mechanical - classical mechanical approach, using both dielectric continuum and explicit, polarizable molecular solvent models. The explicit modeling of solvent polarizability allows for a separate analysis of electrostatic, induction, and dispersion contributions to the shifts. The calculations confirm the qualitative theories about the mechanisms behind the blue shift in polar solvents and the red shift in nonpolar solvents, the solvation of the ground state due to electrostatic interactions being preferential in the former, and favorable dispersion interaction with the excited state, in the latter case. Good quantitative agreement for the solvent shift between experiment (+1,700, +400, and -350 cm-1 in water, acetonitrile, and tetrachloromethane, respectively) and the explicit solvent model (+1,821, +922, and -381 cm-1) was reached through a modest Monte Carlo sampling of the solvent degrees of freedom. A consistent treatment of the solvent could only be realized in the molecular solvent model. The dielectric-only model needs reparameterization for each solvent. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 64
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The role of the asymptotic behavior of approximating sequences of electron densities ρn(r) in the calculation of one-electron properties is studied. Rigorous mathematical results in the frame of Hilbert spaces are used to prove the following facts: (i) Both the L2 convergence of wave functions ψn and the E convergence of the corresponding energies En guarantee the correctness of the limiting procedure limn→x ∫Ω s((overline)x(/overline)|ψn|2 d(overline)x(/overline) = ∫Ω s((overline)x(/overline))|ψ|2 d(overline)x(/overline) for the most frequently used operators s(x), Ω being any bounded region of the n-particle configuration space R3N; and (ii) the uniform boundedness of the sequence {ρn} together with both the L2 and E convergencies is sufficient to guarantee the correctness of the limiting procedure limn→x ∫∞0 s(r)ρnr2dr = ∫x0 s(r)ρr2 dr for most one-electron operators s(r) including the power moment operators rk which, for large k, are representative of the class of operators not relatively form-bounded by the Hamiltonian. The mathematical concept of uniform boundedness is used to give a characterization of the capability of {ρn} to reproduce the asymptotic behavior of the true electron density ρ and it is shown by means of numerical examples how a sequence {ρn} that does not reproduce the correct asymptotic behavior is not uniformly bounded and can give divergent expectation values of one-electron operators s(r) not relatively form-bounded by the Hamiltonian. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 65
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In density functional theory (DFT), a many-electron problem for the electron density in atoms may be reduced, according to the Kohn-Sham scheme, to a one-electron problem. In the present work, a variational model is proposed which leads, within some assumptions, to the set of equations describing the change of the electron density ρ and energy ε during the ionization process. It is shown that the one-electron density contributions are not necessarily spherically symmetric, but assume the symmetry which depends upon the symmetry of the positive field. A few nonspherically symmetric potentials are studied in the present article. The nonlinear differential equation for density r is formulated and solved for Coulombic, Fues-Kratzer, and Hartmann potentials. The solutions and some particular examples are presented. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 66
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The cycloaddition reaction of FCH(double bond)C(double bond)O and NH2CH(double bond)NH leading to 2-azetidinone was studied theoretically at the level of RHF/6-31G and RHF/6-31G*. Two possible mechanisms via a gauche or trans intermediate were compared. The obtained results show that the reaction proceeds in a gauche manner much easier than in a trans one. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 67
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 57 (1996), S. 1115-1119 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We performed electronic ab initio calculations of ion clusters simulating a piece of ionic crystal. Our main interest here is to estimate the (direct) energy band gap from the cluster energy levels. The model consists of a central cation surrounded by four shells of ions, with additional point charges embedding the cluster. We present results for the series of alkali halides with rock-salt structure. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 68
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We report on an isolated cluster approach to determine local electronic structures of TiO2 surfaces before and after formation of intrinsic defects, i.e., oxygen vacancies, at different crystallographic sites. In particular, isolated oxygen vacancies at bridging sites, isolated oxygen vacancies at in-plane sites and aggregated oxygen vacancies at bridging sites have been treated which lead to changes in the coordination of the adjacent Ti atoms. We find that electronic band gap states are only formed in the presence of fourfold coordinated Ti surface atoms. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 69
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 70
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 71
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 57 (1996), S. 1133-1133 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 72
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The performance of effective core potentials adjusted at the Hartree-Fock level but applied in density functional calculations has been tested in a set of calculations using various basis sets and/or core potentials. Test molecules have been the first-row transition-metal carbonyls Cr(CO)6, Fe(CO)5, and Ni(CO)4 and the second-row carbonyls Mo(CO)6, Ru(CO)5, and Pd(CO)4. Only “small-core” potentials have been used, and these are able to reproduce molecular structures and bond energies from all-electron calculations. Relativistic effects have been estimated for the second-row carbonyls by using quasi-relativistic core potentials. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Tab.
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  • 73
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Magnetic and optical properties of transition-metal complexes are governed by the ground state and the low-energy excitation spectrum of the d-shell of the central transition metal ion. These spectra are successfully fit to the crystal field theory. We present here an account of the effective Hamiltonian method recently developed to calculate the ground state and the excitations of the d-shells of transition-metal complexes and report the results of its application to some complexes of particular interest. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Tab.
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