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  • Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling  (8,042)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An efficient expansion method for the evaluation of VB matrix elements is introduced. The overlaps of VB wave functions of N electrons can be treated as algebrants, i.e., generalized determinants, of N × N matrices. An algebrant can be expanded with subalgebrants of lower orders in a successive way. By choosing Rumer spin bases and appropriately arranging the expansion, it is found that the number of unique subalgebrants involved in the expansion increases in a quite moderate way with N. In contrast to the traditional symmetric group approach, which explicitly utilizes all N! representation matrices, the new strategy incorporates the group theoretical factors in a simple way in the successive expansion. As only the unique subalgebrants are further expanded, the computational effort required by the new strategy scales in a very acceptable manner with the increasing number of electrons. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 62: 245-259, 1997
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The mechanism and kinetics for the decomposition of β-hydroxypropaldehyde, primary and secondary β-hydroxyketones, were studied by using ab initio RHF/6-31G and RHF/6-31G* methods. The activation barriers of these reactions were refined to be 39.57, 40.10, and 36.80 kcal mol-1 at the MP2/ /RHF/6-31G* level, respectively. The calculated results show that each decomposition is a concerted process with hydrogen transferring and bond breaking via a six-membered cyclic transition state. The thermal rate constants of the decomposition of primary and secondary β-hydroxyketones were obtained by calculating microcanonical probability fluxes through each transition state. It is theoretically confirmed that methyl substitution at the hydroxyl carbon of β-hydroxyketones causes a small enhancement in rates. The theoretical investigations of the mechanism and the rate constants are in agreement with the experimental results. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two alternative dehydration reactions C(OH)4 → (HO)2CO + H2O and C(OH)4 + H2O → (HO)2CO + 2H2O are studied by ab initio Becke3LYP/6-311 + G** and MP2/6-31G** methods. Calculated energy and geometry characteristics of intermediates and transition states predict a catalytic effect of one water molecule and the exothermism of the transformations. Relevant HF/6-311 + G**, HF/6-31G**, HF/6-31G, and HF/3-21G calculations were performed for comparison. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: MD simulations ; liquid surface ; formamide ; molecular orientation ; molecular surface density ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Molecular dynamics simulations of liquid formamide(HCONH2) were carried out using the GROMOS software. The formamide molecule is represented by all of its atoms with all internal degrees of freedom. In contrast to other simulations dealing with bulk properties, this study focuses on the interface liquid-vacuum for the first time. We show that the molecular plane is tilted out of the surface, exposing the HCO group to the vacuum.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1123-1131, 1997
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: relativistic pseudopotentials ; heavy atoms ; method of molecular calculation ; electronic structure ; Gaussian approximation ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The Gaussian expansions of the generalized relativistic effective core potential (GRECP) components are reported for elements Hg through Rn. The accuracy of the analytical GRECPs is estimated by calculations of atomic transition energies with the numerical one-configurational wave functions in comparison with Dirac-Fock calculations. The results of the corresponding calculations with the RECPs of other groups are also given. An “averaged error” in the reproduction of the transition energies without the change of the occupation number of the 5d-shell is an order of magnitude smaller than that for the RECPs of other groups. As is demonstrated for the transitions with the change of the occupation number of the 5d-shell in mercury, the largest absolute error of the GRECP is only 1.5-2 times smaller than that of the energy-adjusted pseudopotential (PP) or the RECP of Ross et al. with the same space of explicitly treated electrons. However, the dispersion of these errors is 19⋅10-4 au for the energy-adjusted PP, 35⋅10-4 au for the RECP of Ross et al. and only 4⋅10-4 au for the GRECP. One-configurational spin-averaged calculations of the molecular properties for HgH and HgH+ are carried out and compared with the corresponding results of Häussermann et al.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1107-1122, 1997
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Roothaan-Hartree-Fock (RHF) calculations are carried out for the ground states of the atoms from helium to xenon using a minimal basis set of Slater-type functions whose principal quantum numbers are allowed to take variationally optimal noninteger values. The resulting energies are substantially superior to those obtained previously under the usual restriction that principal quantum numbers be positive integers. The energy lowering relative to the single-zeta wave functions of Clementi and co-workers ranges from 0.0066 Eh in He to 11.2 Eh in Xe. Our results are superior to those obtained by Höjer using a minimal basis set of unconventional binomially screened basis functions. Noninteger principal quantum numbers benefit d-orbitals the most; physically realistic negative d-orbital energies are obtained in all cases including those transition-metal atoms for which a conventional single-zeta STF basis leads to positive d-orbital energies. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Restricted geometry optimizations at the ab initio SCF level with the 3-21G basis set were employed to investigate the conformation space of flavone acetic acid (FAA) and its related compounds. All the conformations are produced from a conformation which is, according to our previous work, probably the active conformation in terms of antitumor activity shown by these compounds. Detailed studies on FAA were carried out while only brief discussions are made on the analogs. The main results obtained are that (1) FAA is a very flexible molecule, e.g., with the energy barrier up to about 3 kcal mol-1 from the reference conformation, the important torsional angle τ1 can change from 27.0° to 117.0°, τ2 from -168.0° to 2.0°, and τ3 from -50.0° to 30.0°; (2) the hydrogen-bonding effect plays an important role in determining lower-energy conformations; (3) among all the FAA conformations considered, some are active and some are inactive; (4) it seems that the analogs will have similar behavior to FAA when the torsional angle τ3 is restricted to the values which are around the equilibrium values; and (5) the hypothesis put forward previously has been further developed in this work. Now, we postulate that efficient charge transfers will lower the energy and that proper charge transfers will activate the molecule. There are mainly two different types of charge transfer corresponding to two different types of conformation, which are specified in this article. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An analysis of the anisotropic Heisenberg model is carried out by solving the Bethe ansatz solution of the model numerically as a function of the anisotropy parameter for finite N. A brief introduction to the limit of the infinite chain is presented. The energy for a few special limiting cases of the anisotropy parameter in the Hamiltonian are worked out. Numerical results for finite cycles as well as for the infinite chain are given. Comparison can then be made with the case of finite increasing N. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An ab initio study on the reaction of the ground state (3D) and the excited state (1D) of Sc+ with methane was performed. Reaction channels on the singlet and triplet potential surface (PES) and the reaction mechanism are examined and discussed. Three regions of the potential surface was studied: the molecular complex, the C(SINGLE BOND)H insertion products, and the transition states for the reaction. Comparisons between singlet and triplet PESs show that the excited state (1D) of Sc+ has more reactivity with methane than does the ground state (3D) due to the spin quantum number conservation with the more stable insertion intermediate. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The H2 interaction with the Pd dimer and trimer were studied using multiconfigurational self-consistent field (MC-SCF) calculations with the relativistic effective core potential (RECP); the correlation energy correction was included in the extended multireference configuration interaction (MRCI), variational and perturbative to second order. Here, we considered the Pd2 first six states: 3Σ+u, 1Σ+g, 3Πg, 3Δxy, 1Σ+u, and 3Σ+g. For them, the four geometrical approaches included were the side-on H2 toward Pd2, for the hydrogen molecule in and out the Pd dimer plane; the perpendicular end-on H2 toward Pd2; and the perpendicular end-on Pd2 to H2. The Pd2 ground state is 3Σ+u, which only captures H2 in the C2v end-on approach, softly relaxing the H(SINGLE BOND)H bond. The closed-shell 1Σ+g captures the H2 molecule in all the approaches considered: The side-on approach of this state presents deep wells and relaxes the H(SINGLE BOND)H bond, and the end-on approach captures H2 with a relatively longer H(SINGLE BOND)H distance and also a deep well. The 3Πg state was the only one which did not capture H2. For the triangular Pd3 clusters, H2 was approached in the C2v symmetry in and out of the Pd3 plane. In the triangular case, H2 was absorbed in both spin states, with deep wells and relaxing the H(SINGLE BOND)H distance. The linear Pd3 singlet and triplet states capture outside of the Pd3 and break the H(SINGLE BOND)H bond. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We compare geometry configurations, vibrational properties, and electronic structures of (HF)2 in a free state and inside argon atom shells Arn. For the first stage, molecular dynamics calculations for the (HF)2 · Ar62 heterocluster are performed with the help of model potentials HF(SINGLE BOND)HF, Ar(SINGLE BOND)Ar, and Ar(SINGLE BOND)HF. Then, ab initio quantum chemistry analysis is carried out for the smaller systems (HF)2 · Ar15 and (HF)2 · Ar6 when keeping the argon atoms closest to the trapped dimer. We conclude that the hydrogen-bonded complex (HF)2 gains some extra stability inside the argon shells, originating primarily from a decrease of intermolecular distance RFF. Electronic structure calculations are in accord with the changes in dynamical properties, namely, a noticeable increase in the vibrational frequency assigned to the F(SINGLE BOND)F stretching mode (+25 cm-1) and decrease in rms deviations for the corresponding coordinate δFF. In addition to these changes, the argon atoms of the nearest solvent shell donate a small fraction of electron charge which is spent for an increase of population of the antibonding orbital σ*Hf(SINGLE BOND)Ff of the free monomer unit and shift orbital energies primarily of the lone-pair fluorine species. These shifts are greater than the changes due to geometry alterations and the possible inaccuracies of the calculation scheme. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We presented a calculation of the total and partial decay widths of vibrational predissociation (VP) of the HeI2 molecule for low initial vibrational excitations from the lowest van der Waals (vdW) state with total angular momentum J = 0. A time-dependent golden rule wave-packet method was employed in our numerical calculations for the decay widths. The computed total decay widths, lifetimes, and rates of VP are in fairly good agreement with those extrapolated from the experimental data available. Predicted total decay widths as a function of initial vibrational levels exhibit a highly nonlinear behavior. These results demonstrate that a quantum mechanical decay mode for low vibrational excitation remains as well. The total propagation time needed in the time-dependent golden rule wave-packet calculations is much shorter than is the lifetime of the predissociation of HeI2. It is shown that the final-state interaction between the fragments is important for determining the final rotational-state distribution (partial decay width). We find that the major peak position in the final rotational-state distribution shifts to lower rotational energy levels with increase of the initial vibrational quantum number, which is evidently different from that for higher vibrational levels. This fact can be clearly explained by the dependence of the amount of kinetic energy released to the product degrees of freedom on the initial vibrational state. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Some types of atomic vibrations in a chain of the DNA type constructed of G-C pairs were studied. These are the atomic vibrations of the lateral groups of guanine and N(3)H(1)H(2) of cytosine connected by the hydrogen bond h-b-1 and the vibrations of the centers of masses of bases in the direction parallel to bonds h-b-i, i = 1-3. The vibrations mix partially due to the dependence of the energy of the bond h-b-1 on its length and split into two bands because of the interaction between neighboring base pairs. It was shown that the excitation of the bond h-b-1 results in the splitting off of the two local vibrations and in a small deformation of the chain in the vicinity of the pair with the localized hydrogen bond. The law of the dispersion of band vibrations, values of the split-off frequencies, and degree of poly(dG)-poly(dC) chain deformation were determined. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The MELD program is employed to evaluate the Slater average potential v(r) felt by an electron at the point r within an atom. The characteristic radius R of the atom is then defined by the classical turning point equation v(R) = -I, where I denotes the first ionization potential of the atom. The atomic radii defined in this way have a close correlation with the van der Waals atomic radii. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The importance of the hybridization displacement charge (HDC) in describing molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps was demonstrated by studying six molecules; pyrazine N-oxide, para-nitropyridine, 5-nitropyrimidine, 3-nitropyridazine, N2, and N2O. It is shown that continuously distributed HDC-corrected Löwdin charges reproduce the MEP features of these molecules, most of which have competing electrophilic sites, in agreement with ab initio results. Further, it is found that for homonuclear diatomic molecules MEP minima can be located properly using HDC-corrected Löwdin (or HDC-corrected Mulliken) continuously distributed charges, but these features cannot be obtained using the conventional Löwdin (or Mulliken) charges. It was shown that the order of molecular electric field (MEF) values near the different electrophilic sites becomes changed when one moves away from the molecules. Thus, pyridine-type nitrogen atoms are the preferred binding sites close to the molecules, while at large distances, effects of oxygen atoms of the NO groups become dominant. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Highly accurate upper bounds for several 2Pe states of the Li isoelectronic series obtained by extensive Hylleraas-Cl calculations are given. The best value for the 22Pe state (1s2p2) of Li is -5.21373920 au. The evaluation of the occurring integrals is given explicitly. Additionally, we present some expectation values and isotope energies of the Li isoelectronic series. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Numerical experiments with a nonlinear (λχ4) oscillator which has its harmonic frequency changing randomly with time reveal certain interesting features of its dynamics of quantum evolution. When λ = 0, the level populations are seen to oscillate. But, as the nonlinear coupling is switched on (λ 〉 0), a threshold is reached at λ = λc when the evolution is seen to be characterized by an abrupt transition dominantly to the highest available state of the unperturbed (initial) oscillator. It is shown that this transition probability is maximized at a particular value of λ. The time threshold for this transition decreases with increasing nonlinear coupling strength. The numerically obtained structures of the underlying quantum-phase spaces of the linear and nonlinear random oscillators are examined. Possible use of these results in a problem of chemical origin is explored. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Analytical solutions to the Yukawa-like screened Coulomb nuclear attraction and electron repulsion molecular basic integrals, as well as to the basic integrals required to compute the virial coefficient, over Gaussian basis functions, are derived and cast into a practical closed form, suitable to interface with modern codes for the calculation of molecular electronic structure. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Testosterone (17β-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one) was studied by the semiempirical AM1 and PM3 and ab initio STO-3G*, 3-21G*, and 6-31G* methods. The goals were to compare those methods and to know the electronic structure of the hormone. Full geometry optimization was performed, and two crystal conformers (T1 and T2), and experimental dipole moment in solution were used for comparison. One conformer with a dipole moment similar to the solvated conditions was generated. Total energy, entalphies, dipole moments, charges, electrostatic potentials, and highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were calculated. Root-mean-square (RMS) index of the theoretical molecules against T1 and T2 showed best results with the 3-21G* and 6-31G* methods, while AM1 gave better energies than PM3. Dipole moments were directed toward the OH group and the botton face of the A ring. The frontier orbitals were located along the C4-C5 π bond, particularly the LUMO was split between C4 and C5, predicting the action of enzymes at C5 yielding to 5α and 5β-reduced androgens. Electrostatic potentials might be also of biological importance since they are coincidental with the dipole-moment orientation. Finally, it is interesting that the solvatedlike conformer, its properties, and the OH group laid between the same group of T1 and T2 and with a total energy between the crystals and the gas phase or in vacuo conditions. This results might also explain the biology of testosterone and use them to model the hormone-receptor interaction. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: He I photoelectron (PE) spectra of four carboxylic acids and five esters are measured. Semiempirical and ab initio quantum chemical calculations are used for the interpretation of the spectra. The complex approach which uses empirically established relationships (the dependence of valence electron ionization energies on proton affinities in the gas phase, on the core level ionization energies, and on the structure) was developed. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Simple molecular orbital calculations are employed in searching electronic parameters which may characterize the chemical carcinogens. Using frontier orbitals, the carcinogen-DNA bond formation is described as an electron transfer from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of DNA to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the carcinogen. Analysis of the DNA bases units shows that the electron donation occurs preferentially at the guanine site. The calculated low LUMO energy of several carcinogens indicate correctly the electrophilic character of these compounds. The difference between the carcinogen and the ultimate carcinogen is analyzed. Epoxides, free radicals, alkylating agents, and other metabolite forms are studied. A reasonable correlation is found between the LUMO energy and the carcinogenic function. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We calculate the resonant and antibound state energies for a Morse potential with a centrifugal barrier using Siegert boundary conditions. Starting with a complex wave number k (purely imaginary for bound and antibound states), we integrate numerically from the origin up to a matching point using Numerov's method. The inward integration is performed using the corresponding (first-order) Riccati equation. The complex eigenvalues are found by matching the two logarithmic derivatives. We find narrow shape resonances within the well, above the dissociation limit, and broad resonances above the centrifugal barrier. Antibound states are found even with J = 0. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Characters of irreducible representations (irreps) of the symmetric group corresponding to the two-row Young diagrams, i.e., describing transformation properties of N-electron eigenfunctions of the total spin operators, have been expressed as explicit functions of the number of electrons N and of the total spin quantum number S. The formulas are useful in various areas of theory of many-electron systems, particularly in designing algorithms for evaluation of spectral density moments. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The geometries and S-H, S-S, and S-C bond dissociation energies for hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen disulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were calculated with both ab initio (ROHF and MP2), hybrid (BHandH, BHandHLYP, Becke3LYP and Becke3P86), and nonlocal (BLYP and BP86) density functional theory (DFT) methods. In all studies the 6-31 + G(d) basis set is used. The computed results are compared to the experimentally obtained values, targeting the selection of a suitable ab initio or DFT method for the study of these systems. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 25
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 63 (1997), S. 1065-1078 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: very precise eigenvalues ; very accurate grid method ; general solution for Schrödinger equations ; rapidly convergent treatment for helium eigenvalues ; superconvergence ; optimization of grids ; treatment of continuum ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An extension to the theory of Schrödinger equations has been made which enables the derivation of eigenvalues from a consideration of a very small part of geometric space. The concomitant unwanted continuum effects have been removed. The theory enables very convergent or “superconvergent” calculations. In the case of the helium ground state, E=-2.90372437703411987 Eh was obtained from 251 terms. The result is comparable to that from the largest variation calculations so far carried out reinforced by extrapolation techniques. The theory is extensible to atoms and molecules irrespectively of the number of electrons or nuclear centers. In these cases, the advantage of “superconvergent” calculations will be more pronounced than in the case of helium.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1065-1078, 1997
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  • 26
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    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 63 (1997), S. 1079-1089 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: large-order perturbation theory ; lie algebra ; three-body problem ; symbolic computations ; helium atom ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The method of o(4, 2) operator replacements is generalized. As a result, the series whose limiting values when the variable goes to  +∞ should correspond to the two-electron atom energies now have rational coefficients. This generalization allows one also to compute the series for the case of singlet S symmetry, a case which could not be considered in the previous original formulation of the method. Series with rational coefficients for the helium singlet and triplet S ground-state energy are calculated up to order 41 and 45, respectively. Moreover, symbolic computations also allow one to give the first few coefficients of these series for arbitrary values of the nuclear charge Z. Finally, a new method for analytic continuation to the limit  +∞ is presented for the energies of the helium singlet and triplet ground states.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1079-1089, 1997
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: metathesis reactions ; bond order ; free valence ; minimum energy path ; nonsynchronization ; Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A few simple atom-transfer reactions (i.e., Ȧ+X-A→A-X+Ȧ) are studied by quantum mechanical ab initio methods. Emphasis is given to the detailed analysis of density matrices rather than to the energetics. Results reveal that during these reactions a small free valence always develops on the migrating atom at the transition state. The barriers in these reactions arise from the greater extent of bond cleavage in the reactant than that of bond formation in the transition state. Analysis of bond orders estimated from bond lengths using Pauling's relation also leads to the fact that the bond-cleavage process is more advanced than is the bond-formation process in these reactions.   © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Quant Chem 63: 1099-1106, 1997
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  • 28
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The potential barriers for the internal rotation of silole dimers are studied theoretically using the ab initio molecular orbital method at the RHF/6-31G** level of calculations. In 2,2′-bisilole, it is found that the anti-conformation is the most stable structure in the ground state and that the potential barrier height for rotation over the perpendicular conformation is 3.3 kcal/mol. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 29
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new version of solutions in the form of an exponentially weighted power series is constructed for the two-dimensional circularly symmetric quartic oscillators, which reflects successfully the desired properties of the exact wave function. The regular series part is shown to be the solution of a transformed equation. The transformed equation is applicable to the one-dimensional problem as well. Moreover, the exact closed-form eigenfunctions of the harmonic oscillator can be reproduced as a special case of the present wave function. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Electron orbits having a definite angular momentum in a static magnetic field are calculated with the aid of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rules. The quantization gives that orbits are arranged along a straight line but the distance between the centers of two neighboring orbits decreases with increase of the absolute value of the angular momentum. With the energy correction equal to the zero-point energy of the harmonic oscillator, the distribution of orbits becomes identical to that obtained recently with the aid of a mixed semiclassical and quantum mechanical theory.   © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 31
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The D-dimensional Coulomb system serves as a starting point for generating generalized atomic shells. These shells are ordered according to a generalized Madelung rule in D dimensions. This rule together with an Aufbau Prinzip is applied to produce a D-dimensional periodic table. A model is developed to rationalize the ordering of the shells predicted by the generalized Madelung rule. This model is based on the introduction of a Hamiltonian, invariant under the q-deformed algebra Uq(so(D)), that breaks down the SO(D + 1) dynamical symmetry of the hydrogen atom in D dimensions. The D = 2 case (Flatland) is investigated in some detail. It is shown that the neutral atoms and the (moderately) positive ions correspond to the values q = 0.8 and q = 1, respectively, of the deformation parameter q. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Analytical exact expressions are obtained for matrix elements of the modified Pöschl-Teller oscillator over different operators including powers of the hyperbolic functions sinh(α x), cosh(α x), and tanh(α x) and the differential operators d/dx and d2/dx2. These expressions are derived using explicitly the Pöschl-Teller eigenfunctions. In addition, several recursion relations connecting different Pöschl-Teller matrix elements are obtained using the factorization and hypervirial techniques. It is shown that these relations can be used to make easier the computation of the matrix elements. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The transition electric dipole moments between low-lying valence states of NH+ are calculated by an ab initio effective valence-shell Hamiltonian (Hv) method. The Hv calculated transition moments are found to be in good agreement with those by other accurate ab initio methods. The spontaneous emission probabilities for the A2- → X2Π, B2Δ → X2Π, and C2-+ → X2Π transitions of NH+ are computed. Also, radiative lifetimes for A2∑-, B2Δ, and C2∑+ states are all theoretically determined using the potential energy functions by Hv. Also, the Hv results are well compared with those computed using the Morse potentials and the rkr potentials which are obtained from experimental data. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The non-Bloch LCAO wave functions for cubic crystals are discussed and applied to the calculation of the matrix elements for electron transitions in an external electric field. The sum of transitions between non-Bloch electron states is compared with the matrix element for a conventional nearly free electron transition. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This article presents a treatment scheme of the tunneling of hydrogen between two molecular centers (Cl…Cl). The purpose is to calculate the tunneling probabilities of hydrogen atom transfer from the initial (the proceeding complex) to the final-state energy minima (the succeeding complex) in two anharmonic vibrational states (0 → 0 and 1 → 1) in terms of the time-dependent perturbation theory expression and to see whether spectroscopic signatures of tunneling persist in the form of splittings of the vibrational modes. The analysis uses the realistic potential energy function calculated at the HF/6-31 + G** self-consistent-field basis-set level for the interaction between transferred hydrogen and its molecular skeleton (Cl…H…Cl). This potential energy surface is calibrated by comparing its properties with those from sf-POLCI and the LEPS potential-energy surfaces. The anharmonic vibrational state is characterized by the corrected vibrational energy levels and a set of linear combination coefficients obtained via perturbation theory. The tunneling probabilities for two transitions (0 → 0 and 1 → 1) were calculated and compared with those from Gamow's equation. Applicability of the time-dependent perturbation theory expression and Gamow's equation to the [Cl BOND H…Cl] system is discussed. The vibrational splitting energies are obtained, and a spectroscopic signature caused by tunneling is expected and should be observable. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 36
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 37
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The matrix differential calculus is applied for the first time to a quantum chemical problem via new matrix derivations of integral formulas and gradients for Hamiltonian matrix elements in a basis of correlated Gaussian functions. Requisite mathematical background material on Kronecker products, Hadamard products, the vec and vech operators, linear structures, and matrix differential calculus is presented. New matrix forms for the kinetic and potential energy operators are presented. Integrals for overlap, kinetic energy, and potential energy matrix elements are derived in matrix form using matrix calculus. The gradient of the energy functional with respect to the correlated Gaussian exponent matrices is derived. Burdensome summation notation is entirely replaced with a compact matrix notation that is both theoretically and computationally insightful. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This study demonstrates the use of uneven atomic basis sets for ab initio calculations of NMR shielding in the localized orbital/local origin (LORG) approach with norbornenone as the test case. We distinguish between locally dense sets (extended basis on target atom only) and locally saturated sets (extended bases on target atom and atoms in its first bonding sphere), using 6-311G** and 6-31G sets to describe the high and low level of function sets. It is shown that the use of these uneven sets can simulate high basis set level calculations of shieldings for 1H and for all the 13C nuclei in this molecule and, hence, allows quite accurate ab initio calculations of shielding properties of these nuclei in large molecules using relatively modest computational facilities. The shielding of the double-bonded 17O nucleus is apparently sensitive to basis-set quality beyond the first bonding sphere. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock and unrestricted Hartree-Fock calculations of the electric-field gradient in atoms B, N, O, Al, S, and Cl were performed by relieving the spherical symmetric constraint. The Sternheimer's core polarization effect is then automatically taken into account. The orbitals produced by the axial symmetric self-consistent field are found to have axial symmetry of s-d and p-f mixing types. However, the nonequivalence of the three p orbitals also gives rise to ambiguity. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 41
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 42
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The diagonalization of a class of lattice spin models of a particular structure is first reviewed and secular polynomials for these models are calculated explicitly from the corresponding secular matrices. The structure of the eigenvectors of the given secular matrices is investigated and used to determine the eigenvalues theoretically, and proofs which have not appeared are presented. These results can be compared to the results obtained from the full secular polynomials. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 43
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 44
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Chief features of dimensional scaling methods are exemplified by briefly reviewing prototypical applications and recent developments. The pseudoclassical large-D limit usually can be evaluated exactly regardless of the magnitude, nature, and number of strong, nonseparable dynamical interactions. Often, this limit can be accurately linked to D = 3 by perturbation or interpolation methods. This is because the dimension dependence of many-body effects tends to be smooth and mild when calibrated by appropriate one- or few-body problems. A simple renormalization procedure applied to atoms with up N ∼ 100 electrons yields a major part of the correlation energy. From Hartree-Fock input, a renormalized nuclear charge is determined which renders the dimensionally scaled energy at D → ∞ a good approximation to that for D = 3 with the actual Z. Prospects are discussed for other means to exploit dimensional scaling, including an analogous renormalization procedure for molecules. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ultrafast dissipative dynamics of vibrational degrees of freedom in molecular systems in the condensed phase are studied here. Assuming that the total system is separable into a relevant part and a reservoir, the dynamics of the relevant part can be described by means of a reduced statistical density operator. For a weak or intermediate coupling between the relevant part and the reservoir, it is possible to derive a second-order master equation for this operator. Using a representation of the reduced statistical operator in an appropriate molecular basis set, vibrational dynamics in a variety of potential energy surfaces can be studied. In the numerical calculations, we focus on the dissipative dynamics under the influence of external laser fields. In the first example, vibrational wave-packet dynamics and time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy of molecular systems with nonadiabatically coupled excited-state potential energy surfaces is presented. In the second part, we show how an intense laser field modifies the wave-packet motion onto two radiatively coupled potential energy surfaces. Finally, the controlled preparation of definite vibrational states in a triatomic molecule with infrared laser pulses is considered taking relaxation and dephasing processes into account. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The orthogonal group function approach, as based on the Huzinaga equation, is extensively applied in reduced basis frozen-core calculations. Although the theory is developed for orthogonal electronic groups, the use of reduced basis sets prevents strict orthogonality and the formalism is complemented to take, partially, into account nonorthogonality (projection factors, projection energy). In the present article, an alternative to this approach, based on the nonorthogonal formalism, is proposed. An orbital equation is derived from the Adams-Gilbert equation and the energy is evaluated according to a recent proposal based on the power-series expansion of the overlap energy. A comparative overview of the orthogonal and nonorthogonal formalisms is presented and the results of reduced basis frozen-core calculations as obtained with the two methods are compared. It is found that the nonorthogonal formulation predicts equilibrium geometrical parameters in some cases similarly and, in other cases, slightly better than does the orthogonal one. Based on this observation and on the fact that the nonorthogonal formulation is exempt from empirical parameters (projection factors), it is concluded that the nonorthogonal formalism represents an appealing alternative in reduced basis frozen-core calculations. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The wave function of a system may be expanded in terms of eigenfunctions of the N -1 electron Hamiltonian times one-particle functions known as generalized overlap amplitudes (GOAS). The one-electron operator whose eigenfunctions are the GOAS is presented, without using an energy-dependent term as in the one-particle Green function or propagator approach. It is shown that this operator and the extended Koopmans' theorem (EKT) one-electron operator are of similar form, but perform complementary roles. The GOA operator begins with one-electron densities and total energies of N -1 electron states to generate the two-matrix and total energy of an N-electron state. The EKT operator begins with the two-matrix of an N-electron state to generate one-electron densities and ionization potentials (or approximations thereto) for N -1 electron states. However, whereas the EKT orbitals must be linearly independent, no such restriction applies to the GOAS. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: To provide a potential energy surface (PES) for a three-dimensional vibrational model of the dissociation dynamics of ammonia in the à state, accurate MRD-CI computations were carried out for a wide range of displacements in the out-of-plane and in-plane bending coordinates along the H(bond)NH2 dissociation coordinate. Some characteristic features of the Ã-state PES, such as the height and position of the barrier to dissociation and the dependence of the PES on the out-of-plane angle, differ noticeably from earlier work on this system. The values for the height of the barrier computed from the MRD-CI extrapolation, full CI, and secular equation estimates are 0.38, 0.34, and 0.32 eV, respectively. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 49
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Four-component relativistic and nonrelativistic molecular orbital calculations were performed for the covalent paramagnetic complex [Ir(CN)5]3-, employing the self-consistent discrete variational method, in the framework of density functional theory. Relativistic effects on the electronic structure and chemical bonding are discussed by comparison of relativistic and nonrelativistic one-electron energy levels, populations, and bond orders. The influence of relativistic effects on calculated absorption energies of the electronic spectrum is briefly assessed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An approach for a space-separated calculation of the wave function in the valence and core regions of a molecule is proposed. As the first step, the calculation of the orbitals (or two-component spinors in the relativistic case) in the valence region by the effective core potential (ECP) method is performed. Then, it is followed by a restoration of orbitals (four-component spinors) expanded on spherical harmonics in the core regions of heavy atoms. Theoretical questions of the variational calculation of the molecular orbitals are considered in some core region limited by a sphere. Inclusion from the electronic cloud outside this region is reduced by the necessity of taking into account the orthonormality and boundary conditions together with an effective external field in respect to the selected core region.This method may be used for calculation of matrix elements of operators that are singular near nuclei (P, T-odd interactions, hyperfine structure, etc.). A substantial computational saving can be reached because the method enables, by the most optimal way, to combine the advantages of two well-developed approaches: molecular ECP calculations in the Gaussian basis set and one-center numerical atomic calculations with an external field. It is especially important when the relativistic effects are taken into account. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A recently proposed pair population scheme is investigated for ab initio SCF and spin-coupled wave functions. All the required expressions are rederived, in very compact form, and efficient computational schemes are presented for their evaluation. As representative examples of different types of bonding, pair populations and related quantities are examined for H2, LiH, BeH, CH4, H2O, and B2H6. Various “effective valencies” are also considered. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 52
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Vibrational population factors for the nascent Penning ions HD+ (v′)(… He) and energy of the corresponding Penning electrons are calculated for the ionization event He(23S)(SINGLEBOND)HD(v′ = 0) → [He … HD+(v′)] + e- taking place at a range of the He*(SINGLEBOND)HD separations and orientations accessible by the system during thermal energy collisions. The vibrational population factors are obtained from the local widths of the He(23S)(SINGLEBOND)HD(v′ = 0, N) state with respect to autoionization to HD+(… He) in its v′th vibrational level. The initial overall picture of the autoionization event is consistent with the He(23S)(SINGLEBOND)H2(v′ = 0) one. On the other hand, the vibrational population factors are different from the approximate average populations used in initial model theoretical considerations about the Penning processes in the system. Variation of the calculated considerations about the Penning processes in the system. Variation of the calculated quantities with changes in the He*(SINGLEBOND)HD separations and orientations is found to be smooth enough to guarantee that the present data might form a sound basis for construction of analytical representations of the corresponding 2D surfaces and for future study of the dynamics of the collision system. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A study of the coronene - coronene association using different interaction potentials based on an atom-atom pair potential proposed by Fraga has been performed. The interaction potentials employed differ in the way the electrostatic and/or dispersion contributions are computed. The influence of both contributions on the geometries predicted for the coronene dimer is discussed in order to analyze the effectiveness of the different interaction potentials. The stationary points found in each interaction energy hypersurface are characterized by calculating the Hessian eigenvalues. Results are discussed in the light of those previously reported for the benzene dimer. Stacked-displaced structures are suggested to be the preferred conformations for the coronene - coronene association. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: To elucidate the physical origin of relativistic changes of molecular properties, exact theorems, perturbation theory, and Hartree-Fock-Slater-Pauli calculations are exploited. The relativistic molecular virial theorem offers insight into the relativistic and nonrelativistic, kinetic, and potential energy contributions to the bond energy. In general, there exist two contributions to the relativistic correction of a molecular property: the relativistic change at the nonrelativistic equilibrium geometry and the change of the nonrelativistic property due to the relativistic change of the equilibrium geometry. Sometimes the first and sometimes the second contribution is the dominant one. Accurate numerical results for H+2-like systems are obtained using direct relativistic double perturbation theory. In some cases, near-degenerate perturbation theory is mandatory. Relativistic changes of chemical bond energies are often proportional to the density change in the K-shell when the bond is formed. Relativistic corrections to many properties (and also to the 1s2-correlation energy) are often proportional to Z2α2. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Many of the important properties of transition-metal complexes depend on the low-energy excitation spectrum formed by d-electrons of the central transition-metal atom. The spectra of this type are usually fit to the well-known crystal field theory or to the angular overlap model. The result of the fitting is a set of parameters which are considered as characteristics of the electronic structure of the complex such as strength of the ligand field or types and extent of metal-ligand bonding. We present here a short account of the effective Hamiltonian method recently developed to calculate the splitting of the d-levels by the ligands and the resulting d-d spectra of transition-metal complexes together with some results of its application to the mixed-ligand complexes with the general formula ML4Z2, where M = V, Co, Ni; L = H2O, NH3, Py; and Z = H2O, NCS-,C -l. Particular attention is paid to the V(H2O)4Cl2 and Co(H2O)4Cl2 compounds. The former seems to have tetragonal structure, whereas for the latter, our method predicts a spatially degenerate ground state for the tetragonal arrangement of the ligands. That must lead to the Jahn-Teller distortion, which is actually observed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Using density functional theory with Becke's gradient correction for the exchange part and Vanderbilt's ultrasoft pseudopotentials, we investigated [Be(H2O)n]2+ clusters for n = 1 and 3. A new scheme implemented with the Car-Parrinello method is used, upon which no periodic boundary conditions are imposed so that isolated and possibly charged molecules can also be treated dynamically in a plane-wave basis. Harmonic vibrational frequencies are obtained via a fit of the molecular dynamics trajectory in terms of harmonic oscillators, for which we use a fragmentation scheme to analyze complex spectra. Based on this combination of techniques, we find good agreement with data from SCF calculations and correlated methods. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three isoelectronic reactions, proton transfer (PT), hydrogen abstraction (HA), and electron transfer (ET), of NH+3 with NH,3 H2O, and HF have been studied using ab initio molecular orbital calculations. For the reaction of NH+3 + H2O, the energy of the transition state (TS) is higher than that of the reactants. This is consistent with the experimental observation that the rate constant is less than the average dipole orientation (ADO) rate constant. It seems reasonable that the reaction rate for the reaction NH+3 + H2O would hardly depend on the v2 mode of NH+3 at least for low-lying excited states (Eint≤ 0.714 eV) of the v2 mode, because the v2 mode contributes mainly to the normal mode orthogonal to the reaction coordinate at the TS. This is consistent with experimental observation. A similar prediction can be made for the NH+3 + HF reaction. The electron-transfer processes for the HA reactions have been examined in terms of the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC). The order of reactivity with NH+3 is NH3 〉 H2O 〉 HF. It is found that the degree of the electron transfer and the reactivity are correlated with the absolute hardness (η) of NH3, H2O, and HF. This is in accord with the softness as the chemical reactivity index in the density functional theory. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Three stable tautomeric forms, dienol (DE), ketoenol (KE), and diketo (DK), of 2,2′-bipyridyl-3,3′-diol BP(OH)2 were found in this study, using the semiempirical AM1 and MNDO-PM3 and ab initio (4-31G basis set) methods. All calculations were carried out without any symmetry restrictions. There is a good agreement between the ab initio calculated and experimentally obtained structural parameters for the DE tautomer. Transition structures, corresponding to the DK → KE and KE → DE processes have also been found. On the basis of the results from the present work, an asynchronous (two-step) DK → KE → DE mechanism of the IPT reaction in BP(OH)2 is proposed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 59
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The system of [Pt(CO)(AuPPh3)8]2+ represents an example of the spheroidal 18-electron cluster which consists of 283 atoms, 817 real-valence orbitals, and, eventually, 1634 complex spin-orbitals. The above system was investigated by an MO-LCAO-SCF study at the all-valence (nonempirical) quasi-relativistic and relativistic CNDO/1 levels. Owing to the complexity of the system under study, instead of an orbital interaction diagram, the density-of-state functions were generated. Their projections, obtained through net orbital populations, bear information about the positioning of MOS and eventual interaction of the AOS composing individual MOS. The platinum 5d orbitals exhibit a mixing with those of gold and contribute to only a few HOMOS; the rest of gold 5d orbitals, however, are situated at lower energies. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 60
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The energetically possible ways of water condensation at the molecular level were considered. The quantum chemical calculations of the relative stability of elementary modules of the fractal structure without external fields using AM1, CNDO/2, and MNDO methods were done. It was shown that CNDO/2 gives the most adequate results for simple water clusters. Condensation energy per molecule was chosen as a criterion of the cluster stability. It was shown that the twisted modules are the stable structures with respect to the water dissociation. In comparing the energies of the icelike and twisted structures, we conclude that the latter may exist under certain conditions. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A general ab initio package using Slater-type atomic orbitals is presented. This package, called STOP, uses the one-center two-range expansion method to evaluate the multicenter electronic integrals. Thoroughly optimized numerical techniques, in particular, convergence accelerators and suitable Gauss quadratures, are used in the algorithms which provide accurate numerical values for all these integrals. STOP thus provides wavefunctions for general molecular structures at the self-consistent field level for the first time over a Slater-type orbital basis. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The electrostatic potential and the intensity of the electric field above the isolated layer of the phyllosilicate mineral talc (layer group symmetry C2/m) were computed using the semiempirical INDO/2 method. The electrostatic potential Vc and the intensity of electric field (OVERBAR)Ec, above the surface of semi-infinite crystal were obtained as the sum of the contributions of the infinite number of individual layers. The interaction energy Uint between a noble gas atom and the talc crystal was computed as (a) a pure Lennard-Jones energy ULJ and (b) the sum of ULJ and interaction energy with induced dipole moment: Uind = α|(OVERBAR)E|2, where α is the dipole polarizability of the noble gas atom. The one-particle configurational integral was calculated within the classical mechanics limit. Both the free and adsorbed gas phases were assumed to be ideal. The obtained results demonstrate that in the case of uncharged and nonpolar adsorbate and an uncharged surface the electrostatic part of the interaction energy should be included in the total interaction energy. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 63
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The assumption of the concentration dependence of the energy of formation of vacancy-type defects (VTD) in solids is applied to the procedure of the estimation of the defect interaction parameters. The VTD effective interaction is described by the mixing potential. The sign of this potential characterizes the stability of the VTD-atom “alloy.” Employing the example of Nb, we illustrate the ability of the suggested approach to describe the stability of the VTD-atom “alloy.” © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 64
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In the present article, polymethine and annulene electronic spectra are described in a unique way by means of the Pariser-Parr-Pople method. The analytical expressions were derived for the first π-electron transitions energies. The character of the annulene spectra, like the character of the open-chain spectra, was shown to be dependent on the ratio between electron and site numbers. The Dahne's triad theory and the existence of finite energy gap in polymethines are discussed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 65
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The potential energy surfaces of β-hydroxypropionic acid and 3-aminopropionamide have been investigated by means of RHF/4-31G calculations. Structures, reaction paths for internal rotations, and the respective energy barriers are reported. The influence of the various intramolecular interactions on structural and energetical properties is shown and compared to the results previously obtained for β-alanine. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 66
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ab initio SCF calculations with the 6-31G basis set for the thymine dimer (cys-syn form) and the thymine dimer radical cation are reported. The fusion of the thymine bases at the C5 and C6 positions involves the formation of a cyclobutane ring with puckering. The puckering causes a notable difference in the electronic structures of the two bases of the thymine dimer. The density of the HOMO orbital of the thymine dimer is localized on the O2, N1, and C6 atoms of both thymine rings, with the higher density on one of the rings. The HOMO orbital has a bonding character on the C6(SINGLEBOND)C6 bond. In the thymine dimer radical cation, the unpaired electron is localized mainly on the lengthened C6(SINGLEBOND)C6 bond with the higher density on one of the C6 atoms and to a lesser extent on the N1 atoms of both rings. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 67
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Many biological processes are characterized by an essentially quantum dynamical event, such as electron or proton transfer, in a complex classical environment. To treat such processes properly by computer simulation, allowing nonadiabatic transitions involving excited states, we recently developed a density matrix evolution (DME) method [H. J. C. Berendsen and J. Mavri, J. Phys. Chem, 97, 13464 (1993)] which simulates the dynamics of quantum systems embedded in a classical environment. The formalism of the method is presented and an overview of the applications ranging from collisions of a quantum harmonic oscillator with noble gas atoms to proton tunneling in a double-well hydrogen bond is given. The methodology for treatment of proton-transfer processes with inclusion of excited states is presented. Future application of the method on biologically interesting processes, such as proton transfer in enzymatic reactions, is discussed. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 68
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 57 (1996), S. 1057-1066 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The Ising, small-bipolaron (ISB) theory is a strong-coupling theory of cuprate superconductivity which is based on the negative-U, Hubbard Hamiltonian. Its ground state is composed of (small) bipolarons and (small-bipolaron) holes with a vibronically induced, bipolaron-hole exchange interaction, JBH, between them. The energy gap, Δ(0), is taken to be equal to the dissociation energy of a small bipolaron and which, since it is defined spectroscopically, is not an order parameter. The application of the Ising mean-field theory to the highly degenerate ground-state yields a second-order phase change with kTC/2 = JBH and a real order parameter, Ω(T), which is valid over the entire temperature range from zero to TC. Near TC, the Ising free-energy functional takes the same form as does the Landau. In the presence of an electromagnetic field, the Ising functional is a generalization of the Ginzburg-Landau functional which employs a complex order parameter and which is invariant under the electromagnetic gauge transformation. The breaking of the gauge invariance yields the London theory of superconductivity. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 69
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 57 (1996), S. 1077-1096 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The role of the asymptotic behavior of approximating sequences of electron densities ρn(r) in the calculation of one-electron properties is studied. Rigorous mathematical results in the frame of Hilbert spaces are used to prove the following facts: (i) Both the L2 convergence of wave functions ψn and the E convergence of the corresponding energies En guarantee the correctness of the limiting procedure limn→x ∫Ω s((overline)x(/overline)|ψn|2 d(overline)x(/overline) = ∫Ω s((overline)x(/overline))|ψ|2 d(overline)x(/overline) for the most frequently used operators s(x), Ω being any bounded region of the n-particle configuration space R3N; and (ii) the uniform boundedness of the sequence {ρn} together with both the L2 and E convergencies is sufficient to guarantee the correctness of the limiting procedure limn→x ∫∞0 s(r)ρnr2dr = ∫x0 s(r)ρr2 dr for most one-electron operators s(r) including the power moment operators rk which, for large k, are representative of the class of operators not relatively form-bounded by the Hamiltonian. The mathematical concept of uniform boundedness is used to give a characterization of the capability of {ρn} to reproduce the asymptotic behavior of the true electron density ρ and it is shown by means of numerical examples how a sequence {ρn} that does not reproduce the correct asymptotic behavior is not uniformly bounded and can give divergent expectation values of one-electron operators s(r) not relatively form-bounded by the Hamiltonian. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 70
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    International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 57 (1996), S. 1133-1133 
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 71
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The quantum dynamics of prototypical three-level metastable system under external perturbations, both time-independent and time-dependent, are studied numerically as well as analytically. The regular Rabi oscillations generated in the system under a monochromatic perturbation are shown to develop additional features when the system has a metastable state. The autocorrelation function of ψ(t) reveals nondecaying, almost quasiperiodic, behavior in such systems. The Rabi oscillations turn more complex when a bichromatic perturbation with two incommensurate frequencies is allowed to interact with the three-level system, irrespective of the presence or absence of a metastable state. A rapid decay in the autocorrelation function of the wavefunction [ψ(t)] is observed in such cases. © 1996 Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 72
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Potential energy curves are calculated for O2-, O2, and O2+ at the CCSD, QCISD, CCSD(T), and QCISD(T) levels of theory using aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets with electron correlation built onto inversion symmetry constrained and relaxed UHF wave functions. The spectroscopic constant re, we, we, xe, Dj, and αe, are determined from the potential curves using standard second-order perturbation theory expressions and are compared with experimental values to assess the relative accuracy of the theoretical approaches. Comparison of corresponding symmetry-constrained and symmetry-relaxed calculations indicates that the CCSD method is generally superior to CCSD(T), QCISD, and QCISD(T) in recovering from a symmetry-broken reference function. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 73
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A general scheme for theoretical treatment of organometallic reactivity is proposed. It is based upon the notion that the reactivity of a molecule is strongly affected by its coordination to metal-containing fragments. Based upon this idea we describe the large-scale organometallic reactions as reactions of the ligands in the coordination spheres of transition metal complexes. We propose here a quantum mechanical framework for analysis of effects of coordination on the reactivity and give several examples of qualitative energy profiles for reactions in the ligand spheres of transition metal complexes. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 74
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No Abstracts.
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  • 75
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The theoretical underpinnings of the linear combination of Gaussian-type orbitals (LCGTO) calculations of the density functional (DF) energy of molecules and clusters are described. The generating function