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  • Computed tomography  (60)
  • Springer  (60)
  • 1990-1994  (60)
  • 1985-1989
  • 1970-1974
  • 1992  (60)
  • 1972
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  • Springer  (60)
Years
  • 1990-1994  (60)
  • 1985-1989
  • 1970-1974
Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0932
    Keywords: Disque intervertébral ; Réintervention ; IRM ; Tomodensitométrie ; Saccoradiculographie ; Intervertebral disk ; Reoperation ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Computed tomography ; Myelography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary The differentiation between scar tissue and disk herniation is essential in postdiskectomy problems of the lumbar spine, since reoperation on scar tissue alone is often unfavourable. Epidural scar is a vascularized tissue, and enhancement can be seen after intravenous contrast injection, allowing differentiation from avascular disk material. Ten patients who had previously undergone surgery for lumbar disk herniation and with recurrent symptoms severe enought to warrant repeat surgery were examined by myelography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) before reoperation. MRI was performed with T1- and T2-weighted sequences in sagittal and axial projections before and after intravenous contrast injection. CT scans were obtained before and during intravenous contrast infusion. Reoperation revealed scar tissue, alone or together with disk, in 9 of 10 patients. Enhancement of scar but not of disk material was observed on MRI in 8 cases, but in none on CT. No enhancement of disk was seen with either modality. The correct diagnosis was given by MRI in 9 of 10 patients and by CT in 3 of 10. CT was superior to MRI in only 1 patient, who had a bony stenosis. Myelography could not separate disk from scar in any case. In conclusion, contrast-enhanced MRI was superior to MRI without contrast, CT before and after contrast, as well as myelography in discriminating disk from scar tissue.
    Notes: Résumé Il est essentiel de faire la part entre la fibrose cicatricielle et une hernie discale au cours des récidives symptomatiques survenant après une discectomie lombaire, car la réintervention pour une fibrose cicatricielle isolée aboutit le plus souvent à un résultat défavorable. La fibrose épidurale est un tissu vascularisé qui peut être rehaussé par l'injection intra-veineuse d'un produit de contrast permettant de la distinguer du matériel discal avasculaire. Dix patients ayent été préalablement opérés pour hernie discale et présentant une récidive symptomatique assez sévère pour justifier un éventuel geste chirurgical, ont été explorés avant la réintervention par saccoradiculographie, IRM et tomodensitométrie. L'IRM a été rélisée avec des séquences pondérées en T1 (T1-w) et T2 (T2-w), dans les plans sagittal et transversal, avant et après injection d'un produit de contraste. Les coupes tomodensitométriques ont été réalisées avant et pendant la perfusion intraveineuse du produit de contraste. Chez 9 patients sur 10, la réintervention a mis en évidence le tissue cicatriciel, seul ou accompagné de substance discale. Dans 8 cas l'IRM a permis de mettre en évidence un rehaussement au niveau de la fibrose cicatricielle, sans aucune prise de contraste au niveau du disque; en aucun cas celà n'a été observé au scanner. Quelle que soit la modalité d'exploration, aucun rehaussement n'a été observé au niveau de la substance discale. Le diagnostic correct a été donné par l'IRM dans 9 cas sur 10 et par le scanner dans 3 cas seulement sur 10. La tomodensitométrie ne s'est montrée supérieure à l'IRM que chez un seul patient qui présentait une sténose canalaire osseuse. En aucun cas la saccoradiculographie n'a pu distinguer le disque du tissu cicatriciel. En conclusion, l'IRM avec injection de contraste est effectivement supérieure à l'IRM sans contraste, à la tomodensitométrie avec ou sans injection, ainsi qu'à la saccoradiculographie, pour distinguer la substance discale de la fibrose cicatricielle post-opératoire.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Osteopetrosis ; Congenital intracranial and periventricular calcifications ; Sonography ; Computed tomography ; Brain
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A case of osteopetrosis presenting with rare features of dysmorphism with proptosis due to hypoplasia of the orbits and the temporal bone is described. The case also had calcifications in the periventricular regions, the falx cerebri and the corpora colliculi. These features and sonographic findings of osteopetrosis have not been reported previously. The sensitivity and specificity of imaging modalities in the diagnosis of intracranial calcifications is discussed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Infectious sacroiliitis ; Sacroiliac joint ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Infectious sacroiliitis is an uncommon septic arthritis, the diagnosis of which is difficult to establish. We retrospectively examined 14 cases of septic sacroiliitis, by CT (two of whom also had an MRI examination). The patient population consisted of eight men and six women; 9 were African, 8 had tuberculous sacroiliitis and 6 pyogenic sacroiliitis. All the cases showed a pre-sacroiliac soft tissue swellilng with ring-like enhancement following intravenous contrast in eight cases. A gas image was observed at the centre of the abcess in two cases. Joint narrowing was found in four patients and widening in eight, associated with an image of bone sequestration in seven, CT gave an etiologic orientation in 8 cases, and facilitated the guidance of bone biopsy. MRI showed low signal T1-weighted images and high signal T2 of the subchondral bone, joint space and soft tissue abcess. We conclude that CT is helpful in the evaluation of infectious sacroiliitis, and that further studies are necessary to evaluate the role of MRI in such pathologic processes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Mesentery inflammation ; Colour Doppler ; Computed tomography ; MRI studies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We present a case of sclerosing mesenteritis with fibrofatty thickening of the mesentery. Ultrasonography showed an echodense mesenteric mass and colour-Doppler displayed patent mesenteric vessels with high vascular resistance. On CT, low-density areas suggesting fatty infiltration were seen in the mesentery. MRI showed low-signal areas suggesting a fibrous component of the mesenteric mass and GRASS imaging confirmed normal patency of the mesenteric vessels.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Stomach diseases ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Cryosectioning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The case of a 7-year-old girl with a gastric trichobezoar is presented; this was diagnosed preoperatively using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The findings are correlated to those from other radiological modalities and specimen cryosectioning.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Three dimensional ; Computed tomography ; Individual skull model
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Individual skull model fabrication was introduced into preoperative diagnostics in maxillofacial surgery in the mid-1980s. The aim of the present study was to collect information on the reproducibility of a skull model milled from hardened polyurethane foam. This model was based on the CT data of a real skull. Twenty comparative studies were carried out on both the model and the original skull, the model showing an average inaccuracy of 1.6 mm. The deviations ranged between 0.0 and 3.6 mm; the general trend favouring enlargements. The total deviation of the model as compared to the original skull was 1.8%. A convincing aspect of the model, which cannot be obtained by any other method, is its plasticity and the possibility of 3 D orientation on a lifesize model. This new method is already used in preoperative planning of corrections of post-traumatic defects and craniofacial deformities as well as in tumour surgery.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Computed tomography ; Bile duct stones ; Percutaneous treatment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty out of 65 patients, submitted to percutaneous treatment for intrahepatic stones at our department since 1983, had ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) performed before any treatment. CT visualised stones in 65% of patients while distribution of stones was assessed correctly in 40%. In 5 patients CT provided information useful for treatment: in one case extremely dilated bile ducts hindered cholangiographic evaluation of lithiasis while in the other four cases CT examinations showed stones in dilated bile ducts unrecognised on percutaneous or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. It is concluded that CT is a useful tool in the diagnosis of bile duct lithiasis. It aids in treatment selection and, when the percutaneous approach is chosen, allows the interventional radiologist to select the ducts to be catheterised.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-2965
    Keywords: Bone mineral density ; Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ; Computed tomography ; Radiation dose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A high degree of uncertainty and irritation predominates in the assessment and comparison of radiation dose values resulting from measurements of bone mineral density of the lumbar spine by photon absorptiometry and X-ray computed tomography. The skin dose values which are usually given in the literature are of limited relevance because the size of the irradiated volumes, the relative sensitivity of the affected organs and the radiation energies are not taken into account. The concept of effective dose, sometimes called whole-body equivalent dose, has to be applied. A detailed analysis results in an effective dose value of about 1 µSv for absorptiometry and about 30 µSv for computed tomography when low kV and mAs values are used. Lateral localizer radiographs, which are necessary for slice selection in CT, mean an additional dose of 30 µSv. Lateral X-ray films of the spine which are frequently taken in combination with absorptiometry result in a dose of 700 µSv or more. The concept of effective dose, the basic data and assumptions used in its assessment and a comparison with other dose burdens (for example the natural background radiation, of typically 2400 µSv per year) are discussed in detail.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Craniocerebral asymmetry ; Computed tomography ; Linear measurements
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Computed tomographic (CT) scans of 32 children (mean age 2.8±2.5 years) with a wide range of craniocerebral asymmetry (CCA) were analyzed. Hemiparesis and epilepsy were the main clinical presentations. Two-thirds of the patients had brain infarcts. The degree of cerebral and ventricular asymmetry was evaluated by ratios obtained by linear measurements. The patients were divided into two groups according to the index of maximal asymmetry. The incidence of hemiparesis and the width of the cerebral ventricles did not differ in the two groups. This may be due to the fact that most of our patients suffered from perinatal insult to the brain, allowing time for remodeling and palstic changes to occur. The use of measurable structural parameters in craniocerebral asymmetry offers a basis for comparable radiological assessment.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Computed tomography ; Hemichorea ; Hydatid cyst
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A case of periventricular hydatid cyst presenting with only hemichorea is reported. The unusual clinical course is described.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Teenager ; Computed tomography ; Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma ; Spontaneous resolution ; Sylvian region
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A teenager with a history of sudden onset of headache and vomiting is described. Computed tomography revealed an acute subdural hematoma in the right temporaparietal region, causing marked compression of the right ventricular system and a shift of midline structures to the left. No operation was carried out because the symptoms and neurological signs were slight enough to allow monitoring by means of close clinical and neuroradiological investigations. Within 18 days the hematoma resolved spontaneously and completely. There was no history of trauma or any objective sign of trauma about the face or head, and radiography of the skull showed no fracture. We are not aware of any other report of a spontaneous subdural hematoma which did not require surgery. This feature makes our case unique. In addition, comparable cases in the literature are reviewed and the etiological possibilities of spontaneous subdural hematoma are discussed.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Computed tomography ; Congenital brain tumor ; Ependymoma ; Immunohistochemistry ; Intant brain tumor ; Intracerebral hemorrhage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A case of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage from an occipital ependymoma grade 2 in a 3-month-old boy is reported. The infant died 3 days after surgery. The clinical and pathomorphological characteristics are described. Despite the usually rich vascularization of these tumors, hemorrhages from inracranial ependymomas are relatively uncommon. The different forms and probable cause of bleedings are discussed.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Gallbladder, disease ; Gallbladder, adenomyomatosis ; Subserosal fatty proliferation ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder is frequently seen in ordinary operative specimens. Subserosal fat may proliferate in the presence of adenomyomatosis, but the amount of subserosal fat may be quite variable. Typical and atypical computed tomographic (CT) findings in two cases of adenomyomatosis with subserosal fatty proliferation of the gallbladder are presented. The thick fatty layer surrounding the thickened gallbladder wall with intramural diverticula and stones, typical of CT findings, was seen in one case, and fat interspersed in the periphery of the thickened gallbladder wall without intramural stones, atypical of CT findings, was seen in a second case.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Peptic ulcer disease, perforations ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Computed tomographic (CT) scans of 11 patients with perforations of the stomach or duodenum were reviewed to determine the variety and relative conspicuity of findings. Five patients had de novo presentation due to perforation of peptic ulcers, two had perforations at ulcer repair sites, and the remaining four patients had ulcer perforations following unrelated surgery. CT allowed recognition of at least one component of bowel perforation, such as extragastroinestinal gas and/or contrast, in most patients. In only three patients (27%), however, could these findings be specifically related to a perforation of the stomach or duodenum from the CT scans alone.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Mesentery, infection ; Fibrosis ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report a case of retractile mesenteritis which involved the rectosigmoid colon and extended into the retroperitoneum with ureteral obstruction. These complications are rare. The radiological features [including computed tomography (CT)] are described.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Liver, hydatid cysts ; Hydatid cysts, extracapsular echinococcal cysts ; Hydatid cysts, endogenous daughter cysts ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sixteen percent of hydatid cysts in the liver in 185 patients examined by computed tomography (CT) showed daughter cysts located exterior to the fibrinous membrane of the main hydatid cysts. We call these extracapsular or satellite cysts. Extracapsular cysts have the same appearance as endogenous daughter cysts. Preoperative demonstration of these cysts is useful for planning an appropriate surgical treatment and reduction of the recurrence rate.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Sclerosing cholangitis, lymphadenopathy ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We retrospectively reviewed abdominal computed tomographic (CT) studies from 20 patients with sclerosing cholangitis and found evidence of abdominal lymphadenopathy in 13 patients. Enlargement occurred primarily in areas draining the liver, such as the gastrohepatic ligament or celiac axis (N=8), the porta hepatis (N=7), and the pancreaticoduodenal region (N=2). One patient had reactive adenopathy and retroperitoneal fibrosis. The presence of benign reactive lymphadenopathy in at least one intraabdominal location was confirmed by pathological examination of excised lymph nodes in seven patients. Malignancy was excluded by surgical exploration or clinical follow-up. We conclude that enlarged lymph nodes are a common finding by CT in patients with sclerosing cholangitis. Enlarged reactive lymph nodes in this condition should not be mistaken for evidence of periportal metastasis or cholangiocarcinoma.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Computed tomography ; Mandible ; Bone structure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Cette étude présente la tomographie quantitative assistée par ordinateur comme une méthode non exclusive d'analyse de la structure interne de l'os. Des mandibules choisies au hasard dans la collection ostéologique de l'institut “Drago Perović” d'Anatomie de l'Ecole de Médecine de Zagreb furent examinées en 5 positions par CT. A partir de l'examen de la courbe densitométrique en deux niveaux horizontaux, les relations entre les parties spongieuses et compactes de l'os d'une part, et la quantité totale de substance osseuse d'autre part, dans chaque zone, furent déterminées. La plus petite quantité de substance osseuse fut trouvée dans les zones du col et de l'angle de la mandibule, siège le plus fréquent des fractures de l'os. La partie alvéolaire de l'os, à l'exception de celle de l'angle, était considérablement moins épaisse que la base de la mandibule. L'os compact prédominait dans tous les examens par CT.
    Notes: Summary The study presents quantitative computed tomography (QCT) as a noninvasiv method for analyzing the inner bone structure. Randomly selected mandibles from the osteological collection of the “Drago Perović” Institute of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Zagreb were CT-scanned in five bone areas. Analyzing the densitometry curve in two horizontal levels the relation between the compact and spongy bone and the total amount of bone substance in each area were determined. The smallest bone quantity was found in the area of the neck and angle of the mandible, the areas of most frequent bone fractures. The alveolar part of the bone, apart from the area of the angle, was considerably less thick than the base of the mandible. The compact bone was predominant in all CT-scans.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Infrarenal inferior v. cava. biometry of v. cava ; Transvenous v. cava filters ; CT scan ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Nous avions déterminé lors d'une étude réalisée en 1989 à partir de 100 cavographies la valeur du diamètre moyen de la v. cave inférieure sous rénale (VCISR) qui était de 21,3 mm (extrêmes 10–31 mm) [1]. La valeur des différentes méthodes de mesure de la VCISR, et en particulier la tomodensitométrie, a été discutée. Cette dernière montre en fait que le diamètre transversal de la VCISR n'est pas dans un plan frontal mais forme avec lui un angle variable appelé α. Le diamètre observé sur une cavographie étant en réalité la projection d'un diamètre transversal sur le film, le diamètre réel de la veine est donc plus large. L'étude actuelle a pour but la mesure des diamètres de la VCISR et de l'angle α. Le diamètre moyen transversal est de 24,26 mm (extrêmes 14– 33 mm). Le diamètre moyen antéro-postérieur est de 13,4 (extrêmes 5–22 mm). L'angle α mesure en moyenne 30°45′ (extrêmes 12°–55°). Nous discutons la valeur des différentes méthodes pour mesurer le diamètre de la VCISR et pour conclure que les valeurs les plus proches de la réalité sont obtenues avec la tomodensitométrie.
    Notes: Summary In a previous study based upon the cavography of 100 patients, we determined that the average diameter of the infrarenal inferior v. cava (IIVC) was 21.3 mm (range 10 – 31 mm) at its end [1]. We discuss the value of different methods to measure IIVC, and particularly computed tomography (CT) scans reviewed in our department. It showed that the largest diameter of IIVC was not in a frontal plane and the width observed in a cavography was in fact the projection of a transverse diameter on the film. The real diameter of the IIVC is larger than that showed by cavography. This present study shows the results of measurement of the IIVC obtained from 50 consecutive CT scans. The average transverse diameter is 24.26 mm (range 14 – 33.3). The average anteroposterior diameter is 13.4 mm (range 5 – 22) and the average angle α between the transverse diameter and the frontal plane is 30°45′ (range 12°–55°). We discuss the different methods of measurement of IIVC and we conclude that at present, CT scan is one of the most reliable methods to measure the real diameter of IIVC.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Veins, portal, hepatic, superior mesenteric, renal ; Thrombosis ; Ultrasound ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Nine patients with splanchnic venous thrombosis are presented and the value of noninvasive imaging in their initial diagnosis and subsequent follow-up is emphasized. Angiography, traditionally the definitive investigation in such cases, can be reserved for preoperative assessment in those patients considered candidates for surgery. The age of venous thrombi can be estimated by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which aids selection of therapy, and in those anticoagulated, prediction of prognosis.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1279-8517
    Keywords: Temporal bone ; Anatomy ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Les coupes sériées au scanner d'os temporal isolé ont été faites dans le plan transversal tous les 1,5mm. Le même os a ensuite été coupé tous les 3mm dans des plans parallèles à ceux du scanner. Les deux séries de coupe sont ensuite analysées de façon comparative.
    Notes: Summary Serial Computed Tomography (CT) scans of isolated temporal bones have been obtained in transverse planes at 1.5 mm intervals. Then gross anatomic sections of same temporal bones were taken at 3 mm. intervals in planes parallel to the CT scans. These CT and anatomic sections were evaluated comparatively.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1613-9674
    Keywords: Maxillary sinusitis ; Malignant tumor ; Maxilla ; Bone destruction ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We used CT to examine the bone destruction sites of the entire bone wall of the maxillary sinus in cases of malignant tumors of the maxilla and in maxillary sinusitis cases to investigate the differences between the destructive findings of the bone of both patient groups. The study subjects consisted of 13 patients with malignant tumors of the maxilla and 45 patients with maxillary sinusitis. Destruction of the bone wall was seen in 100% of the patients with malignant tumor of maxilla patients and in 57.8% with the maxillary sinusitis, hence showing a significantly higher incidence in malignant tumors of the maxilla. Neither group of patients exhibited disease-specific characteristics of their bone destruction. The incidence of posterolateral bone destruction in patients with malignant tumor of the maxilla patients was 61.5%, while it was significanty lower at 23.1% in the maxillary sinusitis patients. The number of bone walls affected was 2 or more walls in 84.5% of the malignant tumor patients of the maxilla patients and in 42.3% of the maxillary sinusitis patients.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Keywords: Computed tomography ; precentral gyrus ; pyramidal tract ; neurological findings ; central lesions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a prospective study involving 100 patients with lesions in the precentral gyrus or pyramidal tract we sought to correlate clinical findings and the results of an axial computed tomography (CT) to localize the lesion. In 85% of patients the size and location of the lesion visible on CT correlated well with the type and severity of the neurological symptoms and signs. However, in the remaining 15% of patients the CT findings did not correlate well with the patient's neurological deficit, showing that in these patients the anatomy of the central area was variable or distorted by the space-occupying lesion. We suggest that in such patients neurophysiological techniques be used intra-operatively for reliable localization of the motor strip.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Computed tomography ; Trabecular bone density ; Strontium ; Calcium ; Atomic absorption spectroscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary Changes in the average linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) within a fixed measurement volume in the proximal end of the dog tibia, which contains trabecular bone and associated soft tissues (the trabecular bone “space”), were monitored continuously using gamma-ray computed tomography (γ-CT) prior to, during, and following intravenous infusion of strontium (Sr) lactate. An infusion of 1.3–4.7 g of Sr over a period of 110–160 minutes into 20-kg dogs resulted, within 6–8 hours, in an increase of 0.019–0.045 cm-1 (P〈0.002) in the LAC. Calibration of the γ-CT system showed that 0.44 mg/cm3 of Sr produced a change of 0.01 cm-1 in the LAC. Using this conversion factor, the Sr concentration in the trabecular bone space resulting from infusion, as measured by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, agreed with that predicted by the change observed in the LAC. Sr present in the serum and urine was consistent with the changes observed in the LAC over the study period. Control dogs infused with mineral-free solutions showed no change in LAC. Calcium equivalents required to give the changes observed in the LAC using Sr indicate that variations in skeletal turnover in man can be monitored in the peripheral skeleton using γ-CT.
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  • 25
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    Skeletal radiology 21 (1992), S. 173-176 
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Stress fracture ; Femur ; Children ; Plain radiography ; Scintigraphy ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Stress fractures reported in the medical literature almost exclusively affect young athletes, military recruits and patients with metabolic bone disease. The classification of stress-induced bone injury is somewhat confused and includes “fatigue” stress freactures which occur in previously normal bones and “insufficiency” stress fractures which occur in bones weakened by various causes. Femoral stress fractures in children are extremely rare, and we report 5 cases in young patients who sustained their injuries during the course of normal play activities. It is well-known that these lesions can simulate malignant lesions; however, we believe that careful review of the radiographs in the context of the clinical history can in many cases lead to the correct diagnosis being made and obviate the need for further intervention.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Neoplasms ; Soft tissue ; Magnetic resonance ; Scintigraphy ; Computed tomography ; Osteomas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Osteomas of soft tissue are rare tumors. All previously reported cases occurred in the head, usually in the posterior tongue. We present two patients with soft-tissue osteomas in the thigh. Both masses were densely ossified and consisted of mature trabecular bone on computed tomography and magnetic resonance examination. Increased uptake of boneseeking radiopharmaceutical was found on scintigraphy. Histologically, mature lamellar bone was seen with small amounts of cartilage seen in the periphery. Symptoms of mass effect which resolved following surgery were noted. We believe that this previously unrecognized soft-tissue appendicular neoplasm lies at the end of a spectrum of post-traumatic ossifying lesions which includes soft-tissue chondromas and osteochondromas, as well as myositis ossificans.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Subtalar joint ; Tarsal coalition ; Computed tomography ; Calcaneus, foot
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The diagnosis of symptomatic talocalcaneal coalition requires an imaging study that demonstrates precise anatomic detail. Computed tomography affords the best method for the diagnosis. This essay reviews the computed tomographic anatomy of talocalcaneal coalitions in several projections and stresses the routine use of the angled coronal and direct sagittal projections.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1530-0358
    Keywords: Diverticulitis ; Computed tomography ; Percutaneous drainage ; CT
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Computed tomography (CT) was used in place of contrast enemas as the initial imaging study to evaluate patients with the clinical diagnosis of acute sigmoid diverticulitis. This report attempts to clarify the role of CT in the management of acute sigmoid diverticulitis by reviewing its usefulness in the diagnosis and treatment of 59 patients. CT established that three patients (5 percent) were hospitalized with an incorrect clinical diagnosis. Thirty-seven patients (62.7 percent) were identified as having uncomplicated acute diverticulitis. These patients were all treated successfully with nonsurgical therapies and were discharged in an average of 6.8 days. In the remaining 19 patients (32.2 percent), CT revealed complicated acute diverticulitis by identifying abscess, fistula, peritonitis, or obstruction. Eleven of these 19 patients required urgent surgery or CT-guided percutaneous drainage of an abscess. The four patients whose abscesses were drained percutaneously responded favorably and underwent an elective single-stage resection. The average hospital stay for patients with complicated diverticulitis was 13.6 days. Computed tomography is a useful aid in the initial management of patients with acute diverticulitis. It is a noninvasive test that recognizes and stratifies patients according to the severity of their disease. It has the further advantage of providing information about extracolonic pathology and anatomic variation useful for surgical planning. Additionally, early CT-guided needle drainage allowed downstaging of complicated diverticulitis, avoided emergent surgery, and permitted single-stage elective surgical resection.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1573-6792
    Keywords: Brain ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; HMPAO Single photon emission computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ; Cerebral infarction ; Markers ; Image matching
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Different structural as well as functional imaging techniques are becoming increasingly important in the investigation of patients suffering from an ischemic stroke. Available imaging procedures usually provide complementary data, but the images can not easily be compared due to differences in patient positioning, angulation, and slice thickness. We studied the value of spatial integration of images from different modalities in a patient with an ischemic stroke and used skin markers to integrate the obtained information. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),99mTc HMPAO-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) were performed in a patient, presenting with a right sided hemiparesis caused by an ischemic stroke. Combination of MRI with CT demonstrated that the infarction visible on CT and MRI corresponded in size and volume. Furthermore, structural and functional images could readily be integrated, thus allowing us to obtain accurate information in this stroke patient. Different imaging modalities provide complementary information in the acute phase of cerebral infarction and multimodality matching can be of great value for improvement of our understanding of the pathophysiology and course of ischemic stroke.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome ; Cerebral tuberculosis ; Tuberculous meningitis ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary CT and MRI findings in 35 patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and proven intracranial tuberculosis (TB) are presented. Over 90% of the patients were intravenous drug abusers and in two-thrids TB was the first manifestation of AIDS. CT was normal in one quarter, the most frequent findings being hydrocephalus (51%) and meningeal enhancement (41%), commonly seen together (31.5%). Meningeal enhancement was seen in 48% of the CT studies with intravenous contrast medium and in 3 cases studied with MRI and iv gadolinium DPTA, in 2 of which CT was negative. Parenchymal involvement was found in 37% of cases; MRI was more sensitive than CT for its detection. One quarter of the patients had ischaemic lesions, mainly in the basal ganglia. We confirm the usefulness of CT and the superiority of MRI in the diagnosis of intracranial TB and in differential diagnosis from other conditions likely to be found in these patients.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Brain ; Infection ; Computed tomography ; Parasites ; Inflammation ; Sparganosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cerebral sparganosis is a rare parasitic CNS disease, producing chronic active granulomatous inflammation. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data, CT scans and histopathologic specimens in 34 patients with cerebral sparganosis. The majority of the patients (89%) were rural inhabitants; 75% had a history of ingestion of frogs and/or snakes. The major presenting symptoms were seizure (84%), hemiparesis (59%) and headache (56%) of chronic course. On CT scans, the disease most frequently involved the cerebral hemispheres, particularly frontoparietal lobes, with occasional extension to the external and internal capsules and basal ganglia. The cerebellum was rarely involved. Bilateral involvement was seen in 26%. The main CT findings consisted of white matter hypodensity with adjacent ventricular dilatation (88%), irregular or nodular enhancing lesion (88%), and small punctate calcifications (76%). In combination, the CT triad above appears to be specific for this disease, and was noted in 62% of cases. Of 16 follow-up CT scans, 5 (38%) showed a change in the location of the enhancing nodule. With a single CT scan, it does not appear to be possible to determine whether the worm is alive or dead, information important for deciding whether to intervene surgically. Change in the location of the enhancing nodule and/or worsening of the other CT findings on sequential CT scans would suggest that the worm is alive and that the patient is a candidate for surgery.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Cerebral palsy ; Congenital hemiplegia ; Spastic diplegia ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Computed tomography ; Periventricular leukomalacia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Three children with clinical evidence of cerebral palsy (CP) and normal cerebral computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify CT-undetectable white matter lesions in the watershed zones of arterial territories. The two patients with spastic diplegia showed bilateral lesions either in the subcortical regions or in the occipital periventricular regions. The patient with congenital hemiplegia exhibited unilateral lesions in the periventricular region. We conclude that MRI is more informative than CT for the evaluation of patients with CP.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Computed tomography ; Brain tumor ; Intracranial lymphoma ; Contrast enhancement ; Autopsy ; Histopathology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The authors present seven autopsy cases of non-AIDS primary malignant lymphoma of the central nervous system to correlate the pathology with the findings of the most recent pre-mortem computed tomogram (CT). Of 10 primary contrast-enhancing (CE) lesions treated by chemotherapy alone, radiotherapy alone, radiochemotherapy, or surgery combined with radiochemotherapy, all but one completely disappeared after the initial course of therapy. However, in six of the seven patients, the final pre-mortem CT demonstrated CE lesions. In three cases CE lesions were at the same site as the primary lesion, in one case in a remote location, and in two cases in diffuse and multiple locations. In all but one case these CE lesions corresponded histologically to tumor nodules or to white matter densely infiltrated by tumor cells. The sole exception was diagnosed pathologically as delayed radiation necrosis. The final CT also showed five low-density areas (LDAs) which had evolved from CE lesions after the completion of therapy. These LDAs corresponded to rarefied or necrotic parenchyma in which tumor cells remained, mainly in the perivascular spaces. One case exhibited diffuse tumor infiltration of periventricular structures which appeared to have normal density and no CE on the final pre-mortem CT.
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  • 34
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    Neuroradiology 34 (1992), S. 197-199 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Tuberculous meningitis ; Ischemic stroke ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The locations of cerebral infarctions were studied in 14 patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 173 patients with noninflammatory ischemic stroke (IS). In patients with TBM, 75% of infarctions occurred in the “TB zone” supplied by medial striate and thalamoperforating arteries; only 11% occurred in the “IS zone” supplied by lateral striate, anterior choroidal and thalamogeniculate arteries. In patients with IS 29% of infarctions occurred in the IS zone, 29% in the subcortical white matter, and 24% in (or involving) the cerebral cortex. Only 11% occurred in the TB zone. Bilaterally symmetrical infarctions of the TB zone were common with TMB (71%) but rare with IS (5%).
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Glioma ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary MRI-autopsy correlation in a case of gliomatosis cerebri suggests that poor gray-white matter demarcation on MRI may be sign of neoplastic infiltration. The extent of infiltration is imperfectly assessed by current imaging modalities.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Chiari I malformation ; Brainstem glioma ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Midbrain deformity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The differentiation of Chiari malformation from intrinsic brainstem neoplasm in adults can be difficult. We report three patients presenting with brainstem signs, in whom midbrain abnormality was detected on computed tomography and interpreted as evidence of intrinsic tumour. Subsequent investigation by magnetic resonance imaging revealed evidence of Chiari I malformation in all three cases and a syrinx in two. The association of Chiari I with deformity of the midbrain or pons has not been described previously.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Hydatid disease ; Spine ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Hydatid disease (HD) of the cervical spine is rare. A case investigated by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presented. While CT shows the bone lesion better, MRI is superior in demonstrating compression of neural structures. The complementary use of CT and MRI in such cases is suggested.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Computed tomography ; Stereotaxis ; Biopsy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Sumamry The accuracy stereotactic procedures performed during the pre-computed tomography (CT) era was confirmed by intraoperative X-ray pictures. With the availability of CT it is now possible to confirm the position of the probe-tip on an image of the target. For biopsy of small lesions in critical areas of the brain, permanent placement of radioactive seeds, or thalamotomy, it would be desirable to have confirmation of the site of the probetip prior to performing the main step of the procedure. Intraoperative CT was performed in 216 stereotactic procedures carried out on the scanner table including biopsies, aspiration of cysts, brachytherapy, aspiration of abscesses, thalamotomy, and evacuation of intracerebral hematoma. In 6 cases, inaccuracies were detected, which it was possible to correct so as to place the probe where desired.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Computed tomography ; Paranasal sinuses ; Fungus ; Aspergillosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The CT appearances of 13 cases of pathologically proven aspergillosis involving paranasal sinuses were reviewed. Symptoms included rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, headache, facial pain and foul smell from the nose. At operation, these lesions appeared yellowish, brownish, grey or black in colour, and contained dirty or muddy material. Microscopic examination of the tissue removed showed anAspergillus ball with chronic inflammation but without invasion of the nasal or sinus mucosa in 6 cases, and tissue invasion with necrosis and inflammation in 7. The structures involved, in order of frequency, were: maxillary sinus, nasal cavity, ethmoid sinus, orbit and cavernous sinus. The orbit was involved in 2 cases, therefore categorized as invasive; the other 11 cases were non-invasive as judged by CT. Calcification was seen in the lesions of 9 cases. In most cases the adjacent bony structures showed areas of erosion and sclerosis. Aspergillosis should be suspected in the presence of a mass in the paranasal sinuses or nasal cavity with calcification within it, which may not appear solid or dense and is separate from the walls of the sinus.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Corpus callosum ; Inner cerebral trauma ; Course of linear translation of acceleration ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Computed tomographic analysis of lesions of the corpus callosum in 13 patients with “inner cerebral trauma” showed significant congruence of linear translation of acceleration and the topographic distribution of such lesions. This congruence permits computed tomography to be used to reconstruct the course of linear translation and the site of the main blow, which can be important for forensic use. The findings of even a small lesion in the corpus callosum indicates the need for further investigation of other structures which are usually involved in inner cerebral trauma, such as the hippocampus and brain stem.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Granuloma paranasal sinuses ; Computed tomography ; MRI ; Lethal midline granuloma ; Lymphoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In 13 patients presenting as lethal midline granuloma (LMG), computed tomography proved essential for determining the extent of the disease, guiding biopsy and planning radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was also helpful for the latter, because it could distinguish fluid retained within the paranasal sinuses from solid masses and tumour from granulation tissue; it was of little value for detecting bone lysis. Eight of the 13 patients proved to have T-cell lymphoma, two had Crohn's disease, in one the lesion was factitious and two had granulomas without diagnostic histological features.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Sparganosis ; Magnetic resonance ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A case of rare intraspinal sparganosis treated by surgical excision is described. In this 59-year-old male with paraparesis and voiding problem, an intradural mass was noted on myelogram. Magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomographic appearance of spinal and associated cerebral lesion are illustrated and possible route of migration discussed. This represents, to our knowledge, the first MRI demonstration of intraspinal sparganosis reported in the literature.
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  • 43
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    Neuroradiology 34 (1992), S. 200-204 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Computed tomography ; Cerebral haemorrhage ; Cerebrovascular disease ; Putaminal haemorrhage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Serial CT studies were performed on 61 patients with putaminal haemorrhage, to determine outcome. The average duration of the follow-up was 2 years and 5 months. Several types of late CT change were identified, including disappearance of the haematoma without a trace of haemorrhage, a residual cavity, deformity of the lateral ventricle, atrophy of the head of the caudate, white matter degeneration and linear pseudocalcification around the cavity. Small haematomas, comma-shaped and less than 2 cm wide might disappear without leaving any trace. A slit or small rounded residual cavity was a frequent result of elliptical or irregular haematomas with little mass effect. With prominent ventricular compression, there were distortion and dilatation of the lateral ventricle and atrophy of the head of the caudate nucleus, which might be accompanied by white matter degeneration and pseudocalcification around the cavity. Five cases (8%) were left with no trace of previous haemorrhage, 32 (52%) with a slit cavity, 10 (16%) with a small round cavity, 8 (13%) with a large cavity, 5 (8%) with no residual cavity but with ventricular deformity, and 1 (3%) with only pseudocalcification at the site of the haemorrhage.
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  • 44
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    Neuroradiology 34 (1992), S. 210-214 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Alexia ; Agraphia ; Disconnection syndrome ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Two new cases of alexia without agraphia are presented. Pertinent clinical findings, anatomy, pathophysiology and differential diagnoses are reviewed. The importance of carefully examining the inferior portion of the left side of the splenium of the corpus callosum on CT and/or MR scans in patients who present with this clinical syndrome is stressed.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Brain dysplasia ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Neurofibromatosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Prospective study of CT and MRI in 41 consecutive children with suspected type 1 neurofibromatosis revealed basal ganglion lesions on T2-weighted spin echo images in 22 cases (54%) and on CT in only 7 of those (32%). T2-weighted spin-echo MRI also revealed multiple signal changes in the supra- and infratentorial white matter and brain stem that went completely unnoticed on CT.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We report the findings on cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their correlation with the clinical manifestations, disease severity and biochemical abnormalities in eight patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. CT revealed cerebral atrophy in seven cases, cerebellar atrophy in four and focal low density lesions in the cerebral white matter in two. T2-weighted MRI showed high signal lesions in the cerebral white matter, focal in four cases and diffuse in one, and in the globus pallidus in three patients, two of whom also had lesions in the cerebellar white matter. While severely affected patients showed variable CT and MRI abnormalities, our cases did not show the dramatic findings expected from the neurological manifestations. Diffuse lesions in the cerebral and cerebellar white matter have been emphasized in previous reports, but in our study the focal lesions in the cerebral white matter were also present; the globus pallidus was frequently involved.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Spinal dermoid ; Subarachnoid fat ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A case of intramedullary spinal dermoid of the lower spinal cord is reported, with free fat droplets in the intracranial subarachnoid space, and MRI-proven leakage of fatty material via the widened central canal of the spinal cord.
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  • 48
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    Neuroradiology 34 (1992), S. 345-346 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Ataxic hemiparesis ; Lacunar infarct ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A most unusual case of ataxic quadriparesis due to bilateral infarcts involving the posterior capsulecorona radiata region is reported. The literature concerning ataxic hemiparesis is briefly discussed.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Biopsy ; Cervical spine ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Twelve patients underwent biopsy of cervical vertebral bodies under CT guidance. An accurate diagnosis was obtained in 11. No complications were observed, except for a transitory recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Technical problems of the cervical spine biopsy are discussed and the utility of bone biopsy with a coaxial trephine system is emphasized.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Haemorrhage ; Traumatic intracerebral haematoma ; Contusion ; Oedema
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Blood-fluid levels within the cerebral parenchyma are observed more frequently on CT and MRI in traumatic intracerebral haematomas than in those of other aetiologies. The intraparenchymal blood-fluid interface can be formed without a fluid cavity. It is suggested that the blood-fluid levels represent layering of red blood cells within areas of contusion necrosis as well as extensive contusion oedema. The more extensive the damage to brain tissue, the more often blood-fluid levels formed. A poorer outcome can be therefore predicted when an intraparenchymal blood-fluid interface is seen.
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  • 51
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    Neuroradiology 35 (1992), S. 55-56 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Internal carotid artery ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Magnetic resonance angiography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A patient with symptomatic bilateral aberrant cervical internal carotid arteries, demonstrated on CT and MRI, is described.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Chronic progressive myeloneuropathy ; Human T-lymphocytic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy ; Tropical spastic paraparesis ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We studied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and cervical spine and CT of the head in 46 patients (14 men, 32 women) with chronic progressive mycloneuropathy. The findings were correlated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) serology, race, country of origin, and age. We found a female predominance of 2∶1. Most patients were aged between 30 and 50 years, and most were Caribbean immigrants and black. There were 9 men and 17 women with blood antibody titers to HTLV-I and 7 men and 15 women with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titers. All patients with virus or antibodies in blood or CSF were Caribbean immigrants or black. T2-weighted cranial MRI showed scattered areas of high signal intensity in the cerebral white matter, usually in the periventricular and subcortical areas, but not in the posterior cranial fossa. Cranial CT revealed periventricular low density areas, ventricular enlargement, and atrophy MRI of the cervical spine showed atrophy of the cord. Myelography was normal in all 15 patients examined. No imaging differences were observed between the HTLV-I-positive and-negative patients. These findings, although consistent with demyelination, are not specific.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Isolated cerebral hydatid cyst ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a 9-year-old girl with an isolated cerebral hydatid cyst, computed tomography displayed the pathognomonic feature of multiple small low-density daughter cysts within the primary mother cyst.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Trigeminal neuromas ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Computed tomography ; Neurofibromatosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We report four cases of trigeminal neuroma. One of the patients had von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis with plexiform neurofibromas of the branches of the trigeminal nerve. MRI provided more information than CT as regards the spread of tumour: extension to the mandibular and maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve was well demonstrated on sagittal and coronal sections. This examination yielded an accurate census of the intraocular plexiform neurofibromas and allowed a correct preoperative diagnosis to be obtained. With Gd-DOTA, better definition of the outline of the tumours and of cystic components was obtained. However, CT was better for demonstration of bone erosions.
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  • 55
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    Neuroradiology 34 (1992), S. 451-452 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Occipital neuralgia ; Pain ; Chemical rhizotomy ; C1 root ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Sensation in the parasagital occipital region is usually provided by fibres from the second cervical root via the greater occipital nerve. In the case presented occipital neuralgia could be relieved only by coagulation of the C1 nerve root with 96% ethyl alcohol. Possible explanations for this observation are discussed and a technique for CT-guided treatment is described.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Subdural haematoma ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary MRI findings are described in two patients with subdural haematomas isodense on CT. In one patient, admitted 6 weeks after trauma, a chronic subdural haematoma showed extreme hypointensity on T2-weighted images, suggesting acute trauma, and therefore acute rebleeding. In the second patient with severe anaemia, an acute subdural haematoma was hyperintense on T2-weighted images, suggesting chronic trauma; this may be explained by the low haematocrit and a possible mixture of blood with cerebrospinal fluid. The MRI features of subdural haematomas and hygromas have to be kept in mind, in order not to misjudge the age of the haematoma.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: AIDS ; Encephalopathy ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To determine the prognostic value of CT and MRI in AIDS we studied the survival of patients with neurological involvement, in relation to the initial imaging results. Twenty-six initial CT and 15 MRI examinations of 41 patients were reviewed for the presence of cerebral atrophy and/or focal lesions. The mean survival time of patients with initially normal imaging was longer (700±89 days) than that of patients with isolated cerebral atrophy (326±65) or isolated focal lesions (202±97). The shortest survival (78±44 days) was found in patients with both cerebral atrophy and focal lesions. The risk of death in patients with focal lesions alone 6.4 times higher, and in patients with both changes 19.3 times higher than in patients with initially normal imaging. Cerebral imaging with CT and/or MRI thus allows identification of AIDS-related cerebral changes and may contribute to assessment of prognosis.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Primary malignant brain lymphoma ; Immunocytochemistry ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this retrospective study a series of 54 patients (seen from 1982 to 1989) with sporadic primary cerebral malignant lymphomas (PCML), which were uniformly classified with the support of immunocytochemical data, is presented. The analysis shows that on CT PCML are shown as cirumscribed, homogeneous, contrast-enhanced multifocal (70%) or solitary (30%) mass lesions within the subcortical white matter; they were found mainly close to the ventricular system or the subarachnoid space. To prove the histological diagnosis and for the purposes of differential diagnosis, low-risk CT-stereotactic biopsy is necessary and is the method of choice. Immunomorphological techniques are valuable adjuncts to confirm the histological diagnosis of PCML. In the series presented these tumours have been predominantly classified as high-grade blastic B-cell lymphomas. For this reason, this type should be regarded as the prevalent variant of malignant brain lymphomas. The evaluation of possible prognostic factors suggests that age at admission and morphological features of regression are relevant determinants of survival time. A correlation between neuroradiological evidence of a decrease in tumour size, morphological signs of regression and glucocorticoid administration has been found. Thus, patients suspected of having PCML require rapid diagnosis prior to corticosteroid administration. PCML have been shown to be radioresponsive, but not curable. Because of the lack of uniformity in management of this rare brain neoplasm, the different treatment protocols are not comparable, and hence the optimum therapy has not been satisfactorily determined. Therefore, a rational diagnostic strategy is proposed as a basis for prospective randomized long-term follow-up studies in order to evaluate different treatment modalities and to obtain more insight into the biological behaviour of primary cerebral malignant lymphomas.
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  • 59
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    Journal of neurology 239 (1992), S. 307-310 
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Adrenoleukodystrophy ; Cerebellar ataxia ; Spinocerebellar degeneration ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A 28-year-old man developed slowly progressive dysarthria and gait disturbance over 7 years. Neurological examination revealed marked ataxia of articulation and gait, mild ataxia and spasticity of all four limbs without intellectual, visual, auditory, sensory or sphincter dysfunction. No physical signs of adrenal hypofunction were found. However, analysis of fatty acid of plasma sphingomyelin showed an increase in very long chain fatty acids, compatible with the diagnosis of adrenoleukodystrophy. Computed tomography disclosed marked atrophy of the cerebellum and pons, and bilateral low-density lesions in the deep while matter of the cerebellum. Magnetic resonance imaging showed these lesions more clearly, as well as other lesions in the middle and superior cerebellar peduncles, despite the absence of cerebral white matter involvement at the time of presentation. This is a rare case of adrenoleukodystrophy presenting as spinocerebellar degeneration and showing marked atrophy and several parenchymatous lesions of the cerebellum and brain stem.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Regional cerebral blood flow ; Neuro-Behcet's syndrome ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Single photon emission tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Conventional imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may show abnormalities in central nervous system Behcet's syndrome but is normal in some cases. Recently in two cases positron emission tomography has shown abnormalities in blood flow and glucose metabolism far more extensive than the abnormalities seen on CT and MRI scans in the same patients. We report a patient with neuro-Behcet's syndrome presenting with headache and personality change in whom CT and MRI brain imaging was normal, but regional cerebral blood flow imaging using single photon emission tomography with the tracer HMPAO showed extensive perfusion deficits which partially reversed after 3 months of prednisolone therapy. This technique may aid the diagnosis of cerebral involvement in Behcet's syndrome, although the cause and incidence of the perfusion deficits need further evaluation.
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