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  • Computed tomography  (1,134)
  • Neurologie
  • Theoretische Physik
  • Messtechnik
  • Strömungsmechanik
  • Springer  (1,168)
  • Oxford University Press  (13)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Child's nervous system 16 (2000), S. 181-183 
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Key words Schwannoma ; Skull ; Child ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Intraosseous neurinoma is very uncommon tumor. Its location in the skull is extremely rare. A 4-year-old boy presented with a lump in the right occipital region. Computed tomography revealed a soft tissue mass with bony erosion in the right occipital bone. The solid, nontender, and immobile mass was totally removed. The pathological examination showed that it was an intraosseous neurinoma. Total resection of intraosseous neurinomas is sufficient treatment and is not followed by recurrence.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Keywords Child ; Complication ; Computed tomography ; Infant ; Subdural fluid collection ; Subduroperitoneal shunt
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Objects: Subduroperitoneal (SP) shunts have been widely used in the management of pediatric subdural fluid collections. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the complications of SP shunting in 73 boys and 24 girls, who ranged in age from 1 to 180 months (median 7 months). Subdural fluid collection was bilateral in 75 and unilateral in 22 patients. The most common complication was shunt obstruction (13 patients). Shunt migration was seen in 8 patients. Migration occurred only with unishunts without a reservoir and with peritoneal catheters. However, the shunts with a reservoir or flushing valve led to skin necrosis in 4 patients (P=0.003). Unilateral drainage though bilateral collections were present, infection, bowel perforation, and ileus occurred in 5, 4, 1 and 1 patients respectively. Conclusions: These SP shunt complications, some of which are avoidable, should be kept in mind.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Keywords Ectopic calcification ; Deep posterior compartment syndrome ; Computed tomography ; Carbonate-containing apatite ; Electron microscopy ; X-ray diffraction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We present a patient whose ectopic calcification following deep posterior compartment syndrome was studied by electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and X-ray diffraction. The patient complained of a toe flexion deformity following a tibial fracture which he sustained 18 years earlier. Damage to the peroneal artery was demonstrated by magnetic resonance angiography, suggesting that the patient had had deep posterior compartment syndro-me in the past. A large radiopaque mass, identified in the flexor hallucis longus muscle by radiographs and computed tomography, was resected, resulting in a dramatic improvement of the toe deformity. The resected material was analyzed in detail. It included no osseous tissue, and was not birefringent under a polarizing microscope, being compatible with ectopic calcification rather than ossification. On electron microscopy the material was found to be an assembly of tiny rods. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses suggested a carbonate-containing apatite as the most probable substance.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-3940
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Paragangliome ; Computertomografie ; Magnetresonanztomografie ; Angiografie ; Key words Paraganglioma ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance tomography ; Angiography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Paragangliomas of the glomus caroticum are relatively rare, but highly vascularized neoplasmas, which develop from chemoreceptors. They can be develop at anyage, but most often in the third or fourth decade of life. Paragangliomas grow very slowly and are most always of benign origin. There is a familial predisposition, and an autosomal-dominant transmission is presumed. They are commonly located in the jugular region; in rare cases a polytopic manifestation is found. We describe the case of a 47-year-old male patient who was referred to our department because of a progressive swelling of the neck on both sides. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography had displayed soft tissue tumors in the jugular regions. We performed an operative exploration, which showed a highly vascularized tumor. Histopathologic analysis revealed the diagnosis of a paraganglioma. An angiography of the neck and thoracic region, furthermore, revealed an additional paraganglioma in the anterior mediastinum. Using a surgical approach via lateral cervicotomies and thoracotomy the paragangliomas were extirpated. Our case report demonstrates the rare polytopic manifestation of paragangliomas. This perivascular neoplasms have to be removed before haemodynamic complications develop. The extent of this tumors is clearly illustrated by use of an angiography. Because of the familial predisposition, clinical and radiological examinations of relatives are mandatory.
    Notes: Einleitung: Paragangliome im Bereich des Glomus caroticum sind relativ seltene, stark vaskularisierte Neubildungen, die sich aus den Chemorezeptoren entwickeln. Sie werden in jedem Lebensalter festgestellt, vorzugsweise jedoch im 3. und 4. Lebensjahrzehnt. Paragangliome wachsen sehr langsam und sind in aller Regel gutartig. Die Erkrankung tritt bei einem Teil der Fälle familiär auf, wobei von einem autosomal-dominanten Vererbungsmuster ausgegangen wird. Meist beschränkt sich die Manifestation dieses Gefäß-assoziierten Tumors auf die Jugularregion, in seltenen Fällen ist auch ein polytopes Auftreten festzustellen. Fallbericht: Bei dem von uns vorgestellten Fall eines 47jährigen männlichen Patienten erfolgte die Zuweisung wegen einer progredienten Schwellung im Halsweichgewebe beidseits. Durch computertomografische Diagnostik waren im Bereich der Halsgefäßscheide deutlich kontrastmittelaufnehmende Raumforderungen aufgefallen. Zur histopathologischen Beurteilung wurden Biopsien durchgeführt, wobei intraoperativ ein stark vaskularisierter Tumor zur Darstellung kam. Histologische und immunhistochemische Untersuchungen führten zur Diagnose eines Paraganglioms. Eine zur Beurteilung der Tumorausdehnung durchgeführte Angiografie brachte eine weitere, im Bereich des Glomus pulmonalis lokalisierte, ebenso stark vaskularisierte Raumforderung zur Darstellung. Nach ergänzender kernspintomografischer Untersuchung der betroffenen Regionen erfolgte durch einen kombinierten hals- und thoraxchirurgischen Eingriff eine Exstirpation der Gefäßmißbildungen. Schlußfolgerungen: Unser Fallbericht weist auf die seltene Form des polytopen Auftretens eines Paraganglioms hin. Eine Exstirpation des Tumors sollte vor dem Auftreten hämodynamisch wirksamer Obstruktionen der umschlossenen Gefäße erfolgen. Darüber hinaus ist wegen der familiär gehäuften Manifestation auch eine Untersuchung der Verwandten indiziert.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-3940
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter ; Röntgendiagnostik ; Panoramaschichtaufnahme ; Strahlenexposition ; Computertomographie ; Kernspintomographie ; Key words ; X-ray diagnostics ; Panoramic X-ray ; Radiation exposure ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary A vital X-ray imaging technique in oral and craniomaxillofacial surgery is the panoramic X-ray. Due to its variety of special projections, including imaging of the transversal level and low exposure to radiation, it is suitable for answering many clinical questions and for diagnostics of various findings. It has become possible to minimize the necessary doses by further development of technology and devices, as well as of X-ray films and by new detection systems, such as sensors or screens. In some clinical cases, the diagnostic deficiencies of conventional imaging techniques make computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging indispensable. Although MR is particularly suitable for soft tissue imaging, it has also become helpful in finding cortical changes by shorter measuring times. In certain cases, e. g., changes to bone metabolism, differentiated methods of nuclear medicine make image-aided analysis of function possible.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Zentrale Aufnahmeart in der Röntgendiagnostik der Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie ist die Panoramaschichtaufnahme. Mit ihren zahlreichen Spezialprojektionen einschließlich der Abbildung der Transversalebene ist sie für die Abklärung zahlreicher Fragestellungen mit geringer Strahlenexposition geeignet. Die Verringerung des Dosisbedarfs ist weiterhin durch Fortentwicklungen der Gerätetechnik, der Röntgenfilme und durch neue Detektionssysteme wie z. B. Sensoren oder Speicherfolien möglich geworden. Diagnostische Unzulänglichkeiten der konventionellen Aufnahmearten machen bei zahlreichen klinischen Fragestellungen der Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie eine Bildgebung mittels Computertomographie und Kernspintomographie unumgänglich. Obgleich die Kernspintomographie v. a. für die Weichteildiagnostik vorrangig geeignet ist, erlaubt sie mittlerweile, aufgrund der Verkürzung der Messzeiten, auch Veränderungen der Kortikalis abzubilden. Bei bestimmten Fragestellungen, wie z. B. Veränderungen des Knochenmetabolismus, ermöglichen differenzierte nuklearmedizinische Verfahren eine abbildungsunterstützte Funktionsanalyse.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-3916
    Keywords: Key words Spondylodiscitis ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Computed tomography ; Diagnostic algorithm ; Therapeutic algorithm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fifty-nine patients with spondylodiscitis (SD) of the thoracic and/or lumbar spine were followed-up clinically and radiologically [X-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] over a mean time of 2.2 years (1–6.5 years). All patients without abscess formation (n = 35) were treated conservatively. Out of the group with abscess formation (n = 24) 6 patients were also treated conservatively, 11 were drained under CT control and 7 were operated. At time of diagnosis, “signs of florid inflammation” were seen in 60% of the roentgenograms, in 93% of the CTs and in all of the MRIs. The sensitivity to differentiate between SD with and without abscess formation was 85% by MRI and 69% by CT. “Signs of regressive inflammation” and “signs of increasing osseous consolidation”, essential facts for starting remobilization, could first be seen using CT 6 weeks after onset of therapy. Using MRI these signs were seen with a considerable delay at 12 weeks. Clinically, only 3 of the 59 analyzed patients developed recurrent SD. In conclusion, MRI is the radiological method of choice for establishing the diagnosis of SD, in particular with regard to differentiating between cases with and without abscess formations. In contrast, CT is superior for performing success control after treatment. Therapeutically, conservative, minimal-invasive and operative procedures are not rival but rather complementary.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Key words Pharyngeal neoplasms ; Rhabdomyoma ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Adult rhabdomyomas of the head and neck are uncommon benign skeletal muscle tumors. Only a few cases occurring in the pharyngeal wall have been described in the world literature. We present a case of recurrent bilateral rhabdomyomas in the pharynx and discuss the clinicopathological features of this lesion, comparing it to those of other neoplasms from which it must be differentiated. To our knowledge, bilaterality of this type of lesion has not been described previously. Although adult rhabdomyomas have a distinct histology, they often are mistaken for a variety of other lesions, particularly granular cell tumor.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1615-3146
    Keywords: Key Words Traumatic lumbar hernia ; Lumbar hernia ; Hernia repair ; Laparoscopy ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Infrequently encountered, the traumatic lumbar hernia presents a challenge to the surgeon both in diagnosis and management. Repair is often complicated by a lack of viable fascia and a high incidence of associated injuries. The following review considers the natural history of lumbar hernias and their etiologies. Subsequently, the role of computed tomography (CT) in diagnosis is discussed. Finally, the multiple techniques of repair are presented, along with a discussion of the role of laparoscopy. Two case reports of traumatic lumbar hernias are presented, followed by a review of the literature and discussion. The case reports include a 36-year-old bicyclist who was thrown into a fixed roadway object and a 44-year-old victim of a side impact motor vehicle crash. The 36-year-old bicyclist underwent open repair with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and has done well at 7-month follow-up. The 44-year-old victim of a motor vehicle crash underwent open primary repair and has done well at 36-month follow-up. Traumatic lumbar hernias require a high index of suspicion in order to avoid the potential for incarceration and missed associated injuries. CT is helpful in making this diagnosis. Principles of hernia repair including freedom from tension and avoidance of compromised fascia are vital. Additionally, a thorough evaluation for associated injuries is paramount. Mesh should be used liberally and laparoscopy offers some advantage in the hands of the experienced.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1289
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Palliativmedizin ; Neurologie ; Amyotrophe Lateralsklerose ; Aufklärung ; Heimbeatmung
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Zum Thema Ziel palliativmedizinischer Maßnahmen ist nach der WHO die Wiederherstellung und Erhaltung einer möglichst hohen Lebensqualität für Patienten, bei denen eine fortgeschrittene, in absehbarer Zeit zum Tode führende Erkrankung besteht. Diese Definition erfüllt eine Vielzahl neurologischer Erkrankungen, allen voran die malignen Hirntumore und die Gruppe der neurodegenerativen Erkrankungen (hier besonders die amyotrophe Lateralsklerose – ALS). Dem klinisch tätigen Neurologen steht heute ein weites Spektrum an palliativmedizinischen Maßnahmen zur Verfügung [30, 32]. Die Notwendigkeit eines umfassenden palliativmedizinischen Ansatzes in der Neurologie, beginnend schon mit der Aufklärung von Patient und Angehörigen, soll am Beispiel der ALS erläutert werden. Dabei werden exemplarisch die Bereiche der Aufklärung, der Heimbeatmung und der Terminalphase besprochen. Die in diesem Beitrag für die ALS dargestellten Grundsätze und Verfahrensweisen lassen sich – mutatis mutandis – auf alle schweren und therapeutisch unzureichend beeinflussbaren neurologischen Erkrankungen übertragen.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Key words Adult respiratory distress syndrome ; Outcome ; Computed tomography ; Lung morphology ; Lung mechanics ; Lung volumes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objectives: (a) To assess whether differences in lung morphology observed in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are associated with differences in cardiorespiratory parameters, lung mechanics, and outcome. (b) To propose a new ARDS Severity Score to identify patients with a high mortality risk. Design: Prospective study over a 53-month period. Setting: Fourteen-bed surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital. Patients and participants: Seventy-one consecutive patients with early ARDS. Measurements and results: Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured using a Swan-Ganz catheter, the pressure-volume (PV) curve was measured using the gross syringe method, and fast spiral computed tomography (CT) was performed. Patients with diffuse attenuations (n = 16) differed from patients with lobar attenuations (n = 26) regarding: (a) mortality rate (75 % vs. 42 %, p = 0.05), (b) incidence of primary ARDS (82 % vs. 50 %, p = 0.03), (c) respiratory compliance (47 ± 12 vs. 64 ± 16 ml per cmH2O–1 p = 0.04), and (d) lower inflexion point (8.4 ± 2.0 vs. 4.6 ± 2.0 cmH2O, p = 0.001). A third group of patients with patchy attenuations (n = 29) had a mortality rate of 41 %, a respiratory compliance of 56 ± 18 ml per cmH2O–1 and a lower inflexion point of 6.3 ± 2.7 cmH2O. The bedside chest radiograph accurately assessed lung morphology in only 42 % of the patients. In contrast to the scores based on the bedside chest radiograph, a new ARDS Severity Score based on CT lung morphology and cardiorespiratory parameters identified a subgroup of patients with a high mortality rate (≥ 60 %). Conclusions: In patients with ARDS, differences in lung morphology are associated with differences in outcome and lung mechanics. A new ARDS Severity Score based on CT lung morphology and cardiorespiratory parameters accurately identified patients with the most severe forms of ARDS and a mortality rate above 60 %.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-1238
    Keywords: Key words Acute respiratory distress syndrome ; Positive end-expiratory pressure ; Computed tomography ; Alveolar recruitment ; Lung overdistension
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: To determine whether differences in lung morphology assessed by computed tomography (CT) affect the response to positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP).¶Design: Prospective study over a 53-month period.¶Setting: Fourteen-bed surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital.¶Patients and participants: Seventy-one consecutive patients with early adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).¶Measurements and results: Fast spiral thoracic CT was performed at zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) and after implementation of PEEP 10 cmH2O. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were measured in both conditions. PEEP-induced overdistension and alveolar recruitment were quantified by specifically designed software (Lungview). Overdistension occurred only in the upper lobes and was significantly correlated with the volume of lung, characterized by a CT attenuation ranging between –900 and –800 HU in ZEEP conditions. Cardiorespiratory effects of PEEP were similar in patients with primary and secondary ARDS. PEEP-induced alveolar recruitment of the lower lobes was significantly correlated with their lung volume (gas + tissue) at functional residual capacity. PEEP-induced alveolar recruitment was greater in the lower lobes with “inflammatory atelectasis” than in the lower lobes with “mechanical atelectasis.” Lung morphology as assessed by CT markedly influenced the effects of PEEP: in patients with diffuse CT attenuations PEEP induced a marked alveolar recruitment without overdistension, whereas in patients with lobar CT attenuations PEEP induced a mild alveolar recruitment associated with overdistension of previously aerated lung areas. These results can be explained by the uneven distribution of regional compliance characterizing patients with lobar CT attenuations (compliant upper lobes and stiff lower lobes) contrasting with a more even distribution of regional compliances observed in patients with diffuse CT attenuations.¶Conclusions: In patients with ARDS, the cardiorespiratory effects of PEEP are affected by lung morphology rather than by the cause of the lung injury (primary versus secondary ARDS). The regional distribution of the loss of aeration and the type of atelectasis –“mechanical” with a massive loss of lung volume, or “inflammatory” with a preservation of lung volume – characterizing the lower lobes are the main determinants of the cardiorespiratory effects of PEEP.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-1262
    Keywords: Keywords Rectal cancer staging ; Computed tomography ; Endorectal sonography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Systematic review
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  With the widespread introduction of preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer and the development of transanal endoscopic microsurgery for selected early lesions, preoperative radiological staging of these tumours has taken on increasing importance. This study is a systematic review to evaluate computed tomography (CT), endorectal sonography (ES) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as preoperative staging modalities in rectal cancer. A Medline-based search identifying studies using CT, ES, or MRI in preoperative staging of rectal cancer between 1980 and 1998 was undertaken. The list of papers was supplemented by extensive cross-checking of citation lists. Studies were included if they met predetermined criteria. Data from the accepted studies were entered into pooled tables comparing radiological and pathological staging results for each modality both in determining bowel wall penetration and involvement of lymph nodes. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were determined for the pooled results. Eighty-three studies from 78 papers including 4897 patients met the inclusion criteria. In determining the wall penetration of the tumour the values for sensitivity for CT, ES, MRI and MRI with endorectal coil were 78%, 93%, 86% and 89%; for specificity 63%, 78%, 77% and 79%; and for accuracy 73%, 87%, 82% and 84%, respectively. In determining the nodal involvement by tumour the sensitivity values for CT, ES, MRI and MRI with endorectal coil 52%, 71%, 65% and 82%; for specificity 78%, 76%, 80% and 83%; and for accuracy 66%, 74%, 74% and 82%, respectively. MRI with an endorectal coil is the single investigation that most accurately predicts pathological stage in rectal cancer.
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  • 13
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    Der Radiologe 40 (2000), S. 870-877 
    ISSN: 1432-2102
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Lunge ; Perfusion ; Ventilation ; Computertomographie (CT) ; Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) ; Keywords Lung ; Perfusion ; Ventilation ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Radiological cross-sectional imaging modalities, particularly computed tomography (CT) have become the mainstays for diagnosing lung disease in recent years. These enable morphological visualization of pathological processes with the greatest possible spatial resolution. Modern technical developments and complementary strategies have led to new applications and new functional assessments which need to be reviewed together with state-of-the-art techniques in nuclear imaging. The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism using spiral CT angiography and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography certainly belongs in this category. CT has become the an alternative modality of first choice, and it is also challenging pulmonary angiography as the gold standard. Direct visualization of patent pulmonary arteries and thromboembolic material is complemented by that of effects on the pulmonary parenchyma and right heart function; it also provides perfusion studies and MR-based flow measurement to assess hemodynamic compromise. Ventilation studies have long been a domain of nuclear imaging, and new techniques for the direct visualization of ventilation are emerging from recent developments in the field of MR imaging, for example, using hyperpolarized inert gases. New functional parameters of ventilation can be derived from these studies. For the diagnosis of metabolically active disease, such as tumor and pneumonia, CT offers very high sensitivity, for example, in screening for intrapulmonary nodules using low-dose CT and in the early detection of pulmonary infiltrates in high-risk patients. Especially for characterizing pulmonary nodules there is a need to combine nuclear medicine techniques, such as in positron-emission tomography.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die radiologischen Schnittbildverfahren, insbesondere die CT, haben sich innerhalb kurzer Zeit einen herausragenden Stellenwert in der Diagnostik von Lungenerkrankungen erworben. Dies umfasst in erster Linie die morphologische Darstellung pathologischer Prozesse mit hoher räumlicher Auflösung. Moderne technische Entwicklungen und kombinierte Untersuchungsstrategien eröffnen neue Einsatzgebiete und auch funktionelle Aussagen, die nach einer aktuellen Standortbestimmung gemeinsam mit den nuklearmedizinischen Verfahren verlangen. Dazu gehört die Diagnostik der Lungenembolie mittels Spiral-CT-Angiographie und MR-Angiographie der Pulmonalarterien. Hier hat sich mittlerweile die CT als alternatives Verfahren der Wahl etabliert und die Rolle der Pulmonalisangiographie als Goldstandard infrage gestellt. Die reine direkte Darstellung der durchströmten Pulmonalarterien und des thromboembolischen Materials wird durch Diagnostik intrapulmonaler und kardialer Veränderungen, Perfusionsuntersuchungen sowie MR-basierte Flussmessungen zur hämodynamischen Beurteilung erweitert. Nachdem Untersuchungen der Ventilation lange Zeit eine Domäne der Nuklearmedizin waren, eröffnen aktuelle Entwicklungen in der MRT neue Verfahren zur direkten Visualisierung der Lungenbelüftung, z. B. mittels polarisierter Edelgase. Aus diesen Verfahren lassen sich auch neue funktionelle Parameter der Ventilation ableiten. In der Diagnostik von Tumoren und Entzündungen überzeugt die CT insbesondere durch ihre hohe Sensitivität, z. B. beim Screening auf intrapulmonale Rundherde mittels Niedrigdosis-CT oder bei der Früherkennung pneumonischer Infiltrate bei Risikopatienten. Insbesondere bei der Charakterisierung intrapulmonaler Rundherde ist eine Kombination mit nuklearmedizinischen Verfahren (PET) grundsätzlich anzustreben.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Key words Shoulder instability ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Objective. To assess the shape of the posterior glenoid rim in patients with recurrent (atraumatic) posterior instability. Design and patients.CT examinations of 15 shoulders with recurrent (atraumatic) posterior instability were reviewed in masked fashion with regard to abnormalities of the glenoid shape, specifically of its posterior rim. The glenoid version was also assessed. The findings were compared with the findings in 15 shoulders with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and 15 shoulders without instability. For all patients, surgical correlation was available. Results.Fourteen of the 15 (93%) shoulders with recurrent (atraumatic) posterior shoulder instability had a deficiency of the posteroinferior glenoid rim. In patients with recurrent anterior instability or stable shoulders such deficiencies were less common (60% and 73%, respectively). The craniocaudal length of the deficiencies was largest in patients with posterior instability. When a posteroinferior deficiency with a craniocaudal length of 12 mm or more was defined as abnormal, sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing recurrent (atraumatic) posterior instability were 86.7% and 83.3%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in glenoid version between shoulders with posterior instability and stable shoulders (P=0.01). Conclusion.Recurrent (atraumatic) posterior shoulder instability should be considered in patients with a bony deficiency of the posteroinferior glenoid rim with a craniocaudal length of more than 12 mm.
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  • 15
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    Der Radiologe 40 (2000), S. 904-915 
    ISSN: 1432-2102
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Leber ; Sonographie ; Computertomographie ; Magnetresonanztomographie ; Szintigraphie ; Positronenemissionstomographie ; Keywords Liver ; Ultrasonography ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Radionuclide imaging ; Positron emission tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Highly specific methods are required for the diagnostic workup of focal hepatic lesions, since benign circumscribed liver changes are very common. Although cross-sectional imaging techniques have a high diagnostic accuracy, radionuclide imaging techniques such as colloid, red blood cell, or hepatobiliary scan are commonly performed when a benign lesion is assumed since these permit a definite diagnosis with high specificity. The diagnosis of a primary or secondary malignant liver tumor, however, usually relies on radiological imaging techniques alone, supported by needle biopsy. Whether positron emission tomography as a primary or supplementary diagnostic tool will have a role in the routine staging of malignant tumors remains to be determined.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Abklärung umschriebener Leberveränderungen erfordert den Einsatz von Methoden hoher Spezifität, da die Prävalenz benigner, fokaler Läsionen sehr hoch ist. Hierfür sind radiologische Schnittbildtechniken grundsätzlich gut geeignet. Wenn aufgrund der sonographischen, computertomographischen oder magnetresonanztomographischen Befunde eine gutartige Läsion anzunehmen ist, werden jedoch häufig ergänzend die Kolloiderythrozyten- oder hepatobiliäre Szintigraphie – ggf. in Kombination – eingesetzt, da hiermit rasch eine abschließende Diagnose mit hoher Spezifität gestellt werden kann. Bei malignen primären oder sekundären Lebertumoren hingegen werden nuklearmedizinische Zusatzuntersuchungen seltener angefordert, da der radiologische Befund, ggf. gestützt durch eine Ultraschall- oder CT-gezielte Biopsie, eine Diagnose in den meisten Fällen erlaubt. Inwieweit sich der primäre oder ergänzende Einsatz der Positronenemissionstomographie im Vergleich zu radiologischen Schnittbildtechniken beim Staging bösartiger Tumoren bewährt, ist noch nicht abschließend geklärt.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1432-2102
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter ; Kardiale Bildgebung ; Angiographie ; Nuklearmedizin ; Magnetresonanztomographie ; Computertomographie ; Key word ; Cardiac imaging ; Angiography ; Nuclear imaging ; Magnetic resonance tomography ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Purpose: Cardiac imaging includes determination of the size and structure of the cardiac chambers, valves, great vessels and the coronary arteries, chamber and valvular function, myocardial perfusion, viability and metabolism. Material and methods: Chest roentgenography, angiography, echocardiography and nuclear imaging are commonly used but computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also offer a promising potential. Results: Coronary angiography is the gold standard in assessing coronary anatomy. Fast CT technologies such as electron-beam and multi-row-CT are promising non-invasive imaging modalities in the assessment of coronary artery disease. With intravascular ultrasound early stages of coronary atherosclerosis can be detected. For the assessment of myocardial perfusion and viability as well as cardiac function, scintigraphic methods are widely accepted. However, MRI methods have also reached a high degree of accuracy. Evaluation of chamber and valvular function is, due to its wide availability, the field of echocardiography. Conclusions: In clinical routine chest roentgenography, angiography, echocardiography and nuclear imaging are well established. The value of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of coronary artery disease, myocardial perfusion, viability and metabolism is yet to be defined.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Zielsetzung: Anforderungen an die kardiale Bildgebung sind die Darstellung der Anatomie der Herzhöhlen, Herzklappen, Koronararterien und der großen Gefäße, Parameter der Ventrikel- und Klappenfunktion, der Myokardperfusion, Myokardvitalität und des myokardialen Stoffwechsels. Material und Methode: In der Bildgebung kommen neben den etablierten Standardverfahren wie Röntgen, Angiographie, Echokardiographie und nuklearmedizinischen Methoden auch neuere Verfahren der Computer- und Magnetresonanztomographie zum Einsatz. Ergebnisse: Die Koronarangiographie ist der Goldstandard in der Darstellung des gesamten Koronarsystems. In der Diagnostik der koronaren Herzerkrankung zeigen schnelle CT-Verfahren wie die Elektronenstrahltomographie (EBT) und die Mehrzeilendetektor-CT (MDCT) Vorteile gegenüber der Kernspintomographie. Frühstadien der koronaren Arteriosklerose können nur mit dem intravaskulären Ultraschall (IVUS) erkannt werden. Nuklearmedizinische Methoden sind in der Untersuchung der Myokardperfusion und -vitalität etabliert. Mit der MRT scheint eine qualitative und quantitative Bestimmung der regionalen Perfusion, Funktion und Vitalität möglich zu sein. Die Untersuchung der linksventrikulären Funktion und der Herzklappen ist die Domäne der Echokardiographie. Schlussfolgerung: In der klinischen Routine sind die Angiographie, Echokardiographie und die Nuklearmedizin etablierte Methoden. Der Stellenwert der Magnetresonanz- und Computertomographie in der Diagnostik der koronaren Herzerkrankung und der Herzfunktion, Perfusion und Vitaltät ist noch nicht definiert.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1439-099X
    Keywords: Key Words: Cystosarcoma phylloides ; Breast neoplasm ; Computed tomography ; Radiotherapy ; Metastases ; Schlüsselwörter: Cystosarcoma phylloides ; Mammatumor ; Computertomographie ; Strahlentherapie ; Metastasen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Hintergrund: Das Cystosarcoma phylloides ist ein seltener, meist benigner Mammatumor. In den meisten Fällen kann er durch eine komplette chirurgische Exzision der Läsionen geheilt werden. Der Tumor zeigt jedoch eine hohe Lokalrezidivrate bis 46%. In der Literatur liegen nur wenige Daten zur erfolgreichen Strahlentherapie beim Cystosarcoma phylloides vor. Die Strahlentherapie ist indiziert bei lokoregionären Rezidiven und bei symptomatischen Metastasen. Patientin: Wir berichten über eine 54-jährige Frau, die sich mit einer schmerzlosen Schwellung der rechten Brust vorstellte. Bei der klinischen Untersuchung zeigte sich ein großer, derber Tumor mit axilliären Lymphknotenmetastasen. Es erfolgte eine Ablatio mammae mit Axilladissektion. Histopathologisch ergab sich ein 30 × 25 × 19 cm großes Cystoarcoma phylloides sowie Lymphknotenmetasen von 9,5 cm. Obwohl es sich um eine R0-Resektion handelte, kam es innerhalb von zwei Jahren zu vier Thoraxwandrezidiven. Nach 18 Monaten fanden sich zusätzich rechts pulmonal und pleural mehrere weichteildichte Herde mit einem maximalen Durchmesser von 6,5 cm (Abbildung 1). Daraufhin wurde eine Polychemotherapie durchgeführt. Es kam zu einem deutlichen Regress des Thoraxwandrezidivs sowie der pulmonalen und pleuralen Herde. Sechs Monate später trat erneut ein Progress des Thoraxwandrezidivs und der pulmonalen Herde auf (Abbildung 2). Es wurde daraufhin eine Strahlentherapie der rechten Thoraxwand mit 50 Gy durchgeführt, was klinisch zu einem raschen partiellen Regress des Rezidivs führte. Seit fünf Monaten ist es im Bereich der Thoraxwand zu keiner neuen Tumorprogredienz gekommen. Schlussfolgerung: Dies ist ein ungewöhnlicher Fall eines Cystosarcoma phylloides mit Ansprechen auf unterschiedliche Therapien. Das Cystosarcoma phylloides erwies sich als ein radiosensitiver Tumor. Deshalb ist zur Verhinderung eines Lokalrezidivs eine postoperative Radiotherapie indiziert.
    Notes: Background: Cystosarcoma phylloides is a rare, mostly benign tumor of the breast. In most cases curative treatment is possible with complete surgical excision of the lesions. However, there is a high local recurrence rate up to 46%. There are only few reported successful treatments radiotherapy in cystoarcoma phylloides. Radiotherapy is indicated in patients with locoregional recurrent disease and those with symptomatic metastases. Patient: We present a case of a 54-year-old women with a painless mass in the right breast. Clinical examination showed a large, firm tumor and axillary lymph node metastases. The patient underwent mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection. Histopathology showed a cystosarcoma phylloides measuring 30 × 25 × 19 cm as well as lymph nodes metastases measuring 9.5 cm. Despite a R0 resection the patient developed 4 thoracic wall recurrences within 2 years. At 18 months there were additional multiple pulmonary and pleural lesions with a maximum diameter of 6.5 cm. Subsequently the patient received polychemotherapy. There was a significant response of the thoracic wall disease as well as of the pulmonary and pleural lesions. Six months later there was further progress of the thoracic wall disease and the pulmonary lesions. Following this the patient underwent radiation therapy of her right thoracic wall with 50 Gy which lead clinically to a quick response. For the past 5 months there has been no evidence of thoracic wall disease recurrence. Conclusion: This is an unusual case of cystosarcoma phylloides and response to different therapeutic modalities. Cystosarcoma phylloides showed to be a radiosensitive tumor. Thus postoperative radiation therapy is indicated to prevent local recurrences.
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  • 18
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    Springer
    Diseases of the colon & rectum 43 (2000), S. 555-558 
    ISSN: 1530-0358
    Keywords: Carcinoma ; Colon interposition ; Barium swallow ; Endoscopy ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A rare occurrence of primary adenocarcinoma arising in an interposed colon nearly seven years after the surgery is described. Remarkably, there were no symptoms from a large mass in the transposed bowel. Diagnosis was made fortuitously while searching for the cause of the patient's iron-deficiency anemia. The rationale for careful preoperative screening of the colonic segment intended for transplant to exclude pre-existing pathology is reemphasized. The various methods of evaluating the postoperative colon graft and their advantages and limitations are discussed.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1530-0358
    Keywords: Left colonic diverticulitis ; Abscess ; Computed tomography ; Water-soluble contrast enema
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract PURPOSE: The most valuable radiologic examination to be done initially when acute left colonic diverticulitis is suspected is still a matter of controversy. This study compares the performance between water-soluble contrast enema and computed tomography. METHODS: From 1986 to 1997, all patients admitted in our emergency center with clinically suspected left-colonic diverticulitis had a contrast enema and a computed tomography within 72 hours of their admission, unless clinical findings required immediate laparotomy. They were prospectively included in the study if one or both radiologic examinations showed signs of acute diverticulitis or diverticulitis was surgically removed and histologically proven or both. Diverticulitis was considered moderate when computed tomography showed localized thickening of the colonic wall (5 mm or more) and inflammation of pericolic fat and contrast enema showed segmental lumen narrowing and tethered mucosa; it was considered severe when abscess or extraluminal air or contrast or all three were observed on computed tomography and when one or both of the last two signs were seen on contrast enema. Of 542 patients, 420 who had both computed tomography and contrast enema entered the study. RESULTS: The performance of computed tomography was significantly superior to contrast enema in terms of sensitivity (98vs. 92 percent;P=0.01), which was calculated from patients who had their colon removed and whose diverticulitis was histologically proven, and in the evaluation of the severity of the inflammation (26vs. 9 percent;P=0.02). Moreover, of 69 patients who had an associated abscess seen on computed tomography, only 20 (29 percent) had indirect signs of this complication on contrast enema. CONCLUSIONS: In the diagnostic evaluation of acute left-colonic diverticulitis, computed tomography should be preferred to contrast enema as the initial radiologic examination because of its statistically significant superiority in sensitivity and for its significantly better performance in the detection of severe infection, especially when an abscess is associated with the disease.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
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    Neuroradiology 42 (2000), S. 923-925 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Cyst, thyroglossal duct ; Sonography ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report a thyroglossal duct cyst with calcification, the second case in the world literature. The ultrasound and CT findings are described and we highlight the differential diagnosis.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Cavernous sinus ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Aspergillosis of the cavernous sinus is rare, especially in immuno competent individuals. We report three such cases secondary to paranasal sinus aspergillosis, with imaging findings.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Hypophosphataemia ; Brain ; Myelinolysis, extrapontine ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report a 38-year-old woman with extreme hypophosphataemia in whom CT and MRI disclosed bilateral lesions within the basal ganglia, thalamus and occipital lobes. After adequate substitution of phosphate the lesions grossly resolved and the patient recovered. This case is the first to demonstrate that profound changes of serum phosphate may be associated with reversible brain lesions.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Pineal ; tumours ; Pineocytoma ; Pineoblastoma ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We reviewed neuroradiological images in two histologically proven cases of pineocytoma and three of pineoblastoma to delineate the characteristic features of these rare tumours. CT revealed isodense or slightly hyperdense masses with central or peripheral calcification; enhancement with contrast medium tended to be homogeneous in pineocytomas and heterogeneous in pineoblastomas. In the pineocytomas, T1-weighted images revealed rounded, sometimes or slightly lobulated low-signal masses with strong, homogeneous contrast enhancement. Their margin was clear, without invasion of adjacent structures. In the pineoblastomas, however, T1-weighted images revealed multilobulated tumours with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. All three pineoblastomas had poorly defined margins with adjacent structures such as the posterior thalamus or corpus callosum, suggesting a more invasive nature. T2-weighted images revealed nonspecific high signal lesions in all five case.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Plasmacytoma, extraosseous ; Myeloma, multiple ; Meninges ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report a rare appearance at presentation of meningeal myelomatosis without bone involvement, in the form of an extra-axial mass of mixed density, resembling a chronic subdural haematoma.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Brain, ischaemia ; Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Our purpose was to compare the detectability and detection rate of acute ischaemic cerebral hemisphere infarcts on CT and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI). We investigated 32 consecutive patients with acute hemisphere stroke with unenhanced CT and DWI within 6 h of stroke onset. The interval between CT and DWI ranged from 15 to 180 min (mean 60 min). Infarct detectability on CT and DWI was determined by comparing the initial CT, DWI and later reference images in a consensus reading of five independent examiners. The “true” detection rate was assessed by analysing all single readings. Two patients had intracerebral haematomas on DWI and CT and were excluded. There were 27 patients with ischaemic infarcts; all were visible on DWI and proven by follow-up. DWI was negative in three patients without a final diagnosis of infarct (100 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity, χ2 = 30, P 〈 0.0001). Ischaemic infarcts were visible on 15 and not seen on 12 CT studies (55 % sensitivity, 100 %specificity, χ2 = 1.48, P = 0.224). With regard to the single readings (30 examinations × 5 examiners = 150 readings), 63 CT readings were true positive and 72 false negative (sensitivity 47 %, specificity 86 %, χ2 = 2.88, P = 0.089). Of the DWI readings 128 were true positive and 7 false negative (sensitivity 95 %, specificity 87 %, χ2 = 70.67, P 〈 0.0001). Interobserver agreement was substantial for CT (ϰ = 0.72, 95 % confidence interval, 0.6–0.84) and DWI (ϰ = 0.82, 95 % confidence interval, 0.46–1). Taken together, detectability and detection rate of acute (〈 6 h) hemisphere infarcts are significantly higher with DWI than with CT.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Granulation, arachnoid ; Sinuses, venous ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Magnetic resonance venography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report CT, MRI and angiographic findings of an arachnoid granulation in the straight sinus in a young man. Its density and signal intensity were isodense and isointense with cerebrospinal fluid on CT and MRI, respectively. The lesion appeared as a filling defect on MR venography and conventional angiography.
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  • 27
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neuroradiology 42 (2000), S. 145-148 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Eye, calcification ; Plaques, senile ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract I studied the CT appearances and the distribution of 109 asymptomatic calcified senile scleral plaques in 49 patients (98 eyes). The vast majority were just anterior to the insertion of the horizontal rectus muscles. The calcified plaques are variable in size, can be single or multiple, involve one or both eyes, and are only seen in elderly patients. Beam-hardening artifact and forward protrusion beyond the confines of the sclera are uncommon but potentially confusing features. Confusion with other pathology is unlikely with awareness of the plaques' asymptomatic nature and their clinical and CT appearances.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Hanging ; Haemorrhage, brain ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report a 23-year-old man who attempted suicide by hanging. There have been few reports of involvement of the brain parenchyma shown on CT, all showing ischaemic lesions. This is the first report of multifocal intracerebral haematomas due to hanging seen¶on CT.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Infarct ; cerebral ; contrast enhancement ; Infarct ; haemorrhagic transformation ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The frequency, predisposing factors and clinical consequences of haemorrhagic infarcts and damaged blood-brain barrier as shown by contrast enhancement (CE) in ischaemic cerebral infarcts are controversial. We prospectively compared the sensitivity of CT and MRI to haemorrhagic transformation (HT) and CE. We also wished to investigate the clinical significance of HT and factors possibly associated with it. We studied 36 patients with acute ischaemic infarcts in the middle cerebral artery territory during the first 2 weeks after the ictus. After CT and rating of the neurological deficit on admission, serial examinations with clinical neuromonitoring, contrast-enhanced CT and MRI were done on the same day. The occurrence and severity of HT were correlated with CE, stroke mechanism, infarct size, development of neurological deficits and antithrombotic treatment. The frequency of HT detected by MRI was 80 %. CE usually preceded HT or was seen simultaneously. MRI had a higher sensitivity than CT to HT and CE. Severity of HT was positively correlated with infarct size (P 〈 0.01). HT had no influence on patient's neurological status. Neither the type of antithrombotic treatment nor the stroke mechanism was associated with the severity of HT. No parenchymal haemorrhage occurred.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Nerve block ; technology ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A prototype of a laser target device was used for CT-guided nerve blocks in a preliminary series of nine interventions. The system provides guidance from any possible approach. High accuracy of needle insertion was achieved; the average deviation of the planned from the actual angle was 1.4°. The target device is valuable for facilitating minimally invasive therapy and can decrease the time required for the procedure.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Haemochromatosis ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Computed tomography ; Transcranial ultrasound ; Nucleus, lentiformis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Haemochromatosis is characterised by deposition of iron-containing pigment in various organs, but little is known about possible deposition in the brain and its clinical impact. We therefore investigated 14 patients with hereditary haemochromatosis with MRI, CT and transcranial ultrasound (TCS) and examined them neurologically. In six of the patients dense lesions were found within the lentiform nucleus on CT, all of whom displayed hyperechogenic lesions in the same area on TCS, as did one other patient. In these patients the relative signal intensities of the lentiform nucleus measured by MRI relaxometry were higher. No patient had clinical signs of basal ganglia disorders.
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  • 32
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    Neuroradiology 42 (2000), S. 623-624 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Foreign body ; Nose ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report a 76-year-old man referred because of incessant epistaxis. During presurgical investigation a radiodense mass was detected in the left nasal cavity, which turned out to be an iodoform-soaked gauze pack put in by a general practitioner some weeks previously and simply forgotten.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Infarct, cerebral ; Thrombolysis ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract It has been suggested that subtle signs of early cerebral infarction on CT are important indicators of outcome and of the effect of thrombolytic treatment in acute ischaemic stroke. We studied these signs prospectively, in 260 patients with an anterior circulation stroke from a European-Australian randomised trial of lubeluzole in acute ischaemic stroke. Interobserver reliability was assessed by means of the ϰ statistic. The validity of the early signs was assessed by comparing the assessments of the first CT with another CT at 1 week after the onset of stroke, and with stroke outcome at 12 weeks. Each initial CT study was assessed by two of a group of five reviewers, who were blinded to each other's assessments and to the findings on the follow-up CT. The images were assessed twice, once without clinical information and again after disclosure of the side (left or right hemisphere) of the lesion. All reviewers were experienced clinicians with a special interest and training in vascular neurology and CT. The median time between stroke onset and the first CT was 3.2 h; 59 % of the patients were imaged within 3 h and 77 % within 6 h. More than half of the patients (52 %) had a large middle cerebral artery territory (MCA) infarct on follow-up CT. Chance-adjusted interobserver agreement (ϰ) for any early infarct was 0.27 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.15 to 0.39). Agreement (ϰ) on the extent of a middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarct and on the indication for treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) was fair: 0.37 and 0.35, respectively. Patients with early signs of an infarct of more than 1/3 of the MCA territory were more likely to have a large MCA infarct on follow-up CT (odds ratio 5.7, 95 % confidence interval 2.8–11.5); the positive and negative predictive value of these signs was 81 % and 57 %, respectively. Chance-adjusted interobserver agreement on early, subtle signs of a large MCA territory infarct on CT by neurologists was thus no more than fair, and the accuracy of prediction of actual infarct size on the basis of these signs only moderate, under circumstances which resemble everyday clinical practice.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Infarct ; cerebral ; Phaeohyphomycosis ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Phaeohyphomycosis is an uncommon disorder caused by a variety of saprophytic fungi having distinctive morphologic features. Central nervous system infection typically occurs in the absence of predisposing factors and usually manifest symptoms and signs of abscess formation. We describe an otherwise healthy young man whose presentation with cerebral phaeohyphomycosis was subacute meningitis and stroke. Neuroimaging studies revealed multiple parenchymal lesions having the characteristics of recent infarcts; several vascular territories were involved. The nature of these lesions was confirmed histologically at autopsy. To our knowledge, such radiologic appearances have not previously been reported in this condition.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Neurocysticercosis ; Arteries ; intracranial ; calcification ; Ischemia ; cerebral ; Computed tomography ; xenon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report calcification of intracranial vessels in neurocysticercosis. Calcification was observed in the middle cerebral arteries in two patients, and the circle of Willis in two others. The patients with middle cerebral artery calcification underwent CT with inhaled stable xenon and an area of mild hypoperfusion was observed in the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere.
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  • 36
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    Neuroradiology 42 (2000), S. 543-547 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Inner ear ; Virtual endoscopy ; Volume rendering ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To assess the role of virtual endoscopy (VE) in the examination of intracisternal structures and of the inner ear, we studied the anatomy of the labyrinth and internal auditory canal using the original CT slices and VE on the unaffected side in three female and three male patients, age range 3–46 years, with contralateral retrocochlear hearing loss. We also examined seven patients with different pathological findings. VE was performed using an advanced postprocessing program with high- resolution 3D data sets of CT (1–1.5 mm thickness, pitch 1.25) and MRI-CISS-3D (constructive interference in steady state) images of the basal cisterns (1.5 T, slice thickness 0.7–1 mm). VE provides an endoscopic-like view from a given point within the basal cisterns of vessels and nerves (on MRI) or of the structures of the inner ear (on CT). The complex anatomy and pathological changes in the inner ear can be faithfully shown. The main advantage is not basic diagnostic information but demonstration of topographically complex situations, such as the canalicular system of the inner ear, for discussion, preoperative planning and teaching.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words Tumour malignant rhabdoid ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report a mass in the left cerebral hemisphere of a 20-year-old man. Histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features of the tumour were consistent with primary malignant rhabdoid tumour. The age of presentation, imaging features prior to histological examination, and prognosis in this case were unusual.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Key words White matter ; White matter ; Immunosuppressive therapy, complications ; Bone-marrow transplant ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report a case of transient neurologic toxicity secondary to tacrolimus. The clinical and imaging findings are reported and their subsequent regression after interruption of therapy in the patient following a bone-marrow transplant is also described. The etiology of the neurotoxicity and its analogy with other immunosuppressant agents are discussed.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1436-6274
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter ; Schultergelenk ; Basisdiagnostik ; Röntgendiagnostik ; Sonographie ; Computertomographie ; Kernspintomographie ; Arthrographie ; Keywords ; Shoulder joint ; Basic diagnosis ; X-rays ; Sonography ; Computed tomography ; MRI ; Arthrography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: It is its ball-and-socket anatomy that makes the shoulder joint the most flexible of all human joints. This high degree of freedom of movement means, however, on the one hand that early degenerative damage is likely to occur as a result of sports and occupational strains and on the other that it is particularly vulnerable to injuries. Diagnostic radiology from two different perspectives is the basic diagnostic procedure for unexplained shoulder pain and for shoulder injuries. Dislocating osseous injuries or luxations can be detected most precisely or assessed most reliably during follow-up by this means. Intra-articular findings and alterations to the soft tissues (degenerative, traumatic) can be delineated by sonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, albeit with differing degrees of reliability and specificity. Sonography is generally available, but not reliably standardized. Computed tomography is the method of choice for diagnosis of osseous and joint injuries. Over the last 10 years magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has improved in sensitivity and specificity with technical progress (coils, sequences, reconstruction modalities) and has therefore moved into the focus of clinical interest.
    Notes: Das Schultergelenk ist infolge seiner anatomischen Ausbildung als Kugelgelenk das beweglichste Gelenk des menschlichen Körpers. Die sich hieraus ergebenden Bewegungsmöglichkeiten bedingen einerseits bereits frühzeitig degenerative Schädigungen infolge beruflicher oder sportlicher Belastungen und andererseits eine besondere ¶Angriffsfläche für Verletzungen. Die Basisdiagnostik sowohl des unklaren Schulterschmerzes als auch verletzungsbedingter Schädigungen am Schultergelenk ist die Röntgendiagnostik in 2 Ebenen. Dislozierende ossäre Verletzungen bzw. Luxationen sind hiermit treffsicher nachzuweisen bzw. in der Verlaufskontrolle zu beurteilen. Intraartikuläre Befunde und Weichteilveränderungen (degenerativ, traumatisch) sind hingegen mit den Schnittbildverfahren der Sonographie, Computertomographie und Kernspintomographie mit unterschiedlicher Treffsicherheit und Spezifität nachzuweisen. Die klassische Gelenkarthrographie hingegen tritt gegenüber diesen Verfahren deutlich in ihrer Bedeutung zurück. Die Sonographie ist ein ubiquitär verfügbares, jedoch wenig standardisiertes Verfahren. Die Reproduzierbarkeit der Befunde ist fraglich. Die Computertomographie stellt die Methode der Wahl bei der Diagnostik von okkulten ossären bzw. Gelenkverletzungen dar. Die Methode ist breit verfügbar und mit vertretbarem Aufwand durchzuführen. In den letzten 10 Jahren hat die Kernspintomographie infolge der technischen Weiterentwicklung (Spulen, Sequenzen, Rekonstruktionsmöglichkeiten usw.) an Sensitivität und Spezifität gewonnen. In der Summe aller klinischen Fragestellungen stellt sie neben der Basisdiagnostik derzeit die effektivste Untersuchungsmethode des Schultergelenks dar.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1437-1596
    Keywords: Key words Gun-shot wound ; Computed tomography ; Range of fire ; Pig skin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Law
    Notes: Abstract The forensic assessment of non-fatal gunshot wounds often proves to be difficult as wounds have usually been cleaned and protected with a sterile bandage by the time of the examination. The aim of our investigation was to test the possible application of computed tomography (CT) for the forensic assessment. Doing so raised the questions whether gunshot residues in the soft tissues, detected by means of 3-dimensional CT, can be used as evidence of a close-range shot and whether conclusions can be drawn pertaining to the range of the shot or the type of bullet used based on the distribution of the radiologically detectable material? In this experimental study 39 shots were fired at fresh pig skin and it was possible to distinguish shots fired from distances of more than 10 cm and contact shots independent of the type of bullet. For unjacketed lead bullets, radiopaque material could be seen in the depth of the entrance wound for firing distances up to 10 cm. In individual cases, CT data and the 3-D reconstruction could provide valuable information in the forensic assessment of patients with gunshot wounds.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Ultrasonography ; Computed tomography ; Bladder diseases ; Hamartoma ; Hematuria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Bladder hamartoma is a rare benign entity with only eight cases reported in the literature thus far, and whose general imaging features have not, to our knowledge, been previously discussed. The purpose of this report is to review the literature and to discuss the imaging findings in one case of bladder hamartoma where US features were those of an inhomogeneous solid mass with an unechogenic center, which was in accordance with the CT findings of a soft tissue mass with central inhomogeneous enhancement due to central necrosis.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Lung cancer ; Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma ; Radiolucencies ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a polymorphic lung cancer the incidence of which is rising. The presence of intratumoral radiolucencies is an important feature of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.The aim of this study was to present pictorially the spectrum of intratumoral radiolucencies visible in BAC. In 57 BACs studied with thin-slice CT, we identified six types of radiolucencies: (a) patent intratumoral bronchioles (air bronchiologram); (b) pseudocavitations; (c) cavitation; (d) serpentine radiolucencies; (e) internal alveologram; and (f) multiple cystic lesions.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Portal vein thrombosis ; Septic thrombosis ; Peripancreatic abscess ; Peritoneal ligaments ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Septic thrombus formation of both the main portal vein and its intrahepatic branches were observed on CT in a patient with peripancreatic abscess. The septic thrombosis of portal vein (STPV) extended from the level of porta hepatis into the intrahepatic branches, but the portal vein and superior mesenteric vein at the level of pancreatic head were preserved with no evidence of thrombosis angiographically. The gas-containing abscess near the head of the pancreas extended toward the hepatic hilum and surrounded the portal vein and its branches on CT. It was concluded that these thrombi of portal vein branches at porta hepatis and intrahepatic branches were caused by extensions of peripancreatic abscess via the hepatoduodenal ligament and ligamentum teres. Computed tomography was useful in depicting the ligamentous spread of peripancreatic abscess resulting in STPV.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Magnetic resonance imaging ; Rapid imaging ; Magnetic resonance ; comparative studies ; Computed tomography ; helial technology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Purpose: To compare the value of ’push-button' singe-shot non-contrast-enhanced MRI and contrast-enhanced helical CT for detection of upper abdominal disease. Methods: In 120 patients, images obtained with non contrast-enhanced single-shot MRI (T2: double echo HASTE, and T1: turbo FLASH) and contrast-enhanced helical CT were compared. Lesions or abnormalities were divided in 8 anatomical categories (1: liver; 2: pancreatobiliary; 3: kidney/adrenal gland; 4: retroperitoneum; 5: vascular; 6: spleen; 7: gastrointestinal tract and peritoneum; 8: base of thorax) and classified as follows: 2: seen at MRI only; 1: better seen at MRI; 0: no difference; −1: better seen at CT; −2: seen at CT only. Also recorded were the 'door-to-door’ examination times. Results: Of a total of 629 abnormalities, 594 were detected at MRI (94 %) and 536 at CT (85 %). CT offered better results in two categories only: retroperitoneum (mean score: −0.68) and vascular (mean score −0.87). Mean examination times were 19 min for CT and 14.8 min for MRI. Conclusion: Unenhanced single-shot MRI is a valuable first step of a comprehensive upper abdominal MR exam and may even be the final step in many patients.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Horseshoe kidney ; Inferior vena cava ; Ultrasound ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Horseshoe kidney associated with anomalous inferior vena cava is a rare congenital anomaly. Radiological demonstration of this combined anomaly is also uncommon, with only two cases of preisthmic inferior vena cava with horseshoe kidney in the imaging literature. We report a case of simultaneous horseshoe kidney and inferior vena cava lying anterior to the right renal moiety diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Abdomen ; Foreign bodies ; Retained sponges ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Retention of surgical sponges is rare. They cause either an aseptic reaction without significant symptoms or an exudative reaction which results in early but nonspecific symptoms. Computed tomography is very useful for recognition of retained sponges. The appearance of retained sponges is widely variable. Air trapping into a surgical sponge results in the spongiform pattern which is characteristic but unfortunately uncommon. A low-density, high-density, or complex mass is found in the majority of cases, but these patterns are not specific. Sometimes, a thin high-density capsule may be seen. Rim or internal calcification is a rare finding. Finally, a radiopaque marker is not a reliable sign. Differentiation from abscess and hematoma is sometimes difficult.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Computerised tomographic angiography ; Electron beam tomography ; Computed tomography ; Contrast enhancement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of electron beam tomography (EBT) with fast continuous volume scanning for CT angiography (CTA) in chest and abdomen. An Evolution XP EBT scanner with a new software version (12.34) was used. One hundred forty images per study can be acquired in 17 s using 3-mm collimation and overlapping image reconstruction. Study protocols for five different clinical applications of EBT CTA were established and evaluated. The EBT CTA technique was performed in 155 patients. High- and homogeneous density values were achieved along the whole course of the vessels; the mean density in the aorta was 〉 240 HU. Coeliac axis, superior and inferior mesenteric artery, renal and lumbar arteries were visualised in all cases. Maximum intensity projection and shaded surface display reconstruction demonstrated the relation between aneurysm and aortic branches very well due to an excellent resolution along the z-axis. In large scan volumes overlapping image reconstruction demonstrated better resolution along the z-axis than is available with helical CT. The EBT CTA technique proved to be very well suited excellent suitability for evaluation of pulmonary vessels. Compared with helical CT, EBT CTA offers a shorter scan time, which allows higher contrast enhancement in pulmonary vessels. The identification of intraluminal emboli and mural thrombi has improved. The EBT CTA technique is a very reliable tool for evaluation of aortic disease and pulmonary vessels.
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  • 48
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European radiology 9 (1999), S. 1556-1569 
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: HIV ; Computed tomography ; Thorax ; Chest radiography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. A wide variety of thoracic disorders can arise in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), although recent developments in the therapeutic management of AIDS patients has resulted in a changing pattern of chest disease. The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of these thoracic manifestations is discussed along with the CT appearances of the various infectious and non-infectious complications of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) which are commonly encountered in clinical practice.
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  • 49
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European radiology 9 (1999), S. 728-730 
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Pericardial space ; Surgery complications ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. We report a case of surgically retained pericardial sponge as a cause of paracardiac mass in a woman who had thoracotomy 3 weeks prior for replacement of mitral valve prosthesis. Computed tomography examination showed a thin-walled mass containing relatively high-density material in the central part with low-density rim at the periphery suggesting a haematoma with clot formation at first. Surgically removed mass was a retained sponge between right atrium and pericardium. Gossypiboma should be included in the differential diagnosis of an intrathoracic mass besides haematoma and abscess formation in any patient who has had previous thoracotomy.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Retroperitoneal neoplasms ; Retroperitoneal space ; Computed tomography ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Ultrasonography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. We report a rare case of pseudomyxoma retroperitonei in a 58-year-old woman with a past history of severe appendicitis. The imaging showed a multicystic mass similar to pseudomyxoma peritonei, but the tumor was located in the retroperitoneal space.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Liver ; diseases ; Peliosis ; Computed tomography ; Angiography ; Magnetic resonance imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Peliosis hepatis is an uncommon liver condition characterized by blood-filled cavities. We report the CT, angiographic and MR features of a case of peliosis hepatis with no obvious etiology and spontaneously regressing hemorrhagic necrosis. Helical CT showed multiple peripheral low-density regions with foci of spontaneous high density suggesting the presence of blood component. On MR imaging, the multiple peripheral lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperdense on T2-weighted images, with bright foci on all sequences suggesting subacute blood. Angiography showed no evidence of tumor or vascular malformation; multiple nodular vascular lesions filling in the parenchymal phase and persisting in the venous phase suggested blood-filled cavities. Pathological examination showed blood-filled spaces with no endothelial lining, characteristic of the parenchymal type of peliosis. Knowledge of the imaging features of hemorrhagic necrosis due to peliosis hepatis is important since it can be responsive to antibiotic therapy. Furthermore, differentiating hemorrhagic necrosis from hepatic abscess avoids dangerous and sometimes fatal percutaneous drainage.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Myositis ossificans traumatica ; Computed tomography ; Paraspinal ; Cervical
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. An unusual case of myositis ossificans traumatica lesion located in the paraspinal region is reported. Despite the contiguity of the lesion with the cervical vertebrae and ominous appearance of the biopsy material, the history of antecedent trauma and computed tomography findings allowed preoperative accurate diagnosis. To our knowledge, myositis ossificans traumatica located in the cervical paraspinal region is very rare.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Osteogenesis Imperfecta ; Complications ; Hyperplastic callus ; Computed tomography ; MR imaging
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. We describe the MRI and CT findings of hyperplastic callus formation simulating a tumour of pelvis in patient with osteogenesis imperfecta tarda. Possible differential diagnoses and the impact of different imaging techniques on the correct diagnosis are discussed.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: MALT lymphoma ; Stomach ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a low-grade lymphoma that differs from high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma both clinically and histologically. The CT appearances of MALT lymphoma are described. Of 40 patients referred with biopsy-proven MALT lymphoma, only seven had not had gastrectomy or chemotherapy prior to CT examination. The CT scans of these seven cases were analysed for the degree and extent of gastric wall thickening, enlargement of abdominal and extra-abdominal lymph nodes, and presence of extranodal disease. In all patients the stomach was distended with oral contrast medium and scans performed at narrow collimation, after intravenous administration of 20 mg hyoscine butylbromide. In six patients focal thickening of the gastric wall was 1 cm or less. One patient had thickening of over 4 cm. There was no enlargement of abdominal or extra-abdominal lymph nodes or extension to adjacent organs. Thus on CT, at presentation, MALT lymphoma results in minimal gastric wall thickening, unlike high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which typically causes bulky gastric disease, nodal enlargement and extension into adjacent organs. CT is therefore of limited value in monitoring response to treatment. With disease greater than minimal thickening, transformation to a higher grade should be considered.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Leiomyosarcoma ; Diagnosis ; Ultrasound ; Computed tomography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. This article presents a case of leiomyosarcomatosis with widespread lesions involving the soft tissues and the most unlikely organs such as thyroid and salivary glands, pancreas, ligamentum teres, bladder wall, and bones without lymph node or distant metastasis. The CT and US findings of this rare phenomenon are discussed with regard to the literature.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Clear-cell chondrosarcoma ; Larynx ; Computed tomography ; Inner surface image ; Surface-rendering image
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. A case of a large low-grade mixed clear-cell and conventional chondrosarcoma of the larynx is reported involving the paraglottic space, the cricoid and thyroid cartilage and characterized by an unusual long clinical course over 22 years, although multiple recurrences occurred without developing metastases. Computed tomography suggests diagnosis by detecting calcifications and adequately demonstrates the extension of the tumor. Innersurface and surface-rendering images document the airway stenosis in all directions. The unusual feature of this case consists in the peculiar histopathological differentiation of the observed chondrosarcoma showing a large clear-cell component.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1433-0385
    Keywords: Key words: Liver tumor ; Liver resection ; Computed tomography ; Three-dimensional visualization ; Preoperative planning. ; Schlüsselwörter: Lebertumoren ; Leberresektionen ; Computertomographie ; dreidimensionale Visualisierung ; präoperative Planung.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung. Bei Patienten mit Lebertumoren stellen Sonographie, Computertomographie (CT) und in einigen Fällen die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) die Grundlage für die präoperative Planung von Leberresektionen dar. Auf der Basis von CT-Untersuchungen wurde ein dreidimensionales (3-D) Visualisierungsprogramm entwickelt. In dieser Studie wurde das 3-D-Visualisierungsprogramm bei 6 Patienten mit problematischer Lokalisation von Lebertumoren zur Planung des operativen Vorgehens angewendet. Bei 5 von 6 Patienten konnte die Leberresektion – wie präoperativ am Computermodell geplant – durchgeführt werden. Die intraoperativen Befunde entsprachen den 3-D-Visualisierungen. Die 3-D-Visualisierung der Leber erlaubte eine anschauliche und interaktive Planung von Leberresektionen am Computermodell und stellte somit eine verbesserte Vorbereitung für die komplexen Leberresektionen dar.
    Notes: Summary. Preoperative planning of liver resections in patients with liver tumors is based on sonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. A new three-dimensional (3D) visualization program was developed based on CT data. This visualization program was used for preoperative planning in 6 patients with liver tumors in problematic intrahepatic localizations. In 5 out of 6 patients the liver resection could be performed as preoperatively planned. The intraoperative findings agreed with the 3D visualization in all these patients. 3D Visualization of the liver allowed clear and interactive planning of liver resections and improved the preparation of complex liver resections.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1433-0458
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Schädelbasis ; Innerer Gehörgang ; Tumor ; Hämangiom ; Kernspintomographie ; Computertomographie ; Key words Skull-base tumors ; Internal auditory meatus