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  • Cryptococcus neoformans  (16)
  • 1990-1994  (16)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans ; minimal synthetic medium ; physiology ; thiamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The growth of Cryptococcus neoformans in a minimal liquid synthetic medium with or without thiamine (10 μg/ml) was investigated. In these media the presence or absence of thiamine had no effect on the development of C. neoformans. To check these results, we performed a series of experiments on a solid form of the minimal synthetic medium. In this study a series of six serial transfers were carried out to starve the cells of nutrients that may have been carried over from their growth on rich media. In each of the transfers on the solid synthetic medium, C. neoformans showed a similar and scarce growth. This finding indicates that C. neoformans could be autotrophic in respect to thiamine.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antigen detection ; Capsular polysaccharide ; Cryptococcus neoformans ; Latex agglutination assay ; Pulmonary cryptococcosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two different kits for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis were evaluated. The Eiken test (the Eiken Co., Tokyo), which uses pronase for pretreatment of serum, was compared with the Crypto-LA test (International Biological Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ), which did not use pronase prior to testing. Cryptococcal antigen was detected in 21 of 23 patients (91%) with the Eiken test and in only 10 of 23 patients (43%) with the Crypto-LA test (p〈0.01 by Mcnemar test). However, the sensitivity of two tests was identical without use of pronase, as both tests could detect as little as 104 cells/ml ofCryptococcus neoformans and 10 ng/ml of capsular polysaccharide ofC. neoformans. In those serum specimens for which both tests were positive, titers were much higher for the Eiken test, but there was a statistically significant correlation between the two tests (coefficient correlation 0.79,p〈0.01). Cryptococcal antigen titer levels measured by the Eiken test correlated well with clinical courses. There was one false-positive reaction among 82 sera of non-cryptococcal patients. Pronase enhanced the sensitivity of the Eiken test, which appeared to be useful in patients with pulmonary cryptococcal disease, and its use may prevent unneeded lung biopsies.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans ; Mating type ; Serotype
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-one strains ofCryptococcus neoformans isolated from patients in Taiwan were characterized for serotypes and mating types. Slide agglutination test was performed with 8 factor-specific sera (Iatron Company, Japan) to determine the serotypes. Wheat bran agar (WBA) and malt extract agar (MEA, Wickerham) media were used for the mating tests. Twenty of the isolates were of serotype A, and one was serotype B. Except for 2 strains of serotype A, all of the serotype A strains mated withFilobasidiella neoformans var.neoformans, mating type a. The only serotype B strain mated withF. neoformans var.bacillispora mating type a in MEA medium. These data revealed the low prevalence (1/21; 4.8%) ofC. neoformans var.gattii in Taiwan, a subtropically located island.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans ; spleen ; efferent T-suppressor cells ; cyclophosphamide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Using a rat model, we have previously demonstrated that infection with Cryptococcus neoformans can trigger the production of a series of suppressor cells that specifically inhibit the cell-mediated immune response to a non-related antigen, human serum albumin (HSA), that has been injected 7 days after the infection. We previously determined that the cryptococcal infection induces afferent suppressor or suppressor induction cells (Ts1) to HSA. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the suppressor cells involved in the efferent phase of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to HSA in rats infected with C. neoformans and immunized with the non-related antigen and determine the role that the Ts1 cell plays in the induction of that cell. For this purpose, the spleen mononuclear (SpM) cells containing the Ts1 or SpM cells from immunized non-infected rats (used as donor controls) were transferred to two groups of syngeneic naive recipients (first recipients). Later, the SpM cells from both groups of animals were transferred to rats immunized with HSA (second recipients). The efferent limb of the DTH response to HSA was suppressed in the recipients that received SpM cells from donors injected with Ts1 cells. Additional HSA antigen was not required for induction of these efferent suppressor cells. Furthermore, we here show that these cells are resistant to treatment with cyclophosphamide (Cy), and that they can activate another suppressor population. The latter are Cy sensitive and are present in the immune recipient.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans ; Indomethacin ; Macrophages ; MHC Class II ; T-suppressor cells
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract When the I-A and I-E expressions were assessed in peritoneal macrophages fromCryptococcus neoformans infected animals, a significant decrease in the former was observed when compared with normal macrophages (p〈0.001) whereas a significant increase in the I-E expression was observed when compared with controls (p〈0.005). On the other hand, when studying the in vitro action of Ts cells on the macrophages, it was observed that the I-A expression was significantly reduced in macrophages upon contact with Ts cells. Similar results were obtained when Ts cells were replaced by a soluble factor. In contrast, the I-E expression was significantly increased by in vitro action of the Ts cell or its soluble factor. Indomethacin partially restored I-A and I-E expression in the macrophages to control levels.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans ; Goats ; Mastitis ; Pathology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Unilateral intramammary inoculation of 10 goats withCryptococcus neoformans (2×106 yeast cells) resulted in the development of mastitis, with gross and microscopic lesions being restricted to the infected udder halves only and there was no dissemination of infection to the opposite uninfected udder halves as well as to other organs of the body. The experiment was continued for 40 days, with 2 animals each from the infected and control groups being killed on 5th, 10th, 20th, 30th and 40th day postinoculation (DPI). Initial enlargement of the infected udder halves was followed by marked decrease in size leading to very small, firm and nodular udder halves. After infection, there was also sharp fall in the milk yield. Cryptococcal organisms were demonstrated in the mastitic milk and udder impression smears with special stains.C. neoformans was reisolated from the milk of only infected udder halves up to 25th DPI. Microsopically, there was initially acute diffuse purulent mastitis which later on became chronic, characterised by marked infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, extensive fibrosis and development of multiple granulomas. The cryptococcal organisms could be demonstrated in the udder sections only up to 30th DPI. It is concluded that intramammary inoculation ofCryptococcus neoformans in goats leads to severe mastitis with sharp fall in milk yield.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Bovine serum albumin ; Cryptococcus neoformans ; Growth ; Nitrogen source ; Protease secretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Eight strains ofCryptococcus neoformans var.neoformans isolated from AIDS patients in the Infectious Disease Institute, University of Turin, Italy, were examined for growth and extracellular proteolytic activity in culture with solid and liquid media. All of the strains grew well on Yeast Carbon Base (YCB) agar medium supplemented with both 0.1% (w/v) bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.01% (w/v) polypeptone (Pp), and produced a clear proteolytic zone around their colonies, whereas they exhibited less growth and proteolytic activity on YCB medium supplemented with BSA alone. Strain #8 with a strong proteolytic activity was cultured in three different liquid media. Its growth was limited in YCB medium supplemented with 0.1% BSA, but was moderate in that with 0.01% Pp. Enhanced growth was supported by the addition of both BSA and Pp to the YCB medium. The relative value of the final cellular yields obtained with the above YCB-0.1% BSA, YCB-0.01% Pp and YCB-0.1% BSA-0.01% Pp media was approximately 1:10:20. In the culture with YCB medium containing both BSA and Pp, a rapid decrease in the amount of BSA was demonstrated by a spectrophotometric assay and gel electrophoresis of the culture supernatant after the log-to-stationary phase. The proteolytic activity in the culture supernatant became detectable after the log phase when tested with skim milk agarose plates. These results allowed us to conclude thatCr. neoformans var.neoformans is able to secrete protease and to utilize protein as a source of nitrogen.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antifungal ; Cryptococcus neoformans ; Essential oils ; Volatile compounds ; Phenolics ; Terpenoids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cryptococcus neoformans opportunistic fungus met in the last phasis of AIDS is inhibited in vitro by several essential oils on natural volatile compounds. The minimal inhibitory concentration may reach 100 µl/l and minimal fungicidal concentration 200 µl/l with Palmarosa or Cinnamon oils. Among phenolic compounds, thymol and carvacrol are most fungitoxic. Terpenoids, citral, geraniol, and citronellol show best activities.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Capsule ; Cryptococcus neoformans ; Deep-etching ; Quick-freezing ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The three-dimensional ultrastructure ofCryptococcus neoformans was studied by quick-freezing and deep-etching (QF-DE) method.C. neoformans, strain CDC551, was cultured on agar. The viable yeast cells (107 cells) were inoculated into each mouse from the tail vein. Three weeks after the inoculation, the brains of the mice were perfused with fixatives, quickly frozen, freeze-fractured, deeply etched and rotary shadowed with platinum and carbon. In addition, the viable cells ofC. neoformans on agar were picked up and quickly frozen, and replica membranes were prepared as described above. The ultrastructure ofC. neoformans was three-dimensionally demonstrated by the QF-DE method. The capsule was composed of fine meshworks of microfibrils (10–13 nm in diameter), which were directly attached to the cell walls. The capsule of the in vivo yeasts (yeast cells in the brain lesion) was thicker than that of the in vitro yeasts (yeast cells on agar culture). At the outer part of the cell wall, a particle-accumulating layer was observed. This layer in vivo was thicker than that in vitro. Occasionally, the yeast cells were ingested by phagocytes in the mouse brain. Although the cytoplasm of such yeast cells was destroyed, the capsular meshworks were well preserved. The ultrastructure of the capsule was the same both in cultured and phagocytized yeasts in the cystic lesions of the brains. This lack of morphological changes of the capsular meshworks suggests that they are resistant to the digestion by phagocytes. This stability of capsular structures may provide one of the important pathogenic factors in cystic lesions byC. neoformans.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) ; Cryptococcus neoformans ; Immunity ; Olfactory mucosa ; Receptors
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A central nervous system isolate from an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient of 103 Cryptococcus neoformans cells was instilled intranasally into guinea pigs. These were killed to evaluate the fate of the organisms and the response of the olfactory mucosa. Olfactory epithelium prevented the penetration ofCryptococcus neoformans and showed focal hyperplastic responses. The organisms, which manifested an affinity for the olfactory portion of the nasal cavities, were cleared from the olfactory space with no intervention from the immune system cells. By the end of the fifth week almost no organisms could be found and there was no histological evidence of dissemination. In contrast, destruction of the olfactory epithelium with zinc sulfate allowed the invasion of the subepithelial tissues, demonstrating the role of the olfactory mucosa in preventing infection withCryptococcus neoformans through the nasal route. The results and the model described in this report may be useful in clarifying the pathogenic mechanisms of cryptococcosis and the non immune mediated host responses toCryptococcus neoformans.
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