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  • Cryptococcus neoformans  (38)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans ; macrophages ; T suppressor cells ; phagocytosis ; antigen presentation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The influence of lymphocytes on the modulation of macrophage functions in altered immune states induced by Cryptococcus neoformans infection in rats has been investigated. In this report we observed a decrease of ‘in vitro’ phagocytic activity by peritoneal cells (PC) from rats that received T suppressor cells induced by cryptococcal infection, against both the same microorganism that stimulated this suppressor population (p〈0.05) and another non-pathogenic primary yeast (Candida tropicalis), (p〈0.02). The microbicide function of the PC from these animals present a significant decrease in challenge by C. tropicalis (p〈0.002) when compared with PC from animals transferred with T normal cells. The transference of T suppressor cells induced by cryptococcal infection in animals immunized with human serum albumin-complete Freund's adjuvant (HSA-CFA) produces a significant alteration of the phagocytosis to HSA-human red cells (HSA-HRC) when compared with the phagocytosis observed in animals that received T normal cells or the phagocytosis of normal animals (p〈0.001). We could also observe that the DTH to HSA studied during 30 days was negative in rats transferred with PC sensitizated with HSA and treated with suppressor T cells, when compared with the DTH response of animals transferred with PC-HSA cocultured with normal cells (p〈0.05 21st day). The data presented in this paper illustrated that following infection of rats with C. neoformans there is a change in some population of accessory cells behavior reflected by the modification of several functions, such as phagocytosis, lytic activity and antigen presentation.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans ; serotypes pairs ; Bangkok ; Thailand
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from 13 patients (7 females and 6 males) suffering from systemic cryptococcosis. Eight patients were suffering from central nervous system cryptococcosis and 5 were suffering from disseminated cryptococcosis. Systemic lupus erythematosus was found to be the common underlying disease in 3 patients. The results of treatment depended on the underlying diseases (7 improved, 6 died). Also, 13 isolates of C. neoformans were obtained from feces of 30 pet birds. All 26 isolates of C. neoformans were cultured in glycine cycloheximide medium and were found to be of serotypes A and D.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans ; minimal synthetic medium ; physiology ; thiamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The growth of Cryptococcus neoformans in a minimal liquid synthetic medium with or without thiamine (10 μg/ml) was investigated. In these media the presence or absence of thiamine had no effect on the development of C. neoformans. To check these results, we performed a series of experiments on a solid form of the minimal synthetic medium. In this study a series of six serial transfers were carried out to starve the cells of nutrients that may have been carried over from their growth on rich media. In each of the transfers on the solid synthetic medium, C. neoformans showed a similar and scarce growth. This finding indicates that C. neoformans could be autotrophic in respect to thiamine.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antigen detection ; Capsular polysaccharide ; Cryptococcus neoformans ; Latex agglutination assay ; Pulmonary cryptococcosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Two different kits for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis were evaluated. The Eiken test (the Eiken Co., Tokyo), which uses pronase for pretreatment of serum, was compared with the Crypto-LA test (International Biological Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ), which did not use pronase prior to testing. Cryptococcal antigen was detected in 21 of 23 patients (91%) with the Eiken test and in only 10 of 23 patients (43%) with the Crypto-LA test (p〈0.01 by Mcnemar test). However, the sensitivity of two tests was identical without use of pronase, as both tests could detect as little as 104 cells/ml ofCryptococcus neoformans and 10 ng/ml of capsular polysaccharide ofC. neoformans. In those serum specimens for which both tests were positive, titers were much higher for the Eiken test, but there was a statistically significant correlation between the two tests (coefficient correlation 0.79,p〈0.01). Cryptococcal antigen titer levels measured by the Eiken test correlated well with clinical courses. There was one false-positive reaction among 82 sera of non-cryptococcal patients. Pronase enhanced the sensitivity of the Eiken test, which appeared to be useful in patients with pulmonary cryptococcal disease, and its use may prevent unneeded lung biopsies.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: alveolar macrophages ; cortisone acetate ; Cryptococcus neoformans ; oxidative metabolism ; phagocytosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of cortisone acetate (CA) treatment on the anticryptococcal activity by rat alveolar macrophages (AM) was investigated. The animals received a weekly dose of 5 mg CA during 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks. Following the final dose the AM were collected by lung lavage and challenged with Cryptococcus neoformans. Parallel experiments with silica particles of a similar size were performed. The phagocytic function was assessed using a fluorescence method that distinguishes between attached and ingested particles. The oxidative metabolism was studied by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction test. The accumulated attachment (a measure of the attachment process) of cryptococci and silica particles per AM was significantly depressed after the third and fourth week of CA treatment. The ingested fraction (a measure of the ingestion process) of cryptococci but not of silica particles showed a small but significant decrease after the fourth week. The NBT reduction of the unstimulated AM and those stimulated with either the cryptococci or silica particles for 24 h was significantly reduced after the fourth week of treatment. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that high dose CA treatment primarily affects the attachment of the cryptococci to the AM and to a lesser extent also the ingestion process. In addition, it decreases the NBT reduction by AM in response to the yeast. The impairment of the AM anticryptococcal activity by high doses of CA constitutes a risk of dissemination of C. neoformans from the lungs.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans ; urease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A rapid method to evidence urease activity is described. Urea hydrolysis and consequent production ammonia are detected by a chemical reaction producing a blue phenol compound (indophenol blue). Three hundred and three yeast were tested. Out of 107 urease-positive organisms detected by Christensen's Urea Agar Test (CUAT) 102 were positive by our method. No false negatives were observed by this method when testing 87 Cryptococcus strains. Ths practical screening test for presumptive identification of Cryptococcus neoformans is simple, unaffected by pH changes and requires 15 minutes to be performed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Cryptococcus neoformans ; Mating type ; Serotype
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-one strains ofCryptococcus neoformans isolated from patients in Taiwan were characterized for serotypes and mating types. Slide agglutination test was performed with 8 factor-specific sera (Iatron Company, Japan) to determine the serotypes. Wheat bran agar (WBA) and malt extract agar (MEA, Wickerham) media were used for the mating tests. Twenty of the isolates were of serotype A, and one was serotype B. Except for 2 strains of serotype A, all of the serotype A strains mated withFilobasidiella neoformans var.neoformans, mating type a. The only serotype B strain mated withF. neoformans var.bacillispora mating type a in MEA medium. These data revealed the low prevalence (1/21; 4.8%) ofC. neoformans var.gattii in Taiwan, a subtropically located island.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: anticryptococcal activity ; Cryptococcus neoformans ; human serum protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Human serum at 5 to 10% (v/v) in tissue culture medium RPMI-1640, inhibits the growth of Cryptococcus neoformans by 80 to 93%. Serum fractionated on molecular sieve columns (Sephadex G-200) yielded an active protein fraction. This fraction at 100 μg protein/ml inhibited the growth of C. neoformans by 54%. When an active G-200 fraction was applied to a dye affinity column (Affi-Gel Blue) the fraction with inhibitory activity was bound by the column and was eluted with 1.4 M NaCl in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The bound fraction at 62.5 μg protein/ml inhibited C. neoformans growth by 82%. On native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Nu-PAGE) the bound fraction migrated as a major and a minor band. Under the reducing conditions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE the bound fraction yielded 4 prominent bands with MW ranging from 175 kDa to 45 kDa. Purification of the active Sephadex G-200 peak was achieved using an anion exchange column (DEAE-Sephacel). Protein eluted with 0.1 M NaCl had strong anticryptococcal activity (12.5 μg/ml, 79% inhibition), which in SDS-PAGE migrated as a single band with an approximate MW of 85 kDA. This protein appears important in natural host resistance to C. neoformans and polymorphisms or deficiencies may have epidemiologic and diagnostic relevance.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: air ; bird excreta ; Cryptococcus neoformans ; zoo
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The presence of Cryptococcus neoformans was studied in bird excreta and in the air circulating in and around bird cages in the City Zoo of Cali, Colombia, between August 1994 and April 1995, using a sunflower seed agar culture medium for fungus isolation. A total of 380 samples was studied, 110 from droppings and 270 from Petri dishes placed inside(148) and outside (122) the cages. C. neoformansvar neoformans was found in only two cases, one from bird excreta (0.9%) and the other from air inside a cage (0.7%). The former positive sample was collected from the cracks of a dead tree where two crested caracaras (Polyborusplancus) roosted; the feces were dry, accumulated,and with a pH of 6. The other positive sample was found inside the cage of these birds; however, samples taken in a dispersion study at 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 m around this cage were all negative. It appears that this low isolation rate is due to adequate cleaning and disinfection procedures used in the city zoo of Cali.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: cryptococcosis ; Cryptococcus neoformans ; humans ; mice
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Nasopharyngeal swabbings, obtained from AIDS patients, were plated onto Niger seed agar containing antibiotics. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from 35 out of 84 patients (41.7%) diagnosed as primary cryptococcal cases before antifungal administration, and 8 out of 86 (9.3%) cryptococcosis patients on antifungal therapy. The fungus could not be isolated from any of 447 samples from 194 AIDS patients not diagnosed with cryptococcosis. These findings are novel in that the presence of C. neoformans in AIDS patients at this site has never been looked at previously.
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