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  • Cyanobacteria  (178)
  • Regulation  (84)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 107 (1976), S. 109-111 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Halophilism ; Blue-green alga ; Cyanobacteria ; Aphanotece halophytica ; Salinity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The isolation of a halophilic blue-green alga, Aphanothece halophytica, from Great Salt Lake is described. The organism was cultured from waters with salinities up to saturated NaCl (about 30% w/v). It has an optimum salinity for growth of about 16% NaCl, but can grow very slowly even in saturated NaCl. Based on the study of the Great Salt Lake organism, and on a review of the earlier literature, it is concluded that despite recent reports to the contrary, true halophilic blue-green algae do exist.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 112 (1977), S. 283-285 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Wine yeasts ; Sulfur metabolism ; Regulation ; Sulfate uptake
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Five different strains of wine yeasts were investigated with respect to active uptake of [35S] sulfate and its regulation by methionine. Considerable differences exist between “low” and “high” sulfite-producing strains in the initial velocity of sulfate uptake. Further differences were established in repression of sulfate permease by l-methionine, most evident in a total lack of repression in one of the “high” sulfite producers. These findings explain in part variable sulfite and sulfide formation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: cAMP ; Regulation ; Chlorophyll synthesis ; Chlorella fusca
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The intracellular concentration of cAMP in the green alga Chlorella fusca was in the range of 2 · 10-9 to 10-8 moles/g dry weight and was strongly dependent on the growth conditions. The cAMP level was high with high light intensity, low nitrate or glucose concentration. Intracellular cAMP increased only by factor of 2 when high amounts (up to 10-3 M) of cAMP were added to the medium. Most of the given cAMP was converted to 5′-AMP. Addition of cAMP had little effect on the chlorophyll content of the cells, only at 10-6 M some enhancement in photoautotrophic cultures was observed. On the other hand high amounts of cAMP in the medium increased the growth rate. DBcAMP* showed a positive effect on chlorophyll synthesis and growth rate at much lower concentrations compared to cAMP. Stimulation effects of exogenous cAMP on the synthesis of chlorophyll were also observed in mixotrophic cultures with a high glucose/nitrate ratio, conditions where chlorophyll synthesis is repressed. Similar to autotrophic conditions DBcAMP was more effective than cAMP. These data indicate that cAMP may act in a system controlling the chlorophyll content of the cells in response to nutrients or light.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Root nodule symbiosis ; Rhizobium meliloti ; Medicago sativa ; Nitrogenase activity ; Regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Rhizobium meliloti bacteroids in Medicago sativa root nodules was suppressed by several inorganic nitrogen sources. Amino acids like glutamine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which can serve as sole nitrogen sources for the unnodulated plant did not influence nitrogenase activity of effective nodules, even at high concentrations. Ammonia and nitrate suppressed symbiotic nitrogen fixation in vivo only at concentrations much higher than those needed for suppression of nitrogenase activity in free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. The kinetics of suppression were slow compared with that of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. On the other hand, nitrite, which acts as a direct inhibitor of nitrogenase, suppressed very quickly and at low concentrations. Glutamic acid and glutamine enhanced the effect of ammonia dramatically, while the suppression by nitrate was enhanced only slightly.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Cyanobacteria ; Aphanocapsa 6308 ; Inorganic carbon fixation ; C4 photosynthesis ; C3 photosynthesis ; Carbonate fixation ; Bicarbonate fixation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Aphanocapsa 6308 metabolizes both NaHCO3 and Na2CO3. The short term incorporation (5-s) metabolic pattern and the patterns of incorporation of bicarbonate for exponential versus stationary phase cultures differ, however. Cells were equilibrated for 10 min in air and distilled water prior to injection of either NaH14CO3 at pH 8.0, or Na2 14CO3 at pH 11.0. Hot ethanol extracts were analyzed via paper chromatography and autoradiography for products of CO2 fixation. At 5 s, malate (51.5%) predominates slightly as a primary bicarbonate fixation product over 3-phosphoglycerate (40.3%); 3-phosphoglycerate is the primary product of carbonate fixation. At 60 s, the carbonate and bicarbonate labelling patterns are similar. Cells in stationary phase fix in 5 s a greater proportion of bicarbonate into malate (36% vs. 14% for 3-phosphoglycerate) than do cells in exponential growth. Likewise, 60 s incorporations show a large amount of bicarbonate fixed into aspartate (30.9%) in stationary phase cells over that of exponential phase (11.6%). These data suggest an operative C4 pathway for purposes not related to carbohydrate synthesis but rather as compensation for the incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle in cyanobacteria. The enhancement of both aspartate fixation and CO2 fixation into citrulline in stationary phase correlates with an increase in cyanophycin granule production which requires both aspartate and arginine.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Physarum polycephalum ; Amoebae ; Aminopeptidases ; Acid proteases ; Regulation ; Development ; Differential gene activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The cultivation of Physarum polycephalum amoebae in two media with different protein contents revealed a regulation of aminopeptidases and proteases depending on the albumin content of the medium: in growing amoebae and plasmodia the aminopeptidases have similar isoenzyme patterns and relative activities against nitroanilides. One alanine and four leucine aminopeptidase isoenzymes were found within the slightly acid pH range. During growth amoebae secrete—different from plasmodia—leucine aminopeptidase into the medium with low protein content. In an albumin-rich medium additional alanine aminopeptidase activity was found. Out of nine plasmodial proteases four were found in amoebae too. Only one band (pI 3.6) was present in the protein-poor medium. No protease activity could be detected in the proteinrich medium.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Cyanobacteria ; Knallgas reaction ; Hydrogenase ; Hydrogen utilization ; Nitrogenase ; Nitrogen fixation ; Isolated heterocysts ; Anabaena cylindrica ; Nostoc muscorum ; Anabaena variabilis ; Anacystis nidulans ; Cyanophora paradoxa
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Several blue-green algae were surveyed for the occurrence of the hydrogenase which was assayed by the oxyhydrogen or Knallgas reaction in the intact organisms. In aerobically grown cultures, the reaction was detectable in Anabaena cylindrica, Nostoc muscorum and in two Anabaena variabilis species, whereas virtually no activity was observed in Anacystis nidulans and Cyanophora paradoxa. In these latter two algae, the reaction was, however, found after growth under molecular hydrogen for several days, which drastically increased the activity levels with all the algae tested. In the nitrogen fixing species, the activity of the Knallgas reaction was enhanced when all combined nitrogen was omitted from the media. H2 and hydrogenase could not significantly support the CO2-fixation in photoreduction experiments with all blue-green algae investigated here. Hydrogenase was assayed by the dithionite and methyl viologen dependent evolution of hydrogen and was found to be present with essentially the same specific activity levels in preparations of both heterocysts and vegetative cells from Anabaena cylindrica. Na2S2O4 as well as H2 supported the C2H2-reduction of the isolated heterocysts. The H2-dependent C2H2-reduction did not require the presence of oxygen but was strictly light-dependent where H2 served as an electron donor to photosystem I of these cells. It is concluded that hydrogen can be utilized by two different pathways in blue-green algae.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Streptococcus cremoris ; Cell wall proteinase ; Calcium dependency ; Regulation ; Translational control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The persistent accumulation of proteinase (PIII) activity in the cell wall of Streptococcus cremoris strain AM1 during growth depends on the presence of Ca2+-ions in the medium. In the absence of calcium initial accumulation of activity in the cell wall is observed, followed by a decrease to a low final level. Under this condition no increase of proteolytic activity is found in the extracellular fluid. A possible function of calcium in the stabilization of the enzyme is discussed. Prolonged accumulation of catalytically active proteinase PIII in the cell wall occurs in the absence of messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis. This process involves de novo protein synthesis supported by preformed proteinase-specific messenger ribonucleic acid, which is possibly either intrinsically long-lived or is stabilized following its transcription. The level of the extracellular concentration of amino acids and/or peptides regulates the translation of newly synthesized proteinase-specific messenger ribonucleic acid and, possibly, the growth of the organism in milk.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Blue-green algae ; Nitrogen fixation ; Anabaena ; Cyanobacteria ; Marine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Five strains of heterocystous blue-green algae capable of high rates of growth and nitrogenase activity were isolated from shallow coastal environments. Growth of the organisms was characterized with respect to temperature, NaCl concentration in the medium, and nitrogen source. The temperature optima ranged from 35–42°C, and all but one of the strains displayed a requirement for added NaCl. The generation times under N2-fixing conditions were 5.1–5.9 h, and were as low as 3.4 h for growth on NH4Cl. Nitrogenase activity (C2H2 reduction) was high throughout the logarithmic growth phase of each strain. The maximum value observed for one strain was 65.5 nmoles C2H4 produced/mg protein x min, and the average values for the five strains ranged from 24.5–46.7 nmoles C2H4/mg protein x min. The organisms all belong to the genusAnabaena. The growth and nitrogenase activity of these strains are much higher than those of the heterocystous blue-green algae commonly used for investigation of nitrogen metabolism, and they thus should prove to be useful physiological tools. Their prevalence, as judged by the ease of their enrichment and isolation, in bay and estuarine environments suggests that they are important contributors of combined nitrogen.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 128 (1980), S. 8-11 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Agmenellum quadruplicatum ; Glycocalyx ; Cyanobacteria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The marine cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum was shown to possess an extracellular glycocalyx similar in structure to those surrounding other bacteria from a variety of natural environments. Thin sections of cells stained with ruthenium red and frozen-etched preparations of unfixed cells indicated the glycocalyx was a network of small fibrils. The glycocalyx was present during all phases of growth, and was not degraded during nutrient limitation.
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