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  • Cytoplasmic male sterility  (92)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Zea mays ; Mexican races of maize ; Mitochondrial DNA ; Cytoplasmic male sterility
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Mitochondrial DNAs have been examined in accessions of 25 Mexican races of maize and compared with the mitochondrial DNAs previously found in inbred lines from the USA. Many variants were found. Low molecular weight DNA components, not previously found in US lines, were found in many of the accessions. Accessions classified as belonging to the same race, and plants from a single accession, sometimes had different mitochondrial genomes. Mitochondrial genomes similar to those in T and S cytoplasms were found in Mexican accessions. A low molecular weight linear DNA species has partial homology with a sequence in the high molecular weight mitochondrial genome. All plants with a shorter version of the linear molecule had a correspondingly altered region of homology in the high molecular weight genome. There is evidence that the geographical distribution of mitochondrial DNA types within Mexico is not random. One type, found in the oldest races, appears to be widely dispersed but another less common type appears to be confined largely to coastal regions. The potential value of these findings in maize breeding and for evolutionary studies is discussed.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 55 (1979), S. 269-272 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Barley ; Protein and lysine content ; Cytoplasmic male sterility ; Maternal effect ; Partial spike fertility
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The effect of the msm1 cytoplasm of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on kernel protein and lysine was studied using the near-isogenic, unrestored derivatives of seven barley varieties. With normal lysine varieties, ‘Adorra’, ‘Bomi’, ‘CI 4362’, and ‘Hankkija's Eero’, the msm1 cytoplasm produced an average of one percentage point more protein than did the normal cytoplasm of the same varieties. There was no difference between the two cytoplasms with respect to their effect on the lysine content. With high lysine varieties, ‘Bomi Risø mutant 13’, ‘Bomi Risø mutant 1508’, and ‘CI 3947’, msm1 produced almost one percentage point more protein but protein with a somewhat decreased lysine content. Induced partial spike fertility in normal ‘Adorra’ was found to be associated with lysine in meal (r=−0.999), with protein in meal (r=−0.984), and with lysine in protein (r=0.941). Removal of the spikes on the secondary tillers affected both the protein and its lysine content. It is suggested that good spike fertility is an important pre-requisite when selecting high lysine and/or high protein segregants or mutants.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Cytoplasmic male sterility ; cms-S ; Mitochondrial DNA ; Double-stranded RNA ; Gametophytic restoration of fertility
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Differences in fertility restoration and mitochondrial nucleic acids permitted division of 25 accessions of S-type male sterile cytoplasm (cms-S) of maize into five subgroups: B/D, CA, LBN, ME, and S(USDA). S cytoplasm itself (USDA cytoplasm) was surprisingly not representative of cms-S, since only two other accessions, TC and I, matched its mitochondrial DNA pattern. CA was the predominant subgroup, containing 18 of the 25 accessions. The B/D and ME subgroups were the most fertile and LBN the most sterile. The exceptional sterility of LBN cytoplasm makes it the most promising of the 25 cms-S accessions for the production of hybrid seed. The most efficient means of quantifying the fertility of the subgroups was analysis of pollen morphology in plants having cms-S cytoplasm and simultaneously being heterozygous for nuclear restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes. This method took advantage of the gametophytic nature of cms-S restoration. The inbred NY821LERf was found to contain at least two restorer genes for cms-S. Fertility differences were correlated with mitochondrial nucleic acid variation in the LBN, ME, and S (USDA) subgroups.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Cytoplasmic male sterility ; Sorghum ; Mitochondrial gene expression ; Nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Variation in mitochondrial genome organization and expression between male fertile and sterile nuclear-cytoplasmic combinations of sorghum has been examined. Cytoplasmic genotypes were classified into eleven groups on the basis of restriction endonuclease digestion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and five groups on the basis of mitochondrial translation products. These cytoplasms were further characterized by hybridization of specific gene probes to Southern blots of EcoRI digested mtDNA, and identification of the fragment location of four mitochondrial genes. Variation was observed in the genomic location and copy number of the F1 ATPase α-subunit gene, as well as the genomic location and gene product of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. The effect of nuclear genotype on mitochondrial genome organization, expression and the presence of two linear plasmid-like mtDNA molecules was examined. Our results indicate that nuclear-mitochondrial interactions are required for regulation of mitochondrial gene expression. When a cytoplasm is transferred from its natural to a foreign nuclear background some changes in the products of in organello mitochondrial protein synthesis occur. In a number of cytoplasmic genotypes these changes correlate with the expression of cytoplasmic male sterile phenotype, suggesting a possible molecular basis for this mutation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Daucus carota L. ; Cytoplasmic male sterility ; Donor-recipient protoplast fusion ; Cybrids ; Mitochondrial DNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary X-irradiated protoplasts of Daucus carota L., 28A1, carrying cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) cytoplasm and iodoacetamide-treated protoplasts of a fertile carrot cultivar, ‘K5’, were fused with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and 73 plants were regenerated. Twenty-six randomly chosen regenerated plants had non-parental mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as revealed by XbaI restriction fragment patterns, and all of the plants investigated had diploid chromosome numbers. Of the 11 cybrid plants that showed mtDNA fragment patterns clearly different from those of the parents, 10 plants showed male sterility with brown or red anthers, and one plant possessed partially sterile yellow anthers. The mtDNA fragment patterns of the ten cybrid plants with male sterile flowers resembled that of a CMS parent, 28A1; and four fragments were identified that were common between the sterile cybrid plants and 28A1, but absent from the partially sterile cybrid plants and a fertile cultivar, ‘K5’. The results indicated that the CMS trait of the donor was efficiently transferred into the cybrid plants by donor-recipient protoplast fusion.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA ; Cytoplasmic male sterility ; Helianthus annuus ; Mitochondrial plasmid like DNA ; Phylogeny
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A circular supercoiled mitochondrial DNA plasmid P1 (1.45 kb) is shown in both normal fertile plants of Helianthus annuus, and some cytoplasmic male sterile lines (CMS A and CMS P). In contrast, no plasmid is found in some other types of CMS C, I, B and K. A circular supercoiled DNA (P2) of higher molecular weight (1.8 kb) is observed in CMS F. The mitochondrial plasmid P1 was cloned, nick-translated and hybridized with native mitochondrial DNA from different lines of male fertile, CMS or wild Helianthus. No sequence homology has been detected between plasmid DNA P1 and high molecular weight mitochondrial DNA in any line examined. A slight hybridization occurs between plasmids P1 and P2. Thus, there is no apparent relationship between mitochondrial plasmid DNA and CMS or Helianthus species. On the contrary, each Helianthus CMS and male fertile strain can be characterized by digestion fragment patterns (Sal I and Bgl I). Analysis of mitochondrial DNA from wild Helianthus strains indicated a relation between some CMS and the strain from which they were maternally derived, as for example CMS I and H. annuus ssp lenticularis and CMS F and H. petiolaris fallax. On the basis of restriction endonuclease patterns, a CMS phylogenic tree is proposed which illustrates a molecular polymorphism in the mitochondrial genome of Helianthus.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Cytoplasmic male sterility ; DNA synthesis ; Mitochondria ; Pollen development ; Tapetum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A new method is described by which tapetal cells may be isolated from anthers of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile lines of Petunia hybrida. Using a combination of stereometry and Feulgen densitometry it has been possible to chart DNA synthesis and nuclear division with great precision within these cells. Results are presented which show CMS lines both to synthesize far less DNA than the fertiles and also to undergo less cell division. These differences in DNA kinetics and cytokinesis are obvious long before any differences between sterile and fertile lines may be detected in the meiocyte mass. In addition to these difference in nuclear behaviour, the tapetal cells of CMS lines also synthesize far lower levels of rough endoplasmic reticulum than do their fertile counterparts. Again, this difference is evident at a very early stage of anther development when all other cell components, including mitochondria and plastids, appear normal. These data are discussed in terms of the very special differentiation undergone by tapetal cells in angiosperms, and the conclusions drawn are considered in the perspective of current hypotheses proposed to explain the operation of CMS.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Brassica napus ; Protoplast fusion ; Triazine resistance ; Cytoplasmic male sterility ; Mitochondrial DNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Fusion of leaf protoplasts from an inbred line of Brassica oleracea ssp. botrytis (cauliflower, n=9) carrying the Ogura (R1) male sterile cytoplasm with hypocotyl protoplasts of B. campestris ssp. oleifera (cv “Candle”, n=10) carrying an atrazine-resistant (ATR) cytoplasm resulted in the production of synthetic B. napus (n=19). Thirty-four somatic hybrids were produced; they were characterized for morphology, phosphoglucose isomerase isoenzymes, ribosomal DNA hybridization patterns, chromosome numbers, and organelle composition. All somatic hybrids carried atrazine-resistant chloroplasts derived from B. campestris. The mitochondrial genomes in 19 hybrids were examined by restriction endonuclease and Southern blot analyses. Twelve of the 19 hybrids contained mitochondria showing novel DNA restriction patterns; of these 12 hybrids, 5 were male sterile and 7 were male fertile. The remaining hybrids contained mitochondrial DNA that was identical to that of the ATR parent and all were male fertile.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Beta vulgaris ; Cytoplasmic male sterility ; mtDNA probes ; Miniassays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Methods are described whereby hybridization of mitochondrial (mt) DNA with different DNA probes can definitely distinguish male-fertile and and male-sterile (cms) cytoplasms of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. We have developed two types of miniassays. (1) Comparative methods requiring the isolation and restriction of total cellular DNA, hybridization with cloned mtDNA fragments from either fertile or male-sterile cytoplasms, and comparison of the hybridization patterns to the fertile-and sterile-specific patterns of mtDNA of sugar beet for the given mtDNA probe. For these analyses, we routinely used 1 g of plant material to determine the type of cytoplasm. (2) Noncomparative (“plus-minus”) methods requiring neither the isolation of pure DNA nor restriction, electrophoresis, or Southern blotting. Instead, alkaline-SDS plant extracts from as little as 50 mg of plant material were dot-blotted and hybridized with fertile-specific (mitochondrial minicircular DNA) and/or cms-specific probes (consisting of a 2.3-kb mtDNA sequence exclusively occurring in the cms cytoplasm). The assays are simple to perform, give definitive results, are nonde-structive to the plants, and may be used in mass screening of sugar beet populations for hybrid production or in in vitro culture processes.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Cytoplasmic male sterility ; Triazine ; Ogura mtDNA recombination ; Broccoli
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. italica) hypocotyl protoplasts were fused with mesophyll protoplasts of two B. napus lines, one carrying the Ogura (ogu) cms cytoplasm, and the other carrying a hybrid cytoplasm consisting of ogu mitochondria combined with triazine-tolerance-conferring chloroplasts from ctr cytoplasm. Two male-sterile somatic hybrids were recovered from the fusion of broccoli protoplasts with those of ogu/ctr cybrid B. napus. The ogu mtDNAs and ctr cpDNAs were not altered in these hybrids. Four male-sterile plants were recovered from the somatic hybridization of broccoli with ogu cms B. napus. Three of these possessed mitochondrial genomes that appeared to have resulted from recombination between the ogu and normal B. oleracea (ole) mtDNAs, while the fourth possessed an unrearranged ogu mtDNA. All four of these plants had B. oleracea cpDNA, and none displayed the seedling chlorosis associated with ogu chloroplasts. Most of the plants recovered from these fusions had the chromosome number expected of B. oleracea + B. napus hybrids (2n = 56). The novel cytoplasms may prove to be useful for the molecular analysis of Brassica cms and for the production of hybrid Brassica.
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