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  • Earthquake  (3)
  • 1995-1999  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Earthquake ; polar motion ; earth rotation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The mass redistribution in the earth as a result of an earthquake faulting changes the earth's inertia tensor, and hence its rotation. Using the complete formulae developed byChao andGross (1987) based on the normal mode theory, we calculated the earthquake-induced polar motion excitation for the largest 11,015 earthquakes that occurred during 1977.0–1993.6. The seismic excitations in this period are found to be two orders of magnitude below the detection threshold even with today's high precision earth rotation measurements. However, it was calculated that an earthquake of only one tenth the size of the great 1960 Chile event, if happened today, could be comfortably detected in polar motion observations. Furthermore, collectively these seismic excitations have a strong statistical tendency to nudge the pole towards ∼140°E, away from the actually observed polar drift direction. This non-random behavior, similarly found in other earthquake-induced changes in earth rotation and low-degree gravitational field byChao andGross (1987), manifests some geodynamic behavior yet to be explored.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Earthquake ; tsunamis ; runup ; South Kuril Islands ; numerical simulation ; tide gage ; subsidence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The 1994 Shikotan earthquake was one of the greatest earthquakes in recent years with a magnitude ofM s 8.0. A tsunami survey was conducted by Russian and U.S. geophysicists from October 16–30, 1994, less than two weeks after the earthquake. The survey results and a numerical hindcast simulation are reported. Tsunami focusing effect at locations supposedly sheltered by the island chain is discussed. Based on the obtained data, tsunamis which attacked Shikotan Island are characterized as long waves (the order of 10–20 min wave period) with a positive leading wave. Possible consequences of the positive leading wave form are discussed in relation to the observed minimal destruction of beach vegetation and relatively small transport of marine sediment onto the shore. The high-quality tide-gage record in Malokurilskaya Bay indicates the occurrence of a 53 cm subsidence at the site.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Earthquake ; tsunami ; runup ; Mindoro Island ; Philippines ; lateral strike slip ; field survey ; N wave
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract This is a report of the field survey of the November 15, 1994 Mindoro Island, Philippines, tsunami generated by an earthquake (M=7.0) with a strike-slip motion. We will report runup heights from 54 locations on Luzon, Mindoro and other smaller islands in the Cape Verde passage between Mindoro and Luzon. Most of the damage was concentrated along the northern coast of Mindoro. Runup height distribution ranged 3–4 m at the most severely damaged areas and 2–4 in neighboring areas. The tsunami-affected area was limited to within 10 km of the epicenter. The largest recorded runup value of 7.3 m was measured on the southwestern coast of Baco Island while a runup of 6.1 m was detected on its northern coastline. The earthquake and tsunami killed 62 people, injured 248 and destroyed 800 houses. As observed in other recent tsunami disasters, most of the casualties were children. Nearly all eyewitnesses interviewed described the first wave as a leading-depression wave. Eyewitnesses reported that the main direction of tsunami propagation was SW in Subaang Bay, SE in Wawa and Calapan, NE on Baco Island and N on Verde Island, suggesting that the tsunami source area was in the southern Pass of Verde Island and that the wave propagated rapidly in all directions. The fault plane extended offshore to the N of Mindoro Island, with its rupture originating S of Verde Island and propagating almost directly south to the inland of Mindoro, thereby accounting for the relatively limited damage area observed on the N of Mindoro.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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