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  • Regulation  (84)
  • Electron microscopy  (71)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Piptocephalis unispora ; Mucorales ; Kickxellaceae ; Electron microscopy ; Germination ; Spore swelling ; Sporangiospore
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Germination of the sporangiospore of Piptocephalis unispora Benjamin, observed by means of light and electron microscopy, involved the formation of a new inner wall which became continous with the inner layer of the wall of the germ tube. The outer wall layer of the germ tube was continous with the original inner wall layer of the dormant spore. Preliminary details of appressorium structure were noted. Nutritional experiments indicated that sporangiospores required external sources of utilisable nitrogen and carbon compounds for maximal swelling and germ tube production. Limited development occurred when either nutrient was supplied singly. Comparison of germination of the asexual spore with that in other Mucorales, especially the Kickxellaceae, has been made, and the merosporangial status in P. unispora discussed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Achlya ; Electron microscopy ; Nuclear microfilaments ; Antheridia ; Mycology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This is the first report of intranuclear microfilaments within gametangial nuclei of oömycetous fungi. Longitudinal sections of four to six microfilaments were frequently observed in meiotic antheridial nuclei of Achlya ambisexualis. Each microfilament measured approximately 7–10 nm in diameter. Spindle tubules (25 nm in diameter) were also observed within some of the nuclei possessing microfilaments.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Bdellovibrio ; Spirillum ; Cell wall ; Bdelloplast ; Lipoprotein ; Peptidoglycan ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In both freeze-etched and critical-point dried preparations examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, the outer surfaces of the cells of Spirillum serpens VHL assume a wrinkled appearance 10–15 min after challenge by Bdellovibrion bacteriovorus 109D. This wrinkling effect is believed (on circumstantial evidence) to be caused by the bdellovibrio's disruption of the cell wall lipoprotein of the Spirillum. With the exception of those topological changes caused by wrinkling, the outer membrane of the Spirillum cell wall retains a normal appearance as viewed in freeze-etched preparations, even after the Spirillum cell has been converted into a bdelloplast. Although the peptidoglycan layer of the Spirillum cell presumably is weakened somewhat by the invading Bdellovibrio, evidence obtained from freeze-fractured preparations of Spirillum bdelloplasts suggests that the peptidoglycan remains as a discrete cell wall layer, even though the Spirillum cell wall apparently has lost much of its rigidity. That the peptidoglycan backbone remains essentially intact, even after the Spirillum cell has been entered by the Bdellovibrio, is supported by the observation that the soluble amino sugar content of the culture medium, as determined by chemical analysis, does not rise even 5.0 h after the association of the Bdellovibrio with the Spirillum has begun.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Cell wall ; Peptidoglycan ; Electron microscopy ; Bacillus subtilis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Isolated cell walls of Bacillus subtilis have a striated appearance in the electron microscope. The structure persists when teichoic acids are removed. It is inferred that the structure bears on the arrangement of the peptidoglycan chains.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: d-Ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase ; Oxygenase activity ; Quaternary structure ; Electron microscopy ; Alcaligenes eutrophus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract d-Ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase has been purified from autotrophically grown cells of the facultative chemolithotrophic hydrogen bacteriumAlcaligenes eutrophus. The enzyme was homogeneous by the criteria of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 505000 determined by gel filtration and sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and a sedimentation coefficient of 18.2 S was obtained. It was demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis that the enzyme consists of two types of subunits of molecular weight 52000 and 13000. Electron microscopy on the intact and the partially dissociated enzyme lead to the construction of a model for the quaternary structure of the enzyme which is composed of 8 large and 8 small subunits. The most probable symmetry of the enzyme molecule is 4:2:2. Michaelis constant (K m ) values for ribulose 1,5-diphosphate, Mg2-, and CO2 were 0.59 mM, 0.33 mM, and 0.066 mM measured under air. Oxygen was a competitive inhibitor with respect to CO2 suggesting that the enzyme also exhibits an oxygenase activity. The oxygenolytic cleavage of ribulose 1,5-diphosphate was shown and a 1:1 stoichiometry between oxygen consumption and 3-phosphoglycerate formation observed.
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  • 6
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    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 112 (1977), S. 283-285 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Wine yeasts ; Sulfur metabolism ; Regulation ; Sulfate uptake
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Five different strains of wine yeasts were investigated with respect to active uptake of [35S] sulfate and its regulation by methionine. Considerable differences exist between “low” and “high” sulfite-producing strains in the initial velocity of sulfate uptake. Further differences were established in repression of sulfate permease by l-methionine, most evident in a total lack of repression in one of the “high” sulfite producers. These findings explain in part variable sulfite and sulfide formation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: cAMP ; Regulation ; Chlorophyll synthesis ; Chlorella fusca
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The intracellular concentration of cAMP in the green alga Chlorella fusca was in the range of 2 · 10-9 to 10-8 moles/g dry weight and was strongly dependent on the growth conditions. The cAMP level was high with high light intensity, low nitrate or glucose concentration. Intracellular cAMP increased only by factor of 2 when high amounts (up to 10-3 M) of cAMP were added to the medium. Most of the given cAMP was converted to 5′-AMP. Addition of cAMP had little effect on the chlorophyll content of the cells, only at 10-6 M some enhancement in photoautotrophic cultures was observed. On the other hand high amounts of cAMP in the medium increased the growth rate. DBcAMP* showed a positive effect on chlorophyll synthesis and growth rate at much lower concentrations compared to cAMP. Stimulation effects of exogenous cAMP on the synthesis of chlorophyll were also observed in mixotrophic cultures with a high glucose/nitrate ratio, conditions where chlorophyll synthesis is repressed. Similar to autotrophic conditions DBcAMP was more effective than cAMP. These data indicate that cAMP may act in a system controlling the chlorophyll content of the cells in response to nutrients or light.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Root nodule symbiosis ; Rhizobium meliloti ; Medicago sativa ; Nitrogenase activity ; Regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Rhizobium meliloti bacteroids in Medicago sativa root nodules was suppressed by several inorganic nitrogen sources. Amino acids like glutamine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which can serve as sole nitrogen sources for the unnodulated plant did not influence nitrogenase activity of effective nodules, even at high concentrations. Ammonia and nitrate suppressed symbiotic nitrogen fixation in vivo only at concentrations much higher than those needed for suppression of nitrogenase activity in free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. The kinetics of suppression were slow compared with that of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. On the other hand, nitrite, which acts as a direct inhibitor of nitrogenase, suppressed very quickly and at low concentrations. Glutamic acid and glutamine enhanced the effect of ammonia dramatically, while the suppression by nitrate was enhanced only slightly.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Defective lysogeny ; Alcaligenes eutrophus ; Simultaneous isolation technique ; Temperate bacteriophages ; Pseudomonas pseudoflava ; Biological characterization ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Widespread defective lysogeny was detected in Alcaligenes eutrophus by electron microscopic analysis of cultures. Mitomycin C treatment of the cultures resulted in the production of defective (inco-) particles. Polysheaths were produced both with and without induction. With the simultaneous isolation technique six phages were isolated for hydrogen-oxidizing strains of the new species Pseudomonas pseudoflava. The phages were able to replicate under autotrophic conditions and were found to have a very restricted host range. Electron microscopic analysis allowed classification into two structural groups. Group I contained phages with contractile tails; group II contained phages with flexible, noncontractile tails. All but one (gb) of the new phages were shown to be temperate by isolation of lysogens and induction with mitomycin C.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Lagenisma ; Coscinodiscus ; Infection ; Endosymbiotic bacteria ; Tip growth ; Wall-less thallus ; Host-parasite interface ; Membranes ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Lagenisma coscinodisci is diplanetic and has two different cyst stages. The secondary cyst has a uniform cell wall of fibrillar material. It attaches to a Coscinodiscus frustule and germinates with an infection tube. The cyst becomes filled with an enlarging expulsion vacuole. The infection tube penetrates the diatom cell between the cingula. Inside the host cell the fungus grows as an irregularly branched wall-less thallus. In the hyphae apical vesicles are lacking. The infection tube is plugged by wall material. There are no microtubules which might participate in the morphogenesis of the thallus. The plasmalemma of the diatom is pushed inward but not pierced by the fungus. Along the host-parasite interface it lies closely paralled to the Lagenisma plasmalemma which is extremely straight here and measures about 10 nm instead of about 5–6 nm at the surfaces of other stages. The Coscinodiscus plasmalemma disintegrates at about the same time when the cytoplasm breaks down. The fungus allows bacteria to enter the diatom; there are also endosymbiontic bacteria in unattacked cells — The growth mechanisms are discussed and the host-parasite interface is compared with that of other fungi.
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