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  • Polymer and Materials Science  (8,442)
  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (501)
  • Electron microscopy  (426)
  • 1970-1974  (9,369)
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Year
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 144 (1974), S. 1-18 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Mammals ; Mole ; Ovary ; Interstitial cells ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Das Ovar des Maulwurfs wurde licht- und elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Der Feinbau der verschiedenen Follikel und der Keimzellen entspricht dem anderer Species. Die Granulosa wird vermutlich erst mit der Ovulation luteinisiert. Sie enthält reichlich rauhes endoplasmatisches Reticulum und Sprossen von glattem endoplasmatischem Reticulum. Die Zellen der Theka interna leiten sich von Fibrocyten ab und enthalten neben reichlich glattem ER auch granuläres ER sowie Lipidtropfen und Mitochondrien mit Cristae und Tubuli. Diese Zellen ähneln in ihrer Feinstruktur stark den Zwischenzellen des ovarialen Marks. Dieses enthält in der Marksträngen Epithelien, die einer kräftigen Basalmembran aufsitzen. Sie werden teils als embryonal persistierende Vorstufen von Granulosa- oder Sertoli-Zellen, teils als Granulosasprossen aus der Rinde gedeutet. Für die Zwischenzellen des Marks erscheint eine Analogie mit den Hiluszellen des menschlichen Ovarialmarks bzw. eine Homologie mit den Leydig-Zellen des Hodens zweifelhaft. Als mögliche Quelle für diesen Zelltyp werden neben embryonal liegengebliebenen Anteilen auch Thekakeile und Epoophoronzellen sowie Fibroblasten diskutiert. Neben einer Steroid-synthese dürfte ihnen eine Reserve- und Speicherfunktion zukommen.
    Notes: Summary In order to make possible comparison between relatively primitive and relatively specialized gonads, the ovary of the mole was studied by light and electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of primary, secondary and tertiary follicles and of the germ cells is similar to that of other species. The granulosa cells of secondary and early tertiary follicles contain abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum and a small number profiles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The cells of the theca interna, which develop from simple fibrocytes are rich in smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and contain many lipid droplets and mitochondria, which possess both cristae and tubuli mitochondriales. At the time of ovulation, the granulosa cells are luteinized and their ultrastructure changes correspondingly. The medulla of the ovary is composed of the medullary cords and the interstitial cells. The medullary cords are solid epithelial cords, which are surrounded by a prominent basement membrane. They may be derived from embryonic precursors of granulosa—or Sertoli-cells or bud from the cortical zonae granulosae. There is a striking morphological similarity between the theca and interstitial cells. The interstitial cells of the ovarian medulla differ from the hilus cells of the human ovary and the Leydig-cells of the testis. They may develop either from embryonic rudiments of Leydig—or hilus-cell precursors, or bud from the theca or the epoophoron, or they may develop from fibrocytes. In addition to their suggested activity in steroid biosynthesis, the interstitial cells may have a trophic or storage function.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Calcitonin ; C-Cells of the thyroid and cells of the parathyroid glands ; Secondary hyperparathyroidism ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Im Verlauf ein- bis achtwöchiger Behandlung von Wistar-Ratten mit täglich 300 mMRC Einheiten Schweinecalcitonin kam es in den C-Zellen der Schilddrüse, verglichen mit denen der Kontrollserien (unbehandelte und mit Acetatpuffer allein behandelte Tiere), einerseits zu einer morphometrisch signifikanten Abahme der Zahl der Sekretgranula, während andererseits sämtliche Zellorganellen (Mitochondrie,, Golgi-Apparat und auch das granuläre endoplasmatische Reticulum) besser entwickelt waren. In den in gleichen Zeitabschnitten untersuchten Parathyroideazellen fanden wir bei mit Calcitonin behandelten Ratten Strukturveränderungen, die auf eine erhöhte Aktivität hinwiesen: Einfaltungen des Kerns, Erweiterung der Intercellularräume mit Vermehrung und Verlängerung der in diese hineinragenden Mikrovilli, bessere Ausbildung des Golgi-Apparates und des granulären endoplasmatischen Reticulums sowie eine größere Menge freier Ribosomen. Die Zahl der Sekretgranula war eindeutig höher als bei den Kontrolltieren. Der Ca ++- und Mg++-Blutspiegel zeigte während der ganzen Versuchsdauer bei allen Tieren keine statistisch faßbaren Änderungen. Die Autoren vertreten die Hypothese, daß die Aktivierung der C-Zellen durch das Auftreten eines durch die Calcitoninverabreichung hervorgerufenen sekundären Hyperparathyroidismus zustande kommt.
    Notes: Summary Male Wistar rats were injected for one to eight weeks with 300 mMRC units per day of porcine calcitonin. During this period C-cells (or “parafollicular” cells) of the thyroid gland and cells of the parathyroid glands were examined ultrastructurally. The C-cells were further studied morphometrically in animals treated with calcitonin dissolved in acetate buffer as well as in acetate buffer- and not-treated control animals. In the thyroid C cells the number of secretion granules significantly decreased following calcitonin administration, whereas the volume of all cell organelles (mitochondria, Golgi complex and granular endoplasmic reticulum) augmented. The cells of the parathyroid glands of the calcitonin-treated rats showed structural changes due to higher activity: invaginations of the nuclear envelope, enlargement of the intercellular spaces with increase in number and size of the microvilli, better development of the Golgi complex and the granular endoplasmic reticulum, larger population of free ribosomes and secretory granules. However, no significant differences in the blood calcium and magnesium levels were detected when a comparison was made of calcitonin-treated and control animals. All these observations support the hypothesis that the activation of the C-cells may result from a secondary hyperparathyroidism itself induced by the administration of moderate doses of calcitonin.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: X zone ; Electron microscopy ; Development ; Adrenal ; Mouse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The postnatal development and involution of the X zone in the mouse adrenal cortex of both sexes were examined using the light and electron microscopes. At 0–5 days of age, no special cell group could be distinguished for the developing X zone in the inner cortex. The inner cortical cells contained spherical or ellipsoidal mitochondria with vesiculotubular cristae, vesiculotubular smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER) and electron-lucent lipid droplets. The first sign of the developing X zone was the appearance of small groups of cells in juxtamedullary region differing from the cells in other part of inner cortex at 8 days. The electron microscopy showed that such cells contained nuclei of somewhat irregular outline and some parallel stacks of flattened sER. At 10–11 days, a thin layer of small eosinophilic cells were clearly identified as the developing X zone light microscopically in both sexes. Electron microscopically, the X zone cells showed a much dense cytoplas, which contained abundant sER, many mitochondria and numerous ribosomes. The typical X zone cells were characterized by the formation of peculiar mitochondrial complexes and whorled pattern of the sER. Mitoses were often found in the X zone, where mitotic cells even contained the whorled sER and bizarre mitochondria characteristic of the typical X zone cells. In the male the X zone rapidly involuted and might disappear by 30 days of age, whereas in the female X zone persisted as a thicker layer with the earlist sign of fatty degeneration. The origin of the X zone cell and the process of formation of its characteristic organelles are discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Lung ; Stretch receptors ; Light microscopy ; Electron microscopy ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Lappenbronchien (3./6.) (Durchmesser bei mittlerer Inspirationslage 500–700 μ) von männlichen und weiblichen Wistarratten wurden licht- und elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Diese Bronchien entsprechen im Wandbau den mittleren Bronchioli größerer Säugetiere. Freie, verzweigte lanzettförmige Terminalfasern werden im Bindegewebe der lamina propria beschrieben. Sie sind in das elastisch muskuläre System der Bronchuswand eingebaut. Die zugehörige markhaltige afferente Nervenfaser ist verzweigt und hat einen Durchmesser von 4–6 μ. Außerdem werden efferente motorische Endigungen an der glatten Bronchialmuskulatur beschrieben. Die freien lanzettförmigen und verzweigten Terminalfasern sind möglicherweise Dehnungsrezeptoren für den Hering Breuer Reflex.
    Notes: Summary In rats the 3rd to 6th bronchi, measuring 500–700 μ in diameter during inspiration, were investigated by light and electron microscopy. The histological appearance of these bronchi is comparable to that of medium sized bronchioles of larger animals. The branched and lanceolate terminals are associated with the connective tissue of the lamina propria and the smooth muscle cell layer. In this way the terminals are bound to the myoelastic system of the bronchial wall. The myelinated afferent fiber is branched and the diameter measures about 4–6 microns. Besides afferent nerve terminals these are numerous efferent endings on the smooth muscle basement laminae. It is supposed that the described receptor represents the pulmonary stretch receptor of the Hering Breuer reflex.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Colonic mucosa ; Mouse ; Vacuolated cells ; Electron microscopy ; Morphology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Swiss ICR adult male mice were used to analyse regional morphologic differences in the mucosa of the colon. The three cell types recently described in the descending colon of the mouse were also observed in the transverse and in the ascending colon. However the vacuolated cells of the crypts have presented different morphological characteristics depending on their localisation. In the ascending colon, they exhibited small supranuclear vesicles in contrast to the large vesicles observed in the descending colon. Several cell combining features of argentaffin-vacuolated, goblet-vacuolated and goblet-argentaffin cells have been observed. Furthermore a special type of granule referred to as a secondary lysosome was observed in the peripheral area of the typical goblet cells.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 145 (1974), S. 187-196 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Human skeletal muscle ; Sarcolemma ; Isolation ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An isolation procedure for sarcolemma of human skeletal muscle is described. The method includes the possibility to prepare sarcoplasmic reticulum from the same muscle fibres. Electron microscopy reveals a homogeneous final fraction of 80–90% myofibre enveloping membranes contaminated by blood vessel membranes. The typical three-laminar composition of isolated sarcolemma is demonstrated. The mechanism of muscle fibre emptying is discussed.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 147 (1974), S. 19-34 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Gonads/embryology ; Swine/embryology ; Sex determination ; Electron microscopy ; Sex characteristics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Pig embryos aged 21–22 days (d) were obtained from artificially inseminated sows for an ultrastructural study of the development and sex differentiation of the gonadal ridge. The chromosomal sex of the embryos was identified by a chromosome analysis. At the age of 21 d the gonadal ridge consisted of three different tissue: the surface epithelium, the primitive cords, and the mesenchyme. The surface epithelial cells contained elongate mitochondria with lamellar cristae, granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER), the Golgi complex, free polysomes, coated vesicles and fine filaments. The epithelium was continuous with the primitive cords, which were composed of ultrastructurally similar cells. The epithelial basal lamina followed the cord surface, but covered it incompletely. Primordial germ cells (PGC) were located under the surface epithelium in the mesenchyme and in the cords. The nucleus with a prominent nucleolus, and the large mitochondria were round. The cytoplasm contained a pair of centrioles, the Golgi complex, solitary lamellae of the GER, free polysomes, lipid droplets and some coated vesicles. The PGC entered the gonadal cords before these were surrounded by the continuous basal lamina. A day later (22 d) the number and length of the cords were increased. The PGC were more frequent and seen also in deeper layers. All the structures studied at the age of 21–22 d showed that the gonadal ridge also at the ultrastructural level is at the sexually indifferent stage.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Cerebellum ; Thalamus ; Electron microscopy ; Autoradiography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An experimental electron microscopical study has been made on the mode of termination of the cerebellothalamic projections in the cat. Supporting experimental light microscopical studies of silver impregnated sections following a large lesion of the cerebellar nuclei and light microscopical autoradiographic studies of the thalamus following injections of tritiated leucine in parts of the cerebellar nuclei, have been made as well. Following large lesions of the cerebellar nuclei, only the largest occuring type of bouton in the cat's VL and VA (type LR bouton) degenerates. Following such lesions, type LR boutons undergo a filamentous hypertrophy before becoming electrondense. One degenerating LR bouton establishes complex synapses with the dendrites of both thalamocortical relay cells and interneurons. Not all type LR boutons in VL and VA degenerate following lesions of the cerebellar nuclei. Light microscopical autoradiographic studies as well as experimental electron microscopical investigations indicate that cerebellothalamic fibers end in clusters within VL and VA, and that the areas of termination lie more rostrally within these thalamic nuclei than has been inferred from experimental studies of silver impregnated sections following lesions of the cerebellar nuclei. The findings are discussed with respect to relevant morphological and physiological data.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Acid phosphatase ; Electron microscopy ; Shell Regeneration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Acid phosphatase activity was mainly localized in the lysosomes in all the regions of the outer epithelium. The transitional portion of the outer epithelium showed more intense activity than the other regions. During shell regeneration the activity of this portion decreased to a minimum level at 12 hours and was restored to normal at 72 hours. The other regions showed no change of activity during shell regeneration. It is postulated that the acid phosphatase in the transitional protion is responsible for conferring calcifiability to the organic matrix of the shell.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Avian follicles ; Oocytes ; Transosomes ; Lysosomes ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Electron microscopy has been utilized to determine fates of sacs of ribosomes (variously termed “transosomes”, “unique organelles”, or “lining bodies”) formed in the follicular cells of avian follicles and subsequently entering-or being taken in-by the oocytes. Small follicles (0.5 mm diameter) of laying hens, a hen afflicted with Marek's disease and prelaying pullets were examined in this regard. In the case of the hen with Marek's disease and the prelaying pullets, sacs of ribosomes were found to be present within the oocyte but those present in the interior of the cell were in the form of digestive vacuoles. In a fourth group of hens, receiving actinomycin D, larger oocytes (2.0 mm diameter) exhibited breakdown of the membranous vesicles in which the sacs of ribosomes entered the oocyte, as well as dissolution of membranes surrounding the forming yolk granules and the membranes of coated vesicles. Annulate lamellae were present in oocytes of the hen afflicted with Marek's disease and appeared within at least 24 hours in oocytes from hens receiving actinomycin D.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Calcified tissue international 16 (1974), S. 93-107 
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Dentinogenesis ; Globules ; Pyrophosphatase ; Calcification ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Three-day-old rats were fixed by perfusion with glutaraldehyde and thin slices were cut of the first molar germs. The slices were treated with EDTA and “activated” with buffered solutions containing Mg2+, Ca2+ or Zn2+. Incubation was carried out in buffered solutions (pH 8.5) containing inorganic pyrophosphate and Pb2+. In the Mg2+-activated specimens incubation products were localized to the plasma membranes in the stratum intermedium and the subodontoblastic area. Lead deposits were found on the periphery of the dentinal globules. Incubation products were more randomly distributed in Ca2+-activated specimens whereas those activated with Zn2+ displayed a deposition of lead precipitates mainly corresponding to that seen after activation with Mg2+. The findings are discussed in reference to the localization of alkaline phosphatase in the dentin-producing tissues and it is proposed that the results are indicative of the presence of an inorganic pyrophosphatase in these tissues.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Lead intoxication ; Lead line ; Electron microscopy ; Stomato-Logy ; Bleiintoxikation ; Bleisaum ; Elektronenmikroskopie ; Stomatologie
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die histologischen Befunde beim Bleisaum im Licht- und Dunkelfeld werden kurz besprochen. Die Beobachtungen stimmen mit den bekannten Angaben aus der Literatur überein. Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen an Gingivabiopsien von 3 Patienten mit Bleivergiftung und deutlichem Bleisaum zeigten, daß die Ablagerungen sowohl extra- als auch intracellulär zu finden sind. Extracelluläres Blei war hauptsächlich zwischen kollagenen Pasern, um die Blutgefäße und in die Basallamina an der dermo-epidermalen Grenze eingelagert. Intracelluläres Blei war in einer Gruppe von Zellen in membranbegrenzten Phagosomen vorhanden, während es in anderen Zellen diffus im Cytoplasma verteilt war, wobei es zu einer Einlagerung in die verschiedenen cytoplasmatischen Membransysteme, besonders in die mitochondrialen Membranen, kam. Reste von lytischen Zellen mit diffus im Cytoplasma verteiltem Metall wurden von Makrophagen aufgenommen. Es wird vermutet, daß ein Cyclus abläuft, der mit der Phagocytose von Blei beginnt und über progrediente Zellschädigung zur Lyse führt. Die Ergebnisse werden mit Beobachtungen bei Argyrose verglichen. Das unterschiedliche Verteilungsmuster der Metalle bei diesen beiden Erkrankungen wird im Hinblick auf eine Hypothese über den Pathomechanismus von Schwermetallvergiftungen diskutiert.
    Notes: Summary The histology of the lead line is briefly reviewed on the basis of light- and dark-field microscope studies. The observations correspond with published data. Electron microscope studies on gingival biopsies obtained from 3 patients with lead intoxication and marked lead lines showed extra- and intracellular deposits of the metal. Extracellular lead was preferentially deposited between collagen fibers, around blood vessels and on the basal lamina of the dermal-epidermal junction. Intracellular lead was present within membrane-bound phagosomes of one group of cells, whereas it was diffusely distributed within the cytoplasm of another cell group. In the latter it was deposited on the different cytoplasmic membrane systems, particularly on the mitochondrial membranes. Residues of lytic cells, which contained diffusely distributed metal, were phagocytized by macrophages. It is assumed that a cycle starts with the phagocytosis of lead and ends with increasing cellular damage and cytolysis. The results are compared with the observations in argyria. The different distribution patterns of the metal in the two diseases are discussed in the light of a proposed hypothesis on the pathomechanisms of heavy-metal poisoning.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Microsporon audouinii ; Pyrrolnitrin ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that a ceiling quantity (1.56 mcg) of antifungal antibiotic Pyrrolnitrin caused heavy damage to dermathophyteMicrosporon audouinii Gruby CBS 313-54in vitro. Suitable preparation technique made it clear that the changes involved consisted of hyphal collapse on the edge of the culture, with loss of euplasmic organelles identity and cell autolysis. The cell wall, however, was apparently undamaged. These findings fit in with the suggestion that the mode of action of the antibiotic leads to generalised lipoproteic membranes damage. They must, however, be considered as representing the result of the terminal phase of cell distress.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 21
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 148 (1974), S. 237-245 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Salivary gland ; Innervation ; Insect ; Monoamines ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The salivary glands of the moth, Manduca sexta (Insecta: Sphingidae), are unlike most other salivary glands in that they are innervated from one source only. Vital staining of nerves with methylene-blue reveals numerous fine nerves extending to the glands from the oesophageal nerve, a part of the stomatogastric or visceral nervous system. Light and electron microscopy confirm that only the fluid-secreting cells, confined to a discrete region in these glands, are innervated. Axons with or without glial wrappings are found in intercellular spaces between fluid-secreting cells. Axons lacking a glial sheath contain, after glutaraldehyde-osmium tetroxide fixation, large granular and small agranular vesicles. In nerve endings in glands fixed with permanganate these smaller vesicles are granular, having the electron-dense cores characteristic of monoamine-containing neurons. These nerve endings with “synaptoid areas” are in close (“direct”) contact with the fluid-secreting cells.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Symbiotes ; Aphids ; Antibiotics ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of penicillin and chlortetracyline HCl on the fine structure of the intracellular symbiotes of the pea aphid were studied in an attempt to remove the symbiote population. High penicillin concentrations, 1% and 0.1%, caused symbiote breakdown but were toxic and/or repellent to the aphids; at 0.1% specific effects were observed on the symbiotes' cell walls. After the use of 0.01% penicillin in the aphid diet, the symbiotes had abnormal cell walls and were abnormally dilated; however, symbiote division and transmission from one aphid generation to the next seemed unaffected and the aphids appeared normal. Aphids fed 0.1% chlortetracycline failed to reproduce. After 7 days, their symbiotes were found to break down at a high rate but aphid mitochondria were also adversely affected at this stage. Following 0.002% chlortetracycline, the aphids produced aposymbiotic progeny with apparently normal mitochondrial populations; these larvae failed to develop.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Nerve endings ; Hair ; Rat ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Palisade-shaped nerve endings of the small normal hairs of the rat snout were examined with the electron microscope (fixation by perfusion). The terminals are located inside the ‘glassy membrane’ in the area of the neck of the hair root. The 10–20 radially arranged terminal axons are in direct contact with the basement membrane of the epithelium of the external root sheath. The axons are surrounded on all sides by leaf-shaped processes of the Schwann cells. The surfaces of these cell processes are marked by numerous vesicle-like invaginations (approx. 1000 Å dia.). Transverse sections from several areas of the palisadeshaped nerve endings are compared with longitudinal sections. In the upper area ‘empty’ vesicles (approx. 500–600 Å in diameter) occur, along with electron-dense vesicles (approx. 800–1100 Å in diameter); in the middle area, the axons are distended and contain accumulations of mitochondria.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Intestinum ; Diseases of the colon ; Laboratory animals ; Ruthenium red ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Ruthenium-Rot gefärbte Darmpräparate verschiedener Krankheitsbilder sowie verschiedener Laboratoriumstiere wurden elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Ruthenium-Rot läßt sich im Bereich des Intestinaltraktes teils homogen, teils grob- und feingranulär nachweisen. Microvilli and Glycokalyx sind relativ konstant Ruthenium-Rot gefärbt. Der Intercellularraum der Lamina epithelialis mucosae zeigt eine auffallend variable Ruthenium-Rot Anfärbung. Diese ist offenbar nicht methodisch bedingt, sondern Ausdruck eines unterschiedlichen bzw. variablen Funktionszustandes. Es bleibt offen, ob Ruthenium-Rot im Sinne einer histochemischen Reaktion bestimmte, im interzellulären Raum gelegene Substanzen markiert, oder als Tracer für den Stofftransport angesehen werden muß. Becherzellen und nekrobiotische Zellen weisen in der Regel eine konstante Ruthenium-Rot Anfärbung auf. Im Stratum proprium mucosae ist der Reaktionsausfall für Ruthenium-Rot sehr inkonstant, möglicherweise auf Grund des langen Penetrationsweges. Ziemlich regelmäßig findet sich allerdings eine Ruthenium-Rot Markierung de Phagolysosomen von Makrophagen. Prinzipielle Unterschiede der explorierten Gewebe und Tierarten bezüglich der Affinität zu Ruthenium-Rot bestehen nicht.
    Notes: Summary Biopsy specimens of human intestines in various disease states and from laboratory animal intestines have been stained with ruthenium red and inspected by electron microscopy. Ruthenium red reaction product is found as a homogeneous deposit and also in the form of coarse and fine granules. Microvilli and the glycocalyx are stained relatively constant by ruthenium red. The intercellular space of the epithelium shows a strikingly variable ruthenium red staining. This variation is apparently not related to the method but indicates differences or variations in the functional state of the membranes. It remains an open question whether the ruthenium red reaction is a histochemical reaction, marking certain substances present in in the intercellular area or whether it should be considered as a tracer for the transport of materials. Goblet cells and necrobiotic cells usually show a constant ruthenium red staining. In the lamina propria the reaction product is very inconstant, possibly on account of the long penetration path from the lumen. The phagolysosomes of macrophages are marked by ruthenium red rather regularly. No fundamental, but only quantitative differences have been found between the various kinds of tissue studied.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Kidney ; Sexual segment ; Natrix natrix ; Histochemistry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The sexual segment of the kidney of Natrix natrix has been investigated cytochemically, light microscopically and ultrastructurally. The sexual segment, which seems to be an important accessory sexual organ, has a single layer of a columnar epithelium. The epithelial cells are filled with large secretion granules of a wide range of electron densities. Cytochemical reactions for neutral and acid mucosubstances are negative, but the cells show a strong positive staining for phospholipids. Within the cells of the sexual segment we have localised by histochemical means several hydrolases and oxydoreductases, which reflect enzyme activities of the glycolytic pathway, the citrate cycle, and related metabolic pathways. The activities of the hydrolytic enzymes acid phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase and indoxylacetate esterase are remarkably high within the epithelial cells. Furthermore it was found that the sexual segment tubules possess contractile elements which extends over the basal surface of the epithelial cells. These contractile cells exhibit a very high activity of alkaline phosphatase. Single unmyelinated axons are located between the contractile elements and the basal lamina of the sexual segment cells. The functional significance of the sexual segment structures is briefly discussed.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Testicular interstitial cells ; Dog ; Filaments ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the dog testicular interstitial cells the cytoplasmic filaments are occasionally arranged in large bundles piled closely in an extensive area adjacent to the Golgi region in the cytoplasm. Some of the large bundles show conspicuous circular or spiral configurations which are composed of elaborate arrangements of both circular and longitudinal filaments and accompany tubules of agranular endoplasmic reticulum running parallel to the longitudinal filaments.
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  • 31
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
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    Cell & tissue research 148 (1974), S. 499-504 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Urethra (rat) ; Chromaffin cells ; Sensory neurons ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The urethra of the rat was examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Under a transmission electron microscope flask-shaped chromaffin cells containing membrane-bound osmiophilic granules were seen to possess microvilli at their apical surfaces. The microvilli projected into large extracellular spaces which were apparently in continuity with the lumen of the urethra. Using scanning electron microscopy, a surface view of the lumen of the urethra was obtained. It showed a gently undulating surface with distinct intercellular boundaries. Scattered over the surface were numerous deep depressions between individual cells. These were thought to correspond with the large extracellular spaces into which microvilli had been seen to project. It is suggested that urethral chromaffin cells may “trigger” the afferent part of a reflex causing contraction of the urethral longitudinal muscle.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Microglia ; “M” cells ; Gliogenesis ; Neuropathology ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Electron microscopy of subependymal cells and microglia in rat neonatal spinal cord reveals the latter to be a distinctive group of non-neuronal elements characterized by pronounced heterochromatin nuclei, many free ribosomes and rosettes, hour-glass shaped mitochondria, a moderately dense, granular cytoplasmic matrix, lipid vacuoles and a wide variety of lysosomes. Some examples are elongated and ameboid in appearance or may contain phagocytic vacuoles. Transitional forms between subependymal cells, or any other nonneuronal forms, and microglia were not observed. Ultrastructural features displayed by microglia are also strikingly characteristic of the “M” cells (Matthews and Kruger, 1973a, b) encountered in zones of thalamic degeneration two to three weeks following cortical ablation of adult rabbits. During the first and second postoperative weeks, “M” cells closely resemble the agranular leukocytes accumulating in the perivascular space of vessels coursing within the zones of degeneration. This fact, together with documentation of penetration of the vascular external lamina by elements of similar morphology, indicates a mesodermal origin for some “M” cells. The microglia of normal CNS and “M” cells of pathologic neural tissue are sufficiently similar, both in morphology and apparent function, to warrant consideration of a mesodermal origin for the microglia of neonatal CNS and a number of criteria to substantiate this concept are presented.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Brain ; Monoamines ; Amphibia ; Fluorescence microscopy ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution of monoamines in the brain of Bufo poweri was investigated with the Falck-Hillarp method. Green fluorescence was observed in neurons of the diencephalic preoptic recess organ (PRO) and its so-called additional cells, in the paraventricular organ (PVO) and its so-called accompanying cells, in the nucleus infundibularis dorsalis (NID) and in the mesencephalic nucleus reticularis mesencephali (NRM). Yellow fluorescence was found in some cells of the PVO and NID and in neurons of the caudal part of the NRM. Extensive tracts of aminergic fibres are described running caudo-rostrally and mainly terminating in the septa and striata of the telencephalon. It is suggested that the aminergic nuclei mentioned above partly contribute to the ascending tracts. Other fibres, originating in the PVO and NID are curving centro-caudally towards the median eminence. Although with the electron microscope some apparently aminergic nerve fibres were detected in the pars intermedia, such fibres have not been observed fluorescence microscopically. The ultrastructural study of the PRO has shown the presence of two types of aminergic liquor-contacting neurons. Among the distal cells of the PRO, aminergic and peptidergic neurons were distinguished. The presence of PRO additional cells, which are considered as a rostral extension of the PRO, is discussed with regard to the terrestrial habitat of the species.
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  • 34
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
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    Cell & tissue research 148 (1974), S. 57-67 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Prostate ; Rat ; Cyproterone ; Alterations ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The dorsal lobe and the coagulating gland of the rat prostate were studied after administration of the anti-androgenic compound Cyp A for varying periods (7–20 days). There was a general involution of the organs with macroscopic atrophy and reduced amount of secretory material. Ultrastructurally the cells were pale, contained less organelles as compared with the controls, loss of cytoplasm and reduction both of cell height and width. The major changes also included reduction of the Golgi area, the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the number of free ribosomes. Within the dorsal lobe prominent nuclear changes were found, comprising different types of intranuclear inclusions of membranous configurations. The alterations observed in the present study are similar to the changes which were found in castrated animals and are consistent with atrophy. The results are discussed in relation to the available biochemical and autoradiographic data on the different lobes.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Adrenal cortex ; Mitochondria ; ACTH ; Stereology ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of a chronic administration of ACTH (up to 36 consecutive days) on the mitochondria of the zona fasciculata of the rat adrenal cortex were investigated by stereologic techniques. It was found that, while the volume of the mitochondrial compartment significantly increases in relation to the duration of treatment, the size and number of mitochondria display a different pattern. Up to the 9th day of hormone treatment mitochondria significantly increase in volume, whereas their number per cell is only slightly increased. After 12 days of ACTH-treatment there is a tremendous increase in the number of organelles per cell, resulting in a significant decrease in their average volume. After 24 and 36 consecutive days of treatment the number of mitochondria per cell as well as their average volume both show a slight but significantly constant increase. The hypothesis that ACTH controls the processes of growth and division of adrenal mitochondria is discussed in the light of evidence indicating that mitochondria contain a complete genetic apparatus largely independent of nuclear control.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Purkinje fibres ; Avian heart ; Fine structure ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The subendocardial Purkinje fibres in the right atrium of the heart of the adult fowl were investigated by light and electron microscopy. The myofibrils often originate from the lateral cell membrane of the cells and show a spirally wound course. Their arrangement is obviously not random. In some Purkinje cells the absolute amount of myofibrils per cell is as large as in ordinary myocardial muscle cells. The sarcoplasmic reticulum is constituted by ramifying tubules. They are distributed throughout the entire Purkinje cell and contact the myofibrils, the mitochondria, and the cell membrane. At the cell membrane the sarcoplasmic reticulum forms terminal cisternae, which often possess an electron dense content. These terminal cisternae are apparently unrelated to the Z-discs of the myofibrils. The cytoplasmic organelles of the Purkinje cell are embedded in a network of ca. 100 Å thick filaments. It is assumed that these filaments are responsible for the maintenance of the arrangement of the cell organelles. Some Z-discs of the myofibrils of the Purkinje cells are up to 0.4 μm long. Axon terminals running between the Purkinje fibre and the fibrocytic envelope may lie only 150 Å from the fibrocytes. The fibrocytes are connected by tight junctions and desmosomes and contain fine filaments and microtubules. The possible implications of these findings are discussed.
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  • 37
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
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    Cell & tissue research 149 (1974), S. 105-111 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Sperm flagella ; Motility ; Axonemal variation ; Axonemal evolution ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The flagella of the motile sperm cells of Nymphon leptocheles and N. rubrum (Pyonogonida, Arthropoda) exhibit a 12+0 and a 9+0 axoneme pattern, respectively. Central tubules, central sheath, spokes and arms are absent. The doublets are connected by a circular nexus. The functional significance of this axonemal composition is discussed. Aberrant axonemes occurring in high frequencies both within the species and within single specimens are probably explained by the loose axonemal connection, due to the absence of a central complex. This absence is further suggested to have facilitated the evolution from the 9+0 type to the 12+0 type.
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  • 38
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 149 (1974), S. 235-243 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Adrenal zona glomerulosa ; Rat ; Normal ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary This paper reports on an electron microscopic study of the adrenal zona glomerulosa in the normal rat, with special emphasis on the structural diversity of mitochondria in its parenchymatous cells. The mitochondria of cristae may be tubulo-vesicular, plate-like and/or straight tubular, any one mitochondrion containing one or more types of cristae. The mitochondrial features of the zona glomerulosa parenchymatous cells are attributed to the biochemical stages of aldosterone synthesis, taking place in different mitochondria of these cells.
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  • 39
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 150 (1974), S. 545-552 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Skin, rat ; Cytology ; Innervation ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neural elements within the parenchyma of the sebaceous gland have not been reported previously. Nerve endings have been observed only in the connective tissue surrounding the gland or in close association with the undifferentiated basal cells. In this study, electron microscopy revealed the possible presence of nerve endings (or terminal portions of neural elements) in the suprabasal level of functional sebaceous glands of pinnae of white rats. Morphologically, there are two distinct types of nerve endings. Type 1 is bordered by a membrane of relatively irregular contour and contains a single mitochondrion, various-sized vesicles, numerous microtubules, fine neurofilament-like fibrils, and occasional ribosome-like granules. Type II is also bordered by a membrane, but its contour was relatively smooth and rounded. Moreover, Type II contains many mitochondria, varying in size, density, and the arrangement of cristae. While ribosome-like granules are scattered throughout the structure in relative abundance, there are scarcely any fine neurofilament-like fibrils or microtubules. Whether these two structures are sensory or autonomic fibers could not be determined by electron microscopic examination.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Acrosome reaction ; Bankia australis ; Teredo ; Fertilization ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of the acrosome reaction in the sperm of the teredo, Bankia australis, is described. In brief, the reaction consists of three phases: (a) formation of a bleb and membrane fusion, (b) disappearance of the longitudinally oriented fibrils, and (c) outward flaring and disappearance of the osmiophilic granule. The osmiophilic granule appears to consist of prism-like structures. The axial rod never lengthens during the acrosome reaction.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Human thymus ; Hassall's corpuscles ; Histochemistry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Substrate-histochemical, enzyme-hystochemical and ultrastructural investigations were performed on thymic tissue from children, obtained in heart operations. β-Amylaseresistant, PAS-positive and Hale-positive substrates presumably neutral and acid mucosubstances, can be demonstrated in the central concentric lamellae of Hassall's corpuscles (HC). These lamellae also give positive reactions for sulphydryl groups and disulphide groups. Some flattened cell elements gave strong reactions for phospholipids, and small sudanophilic droplets, presumably neutral fats, are scattered throughout the HC. All investigated hydrolases and dehydrogenases either give no or only very weak reactions in the central part of progressive HC, but react strongly positive in their peripheral hypertrophic epithelial cells. In the central part of regressive HC, positive reactions for acid phosphatase and β-D-glucuronidase were recognized. These lysosomal enzymes may indicate degenerative processes. By electron microscopy progressive HC show central concentric lamellae with an amorphous matrix tightly filled with tonofilaments. They are surrounded by a thickened plasma membrane (200 Å), and do not contain nuclei. These central lamellae resemble the horny cells of the epidermis. The peripheral hypertrophic epithelial cells have pale nuclei with one or two nucleoli. Their cytoplasm contains numerous tonofibrils. These cells resemble stratum spinosum cells of the epidermis. In regressive HC the central concentric lamellae loose their intercellular contacts. The widened intercellular spaces are filled with cellular debris, and are invaded by macrophages. Similarities between the ultrastructure and the patterns of the histochemically investigated substrates and enzymes in human HC and epidermis are discussed.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Membrane particles ; Cockroach hemocytes ; Freeze-fracture ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Freeze-fracture studies were conducted on the membranes of normal cockroach hemocytes. The plasmalemma is asymmetric with the A fracture face containing 80–100 Å membrane intercalated particles at a concentration of ∼2500/μ2. The B fracture face contains 120–150 Å particles with a relatively low density (∼800/μ2). The nuclear envelope displays an asymmetry with the A fracture face containing ∼1500 particles/μ2 and the B face containing ∼300/μ 2. No significant particle size differences were observed in nuclear envelope fracture faces. Two types of symmetric membranes were also found in these cells. Both A and B fracture faces of the membrane surrounding the numerous cytoplasmic inclusion bodies contain particle sizes and concentrations similar to the B face of the plasmalemma. A second type of symmetry was observed in cells apparently engaged in “exocytosis”. Vesicles (∼0.1 μD) from this process were completely particle free on both fracture faces. Such particle free vesicles could be found in the cytoplasm, attached to the plasmalemma, or completely separated from the cell.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Nidation ; Mice ; Cell interaction ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The interaction between the trophoblast and the maternal epithelium at early implantation was studied by means of light and electron microscopy. The uterine horns were fixed in situ and a double-embedding method was used to locate implantation sites. Observations were made on mice killed at 2 hour intervals 90–116 h. post coitum which covered the following stages: pre-attachment (i) with zona pellucida intact (ii) with zona pellucida in dissolution (iii) after loss of the zona; attachment; adherence; and invasion. The intact zona pellucida was electron opaque and of uniform density. In the stage of apparent dissolution it became electron dense and was trapped between trophoblast and epithelium. At preattachment the trophoblast cells were round. Subsequently they became long and attenuated, often with lysosomes in the cytoplasm proximal to the epithelial layer. Epithelial cells, which could be seen in various stages of degeneration were apparently phagocytosed by the trophoblast. Occasional pyknotic epithelial cells were seen, as well as some apparently normal ones which contained cytosegresomes. The possible reasons for their presence are discussed. The microvilli of the epithelial cells changed from regular and pointed at preattachment to short and irregular at adherence and invasion.
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  • 44
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    Cell & tissue research 153 (1974), S. 1-14 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Graafian follicle (Rabbit) ; Granulosa cells ; Ovulation ; Basement mem-brane ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Membrana granulosa in rabbit Graafian follicles was studied at accurately determined times after an ovulatory dose of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). At 4 and 6 hrs after injection of HCG the granulosa cells were slightly dissociated around the whole follicle. So-called abutment nexuses (gap junctions) had decreased and continued to do so up to ovulation. At 8 hrs after HCG, membrana granulosa had thinned out apically and cell dissociation was even more evident in all parts of the follicle. Granulosa cell projections through the basement membrane were found, and, closer to the time of ovulation, more and larger granulosa cell protrusions penetrated the partly fragmented basement membrane. At 8 hrs spherical inclusions in the granulosa cells, corresponding to so-called annular nexuses, were significantly more numerous than before injection of HCG; the relative amount had more than doubled. Later, the number of annular nexuses decreased. The significance of annular nexuses and their variations is discussed. The decrease in the abutment nexuses probably means a decrease in cohesive force between the granulosa cells and facilitates follicle expansion; moreover, the simultaneous changes in the basement membrane, with more or less open channels into the antrum the last few hours before ovulation, presumably, permit rapid follicle growth by influx of fluid as soon as increased distensibility of the follicle wall allows further expansion without increase in pressure.
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  • 45
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    Electronic Resource
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    Cell & tissue research 153 (1974), S. 15-30 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Graafian follicle (Rabbit) ; Ovulation ; Connective tissue ; Muscle, smooth ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The tunica albuginea in ovaries of sexually mature rabbits is only a few cell layers thick but is much more densely packed with collagen bundles than the broad theca externa of the Graafian follicles. Smooth muscle cells were demonstrated in theca externa around the whole follicle; ultrastructural evidence of smooth muscles in the apical region of theca externa in rabbit follicles has not been presented previously. At 8 hrs after injection of an ovulatory dose of HCG oedema was observed below the germinal epithelium covering preovulatory follicles. In the oedematous area, dead or degenerating cells could be found, and the underlying tunica albuginea contained degenerated fibroblasts and showed dissociation and fragmentation of the collagen. The alterations gradually proceeded inwards, and, at 9.5 hrs and later, marked changes were obvious even in the innermost portion of theca externa. The observation that the changes started, and were most pronounced, in the collagen-rich tunica albuginea and gradually proceeded inwards, supports the hypothesis that lytic substances emanating from the surface epithelium covering preovulatory follicles play a central role in effecting follicle rupture.
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  • 46
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    Electronic Resource
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    Cell & tissue research 153 (1974), S. 31-44 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Graafian follicle (Rabbit) ; Ovulation ; Capillaries ; Intercellular junc-tions ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The rabbit Graafian follicles are encircled by a capillary network between the theca interna and the avascular membrana granulosa. After injection of an ovulatory dose of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) the theca interna cells showed an increase in the amount of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets and mitochondria with tubular cristae. In addition, considerably more junctions, similar to the abutment nexuses of granulosa cells were found; annular nexuses also appeared. At 4 hours after injection of HCG a prominent oedema was evident in the theca interna layer, particularly in the apical region. Small fenestrations in the endothelium of the blood capillaries increased in amount after HCG injection, and close to the time of ovulation, large gaps or perforations, 1–3 μ in diameter, were found in the thin, distended part of the endothelial cells. The surrounding basement membrane became fragmented and partly lost, so that a seemingly free passage from the capillary lumen to the interstitium was eventually established. Leakage of fluid, causing interstitial oedema, presumably proceeds until the pressure in the pericapillary interstitium has risen to the pressure in the capillaries. Some hours before and up to ovulation the pericapillary interstitium has also broad communications with the cavity of the follicles. Therefore, both pressure and fluid can be passed from the capillaries-via the interstitium-to the follicle antrum. However, influx of fluid with subsequent follicle expansion and ovulation-at constant pressure-does not occur until the tensile strength of the follicle wall has decreased.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Retinohypothalamic projection ; Passer domesticus ; Suprachiasmatic nucleus ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The possibility of a direct retinohypothalamic projection was reinvestigated in Passer domesticus by electron microscopy following left unilateral retinectomy. To avoid misinterpretation of non-specific degeneration, the course of degenerative changes was observed at intervals of 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours after operation. Of the hypothalamic areas examined in only one, the contralateral suprachiasmatic nucleus, was it possible to identify reliable indications of secondary anterograde degeneration comparable to those observed in the contralateral optic tectum. Single dark profiles within the supraoptic nucleus and the basal infundibular (tuberal) nucleus showed neither internal changes in structure nor an increase in number per unit area in retinectomized birds. Since photoperiodically induced gonadal growth occurs in totally blinded birds the functional significance of the retinohypothalamic projection to the suprachiasmatic nucleus is open to discussion.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Yolk nuclei ; Nassarius reticulatus ; Cleavage ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Dotterkerne kommen in allen Blastomeren des 4- bis 16-Zellstadiums von Nassarius vor. Sie haben überwiegend kugelige Gestalt und liegen kernnah zwischen Kern und apikalem Plasmalemm. Feinstrukturell sind sie erstaunlicherweise nicht einheitlich aufgebaut, sondern treten in zwei Typen auf: Typ I besteht aus einer relativ kompakt erscheinenden kugeligen Ansammlung von Mitochondrien. Die Mitochondrien liegen in einer dichten, teils granulären, teils fibrillären intermitochondrialen Substanz eingebettet. Typ II besteht aus einer ebenfalls kugeligen Ansammlung vieler kleiner radiär angeordneter Golgi-Stapel, welche in der gleichen dichten, teils granulären, teils fibrillären Substanz liegen wie die Mitochondrien von Typ I. Die Funktion beider Typen von Dotterkernen wird diskutiert. Sicherlich haben sie nichts mehr mit der Dottersynthese zu tun wie möglicherweise die Dotterkerne der Oocyten, doch gibt es bisher auch keine Anzeichen dafür, daß sie bevorzugt am Dotter- oder Lipidabbau beteiligt sind.
    Notes: Summary In all blastomeres of Nassarius from 4- to 16-cell stage yolk nuclei occur. Most of them are spherical bodies, lying juxtanuclearly between the nucleus and the apical plasmalemma. Strangely they are not ultrastructurally uniform but fall into two categories (Fig. 5): Type I is a massive spherical accumulation of mitochondria embedded in a dense intermitochondrial substance, which appears to contain both granules and filaments. Type II is a ball of radially arranged small Golgi stacks clustered around a centre of Golgi vesicles and other organelles embedded in a ground cytoplasm structurally similar to the intermitochondrial substance of type I. The function of both types of yolk nuclei is unknown. These segmentation yolk nuclei have nothing to do with yolk synthesis any more. On the other hand there are no indications that yolk nuclei occurrence is correlated with the break-down of yolk because neither lipid droplets nor protein yolk granules are observed in or beside the yolk nuclei.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Branchiostoma ; Kölliker's pit ; Hatschek's pit ; Wheel organ ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Kölliker's and Hatschek's pit and the wheel organ in the head region of Amphioxus have been studied with the electron microscope. Kölliker's pit is lined by ciliated cells lacking specific ultrastructural characteristics which might suggest an olfactory function. No nerve terminals have been found near this structure. The wheel-organ consists of tall ciliated cells, which occasionally have been found to be innervated and which are clearly marked off the rest of the epithelial lining of the oral cavity. The epithelium of Hatschek's pit again is ciliated and possesses markedly euchromatin rich nuclei. In the area of Hatschek's pit numerous epithelial cells have been observed which possess accumulations of small granules and vesicles in their basal cytoplasm. Such basally granulated cells occur in the immediate neighbourhood of blood spaces of the glomus and other vessels; the connective tissue between blood and epithelium is loosened up or has completely disappeared. The question of homology of the structures investigated with the olfactory groove and hypophysis of vertebrates is briefly discussed.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Salivary glands ; Drosophila ; larval and prepupal ; Electron microscopy ; Histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A major function of the larval salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster is known to be the production of a mucopolysaccharide that serves as an adhesive during puparium formation. In order to localize the mucosubstances during development substrate histochemical methods were used, and the site of acid phosphatase was demonstrated by the ultrahistochemical lead-salt method. It could be shown that the “glue”-granules in the corpus cells of larval salivary glands as well as the large secretion vacuoles in the prepupal corpus cells give a positive β-amylase-resistent PAS-reaction, which indicates neutral mucosubstances. Granular PAS-positive deposits in the larval and prepupal collum cells were reduced after preincubation with β-amylase and may represent glycogen, which has also been seen in electron micrographs of these cells. The Hale-reaction gave a weak indication that acid mucosubstances are present in the larval “glue” granules and in the large prepupal secretory vacuoles. After digestion of sialic acid with α-neuraminidase the weak indication was absent showing that the acid mucosubstances had been sialomucines. Ultrahistochemical demonstration of acid phosphatase indicated the presence of this enzyme in Golgi fields and lysosomal structures. Acid phosphatase seems to be missing in the large secretion vacuoles of the prepupal salivary gland. It is concluded, that the large vacuoles in the corpus cells of prepupal salivary glands represent a secretion product, obviously a mucosubstance. The lysosomal structures, containing acid phosphatase, may be accumulated in preparation for the autolysis of the gland which begins about two hours after the pupal moult, i.e. 15 hours after puparium formation.
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  • 51
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    Cell & tissue research 155 (1974), S. 117-125 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Sinus gland ; Carcinus maenas (Crustacea, Decapoda) ; Nerve fibre cell types ; Neurosecretion ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The sinus gland of Carcinus maenas consists of the swollen axonal endings of the neurosecretory cells of the major ganglia and acts as a storage release centre for the membrane bound neurosecretory material. These neurosecretory granules fall into five different types based on size and electron density. Their contents are released by exocytosis of the primary granules or smaller units budded from the primary granules.
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  • 52
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    Cell & tissue research 155 (1974), S. 127-134 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Organ of Bellonci ; Carcinus maenas (Crustacea, Decapoda) ; Sensory and secretory function ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The organ of Bellonci of Carcinus maenas is made up of onion bodies and secretory cells. The onion body consists of a distal segment, of membranous whorls and granules, and a proximal nuclear cell body. They are joined by a modified double ciliary junction. Both a sensory and secrtory function is suggested. The secretory cells fall into two groups based on size, shape and organelles. Their presence suggests a secretory function to the organ of Bellonci.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Microfilaments ; Prolactin cells ; Anterior pituitary ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Prolactin cells from anterior pituitary glands of normal non-lactating female rats, and lactating animals, some of which were separated from their pups for 48 hours, were examined ultrastructurally for the presence of microfilaments. Microfilaments were found in specific intracellular locations in all cells examined. They were in association with the nuclear envelope, the Golgi complex, the endoplasmic reticulum, small vesicles of the endoplasmic reticulum, and secretory granules. The possible role of microfilaments in the movement of intracellular organelles is considered.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Adrenal cortex ; Man ; Primary cultures ; ACTH ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A method of primary tissue culture involving both disaggregation of cells by repeated exposure of small tissue fragments to a solution of trypsin, collagenase and hyaluronidase and explantation of the residual tissue fragments intermingled with isolated cells onto polyethylene discs, has been shown to be adequate for the prolonged maintenance (up to 30 days) in vitro of cells arising from decapsulated adult human adrenocortical tissue. The technique and its critical points are discussed. Adrenocortical cells were organized both as outgrowing columns from microexplants or as variously sized islets of monolayered cells. The ultrastructural features of ACTH-deprived adrenocortical cells (i.e., mitochondria with laminar cristae, endoplasmic reticulum mainly consisting of rough profiles, abundance of lipid droplets and β-glycogen particles) suggest that the cells dedifferentiate and retain practically no steroidogenic activity. After 2 days of ACTH-treatment, cultured parenchymal cells were found to be quite similar to the zona fasciculata elements of the normal human adrenal cortex. They were grouped in islets of about 50–100 cells. Rough endoplasmic reticulum had decreased, but smooth endoplasmic reticulum showed focal proliferation. The pleomorphic mitochondria with laminar cristae, transformed into a homogeneous population of round or ovoid mitochondria containing tubulo-vesicular cristae. Lipid droplets and glycogen particles were decreased in number. After 7 days of daily treatment with ACTH, the cortical elements, whose nucleus and cytoplasm seemed to be enlarged, were arranged in clusters formed by up to 300 monolayered elements, in which dividing cells were consistently observed. Their cytoplasm was filled with a meshwork of smooth reticulum tubules, in which scantly ribosome-studded profiles and occasional small stacks of granular cisternae were embedded. Mitochondria were similar to those of the 2 days ACTH-treated cultures. Lipid droplets and glycogen particles were absent. The functional significance of these structural changes as well as the possible mechanism underlying the differentiative effect of ACTH are discussed. Primary cultures of human adult adrenals are proposed as a new tool for studies into the physiopathology of the adrenocortical cells under carefully controlled experimental conditions. mis|It is a pleasure to acknowledge our thanks to Drs. F. Mantero and C. Eccher for kindly supplying the normal human adrenocortical tissue. Thanks are also due to Mr. G. Gottardo for his excellent technical assistance. mis|This work was partly supported by a contract with the CNR-Italy (C.T. 73.00663.04).
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Neuromuscular junctions ; Development in vitro ; Electron microscopy ; Electrophysiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The development of neuro-muscular junctions between previously dissociated foetal rat spinal cord and somatic muscle has been investigated. The first indications of junction formation, both ultrastructurally and electrophysiologically, were observed after circa 18 days in vitro. The junctions contained numerous vesicles, but no secondary folds were developed even after 6 weeks in culture, and synaptic densities were not well marked. Functional endplates were found, and action potentials, endplate potentials and miniature endplate potentials recorded.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Trichomonas vaginalis ; Adenosine triphosphatase ; Acid phosphatase ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Two intracellular phospho-hydrolases are revealed in cells of Trichomonas vaginalis. One of the enzymes is an acid phosphatase and the other a nucleoside triphosphatase (ATP-ase). Both enzymes are found to be present in the Golgi saceuli and vesicles of the cells. The ATP-ase activity has prevalence to the more superficially positioned saceuli of the Golgi region and the acid phosphatase to the more deeply positioned saceuli. Both enzymes are also found in the phagolysosomes but only acid phosphatase could be demonstrated in the small primary lysosomal structures of the cell cytoplasm. The findings indicate that both enzymes are active in the hydrolytic processes associated with endocytosis of foreign matter.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Adrenal cortex ; Mitochondria ; ACTH ; DNA-synthesis ; Autoradiography ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of a chronic ACTH administration (up to 12 consecutive days) on the 3H-thymidine uptake by the mitochondrial compartment of rat adrenal zona fasciculata were investigated by high resolution autoradiography, and compared with the changes in volume and number per cell of these organelles induced by the hormonal treatment. Up to the 9th day of treatment there is a significant increase in the tracer incorporation into adrenocortical mitochondria which is coupled with a significant increase in the volume of the organelles. After 12 days of hormone administration a significant decrease in the 3H-thymidine mitochondrial uptake is found, which is associated with a conspicuous increase in the number of mitochondria per cell and a net decrease in their average volume. The data are discussed in the light of evidence indicating that mitochondria possess a genetic apparatus largely independent of nuclear control. It is hypothesized that ACTH controls the growth and proliferation of adrenocortical mitochondria and that the mechanism of this action of ACTH involves stimulation of the mitochondrial DNA synthesis.
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  • 58
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    Cell & tissue research 151 (1974), S. 457-469 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Juxtaglomerular apparatus ; Rat ; Adrenalectomy ; Renin and secretory granules ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Reaktion des juxtaglomerulären Apparates auf Adrenalektomie wurde untersucht. Im Stadium der Nebenniereninsuffizienz, sechs Tage nach der Operation, wurde quantitativ morphometrisch eine Abnahme der Volumendichte der Sekretgranula (von 32% auf 16%) festgestellt. Golgi-Apparat und Ergastoplasma proliferieren stark, wobei insbesondere die erweiterten Cisternen des Ergastoplasmas auffallen.
    Notes: Summary The response of the Juxtaglomerular apparatus to bilateral adrenalectomy was studied in rats. After the sixth postoperative day, symptoms of severe adrenal insufficiency had developed. In the Juxtaglomerular cells, the volume density of the secretory granules decreased from 32% to 16%. The Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum underwent considerable proliferation, the latter showing strikingly enlarged cisternae.
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  • 59
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    Cell & tissue research 151 (1974), S. 471-480 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Juxtaglomerular apparatus ; Rat ; Influence of deoxycorticosterone (DOC) ; Electron microscopy ; Morphometric analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die quantitativ-morphologische Analyse des juxtaglomerulären Apparates nach DOC-Behandlung zeigte, daß mit der Hemmung der Reninbildung eine Hypoplasie der epitheloiden Zellen des juxtaglomerulären Apparates einhergeht. Der Granulagehalt der juxtaglomerulären Zellen nahm ab; die Kern-Plasma-Relation änderte sich und die Leiomyofibrillen in den Epitheloidzellen nahmen zu. An den übrigen Anteilen des juxtaglomerulären Apparates, insbesondere der Macula densa, wurden keine morphologischen Veränderungen beobachtet. Die DOC-Behandlung führte darüber hinaus zu einer Bildung von Einschlüssen in den Podocyten, den Mesangiumzellen und den Zellen der Bowman-Membran. Die verschiedenen Möglichkeiten, über welche Faktoren die juxtaglomerulären Zellen nach DOC-Behandlung degranuliert werden, werden diskutiert. Das ultrastrukturelle Bild der Epitheloidzellen nach DOC-Behandlung entspricht deutlich einer gehemmten Sekretion, da das Ergastoplasma und der Golgi-Apparat ganz besonders stark zurückgebildet werden.
    Notes: Summary Quantitative morphological analysis of the Juxtaglomerular apparatus of rats treated with deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and salt revealed hypoplasia of the epithelioid cells as a concomitant of the inhibition of renin synthesis. The granular content of the Juxtaglomerular cells was significantly decreased, while the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and the volume density of leiomyofilaments in the epithelioid cells increased. No morphological alterations were observed in the remaining constituents of the Juxtaglomerular apparatus, including the macula densa. DOC-treatment also induced the appearance of inclusions in the podocytes in the cells of the mesangium, and in the cells of Bowman's capsule. The possible mechanisms of degranulation of the Juxtaglomerular cells after treatment with DOC are discussed. The ultrastructural appearance of the epithelioid cells after treatment with DOC corresponds to an inhibition of secretion, since the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus undergo marked regressive changes.
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  • 60
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    Cell & tissue research 151 (1974), S. 433-456 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Juxtaglomerular apparatus (Rat) ; Development ; Renin ; Pools ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die perinatale Entwicklung des juxtaglomerulären Apparates, insbesondere das Verhalten der epitheloiden Zellen wurde an 18 trächtigen Ratten and 65 Embryonen bzw. Jungtieren elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Parallel dazu wurde die Reninkonzentration bzw. der Reningehalt bestimmt. Spezifische Sekretgranula finden sich erstmals am 18. Tag der Fetalzeit, und zwar in den epitheloiden Zellen des juxtaglomerulären Apparates juxtamedullärer Nephrone. Die Granula machen einen Struktur- und wahrscheinlich auch Funktionswandel durch, der eine Einteilung in drei verschiedene Granulatypen nahelegt. Diesen drei Typen spezifischer (reninhaltiger) Sekretgranula werden die Lysosomen als unspezifische Einschlüsse der epitheloiden Zellen gegenübergestellt. Im einzelnen kommt es während der perinatalen Phase in den fetalen Epitheloidzellen zuerst, d.h. pränatal, zu einer Hypertrophie des rauhwandigen endoplasmatischen Retikulums und des Golgi-Apparates. Hierin sehen die Autoren einen Hinweis auf eine erhöhte Proteinsynthese mit entsprechender Zunahme der Transport- und Konzentrationsvorgänge. Nach der Geburt findet sich dann auch eine deutliche Zunahme der Sekretgranula vom Typ III, die als reife Reningranula (mature granules) angesehen werden. Die bisher noch nicht beschriebenen kleinen Sekretgranula vom Typ I dagegen kommen in weniger entwickelten Epitheloidzellen häufiger vor. Bestimmungen der Reninverteilung zwischen Zytoplasma und den durch Differential-zentrifugation gewonnenen Granula-Fraktionen ergeben auffallende Parallelen zu den morphologischen Befunden. Diese sprechen im allgemeinen dafür, daß “freies Renin” im Ergasto-plasma und “gebundenes Renin” in den Sekretgranula vorliegt. Mit zunehmendem Alter scheint es außerdem — parallel zur relativen Abnahme des Ergastoplasmas und Zunahme der reifen Reningranula — zu einer Verminderung des extragranulären zugunsten des granulär gebundenen Renins zu kommen.
    Notes: Summary The perinatal development of the Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA), with particular reference to the epithelioid cells, was studied. Electron microscopic studies were carried out on 18 gravid rats and 65 embryos with corresponding determinations of renin concentration and the renin contents by bio-assay. Specific secretory granules of the epithelioid cells of the JGA of juxtamedullary nephrons are first observed on the 18th day of gestation. The classification into three types of secretory granules suggests that they undergo a structural and probably also a functional transformation. All three types of secretory granule may be regarded as specific, renin-containing, cytoplasmic organelles. During the last days of gestation, the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus become hypertrophied in epithelioid cells, indicating an increased protein synthesis as well as transport and concentration processes. After birth, there is a definite increase in the number of Type III secretory granules-which may be regarded as mature granules. The small Type I secretory granulesnot previously described-are found more frequently in the immature epithelioid cells. Determinations of the renin distribution in the plasma and in fractions of cytoplasmic constituents (total homogenate, secretory granules) prepared by differential centrifugation showed striking congruence with the morphological findings. It is generally assumed that “soluble renin” occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and “bound renin” in secretory granules. A shift from extragranular to granular (bound) renin, occurs with increasing age, having its morphological equivalent in the relative decrease of the endoplasmic reticulum and increase in mature secretory granules.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Pituitary ; Freshwater stickleback ; Morphometry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A new approach to the ultrastructure of fish pituitary glands is presented. A morphometric analysis of the cell types in the pituitary gland of the adult, winter, fresh-water stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus form leiurus, reveals differences between both the relative and absolute volumes of the various organelles in different cell types. The morphometric data on the relative volumes of the organelles, together with section profile diameters of the secretory granules and information on the surface area: volume ratio of the nuclei are then used to build “reconstruction drawings” of “average” cells. A distinction is made between the ultrastructural description and identification of cell types.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Aedes aegypti ; Midgut epithelium ; Cytology ; Morphometry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Ultrastruktur des Mitteldarmes von Aedes aegypti Weibchen wurde morphometrisch untersucht. Besonderes Interesse lag dabei auf quantitativen Unterschieden im Bau der Epithelzellen eines vorderen (A) und eines hinteren (P) Abschnittes des Mitteldarmes, um jedem dieser beiden Abschnitte bestimmte Funktionen zuordnen zu können. 5 physiologisch verschiedene Stadien wurden verglichen: 1 = unreife Weibchen; 2 = zum 1. Blutmahl (B.M.) bereit; 3 = Verdauung des B.M.; 4 = zum 2. B.M. bereit; 5 = alternde Weibchen. Wenn der Mitteldarm noch nicht funktionsbereit ist (Stadium 1) gleichen sich die Epithelzellen von A und P quantitativ ultrastrukturell. In den folgenden Stadien hingegen werden deutliche Unterschiede sichtbar. Das Zellvolumen und die Kern-Cytoplasma-Relation werden in P generell größer als in A. Parallel dazu nehmen der Mitochondriengehalt und die Oberfläche des rauhen endoplasmatischen Retikulums in P gegenüber A zu. In A entwickeln sich mehr Microvilli, ein extensiveres basales Labyrinth und ein deutliches glattes endoplasmatisches Retikulum. Vergrößerte Cytoplasmavolumina vor allem in den P-Zellen werden 24 Std. nach dem 1. B.M. gefunden (Stadium 3). Parallel dazu erreichen die Volumina der Organellen und/oder ihre Membranoberflächen ebenfalls Maximalwerte. Diese Vergrößerung des gesamten Zell-apparates läßt den Schluß zu, daß während der Blutverdauung die Funktionskapazität des Mitteldarmes erhöht ist. Basierend auf den quantitativ ultrastrukturellen Unterschieden zwischen den Zellen von A und P wurde postuliert, daß dem vorderen Abschnitt des Mitteldarms verstärkte Absorptionsfunktionen zukommen. Dem hinteren Abschnitt hingegen wurden gesteigerte Protein-syntheseleistungen im Zusammenhang mit der Bildung von Verdauungsenzymen zugeordnet. Die vorliegenden Resultate wurden an einem, in Beziehung auf seine Ernährung, spezialisierten Insekt gewonnen (Blutverdauung). Trotzdem scheint die postulierte Zuordnung von Funktionen zu bestimmten Mitteldarmzonen mit dem “secretion—absorption”-Modell (Berridge, 1970) übereinzustimmen.
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of the midgut of Aedes aegypti females was investigated by means of morphometric techniques. The interest was focussed on quantitative differences in the composition of epithelial cells between the anterior (A) and posterior (P) part of the midgut. The aim was to attribute defined functions to each of these 2 parts. 5 different physiological stages were compared: 1 = immature female; 2 = ready for first blood meal (b.m.); 3 = digestion of b.m.; 4 = ready for 2nd b.m.; 5 = aging female. Whereas in stage 1, when the gut has not yet reached a functional state the epithelial cells of A and P resemble each other, distinct differences develop in subsequent stages. Generally the cell volume and the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio become higher in P than in A. Concomitantly the mitochondrial content and the surface area of the rough endoplasmic reticulum are more prominent in P than in A. On the other hand more microvilli, a more extensive basal labyrinth and a well developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum are present in A. Enlarged cytoplasmic volumes, especially high in P, are found 24 h after the first b.m. (stage 3). In accordance with this increase the volume of organelles and/or their membrane surface areas also reach maximal values. This augmentation of the metabolic cell apparatus suggests that during blood digestion the whole organ develops an increased functional capacity. From the quantitative structural differences in A and P we concluded that the A-part of the midgut is especially involved in absorption. To the P-part more protein synthesis may be attributed, thus indicating an enhanced formation of digestive enzymes. Although this study deals with a rather specialised insect (blood digestion), it appears that our hypothesis attributing functions to defined midgut zones, agrees to a certain extent with the “secretion-absorption-model” of Berridge (1970).
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  • 63