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  • Electron microscopy  (2,108)
  • Angiologie
  • Kardiologie
  • Springer  (2,117)
  • Sage Publications  (16)
  • Lippincott Williams & Wilkins  (12)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Key words X-ray crystallography ; Electron microscopy ; Biological databases
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Advances in structural biology are opening greater opportunities for understanding biological structures from the cellular to the atomic level. Particularly promising are the links that can be established between the information provided by electron microscopy and the atomic structures derived from X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Combining such different kinds of structural data can result in novel biological information on the interaction of biomolecules in large supramolecular assemblies. As a consequence, the need to develop new databases in the field of structural biology that allow for an integrated access to data from all the experimental techniques is becoming critical. Pilot studies performed in recent years have already established a solid background as far as the basic information that an integrated macromolecular structure database should contain, as well as the basic principles for integration. These efforts started in the context of the BioImage project, and resulted in a first complete database prototype that provided a versatile platform for the linking of atomic models or X-ray diffraction data with electron microscopy information. Analysis of the requirements needed to combine data at different levels of resolution have resulted in sets of specifications that make possible the integration of all these different types in the context of a web environment. The case of a structural study linking electron microscopy and X-ray data, which is already contained within the BioImage data base and in the Protein Data Bank, is used here to illustrate the current approach, while a general discussion highlights the urgent need for integrated databases.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-0458
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Obstruktives Schlafapnoesyndrom ; nCPAP Therapie ; Nasenschleimhaut ; Elektronenmikroskopie ; Keywords Obstructive sleep apnea ; nCPAP-therapy ; Nasal mucosa ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Background and objective. The treatment success of nCPAP therapy (nasal continuous positive airway pressure) depends partly on the relief of symptoms and partly on long-term patient acceptance and the related avoidance of complications.Nasal complaints constitute the most frequently reported side effects and, together with problems of mask application, are among the primary factors causing an nCPAP-therapy to be prematurely discontinued. Patients/Methods. To assess the morphological changes of the nasal mucosa during nCPAP-therapy, we excised specimens of nasal mucosa tissue in twelve patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) both before and 3–10 months after establishing nCPAP-mask acceptance. The specimens were examined by electron microscopy. Results. In all these patients, acceptance of the CPAP mask marked the initial part of therapy. In addition, mucociliary clearance was assessed by the saccharin test before and after therapy. In all patients, the nasal epithelium underwent fundamental changes upon CPAP therapy, which became manifest as modifications in the shape of epithelial cells, conglutination and clumping of the microvilli, and the appearance of immunocompetent cells. Once patients were nCPAP mask compliant, mucociliary clearance was distinctly prolonged in all cases. Conclusions. A successful therapeutic concept should provide normalization of room temperature and air humidity once nCPAP mask compliance has been achieved, and include regular assessment of the condition of the mucosa in the upper respiratory tract. Only by these measures can nasal complications be countered or therapy be applied at an early stage.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Hintergrund und Fragestellung. Der Therapieerfolg einer nCPAP-Therapie (“nasal continuous positive airway pressure”) ist einerseits abhängig von der Linderung der Beschwerden und andererseits von der Langzeitakzeptanz und der hiermit verbundenen Vermeidung von Komplikationen. Nasale Beschwerden sind die häufigsten Nebenwirkungen und neben den Maskenproblemen die wichtigste Ursache, weshalb eine nCPAP-Therapie frühzeitig unterbrochen wird. Patienten/Methodik. Wir haben bei 12 Patienten mit einem obstruktivem Schlafapnoesyndrom Probeexzisionen aus der Nasenschleimhaut vor und 3–10 Monate nach Anpasssung der nCPAP-Maske entnommen und elektronenmikroskopisch untersucht. Bei all diesen Patienten war die Anpassung der nCPAP-Maske die Ersttherapie. Darüber hinaus wurde vor und nach der Therapie die mukoziliäre Clearance mit Hilfe des Saccharintests beurteilt. Ergebnisse. Bei allen Patienten kam es nach der nCPAP-Therapie zur grundlegenden Veränderungen des Nasenepithels mit Veränderung der Epithelzellenform, Verklebungen und Verklumpungen der Mikrovilli und auftreten von immunkompetenten Zellen. In allen Fällen war die mukoziliäre Clearance nach Anpassung der nCPAP-Maske deutlich verlängert. Schlussfolgerungen. Ein erfolgreiches Therapiekonzept sollte die Normalisierung der Raumtemperatur und Luftfeuchtigkeit gleich nach der Anpassung der nCPAP-Maske und die regelmäßige Beurteilung der Schleimhautverhältnisse der oberen Atemwege beinhalten. Nur somit können nasale Komplikationen aufgehalten oder frühzeitig therapiert werden.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words M cell ; HRP ; Nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The nasopharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) are prominent components of human nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT). However, the role of the nasopharyngeal tonsils in antigen uptake for initiation of the mucosal immune response is unknown. The aims of this study were to describe the ultrastructure and function of the M cells of the human nasopharyngeal tonsils and to clarify their capacity for antigen uptake. Tissues obtained from eight patients undergoing adenectomy were examined by light and electron microscopy. Lymphoepithelium covers the nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue and consists of ciliary epithelium, non-ciliary epithelial cells, M cells, goblet cells, and many intraepithelial lymphoid cells. M cells have irregular and broad cytoplasm-containing microvilli on their surface and small vesicles in their cytoplasm. Many lymphoid cells were enfolded by M cells. The uptake of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the tissue in organ culture was studied using histochemical techniques. Excised adenoid tissue was incubated in RPMI 1640 culture media with HRP for 10, 30, and 60 min. HRP which had adhered to the surface was taken up in vesicles and then transported in vesicles and tubules by M cells. The M cells of nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue were ultrastructurally and functionally similar to those in human Peyer’s patches and colonic lymphoid follicles. These findings indicate that NALT bears similarities to the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and its antigen uptake capacity may be important for initiation of immunity in the upper aerodigestive tract.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Prostate adenocarcinoma ; Endocrine cells ; Immunohistochemistry ; FSH ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We report an unusual variant of prostatic adenocarcinoma with marked endocrine differentiation (mixed endocrine-exocrine adenocarcinoma). Endocrine cells accounted for 60% of the tumour cells, were positive with silver impregnation and for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase, and coexpressed the exocrine antigens prostatic acid phosphatase and prostatic-specific antigen. Most of the endocrine cells were basophilic with haematoxylin-eosin and proved immunoreactive for alpha subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and follicle-stimulating hormone. The remaining endocrine cells were represented by eosinophilic cells positive for serotonin, and by calcitonin and serotonin-immunoreactive cells not identifiable in haematoxylin-eosin-stained sections. On ultrastructural analysis, two types of endocrine cells were identified. The most frequent cell type showed abundant cytoplasmic round, electron-dense neurosecretory granules, either small (212±44 nm) or large (471±114 nm), resembling those of gonadotropic pituitary cells. The second type of endocrine cells contained irregular electron-dense granules similar to those of serotonin-storing enterochromaffin cells.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2161
    Keywords: Keywords Ectopic calcification ; Deep posterior compartment syndrome ; Computed tomography ; Carbonate-containing apatite ; Electron microscopy ; X-ray diffraction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We present a patient whose ectopic calcification following deep posterior compartment syndrome was studied by electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and X-ray diffraction. The patient complained of a toe flexion deformity following a tibial fracture which he sustained 18 years earlier. Damage to the peroneal artery was demonstrated by magnetic resonance angiography, suggesting that the patient had had deep posterior compartment syndro-me in the past. A large radiopaque mass, identified in the flexor hallucis longus muscle by radiographs and computed tomography, was resected, resulting in a dramatic improvement of the toe deformity. The resected material was analyzed in detail. It included no osseous tissue, and was not birefringent under a polarizing microscope, being compatible with ectopic calcification rather than ossification. On electron microscopy the material was found to be an assembly of tiny rods. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses suggested a carbonate-containing apatite as the most probable substance.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Gastrointestinal pacemaker cell tumor ; Interstitial cells of Cajal ; Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor ; c-kit Receptor-antibody ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Recent studies indicate that a subgroup of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, including gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors (GANTs), originate from stem cells that differentiate toward a pacemaker-cell phenotype. These pacemaker cells form a complex network intercalated between the autonomic nerves and the muscle walls of the gastrointestinal tract and are called interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). The c-kit receptor (CD117) is a sensitive marker for ICC. The aim of our study was to support the hypothesis that GANTs show ICC differentiation. Seven GANTs without convincing smooth muscle or neural differentiation all showed homogeneous reactivity for the c-kit receptor. CD34 was positive in three cases. On electron microscopy, the typical features of GANT were present. Six tumors contained skeinoid fibers. Most tumors were related to the small bowel. They presented as single (two cases) or multiple (five cases) tumors. The presenting symptoms were abdominal bleeding (2), abdominal mass (2), anemia (1), and small-bowel perforation (1). In two cases, liver metastases developed. Because of the close immunohistochemical and electron microscopic similarities of these tumors to the interstitial cells of Cajal, the term gastrointestinal pacemaker cell tumor seems appropriate.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Tubulovesicular particles ; Scrapie ; Electron microscopy ; Prion protein ; Transmissible ¶spongiform encephalopathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Tubulovesicular bodies are structures, apparently specific to the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which are of unknown composition and significance. Prion protein (PrP) is absent from tubulovesicular bodies when tissues are examined by immunogold electron microscopy. In the F1 cross of C57 and VM mice (CVF1) infected with ME7 scrapie there is a marked degeneration of hippocampal CA1 neurons. In this model the earliest changes seen, at about 100 days post inoculation (dpi) are a degeneration of axon terminals and synaptic loss. Terminal disease is around 250 dpi. In blind coded trials we counted the number of tubulovesicular particles and estimated their density in 56–76 electron micrographs taken from the stratum radiatum of each of one or two CVF1 ME7-infected mice at 84, 100, 126, 154 and 181 dpi and from four normal brain inoculated control mice. Tubulovesicular particles were present from 98 dpi and the density of particles increased with increasing incubation period. The very early occurrence of tubulovesicular particles, before the presence of significant pathology, argues that tubulovesicular particles are a part of the primary disease and are not epiphenomena.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Sural nerve ; Muscle fiber diameter ; Morphometry ; Electron microscopy ; Myotonic ¶dystrophy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We compared peripheral nerve fibers and muscle fibers in myotonic dystrophy (MD) using a computer-assisted device for morphometry. In the 17 cases with MD studied, the sural nerves of 14 cases (82%) showed various degrees of reduction of the myelin sheath area (MSA) per endoneurial area. Of these, 8 cases (47%) presented with a mild reduction of the MSA, 5 cases (29.4%) with moderate reduction, and one case (6%) with severe reduction. The number of myelinated nerve fibers was not significantly reduced in MD when compared with control nerves, due to clusters of small regenerated nerve fibers. The mean diameter of the muscle fibers in 6 of the 17 cases was less than 40 μm. Of these 6 severely affected cases, ¶5 revealed a considerable reduction of the MSA. Other cases, which appeared to be normal in respect to the diameter of muscle fibers, showed various degrees of reduction of the MSA. Thus, there is usually, but not always a morphometric correlation of the severity of changes between peripheral nerves and muscle. The severity of the peripheral neuropathy appears to depend largely on the patient’s age, the stage of the disorder, and the time of progression. Electron microscopic examination of sural nerves showed significant, though non-specific pathological changes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Muscle transplantation ; Muscle ¶regeneration ; Electron microscopy ; Muscle spindles ; Motor innervation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from 2- to 28-day-old rats were grafted into EDL muscles of adult inbred recipients (n = 8). At 1–6 months after the operation, experimental muscles were excised and the ultrastructure and innervation of regenerated muscle spindles was examined. Regenerated muscle spindles (n = 36) in isografted EDL muscles contained 4.3 ± 0.2 (mean ± SEM) encapsulated muscle fibres. These “intrafusal” muscle fibres lacked nuclear bag and nuclear chain accumulations, which are characteristic of normal muscle spindles; thus, they rather resembled thin encapsulated extrafusal muscle fibres. In the same sample, myelinated axons were found in 33 (92%) muscle spindles, but no sensory terminals were found. These findings demonstrate that regenerated spindles in isografted EDL muscles were not reinnervated by spindle-specific sensory axons, but exclusively by motor axons. Typical intracapsular motor endplates (MEPs) were found in one third of regenerated spindles examined. Their motor terminals contained accumulated mitochondria and synaptic vesicles. As is characteristic for MEPs, axolemma and sarcolemma were separated by a synaptic cleft about 60 nm wide that contained a basal lamina. The underlying sarcolemma formed either small infoldings or none at all, and the subsynaptic area contained only small subsarcolemmal accumulations of mitochondria. It is apparent that the structures described here as “regenerated muscle spindles” do not perform their normal physiological function as stretch receptors because they lack the sensory innervation. The present results show that regeneration and reinnervation in heterochronous isografts corresponds to that previously described in autotransplanted free muscle grafts. The results also show that, during muscle spindle regeneration, intrafusal satellite cells develop into extrafusal-like muscle fibres, apparently due to their motor innervation.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Papillary ; Glioneuronal tumour ; Electron microscopy ; NCAM ; L1 adhesion molecule
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Among the mixed glioneuronal tumours, a new variant called papillary glioneuronal tumour has recently been delineated. A case occurring in a 23-year-old man is reported. The tumour was cystic with a mural nodule enhanced by gadolinium injection. It was located within the left parieto-occipital lobe. Surgical excision showed a greyish friable tumour with cystic areas. Histopathological examination revealed a pseudopapillary component comprising a single layer of regular cells, arranged around hyalinised vessels. These cells were immunoreactive with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein and HNK1 antibodies. A neurocytoma-like component coexisted with round blind cells and focal fibrillary rosettes. These cells were immunostained by anti-neuron-specific enolase and anti-synaptophysin antibodies. Neither mitoses nor ganglioid cells were seen. HNK1, the three isoforms of NCAM, and the L1 adhesion molecule were detected by Western blot analysis. Ultrastructural study showed three different types of cells. The first contained gliofilaments, the second showed long processes with true synapses, and the third was poorly differentiated. However, all had identical nuclei and contained dense bodies. These findings suggest a common origin for the tumour cells derived from a bipotential neuroglial progenitor. As for other mature mixed neuroglial tumours, the prognosis is good. Our patient is free of disease 7 years after complete surgical treatment.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Pheromone ; Supporting cell ; Vomeronasal organ ; Olfaction ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  To investigate cell turnover in the vomeronasal epithelium we used electron microscopy to obtain quantitative measurements of changes observed at the surface of the sensory epithelium. Receptor cell degeneration was induced by sensory nerve transection and animals were examined at postoperative recovery times of 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, 35 and 60 days. We measured the number and density of receptor and supporting cells, and membrane length at the surface of the sensory epithelium. The number of receptor cells rapidly decreased during the degeneration period, reaching a minimum at 6 days. After 15 days of recovery the number and density of receptor cells returned to control levels. The surface membrane length for regenerated receptor cells was similar to that of controls, however the morphological appearance was characteristic of immature cells. In contrast to the receptor cells, the number and density of supporting cells did not change during degeneration and regeneration. However, there was a significant increase in the length of supporting cell-surface membranes. These results suggest that during receptor cell degeneration, supporting cell membranes compensate for the loss of receptor cells by expanding their surface membrane length to help to maintain the continuity of the epithelial surface. Thus, an important role of vomeronasal supporting cells may be to maintain the structural integrity of the epithelium during turnover of the receptor cell population.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Key words Fluorescence ; Photodynamic therapy ; Bromosulphophthalein ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The cellular uptake and subcellular localization of indocyanine green (ICG; absorption band 700– 850 nm), and cell survival and ultrastructural changes following ICG-mediated phototherapy were investigated in vitro in four different cell lines derived from human skin (SCL1 and SCL2 squamous cell carcinoma, HaCaT keratinocytes and N1 fibroblasts). The cellular uptake of ICG (1–50 μM, incubation times 1, 4, 24 h) was saturable, highly cumulative and could be inhibited by the addition of 250 μM bromosulphophthalein indicating the involvement of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP). For HaCaT cells, the maximum cellular uptake (Vmax) and the Michaelis constant (Km) were 9.9 ± 1.1 mM and 47 ± 16 μM, respectively, following a 24-h incubation with ICG. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a cytoplasmic distribution of ICG, probably bound to glutathione S-transferase. Following irradiation with a cw-diode laser (805 nm, 80 mW/cm2) at doses of 24 or 48 J/cm2, the phototoxicity was determined using the MTT assay as a measure of cell viability. For all cell lines, ICG concentrations above 25 μM produced a significant phototoxic effect. The EC50 of ICG for HaCaT cells following irradiation at 24 J/cm2 was 20.1 ± 3.9 μM. Growth curves showed that even HaCaT cells treated at the EC50 were killed within a week following treatment. Electron microscopy 1 h after ICG-mediated phototherapy revealed cytoplasmic vesiculation, dilation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi complex and the perinuclear cisternae and the beginning of chromatin condensation in the nucleus. These ultrastructural findings are not consistent with a photothermal action of ICG-mediated phototherapy. Taken together with those of previous studies by our group these results support photooxidation as a major cell-killing mechanism.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1590-9999
    Keywords: Key words Hydroxyapatite ; Bone ; Interface ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We performed a back-scattered electron microscopy analysis of the interface between newly formed bone and hydroxyapatite coating, in an experimental rabbit model. Twenty cylinders made of Ti6A14V and coated with hydroxyapatite at different crystallinity were implanted in the distal femural canal and retrieved at 4, 8, 26 an 34 weeks. Crystallinity of the coating varied from 90% to 60% and thickness varied between 50 and 100 μm. Osteocytes were detectable a few micrometers in proximity of the coating. They produced new bone which was so tightly apposed to the coating that high magnification BSEM did not resolve any discontinuity at the interface. This was not observed in uncoated implants. Degradation of the hydroxyapatite coating is not a simple hydrolytic process because newly formed bone is remodelled in areas were a tight apposition with hydroxyapatite is present. The coatint itself is likely to be attacked by the resorptive action of multinucleated giant cells and osteoclasts. In conclusion, response to coated samples is morphologically characterized by tight apposition with bone. The substitution of areas of the coating by newly formed bone is possible.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1590-3478
    Keywords: Key words NCLs ; Peripheral biopsies ; Brain biopsy ; Blood lymphocytes ; Electron microscopy ; Pathological cytosomes ; Diagnostic criteria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Clinical findings and pathological features of 28 patients affected with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are reviewed. The patient group included 15 children affected with the late-infantile form of NCL (LINCL), 10 patients affected with the juvenile form (JNCL), and 3 adult cases. Ultrastructural examinations of 50 biopsies from 6 tissues were consistent with clinical features in all LINCL and JNCL cases but one. The importance of electron microscopic (EM) examination of blood lymphocytes in these forms is outlined, particularly when combined with molecular analysis of the CLN2 or CLN3 genes, respectively. This approach leads to a definite diagnosis of LINCL and JNCL is a relatively short time. In adult NCL, diagnosis still relies on pathological grounds, and difficulties in interpreting the osmiophilic storage bodies in different tissues are outlined. EM investigation of blood lymphocytes was not helpful in any case of adult NCL. Results of one stereotactic brain biopsy are also reported.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Electron microscopy ; Photoreceptor ; Visual membrane ; Photic radiation damage ; Retina ; Crustacea
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Visual membranes of the crayfish eye either belong to the small, distally placed rhabdomere of retinula cell R8 or are part of the much more voluminous proximal rhabdom, made up of rhabdomeres belonging to cells R1–R7. Under various conditions of environmental stress (e.g., prolonged darkness, elevated temperature, bright light with and without a concomitant rise in temperature, flickering lights) the visual membranes of R8 prove far more resistant to structural damage than those of R1–R7. Membrane damage is known to occur when dormant lipoxygenases become activated, for example through heat. Since R8 is the only type of visual cell in the crayfish retina that does not contain grains of screening pigment, the view that screening-pigment granules could “aggravate” or even “trigger” membrane damage in times of stress is strengthened. Functionally, R8's strong resistance to physical damage when exposed to flickering lights points to a role of the distal rhabdom in the movement detection system of the crayfish eye.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1619-0904
    Keywords: Poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (MPC) ; In vivo biocompatibility ; Artificial endocrine pancreas ; Electron microscopy ; Glucose sensor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Biocompatibility is important to assure a mild body reaction to an implanted device and its long-term stability and functionality. In diabetes research, subcutaneously implanted glucose monitoring systems need biocompatible surfaces for long-term application. The biocompatibility of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (MPC), a material similar to the phospholipid layer of a cell membrane, was compared in vivo with the biocompatibility of polyurethane (PU), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and cuprophane (CUP). Needle-type glucose sensors and hollow-fiber probes used for microdialysis were coated with these four different biomaterials and implanted subcutaneously in 18 rats and 7 healthy volunteers. At set intervals, the implants and, in the case of the rats, also the surrounding tissue were removed and characterized by light and electron microscopy. MPC-coated sensors and hollow-fiber probes showed smooth and thin deposits in flat layers, whereas the surface deposits on PU- and PVA-coated sensors and those on CUP hollow-fiber probes appeared as rough, irregular, and dense attachments of aggregated cells and protein. This study confirmed results from earlier in vitro tests by showing the biocompatibility and reliability of MPC. Even though the amount of protein and cells attached to the MPC surface was not as low as expected from in vitro experiments, the biocompatibility and long-term stability of the implanted devices were superior to those of PU, PVA, and CUP.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1432-2021
    Keywords: Key words Cristobalite ; Tridymite ; Phase transformation ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Using minimum exposure techniques, it is feasible to perform high resolution electron microscopy on the α-cristobalite phase of (Si0.9 Ge0.1)O2, which is extremely radiation sensitive. Such images reveal atomic scale information of twins and tridymite-like stacking faults on (1 1 1)β planes, as well as of domain boundaries resulting from the β→α transition. Polytype structures are formed in certain cases. Morphological features suggest that the phase transformation cristobalite → tridymite proceeds by means of a zonal dislocation mediated synchro-shear process on (1 1 1)β planes; the geometry of this process is analyzed.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1432-2021
    Keywords: Key words Olivine ; Grain boundary ; Partial melt ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The microstructure of olivine-olivine grain boundaries has been studied in experimentally deformed (1200–1227 °C, 300 MPa) partially molten olivine and olivine-orthopyroxene rocks. In-situ melting produced ∼1 vol% melt in all samples studied. Grain boundary analyses were carried out using a number of transmission electron microscopy techniques. The grain boundary chemistry in undeformed olivine-orthopyroxene starting material showed evidence for the presence of an intergranular phase along some, but not all, of the olivine-olivine boundaries. In the deformed samples, ultrathin Si-rich, Al- and Ca-bearing amorphous films have been observed along all investigated olivine-olivine grain boundaries. The chemistry of the grain boundaries, which is considered to be indicative for the presence of a thin film, was measured with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and energy-filtering imaging. The amorphous nature of the films was confirmed with diffuse dark field imaging, Fresnel fringe imaging, and high-resolution electron microscopy. The films range in thickness from 0.6 to 3.0 nm, and EDX analyses show that the presence of Al and Ca is restricted to this ultrathin film along the grain boundaries. Because thin melt films have been observed in all the samples, they are thought to be stable features of the melt microstructure in deformed partially molten rocks. The transition from the occasional presence of films in the undeformed starting material to the general occurrence of the films in deformed materials suggests that deformation promotes the formation and distribution of the films. Alternatively, hot-pressing may be too short for films to develop along all grain boundaries. A difference in creep strength between the studied samples could not be attributed to grain boundary melt films, as these have been found in all deformed samples. However, a weakening effect of grain boundary melt films on olivine rheology could not be ruled out due to the lack of confirmed melt-film free experiments.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1861-387X
    Keywords: Chordoid meningioma ; Castleman syndrome ; Electron microscopy ; Immunohistochemistry ; Magnetic resonance image
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Chordoid meningioma is a relatively rare variant that is often associated with peritumoral lymphoplasmacellular infiltration causing Castleman syndrome (CS). We present a 44-year-old woman with chordoid meningioma not associated with CS. The patient presented with epilepsy and right hemiparesis (Todd's palsy) on admission. The radiological findings revealed an extraaxial mass lesion in the premotor cortex. They were compatible with a preoperative diagnosis of meningioma. No physical abnormalities related to CS were detected. A left frontal craniotomy was performed. The tumor surface was gelatinous, and it was totally resected with the attached dura mater (Simpson grade I). The patient had an uneventful recovery, and her seizures subsided. The pathological findings of the specimens revealed nests and cords of spindle and epithelioid cells with abundant myxoid matrix, mimicking the features of chordoma. On the basis of radiological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic findings, chordoid meningioma was verified, and a review of the literature was performed.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1437-773X
    Keywords: Key words Pigmented purpuric dermatitis ; Endothelial cell ; Fibrous long-spacing collagen ; Intracellular structure ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A case of pigmented purpuric dermatitis (PPD) in a Japanese man aged 59 years is reported with an interesting ultrastructural finding. Clinically, the lesions, which consisted of telangiectatic puncta and pigmentation, were irregular in shape and occurred predominantly on the lower legs without pruritus. Histologically, lymphocytic perivascular infiltrates and extravasation of red blood cells were observed in the papillary dermis. Ultrastructurally, endothelial cells with ovoid nuclei showed swelling and the lumen of the capillary became narrowed. Several banded structures, so-called fibrous long-spacing collagen (FLSC), were observed in the cytoplasm. They were spindle shaped, about 5 μm in length, and showed crossbands of 300-nm-wide intervals with fine intraperiodic bands. These structures were not observed in dermal connective tissue and fibroblasts. These results suggested that FLSC was synthesized in endothelial cells rather than being phagocytosed by endothelial cells, which might be helpful in investigating the etiology of PPD.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1437-773X
    Keywords: Key words Dental titanium implant ; Electron microscopy ; X-ray microanalysis ; Electron diffraction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study investigated the tissue response associated with dental titanium implants. The mandibular third and fourth premolars and first molar of three adult beagle dogs were extracted bilaterally. Healing was then allowed for 3 months. Six titanium implants were placed in the mandibles of a dog. Three weeks after the implantation, mandibular sections containing the implants were retrieved with the use of a bone saw and investigated by light and electron microscopy, X-ray microanalyzer, and electron diffraction. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed titanium particles on the implant–bone interface, and investigation by microanalyzer revealed titanium not only on the implant–bone interface but also in the bone tissue. Transmission electron microscopic observation and investigation by electron diffraction showed titanium in the bone matrix and cells other than macrophages. In this study, titanium particles from the dental implant were recognized morphologically in the surrounding bone tissue. Thus, study of the influence of titanium particles on the human body is needed.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Acetylcholine receptor ; Nicotinic ; Denervation supersensitivity ; Neuromuscular junction ; α-Bungarotoxin ; Immunocytochemistry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Through the use of biotinylated-bungarotoxin and monoclonal antibodies, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was localized in the subneural apparatus of mammalian motor end plates of the flexor digitorum brevis muscle of the adult rat at the light and electron microscopic levels. Under normal conditions, nAChR was located in the primary post-synaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, and the depths of the junctional folds constituting the secondary post-synaptic membrane did not contain any nAChR. Up to 75 days after repeated transection of the related motor nerve (sciatic), there was no major alteration in the light-microscopic localization of junctional nAChR in the subneural apparatus, except for a moderate shrinkage and increased immunocytochemical reactivity of the subneural apparatus. At the electron microscopic level, however, immunocytochemical reactivity gradually occupied the entire extent of the secondary post-synaptic membrane, including the depths of the junctional folds, which exhibited extensive branching. In non-innervated portions of the muscle fibers, nAChR receptor appeared in a linear localization on the surfaces of denervated muscle fibers. This linear reaction was not continuous with the nAChR reaction of the motor end plates. It is concluded that denervation supersensitivity might not be due to spreading of junctional nAChR from the end-plate area, but rather to expression of nAChR in non-innervated portions of the muscle fiber and to the infraterminal (subsynaptic) spreading of nAChR into the depths of junctional folds.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Key words Human liver ; Human brain ; Ferritin ; Electron microscopy ; Mössbauer spectroscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Human brain (globus pallidus) and liver tissues were investigated by means of electron microscopy (EM), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) and SQUID magnetometry techniques. Based on MS measurements, the iron present was identified to be in the ferritin-like form (61–88%) and in the form of a low-spin iron species (the balance). Its overall concentration was estimated as 1.5(3) mg in the brain and 2.4(5) mg in the liver, per gram of lyophilized tissue. The average core diameter was determined by EM measurements to be equal to 7.5(1.3) nm for the liver and 3.3(5) nm for the brain. Magnetization measurements carried out between 5 and 300 K yielded an estimation of an average blocking temperature, KT BL, as equal to 6.7 K and 8.5 K for the liver and the brain, respectively. From the dependence of KT BL on the external magnetic field it was concluded that the ferritin-like cores in the studied samples can be regarded as non-interacting particles. Finally, the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant was determined to be 6×103 J/m3 for the liver and 4×104 J/m3 for the brain.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Nerve injury ; Nerve repair ; Retrograde reaction ; Regeneration ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Peripheral axotomy of adult cat spinal motoneurons induces a marked loss of synaptic boutons from the cell bodies and dendritic trees. The aim of the present study was to analyze the recovery of synaptic contacts in axotomized motoneurons following reinnervation into muscle. Adult cat spinal motoneurons were first deprived of their muscular contacts for 12 weeks and, then, allowed to reinnervate their target muscle. Two years later, regenerated motoneurons were labeled with horseradish peroxidase to allow quantitative ultrastructural analyses of the synaptic covering of the cell bodies and dendrites. Presynaptic boutons were classified according to their size and the shape of their synaptic vesicles. Results show that a recovery of synaptic covering occurs in the axotomized neurons after muscle reinnervation, but it affects various bouton types to different degrees. The number of S-type boutons synapsing with the soma was 70% higher after reinnervation than at 12 weeks after axotomy, while the number of F-type boutons had increased by only 13%. Compared with the normal situation, the number of S-type boutons synapsing with the proximal dendrites increased from 82% at 12 weeks after axotomy to 180% in the reinnervated state. In conclusion, in adult cat spinal motoneurons, the reestablishment of muscular contact is followed by a normalization of some of the synaptological changes induced by a prolonged state of axotomy. In certain respects restitution is incomplete, but in others it results in overcompensation.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Rhabdomyosarcoma ; Aorta ; Immunohistochemistry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We report an intimal sarcoma presenting as an aortic aneurysm. A 68-year-old man suffered from chest pain and speech disturbance. Computed tomography showed a sacciform aneurysm of the aorta, which was resected, revealing a polypoid tumour measuring 1.5×2×2.5 cm projecting into the lumen. This proved to be a poorly differentiated high-grade sarcoma having morphological, immunophenotypic and ultrastructural features consistent with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. Primary sarcomas of the aorta are extremely rare. Many cases have been diagnosed as ”intimal” on the basis of their site of origin, and they are not easy to classify from their histological pattern. Electron microscopy and the use of a more comprehensive panel of immunohistochemical markers should be applied in the histological classification of ”intimal” sarcoma.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Melanin ; Oncocytic metaplasia ; Nasopharynx ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  A 64-year-old man presented with a history of discomfort of the throat of a few weeks’ duration. Nasoscopic examination revealed multiple small, brown pigmentations at the left suprapharynx, the base of the left nasal cavity and the pharyngeal openings of the auditory tube on both sides. Microscopically, the lesion showed a glandular pattern of oncocytic epithelium with abundant pigmented granules and melanophages in the surrounding stroma. Immunohistochemically, the dendritic cells in the basal layer were positive for S-100 protein. Electron microscopic study revealed numerous fully melanized melanosomes and hypertrophied mitochondria in the oncocytic cells. Oncocytic cells do not produce melanin for themselves, melanin granules apparently being transferred from the adjacent dendritic cells to the oncocytic cells.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Unmyelinated fibers ; Peripheral nerve ; Electron microscopy ; Histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Quantitation of unmyelinated fibers (UF) in peripheral nerves has classically relied upon ultrastructural morphometry. Because this method is time-consuming, it is not typically performed in routine analysis of nerve biopsies. We applied the Bodian-Luxol technique to detect unmyelinated axons by light microscopy on semithin sections from resin-embedded nerve tissue. Estimates were compared to ultrastructural counts. The staining appeared highly specific for axons. Excellent correlation was found between optic densities and the population of UF larger than 0.5 μm. The smallest profiles detected by light microscopy had a diameter close to 0.6 μm. This new technique is not a substitute for ultrastructural quantitative morphometry of UF, as very small unmyelinated axons, especially regenerating ones, can not be reliably visualized. However, it provides a valuable light microscopic method for evaluating axonal loss among UF.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Micropolygyria ; Electron microscopy ; Frontal lobe ; Perivascular space ; Dot-like structure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have reported breaches of glia limitans (GL)-basal lamina (BL) complex with protruding neuroglial tissue in Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) fetus brain and suggested that some basic deficits in the GL-BL complex may have a pivotal role in formation of micropolygyria in FCMD. We therefore investigated the cerebral GL-BL complex in seven FCMD cases (12–27 years of age), in three cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (17–25 years of age) and in two non-neurological controls (28 and 33 years of age). The frontal lobe cortex was examined immunocytochemically using antibodies against collagen type IV and laminin in each case, and ultrastructurally in an adult case of FCMD. In FCMD, the BL of the cortical surface was frequently breached with protruding neural tissue that ultrastructurally showed frequent synapses, neurites that had parallel arranged microtubules, and astrocytic processes. The outermost surface of this tissue was only partly lined by a BL. In the region of the gyral adhesion of micropolygyria, the perivascular space of the apparently entrapped meningeal blood vessels was occupied by neuroglial tissue, which is assumed to have invaded through the occasionally seen breaches of the perivascular GL-BL complex. Electron microscopy of the intruding tissue showed frequent synapses, microtubule-containing neurites and astrocytic processes. No breached GL-BL complex was found in any of the non-FCMD cases. These findings indicate that in FCMD, the cerebral GL-BL complex continues to have a crucial deficit with resulting breaches through which neuroglial tissue protrudes, promoting adhesion of the adjacent cerebral gyri during brain development before and after birth.
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  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Anatomy and embryology 200 (1999), S. 551-558 
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Retina ; Development ; Retinal pigment epithelium ; Microglia ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Blood-borne mononuclear cells invade the developing retina via the hyaloid vasculature at the optic nerve head. Following removal of apoptotic cell debris they give rise to the network of resident microglia. The population of cells recently described in the peripheral subretinal space of developing human eyes may represent a further population of macrophages destined to become microglia. The aim of the present study was to confirm the presence of subretinal macrophages in the developing eye in other mammalian species and perform preliminary immunophenotypic analysis in rat tissues. The range of species chosen included eutherian mammals (rat and rabbit) and marsupials (wallaby and opossum). Ocular tissues from a range of developmental stages were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Distinctive networks of dendriform and pleomorphic macrophages were observed by scanning electron microscopy in the peripheral subretinal space of D2 rabbits, newborn and D2 rats and D75 wallaby. Transmission electron microscopic studies of D2 rabbit, newborn and D2 rat and all ages of North American opossum revealed cells with the ultrastructural features of macrophages in the peripheral subretinal space, cilio-retinal junction and between ciliary epithelial cells. Preliminary immunoperoxidase studies using a panel of anti-leukocyte monoclonal antibodies on frozen sections of rat ocular tissues (newborn, D2 and D4) revealed ED1+ Ox42+ ED2+ but Ox6– cells in the peripheral subretinal space, peripheral retina and ciliary body epithelia. The data confirms that subretinal macrophages are a feature of the developing eye in a broad range of mammalian species and immunophenotypic evidence leads the author to postulate that these cells arise from the ciliary body vasculature and may migrate into peripheral neural retina and mature into resident microglia.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ; Autopsy ; Electron microscopy ; Immunocytochemistry ; Motor ; neuron disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report two autopsy cases of motor neuron disease (MND) patients with an unusual type of muscular atrophy predominantly affecting the shoulder girdle and the upper extremities with proximal dominance. Both patients are considered to be clinically categorized into the El Escorial suspected form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). At autopsy, they showed marked loss of spinal anterior horn cells accompanied by astrogliosis positively immunostained with anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody at the cervical level. At the lumbosacral level, anterior horn neurons were relatively well preserved and Bunina bodies, ubiquitin-positive skein-like inclusions and Lewy body-like inclusions were observed in the remaining neurons. In one patient, brain stem motor neurons (nerves V, VII, XII) and motor cortex, including Betz cells, were also affected and the corticospinal tracts were degenerated at the level of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord. Pathological findings of this patient are consistent with those of ALS. In the other patient, the motor cortex, brain stem motor nuclei and the corticospinal tracts were well preserved, which is pathologically compatible with progressive spinal muscular atrophy. These patients with such a peculiar pattern of progressive muscular atrophy should be placed in a subgroup of ALS.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Differentiation ; Electron microscopy ; Histochemistry ; Microtubules ; Neurofilaments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The organization of the cytoskeleton has been studied during mouse differentiation in cells of the myenteric neuronal lineage. The entire gut was examined starting from day 12.5 of embryonic life (E12.5) until birth (P0). Immunocytochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of five of the most represented neurofilaments proteins (the low, NF-L, medium, NF-M, and heavy, NF-H, molecular weight subunits, α-internexin and peripherin) and of two of the microtubule-associated proteins (MAP1 and MAP2a+2b). In parallel, the appearance in the differentiating myenteric neurons of filamentous and microtubular structures and their intracytoplasmatic distribution were observed under the electron microscope. A differential immunohistochemical expression of the structural proteins was found. Immature cells expressed α-internexin, peripherin, NF-M and MAP1 by day E12.5; α-internexin expression was strong in these cells, but gradually decreased with age and was practically absent in adulthood. Conversely, the expression of the other three proteins increased with cell differentiation and was still present in adulthood. NF-L and NF-H expression appeared later, by day E16.5, and was weak for the entire pre- and postnatal life. MAP2a+2b was never expressed. Under the electron microscope, at day E12.5 the cytoskeleton was already organized in filamentous and microtubular structures. At this age neurofilaments were few and mainly located in the cell processes, and microtubules were numerous and mainly assembled in the neuritic growth cones, together with synaptic vesicles. With ageing, neurofilaments and microtubules were ubiquitous in the neuron. Data obtained demonstrate that cytoskeletal proteins gradually accumulate in the cells of the neuronal lineage in parallel with the organization of the cytoskeletal structures, which in turn mediate important neural events by the earliest stages of murine embryonic life, including growth of nerve processes and initiation of axonal transport.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Vomeronasal organ ; Microvilli ; Monoclonal antibody ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The development of the rat vomeronasal organ was studied morphologically and immunocytochemically, using the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) VOBM1, VOBM2 and VOM2 that react with the luminal surface of the vomeronasal sensory epithelium. Postnatal day (P) 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and adult animals were examined. The vomeronasal organ and the blood vessel of the organ markedly increased in size and the vomeronasal glands increased in number between P7 and P14. At P35, the shape of the vomeronasal organ was similar to that of the adult but its size was slightly smaller. Electron microscopy showed that only a few scattered microvilli were present on supporting cells, and receptor cells were immature at P7. At P21, well-branched microvilli of the receptor cells and many microvilli of the supporting cells were observed on the luminal surface of the sensory epithelium. At P35, most apical endings of supporting cells and receptor cells were covered with numerous microvilli. Less developed areas were also present at the luminal surface of the epithelium at P35. At P7, immunoreactivities of the three antibodies were observed as discontinuous thin-layered bands only on the luminal surface of the sensory epithelium and no immunoreactivity was observed in other regions of the vomeronasal organ. Immunoreactivities of the VOBM1, VOBM2 and VOM2 increased with age and were observed as continuous thin-layered bands on the luminal surface of the epithelium by P35. These finding suggest that the development of the vomeronasal organ continues after birth and that the organ may reach maturity just before puberty (P42–49).
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Key words Laryngeal cancer ; p53 ; Oncoprotein ; Ki67 ; Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) ; DNA ploidy ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The difficult and complicated mechanism of cancer development with little knowledge about the biology of existing cancers can lead to a permanent search for new examination techniques to improve the precision of life expectancy in patients and the selection of the most efficient methods of treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze certain prognostic factors, i.e., p53, Ki67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), DNA ploidy and cell proliferating activity, as well as the degree of morphological differentiation and cell maturity evaluated on an ultrastructural level in patients with laryngeal cancers in connection with data obtained from follow-up examinations and the clinical course of the disease. Neoplastic tissue was taken from 120 patients with laryngeal cancers. All underwent surgical treatment, radiotherapy and combined treatment in the Department of Otolaryngology, Karol Marcinkowski University School of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland, and the Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Haukeland University, Bergen, Norway. Before beginning treatment all patients underwent histological verification of their neoplastic tissues. Histopathological examination proved that the majority of cases (95%) had a squamous cell carcinoma. The occurrence of changes within the lymph nodes of the neck (N) was significantly correlated with T, S, Ki67, metastases to lymph nodes, DNA ploidy, site and surgery performed. The degree of clinical progression (S) was intercorrelated with T, N, p53, Ki67, PCNA, DNA ploidy, site and laryngectomy. The occurrence of oncoprotein p53 in neoplastic cells was measured by the staining degree of their nuclei and was correlated with T, S, DNA ploidy, metastases to lymph nodes, PCNA and site. The degree of staining of neoplastic cells for the nuclear antigen Ki67 was correlated to T, N, G, S, DNA ploidy, metastases to lymph nodes and surgical treatment. The proliferative antigen PCNA in the examined population of patients was intercorrelated with T, p53, Ki67, metastases to lymph nodes and surgical treatment. The results obtained from DNA flow cytometry could be associated with N, G, p53, Ki67 and metastases to lymph nodes. On the basis of the results obtained, the techniques suggested for the morphological and biological evaluation of neoplastic cells in cancer of the larynx should include TNM classification + G + DNA + p53 + Ki67.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Caveolin ; Caveolae ; Lung ; Alveolar epithelial type I cell ; Immunocytochemistry ; Electron microscopy ; Confocal laser scanning microscopy ; Rat (CD)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Caveolae are flask-shaped invaginations of the plasmalemma which pinch off to form discrete vesicles within the cell cytoplasm. Biochemically, caveolae may be distinguished by the presence of a protein, caveolin, that is the principal component of filaments constituting their striated cytoplasmic coat. Squamous alveolar epithelial type I (ATI) cells, comprising approximately 95% of the surface area of lung alveolar epithelium, possess numerous plasmalemmal invaginations and cytoplasmic vesicles ultrastructurally indicative of caveolae. However, an ultrastructural appearance does not universally imply the biochemical presence of caveolin. This immunocytochemical study has utilised a novel application of confocal laser scanning and electron microscopy unequivocally to localise caveolin-1 to ATI cells. Further, cytoplasmic vesicles and flask-shaped membrane invaginations in the ATI cell were morphologically identified whose membranes were decorated with anti-caveolin-1 immunogold label. Coexistent with this, however, in both ATI and capillary endothelial cells could be seen membrane invaginations morphologically characteristic of caveolae, but which lacked associated caveolin immunogold label. This could reflect a true biochemical heterogeneity in populations of morphologically similar plasmalemmal invaginations or an antigen threshold requirement for labelling. The cuboidal alveolar epithelial type II cell (ATII) also displayed specific label for caveolin-1 but with no ultrastructural evidence for the formation of caveolae. The biochemical association of caveolin with ATI cell vesicles has broad implications for the assignment and further study of ATI cell function.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Electron microscopy ; Epidemiology ; Non-bacterial Gastroenteritis ; Oyster ; Small round structured viruses (SRSVs)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract From 1987 to 1992, 18 outbreaks of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis occurred in Kyushu district. The most common symptoms were diarrhea, vomiting, nausea and abdominal cramp. Small round structured viruses (SRSVs) were detected in 52 (44.8%) of 116 stool samples from 17 outbreaks by the electron microscopy (EM) method, and a significant increase in the antibody level was noted in 42 (80.7%) of 52 paired serum samples from 12 outbreaks by the immune electron microscopy (IEM) method and in 18 (51.4%) of 35 samples from 8 outbreaks by the western blot (WB) method. However, according to the WB method, antigen-antibody reaction was not observed to reference antigen strips (SRSV-9/Tokyo 86-510, 63kDa) in three of the 8 outbreaks. The detected virus was regarded as an etiologic agent for these outbreaks. In four of 5 outbreaks which appeared associated with eating raw oysters, there was a close relation between SRSV infection and consumption of raw oysters.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Immunohistochemistry ; Electron microscopy ; Interstitial cells of Cajal ; F4/80 ; CSF-1 ; Kit-receptor ; Mouse (op/op)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The osteopetrotic (op/op) mutant mouse possesses an inactivating mutation in the colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) gene, which results in the absence of certain macrophages and in osteopetrosis, following a lack of osteoclasts. Studies of the op/op mouse indicate that CSF-1-dependent tissue macrophages may belong to a trophic and/or scavenger subpopulation, which through their effect on other cell types can significantly affect tissue functions, and that cells which are CSF-1 independent have antigen presentation and immunological functions.We have previously identified a cell system of regularly distributed macrophages in the muscularis externa of the small intestine and wanted to extend these studies to the op/op mouse.The present investigations with light- and electron-microscopic methods using fluorescent dextran, methylene blue and immunohistochemistry (F4/80, anti-kit receptor, anti-CD3, anti-CD45R/B220) show that macrophages are absent from the muscle layers, with only an occasional macrophage present in the subserosa. In the lamina propria and submucosa, macrophage numbers are reduced. In all other respects the muscularis externa appears normal, including normal organization and number of interstitial cells of Cajal. Control and op/op mice both lack cells expressing CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD45R/B220 (B lymphocytes) and mast cells in the muscularis externa. This leaves the muscularis externa macrophages as the most likely source of local cytokine production under such conditions as postoperative ileus and intussusception in infants, where the muscularis externa appears to be one target of cytokines. We conclude that the lack of macrophages, combined with the preservation of otherwise normal structure, will make the op/op mouse a valuable model by which to assess the functions and relative importance of the muscularis externa macrophages in relation to intestinal motility under normal and pathological conditions.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD) ; Identified neuron ; Vesicles ; Electron microscopy ; 3-D reconstruction ; Locust ; Schistocercagregaria (Insecta)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD), an identified descending interneuron in the brain of the locust Schistocerca gregaria has been investigated by using light and electron microscopy. We describe the fine structure, distribution and numbers of synapes that it receives from another identified brain neuron, the lobular giant movement detector (LGMD), and from unidentified neurons. The DCMD dendrites emerging from the integrative segment vary in form and number between individuals and sexes but always form a flattened dendritic domain. The arborizations and the integrative segment appear to be exclusively postsynaptic. Two types of synaptic contacts (Type 1 and 2) onto the DCMD can be discerned as having either round (Type 1) or pleiomorphic synaptic vesicles (Type 2) and by large (Type 1) or small (Type 2) subsynaptic appositions. Contact zones of Type 1 synapses are smaller than those of Type 2. LGMD-synapses are of Type 1 and occur intermingled with presynaptic sites of unidentified units. Some branches of the DCMD receiving input from unidentified units are devoid of contacting LGMD processes. Synapses of both types are randomly distributed over the DCMD integrative segment and at fibres with similar sizes.Type 1 synapses are much more frequent than Type 2 synapses and their number is negatively correlated with fibre diameter. For a whole DCMD dendritic arborization, a total of 8500 active zones of chemical synapses has been calculated, including a mininum of 2250 LGMD-synapses and about 1000 Type 2 synapses. The DCMD may thus receive a considerable amount of input from as yet unidentified neurons.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Apoptosis ; Electron microscopy ; Meiosis ; Spermatocytes ; Spermatogenesis ; Testis ; TUNEL ; Mouse (10 strains)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Apoptosis of male germ cells is a widespread but little-understood phenomenon in many animal species. The elucidation of its mechanisms could be useful in the understanding of male infertility. We have examined the distribution of dying cells with the terminal transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method and by an electron-microscopic procedure in the testes of 10 mouse strains, viz., C57BL/10 (B10), SL/NiA (SL), C57BL/6 (B6), C3H/He (C3H), BALB/c (BALB), DBA2 (DBA), CBA/J (CBA), MRL/MpJ-+/+ (M+), MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr (lpr), and wild-type NJL mice (Mus musculus musculus). In the testes of the B10, NJL, SL, B6, C3H, BALB, DBA, and CBA mice, very few TUNEL-positive cells are distributed in the seminiferous tubules, whereas in the testes of the M+ and lpr mice, many TUNEL-positive cells, which are restricted to stage XII seminiferous tubules, have been identified. The most important finding is that many metaphases of meiotic spermatocytes show a marked TUNEL-positive reaction. Some metaphases show apoptotic morphology electron-microscopically. These results suggest that the testes of MRL strains will provide a useful model for the study of the mechanism of metaphase-specific apoptosis in meiotic spermatocytes.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words Neuromelanin ; Neuron ; Peroxidase ; Oxygen metabolism ; High-definition light microscopy ; Electron microscopy ; Ultrastructure ; Cytochemistry ; Substantia nigra ; Lumbricusterrestris (Annelida)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Histochemical examination of 1-μm tissue sections from the dorsal nerve plexus of the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, reveals multiple brown intraneuronal granules. These granules contain material morphologically and histochemically consistent with neuromelanin. When viewed with transmission electron microscopy, these were seen as single membrane-enclosed biphasic granules with diameters of 370–730 nm. Exposure of L. terrestris to high-level environmental oxygen resulted in an increase in the number of neuromelanin-like pigment granules within the neurons of the circular muscle layer. As measured by ortho-phenylenediamine hydrochloride, the endogenous peroxidase activity of extracts from worms incubated in high-level environmental oxygen was 51% more than controls. The endogenous peroxidase activity was localized in situ with 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and was found to increase in and around the neuromelanin-like pigment-containing neurons within the circular muscle layer. These studies suggest that the nerve net of L. terrestris may serve as a model to study the role of neuromelanin production in oxidative stress and its relationship to endogenous peroxidases.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Key words CADASIL ; Cerebrovascular disease ; Skin biopsy ; Muscle biopsy ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a microangiopathic syndrome. Although the defective gene has been identified, genetic analysis may be effort some due to its large size and various mutations. Providing a reliable diagnostic marker would therefore be helpful. Electron microscopy has revealed characteristic electron-dense granular deposits in the basal lamina of vessels of patients with CADASIL. We investigated the sensitivity of skin and muscle biopsies for diagnosing CADASIL. We examined 30 family members of three unrelated German families affected by CADASIL. In 14 of the 21 affected individuals we performed skin and muscle biopsies; two patients were clinically asymptomatic. Under electron microscopy all muscle and skin biopsy specimens showed patches of granular and electron-dense material in the basal layer of both arterioles and capillaries. These findings confirm that general microangiopathy is a typical feature of this syndrome and is present in the early phase of the disease with or without clinical manifestation. Thus, as electron microscopy of skin biopsy specimens can establish the diagnosis of CADASIL with high certainty, it may be considered the method of first choice.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1437-773X
    Keywords: Key words Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma ; Parotid gland ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A case of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the parotid gland is presented with immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is extremely rare and is often difficult to distinguish from malignant lymphoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma. Under light microscopy, the tumor cells consisted of solid sheets and nests of small tumor cells. Immunohistochemically, they were positive for KL-1 and EMA, and focally positive for NSE and synaptophysin. Observation using an electron microscope showed membrane-bound neuroendocrine granules in some tumor cells. Histological evaluation indicated that the present case was small cell carcinoma of the parotid gland, showing a neuroendocrine variety.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1437-773X
    Keywords: Key words Apoptosis ; Docetaxel ; Human leukemia cell ; DNA fragmentation ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We induced apoptosis in cells of the human leukemia cell line HL-60 using an antitumor agent, docetaxel (Taxotere), and investigated apoptosis in various aspects using in situ end-labeling (ISEL) of DNA, DNA fragmentation assay, flow cytometry, and electron microscopy. Because it inhibits depolymerization of tubulin, docetaxel is thought to arrest the cell cycle at the mitotic stage and to exert an antitumor effect. In this study, accumulation of docetaxel-treated cells at the G2/M phase was detected using flow cytometry. On ISEL of DNA, DNA fragmentation was observed at the mitotic stage. On electron microscopy, the nuclei of apoptotic cells lost their nuclear membranes, as do cells at mitosis, demonstrating that the cells were arrested mainly at the M phase in the cell cycle.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1437-773X
    Keywords: Key words Keratin ; Bile canaliculi ; Ecto-ATPase ; Transgenic mice ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Keratin 8 (K8) and keratin 18 are the intermediate filament proteins that are expressed in hepatocytes. A K8-deficient FVB/N mouse is a unique animal model for assessing the contribution of keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) to the structural and functional integrity of hepatocytes. Hepatocytes from homozygous (−/−) K8-deficient mice manifest a reduced bile acid secretion and an increased fragility to mechanical stress and hepatotoxic drugs. Hepatocytes from heterozygous (+/−) mice are more susceptible to drug-induced injury. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that hepatocytes from (+/−) mice maintained K8 IFs and F-actin that are similar to those in wild-type (+/+) mouse hepatocytes. In (−/−) mouse hepatocytes, K8 protein was negative and F-actin presented a coarse and irregular pattern. Ecto-ATPase, detected by enzyme histochemistry and observed by electron microscopy, was reduced in the bile canaliculi of both (+/−) and (−/−) mouse livers, in comparison with that of (+/+) mouse livers. These results reveal for the first time different microscopical findings regarding the livers of these three genotypes. They also suggest that the reduction of ecto-ATPase plays a role in the increased fragility of (+/−) and (−/−) mouse livers.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1437-773X
    Keywords: Key words Gastrointestinal stromal tumor ; Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor ; Electron microscopy ; Immunohistochemistry ; Gastrointestinal tract
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sixteen gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) were studied by immunohistochemical analysis and an ultrastructural procedure. The tumor locations were as follows: esophagus (2), stomach (7), small intestine (3), and large intestine (4). Four of the lesions were classified as malignant, 2 as borderline, and 10 as benign. On the basis of the immunohistochemical analysis, the tumors were classified as follows: 1 as myogenic type, 2 as Schwann cell type, 8 as Cajal cell type (including 2 gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors, GANTs), and 5 as mixed-cell type. In each subtype the phenotype was compared to the ultrastructural findings. Myogenic and Schwann cell type revealed ultrastructurally smooth muscle differentiation and schwannian tumor. All 8 tumors of the Cajal cell type revealed interdigitating cytoplasmic processes with occasional clusters of filopodia. Two tumors were subdivided as GANT. Five tumors of mixed-cell type were composed of a mixture of cells with variable myogenic features or variable neural differentiation. We confirmed in this study that immunohistochemical analysis reflected electron microscopic findings.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Key words Double chain surfactants ; Aggregates ; Phase diagrams ; Lamellar phases ; Electron microscopy ; SANS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract We present the phase diagrams and the properties of newly synthesised double-chain cationic N-alkyl-N-alkyl′-N,N-dimethylammonium bromide surfactants [C x C y DMABr (x = 12, 14 and 16; y = 10, 11, 12, 14 and 16)]. All the systems studied form liquid-crystalline lamellar phases but with different morphologies: unilamellar vesicles at low surfactant concentrations, multilamellar vesicles and tubular aggregates for surfactant concentrations between 2 and 10 wt% and at even higher concentrations planar bilayers of surfactant molecules in the classical Lα phase. The phase diagrams were determined with macroscopic and microscopic methods (polarisation microscopy, freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy). The properties of the surfactant solutions were determined with differential scanning calorimetry measurements for Krafft point determination and small-angle neutron scattering measurements for interlamellar spacing and bilayer thickness. Finally, conductivity and viscosity measurements for phase characterisation were carried out.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Keywords Nanostructures ; Thin films ; Vapor deposition ; Electron microscopy ; Optical properties
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Colloidal dispersions of Yb, Er and Pr have been prepared by chemical liquid deposition. The metals were cocondensed at 77 K with 2-methoxyethanol and ethanol to produce solvated metal atoms. The particle size of the dispersions was determined by transmission electron microscopy to range from 52 to 1080 Å; the particles had spherical shapes. After solvent evaporation under vacuum, active solids and amorphous powder were deposited over Cu and Al metal. Dispersion stability, particle size, UV/Vis absorption and zeta potential were studied. The solids prepared by solvent evaporation were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The films prepared on Al were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The most stable colloid was obtained using 2-methoxyethanol: several concentrations were stable for several months and the zeta potential indicated that this colloid stability is mainly due to solvation effects. FTIR spectroscopy of the solids indicated solvent incorporation in the film. This observation was corroborated by thermal analysis. Information on the thermal stability of the films was obtained by TGA. The UV/Vis absorption spectrum was measured at several concentrations under different conditions.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key words Magnetic bacteria ; Biomineralization ; Magnetite ; 16S rRNA ; In situ hybridization ; Ultrastructure ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Natural enrichments of magnetic bacteria from the Itaipu lagoon near Rio de Janeiro were dominated by coccoid-to-ovoid morphotypes that produced unusually large magnetosomes. To determine the phylogenetic position of these unusual microorganisms, 16S rRNA genes were retrieved from bacteria magnetically separated from sediment of the Itaipu lagoon by in vitro amplification and cloning of PCR products into a plasmid vector. Partial sequencing of the obtained clones revealed two clusters of closely related sequences affiliated to a distinct lineage consisting exclusively of magnetic bacteria within the α-subclass of Proteobacteria. For a detailed phylogenetic analysis, several almost complete sequences of the 16S rRNA genes were determined. One representative clone of each cluster provided a PCR template for the in vitro transcription of group-specific polynucleotide probes complementary to a variable region of the 16S rRNA molecule. At least three different morphotypes of magnetic bacteria were reliably identified by post-embedding hybridization of ultra-thin sections. Electron microscopic analyses of hybridized cells enabled for the first time a detailed description of the morphological variety and ultrastructure of phylogenetically identified, uncultured magnetic bacteria. Two distinct coccoid bacteria were identified by the transcript probe complementary to the 16S rRNA sequence mabrj12, whereas the probe complementary to the sequence mabrj58 allowed the identification of an ovoid morphotype that displayed magnetosomes with the largest volumes observed to date.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Glutamate receptors ; Immunocytochemistry ; Electron microscopy ; Human cortex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Specimens of human cerebral cortex were obtained during neurosurgical operations and studied by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, using antibodies to the metabotropic glutamate receptor subunit mGluR1a and the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR2/3. A small number of non-pyramidal neuronal cell bodies were labelled for mGluR1a. Double immunolabelling with mGluR1a and GluR2/3 showed that most pyramidal cell bodies were labelled for GluR2/3 but not for mGluR1a. Despite the non-colocalisation of these two receptor subtypes in cell bodies, however, many dendrites and dendritic spines were double-labelled for mGluR1a and GluR2/3 at electron microscopy. As there is evidence that most neurons positive for GluR2/3 are pyramidal cells, this suggests that mGluR1a is present in dendrites of pyramidal neurons, despite absent or low levels of immunoreactivity in their cell bodies.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Key words Nerve injury ; Retrograde reaction ; Spinal cord ; Electron microscopy ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this electron-microscopic study was to analyze the distribution of synaptic contacts on the cell bodies and dendrites of permanently axotomized adult cat spinal α-motoneurons. Following transection and ligation of the medial gastrocnemius nerve, the synaptic covering of the cell bodies and three different dendritic compartments of homonymous α-motoneurons was analyzed quantitatively at 3, 6, and 12 weeks postoperatively. The synaptic boutons were classified according to their size and the shape of their synaptic vesicles. On the soma, a transient increase in the number of boutons was noted at 3 weeks and 6 weeks postoperatively, while after 12 weeks the bouton number had decreased to half of its normal value. The transient increase was mainly due to an increase in the number of F-type boutons. At 12 weeks postoperatively, the synaptic covering was reduced by 83% on the soma and by 57% on the proximal dendrites. In the distal dendritic regions, the values for synaptic covering remained largely unchanged. In summary, axotomized motoneurons exhibit a reduction in synaptic covering which is maximal on the cell body and becomes less pronounced centrifugally along the dendrites. However, if also taking into account the loss of distal dendritic branches that occurs in axotomized motoneurons, the total loss of boutons is several times larger in the dendrites than on the soma.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Follicular dendritic cell tumour ; Nasopharynx ; Immunohistochemistry ; Electron microscopy ; PCR
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We report the first case of an extranodal follicular dendritic cell (FDC) tumour localized in the nasopharynx of a 44-year-old male patient. The tumour cells were characterized immunohistochemically by strong expression of CD21, HLA-DR and vimentin and focal expression of CD68 and cytokeratin. Electron microscopic examination revealed desmosomal cell junctions between adjacent cell processes. Molecular genetic analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed germline configuration of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomes were detectable by PCR. After complete surgical tumour removal and radiotherapy the patient is disease-free 20 months after the initial diagnosis.
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  • 51
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Virchows Archiv 432 (1998), S. 363-370 
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Atopic dermatitis ; Pruritus ; Cutaneous nerve ; Immunohistochemistry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Although pruritus is the cardinal symptom of atopic dermatitis, its mechanism is not well understood. Free nerve endings in the skin are involved in pruritus as itching receptors. We studied the cutaneous nerve fibres in lichenified lesions of 16 patients with adult atopic dermatitis. On immunohistochemistry, fibres immunoreactive for neurofilament, neuron-specific enolase, and protein gene product 9.5 were observed in the papillary dermis and dermoepidermal junctions as well as in the epidermis. In these areas, no fibres stained positively for substance P, neuropeptide Y, vasoactive intestinal peptide, beta endorphin, somatostatin or serotonin. On electron microscopy, the ultrastructure of subepidermal and intraepidermal free nerve endings appeared to be essentially normal. However, the distribution density of the cutaneous nerve fibres was much higher than in normal controls, and the diameter of these fibres was much larger, because of the large number of axons in each nerve fibre. Degranulation of mast cells was not seen. These findings suggest that pruritus in lichenified atopic skin is probably not caused by damage to the cutaneous free nerve endings. In such lesions, the number of the cutaneous free nerve endings is greatly increased, but they may have a normal function.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Key words Apoptosis ; Cell surface ; Cell nucleus ; Blebs ; TNF-α ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced apoptosis is associated with several nuclear and cell surface alterations, in particular with the condensation of chromatin and the fragmentation of the cell nucleus, formation of blebs on the cell surface and breakdown of the plasma membrane. However, there is little information about the relationship between the cell surface alterations and the nuclear changes during apoptosis. To study this, cultured WEHI cells were exposed to TNF-α over different time periods. The cytological changes were studied using a correlative approach, which allowed observation of the same cell consecutively under light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The earliest sign of cell alteration was a reduction of the number of microvilli after 15 min of TNF-α exposure. This reaction was reversible (reappearance of microvilli) and took place during the first hour, in which neither nuclear alterations nor plasma membrane breakdown were observed. The changes in the nucleus began with condensation of chromatin after approximately 1 h of TNF-α-exposure. After 4–5 h the microvilli disappeared again, particularly in areas where the formation of blebs (blebbing) was observed. Strikingly, cell surface alterations (bleb formation) were detected only in those cells that presented with condensed chromatin, and not in cells with a normal chromatin pattern, proving at least a close correlation between nuclear and cell surface changes during the process of apoptosis.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1433-0474
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Selbstheilendes Kollodiumbaby ; Lamelläre Ichthyose ; Elektronenmikroskopie ; Key words Self-healing collodion baby ; Lamellar ichthyosis ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Collodion baby is a clinical description for a transient condition of the newborn which is caused by various disorders of cornification. The majority of cases are due to autosomal recessive lamellar ichthyosis. In up to 10% of cases „self-healing” of the skin occurs. We report about a mature male baby who at birth was covered entirely with a shining, collodion-like membrane. There also were marked ectropion of the eyelids and eversion of the lips. After shedding of the membrane almost complete clearing of the skin occurred until the age of three months. In the case reported here skin biopsies taken on the 20th day of life showed discrete and non-specific ultrastructural changes, with no features of lamellar ichthyosis or other cornification disorders. Discussion: From these findings and those reported in the literature we conclude that the prognosis of a collodion baby is unpredictable on clinical evaluation. However an ultrastructural examination can contribute to early assessment of prognosis in this heterogeneous neonatal condition.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Das klinische Bild des Kollodiumbabys wird durch verschiedene Verhornungsstörungen hervorgerufen; in der Regel entwickelt sich später eine lamelläre Ichthyose. Eine Selbstheilung wird in bis zu 10% der Fälle beobachtet. Wir berichten über ein männliches Reifgeborenes, welches bei der Geburt vollständig in eine glänzende, kollodiumähnliche Membran gehüllt war. Weiterhin fanden sich ektropionierte Augenlider und evertierte Lippen. In den ersten Lebenswochen löste sich die Membran gänzlich ab und bis zum Alter von 3 Monaten war die Haut des Patienten weitgehend erscheinungsfrei. Die elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchung einer am 20. Lebenstag entnommenen Hautbiopsie zeigte bei unserem Patienten keinen auf eine lamelläre Ichthyose oder eine andere Verhornungsstörung hinweisenden Strukturdefekt der Keratinozyten. Es fanden sich lediglich unspezifische Veränderungen im Sinn einer Abräumreaktion. Diskussion: Unter Berücksichtigung der Literatur läßt sich folgern, daß das klinische Bild eines Kollodiumbabys keine Rückschlüsse auf den weiteren Verlauf zuläßt. Dagegen kann die Elektronenmikroskopie prognostisch richtungsweisende Aussagen beim ätiologisch heterogenen Erscheinungsbild des Kollodiumbabys erlauben.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Neuropathy ; Hypoglycemia ; Insulin ; implant ; Rat ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that causes long-term secondary complications such as neuropathy. The occurrence of diabetic neuropathy has generally been thought of as being associated with hyperglycaemia. However, in a previous light microscopic examination of plantar nerves in diabetic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants we found that eu-/hyperglycaemic rats present a normal picture, whereas eu-/hypoglycaemic rats show severe changes. The aim of the present work is to supplement our previous light microscopic report with electron microsocpic data from the lateral plantar nerve of normal, eu-/hyperglycaemic and eu-/hypoglycaemic BB/Wor rats. Under the electron microscope lateral plantar nerves collected from eu-/hyperglycaemic rats presented a qualitatively normal picture. In addition, the fibre numbers and the size distribution of the myelinated fibres were normal. In contrast, specimens from eu-/hypoglycaemic BB/Wor rats showed severe qualitative changes, interpreted as signs of axonal de- and regeneration. The total number of axons was somewhat subnormal and the sizes of the myelinated fibres were strongly shifted towards smaller diameters. These data confirm our previous light microscopic observations. We conclude that eu-/hypoglycaemic BB/Wor rats treated with insulin implants, but not similarly treated eu-/hyperglycaemic animals, develop a neuropathy in their plantar nerves.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Adult ceroid lipofuscinosis ; Kufs’ disease ; Electron microscopy ; Extracerebral biopsies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In almost all of the earlier reported cases of Kufs’ disease, the adult form of ceroid lipofuscinosis, the diagnosis was ascertained by cerebral tissue examination, while peripheral biopsy examination revealed an apparent poor diffusion of specific lipofuscinic deposits, the finger print profiles (FPs). We report the ultrastructural data from skin, muscle and rectal biopsy specimens from two siblings, both still living, who present clinical features of Kufs’ disease. We observed the presence of FPs in locations that differ from the previous classic reports. Our results emphasize the value of extracerebral biopsies for the diagnosis of Kufs’ disease in vivo, and suggest some physiopathological assumptions based on vascular wall involvement.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Cat ; Spinocerebellar degeneration ; Purkinje cell ; Distal dendrite ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Human spinocerebellar degeneration is one of the intractable diseases. We studied the detailed neuropathology of cats with hereditary cerebellar degeneration obtained from the experimental breeding. The findings included almost total loss of Purkinje cells with an increase in Bergmann’s glia in the cerebellar hemisphere, preservation of some Purkinje cells in the vermis and moderate neuronal depletion of the olive nucleus. Cerebellar and pontine nuclei were normal. The cerebrum and spinal cord as well as the peripheral nervous system appeared normal. Electron microscopic examination revealed swelling of the distal dendrites of Purkinje cells in the less-affected nodule of the vermis, and clusters of presynaptic boutons without any synaptic contact in the severely affected folia where Purkinje cell bodies and dendrites disappeared. Prolonged existence of presynapses in the molecular and Purkinje cell layers was confirmed by positive immunoreactivity to anti-synaptophysin. Quantitative analysis using electron microscopy demonstrated an apparent increase in the density and mean size of presynapses in the molecular layer of the severely affected folia. These findings indicate that degeneration of Purkinje cells started at the most distal part of the dendrite in this animal model of cerebellar degeneration, and that presynapses, axon terminals of the granular cells and basket cells can exist for a long time even after complete degeneration of the Purkinje cells. Further investigation of this novel animal model may promote a better understanding of pathogenesis of human hereditary cerebellar degeneration.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Key words Sensory neurons ; Autonomic neurons ; Neuropeptides ; Immunohistochemistry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The innervation of the knee joint synovial membrane of the guinea pig, i.e., the synoviocyte layer, the subjacent connective tissue and the connective tissue region beneath, was analyzed with immunohistofluorescence and electron microscopy. A screening of the innervation with antibodies against the general axon marker – protein gene product (PGP) 9,5 – revealed the presence of nerve fibers distributed in various regions of the knee joint synovial membrane. Confirmating previous studies, some of these nerve fibers stained with antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). In addition, dynorphin (DYN)-containing fibers were detected, which have not been reported previously in normal joints. In general, the immunoreactive fibers were observed close to the synoviocytes and at blood vessels. Fibers with colocalization of NPY- and TH-like immunoreactivities (LIs), as well as of DYN- and TH-LIs were demonstrated. In the electron microscope, bundles of unmyelinated fibers as well as single fibers were found in the connective tissue region below the synoviocytes. Varicose parts of the nerve fibers contained mainly small, clear vesicles. Small and large dense-cored vesicles were also seen, but less frequently. Denser portions of the plasma membranes of some axons were observed in these regions, facing the extracellular space. Myelinated fibers were also observed in some nerve bundles. These findings emphasize the complex innervation of the synovial membrane, with nerve fibers containing a host of neuroactive substances. Altogether, these fibers are probably involved in many functions such as vasoregulation and control of synovial secretion in addition to being a source of mediators in joint inflammation.
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  • 58