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  • 1
    Keywords: Biochemistry ; Microscopy ; Bioinformatics ; Engineering ; Biochemistry, general ; Biological and Medical Physics, Biophysics ; Protein Science ; Biological Microscopy ; Bioinformatics ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Springer Nature Living Reference
    Description / Table of Contents: Proteins -- DNA and RNA -- Carbohydrates -- Macromolecular complexes, Mechanoenzymes -- Membrane biophysics -- Electron transfer -- Ion Channels -- Receptors -- Transporters -- Biomaterials & Biosensors -- Diffraction methods -- NMR -- EPR -- Optical spectroscopy -- X-ray spectroscopy -- Single molecule methods -- Computational Biophysics -- Thermodynamics -- Kinetics -- Mass spectrometry -- Molecular shape & hydrodynamics -- Electron microscopy -- Live cell & in vivo imaging -- Cell biophysics
    Abstract: The Encyclopedia of Biophysics is envisioned both as an easily accessible source of information and as a route into the scientific literature. It consists of two parts, Systems and Techniques. In the Techniques sections, each of the wide range of methods which fall under the heading of Biophysics are explained in detail, together with the value and the limitations of the information each provides. Techniques covered range from diffraction (X-ray, electron and neutron), through a wide range of spectroscopic methods (X-ray, optical, EPR, NMR) to imaging (from electron microscopy to live cell imaging and MRI), as well as computational and simulation approaches. In the Systems sections, biophysical approaches to particular biological systems or problems – from protein and nucleic acid structure to membranes, ion channels and receptors – are described. These sections, which have an emphasis on the integration of the different techniques, therefore provide an entry into Biophysics from the biological more than from the technique-oriented physical/chemical direction. Thus the Encyclopedia is intended to provide a resource both for biophysicists interested in approaches outside their immediate sub-discipline and for people coming to biophysics from either the physical or biological direction. Each of the sections will include concise introductions to the major concepts and methods, and outlines of more specific topics, in each case with links to a limited number of carefully selected key reviews and/or papers in the scientific literature. There will also be short definitions explaining key terms. Extensive cross-referencing (hyperlinks in the online version) between different articles will allow access to related topics in a user-friendly manner and time-efficient manner, including hyperlinks to key articles in the scientific literature
    Pages: CDXXV, 2807 p. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783642359439
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  • 2
    Keywords: Zoology ; Engineering ; Botany ; Biomechanics ; Nanotechnology ; Popular Life Sciences ; Zoology ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Plant Sciences ; Biomechanics ; Nanotechnology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Shape, Movement, Lever­ -- Sticking, Filtering, Drilling -- Gripping, Stretching, Folding -- Signalling, Swimming, Flying, Exploding -- Storage, Constructions, Building Materials -- Packaging, Primordia, Unfolding Mechanisms -- Brave New World
    Abstract: With spectacular large-format images complemented by scientifically grounded, yet easy-to-read, explanatory texts, Georg Glaeser and Werner Nachtigall take you on an exciting journey through the fascinating world of macrostructures – small structures in nature that fulfill specific functions. This book will pique your curiosity about a secret world known only to a few by presenting an impressive range of evolutionary mechanisms, from shrimps’ “tail flips” to the adhesive pads of gecko setae and the implementation of biological structures in the field of bionics. The book can be read in any fashion you please – the cross-references make it easy to jump across the sections, which are largely self-contained and discuss various highlights of the evolutionary process
    Pages: XI, 170 p. 370 illus., 339 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 1st ed. 2019.
    ISBN: 9783662592915
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  • 3
    Keywords: Biomedical Engineering ; Surgery ; Materials ; Engineering ; Biomedical Engineering/Biotechnology ; Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering ; General Surgery ; Metallic Materials ; Engineering Thermodynamics, Heat and Mass Transfer ; Biomedical Engineering/Biotechnology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1. Introduction -- Chapter 2. Experimental Analysis of Titanium Drilling -- Chapter 3. Modeling of Drill Temperature and Thermal Stress in Titanium Drilling -- Chapter 4. Analysis of Cast Iron Drilling in Dry and MQL conditions -- Chapter 5. Modeling of Workpiece Temperature and Thermal Expansion in MQL Drilling -- Chapter 6. Experimental Study of Bone Temperature in Drilling -- Chapter 7. Model-Based Approach for Predicting Thermal Damage in Bone Drilling -- Chapter 8. Advancements of Surgical Bone Drills – a Case study of Notched K-wires
    Abstract: This book introduces state-of-the-art experimental and numerical methods and examples for evaluating the drilling performance of engineering and biological materials, particularly in thermal aspects. The authors use a common pathway to present the technological and analytical methods for both industry (metal) drilling and orthopaedic surgery (bone) drilling research, making this book a resource for both industrial and clinical readers who wish to understand the evolution of technologies, techniques, and challenges in drilling. The authors also focus on advanced engineering materials, such as titanium alloys and high-strength cast irons, which have broad applications in the automotive, aerospace, medical device, and sports industries. This book is a must-read for a broad audience, including engineering students in upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses that involve machining processes; for surgery residents, fellows, and practicing surgeons; and for engineers in the medical device industry who develop new bone cutting tools. Bridges the knowledge on drilling from the manufacturing industry to healthcare; Covers the experimental and modeling aspects of drilling thermal analysis; Includes experimental studies that contain parameters and data that emulate practical production and clinical drilling
    Pages: XIV, 165 p. 121 illus., 100 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 1st ed. 2019.
    ISBN: 9783030260477
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  • 4
    Keywords: Neurosciences ; Engineering ; Artificial intelligence ; Neurosciences ; Computational intelligence ; Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos Theory ; Artificial intelligence ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Avalanche dynamics and correlations in neural systems -- Playing at the edge of criticality: Expanded whole-brain repertoire of connectome-harmonics -- Complexity of network connectivity promotes self-organized criticality in cortical ensembles -- From neurons to networks: critical slowing down governs information processing across vigilance states -- The challenge of taming a latching network near criticality -- Fading memory, plasticity, and criticality in recurrent networks -- Homeostatic structural plasticity can build critical networks -- Investigating Linear Stability and Criticality in Local Cortical Circuits from Multi-Unit Activity -- Optimal Readout of Neural Activity Near Criticality -- Critical behavior and memory function in a model of spiking neurons with a reservoir of spatio-temporal patterns -- Assessing criticality in experiments -- The role of criticality in flexible visual information processing -- Statistical models of neural activity, criticality, and Zipf’s law
    Abstract: This book offers a timely overview of theories and methods developed by an authoritative group of researchers to understand the link between criticality and brain functioning. Cortical information processing in particular and brain function in general rely heavily on the collective dynamics of neurons and networks distributed over many brain areas. A key concept for characterizing and understanding brain dynamics is the idea that networks operate near a critical state, which offers several potential benefits for computation and information processing. However, there is still a large gap between research on criticality and understanding brain function. For example, cortical networks are not homogeneous but highly structured, they are not in a state of spontaneous activation but strongly driven by changing external stimuli, and they process information with respect to behavioral goals. So far the questions relating to how critical dynamics may support computation in this complex setting, and whether they can outperform other information processing schemes remain open. Based on the workshop “Dynamical Network States, Criticality and Cortical Function", held in March 2017 at the Hanse Institute for Advanced Studies (HWK) in Delmenhorst, Germany, the book provides readers with extensive information on these topics, as well as tools and ideas to answer the above-mentioned questions. It is meant for physicists, computational and systems neuroscientists, and biologists
    Pages: XX, 287 p. 122 illus., 99 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 1st ed. 2019.
    ISBN: 9783030209650
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: Zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes are emerging as a promising energy-efficient separation technology. However, their reliable and scalable manufacturing remains a challenge. We demonstrate the fabrication of ZIF nanocomposite membranes by means of an all-vapor-phase processing method based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO in a porous support followed by ligand-vapor treatment. After ALD, the obtained nanocomposite exhibits low flux and is not selective, whereas after ligand-vapor (2-methylimidazole) treatment, it is partially transformed to ZIF and shows stable performance with high mixture separation factor for propylene over propane (an energy-intensive high-volume separation) and high propylene flux. Membrane synthesis through ligand-induced permselectivation of a nonselective and impermeable deposit is shown to be simple and highly reproducible and holds promise for scalability.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-09-14
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 11
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Description: Polyamide thickness and roughness have been identified as critical properties that affect thin-film composite membrane performance for reverse osmosis. Conventional formation methodologies lack the ability to control these properties independently with high resolution or precision. An additive approach is presented that uses electrospraying to deposit monomers directly onto a substrate, where they react to form polyamide. The small droplet size coupled with low monomer concentrations result in polyamide films that are smoother and thinner than conventional polyamides, while the additive nature of the approach allows for control of thickness and roughness. Polyamide films are formed with a thickness that is controllable down to 4-nanometer increments and a roughness as low as 2 nanometers while still exhibiting good permselectivity relative to a commercial benchmarking membrane.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-09-14
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-09-14
    Description: Insects are among the most agile natural flyers. Hypotheses on their flight control cannot always be validated by experiments with animals or tethered robots. To this end, we developed a programmable and agile autonomous free-flying robot controlled through bio-inspired motion changes of its flapping wings. Despite being 55 times the size of a fruit fly, the robot can accurately mimic the rapid escape maneuvers of flies, including a correcting yaw rotation toward the escape heading. Because the robot’s yaw control was turned off, we showed that these yaw rotations result from passive, translation-induced aerodynamic coupling between the yaw torque and the roll and pitch torques produced throughout the maneuver. The robot enables new methods for studying animal flight, and its flight characteristics allow for real-world flight missions.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 14
    Keywords: Biomedical Engineering ; Orthopedics ; Engineering ; Biomedical Engineering/Biotechnology ; Orthopedics ; Computational intelligence ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1. Computer Aided Orthopaedic Surgery: Stateof-the-Art and Future Perspectives -- Chapter 2. Computer Aided Orthopaedic Surgery: incremental shift or paradigm change? -- Chapter 3. CAMISS concept and its clinical application -- Chapter 4. Surgical Navigation in Orthopaedics: Workflow and System Review -- Chapter 5. Multi-Object Model-based Multi-Atlas Segmentation Constrained Grid Cut for Automatic Segmentation of Lumbar Vertebrae from CT Images -- Chapter 6. Deep Learning-based Automatic Segmentation of the Proximal Femur from MR Images -- Chapter 7. Muscle Segmentation for Orthopaedic Interventions -- Chapter 8. 3X-Knee: A Novel Technology for 3D Pre-operative Planning and Post-operative Evaluation of TKA based on 2DX-rays -- Chapter 9. Atlas-based 3D Intensity Volume Reconstruction from 2D Long Leg Standing X-rays: Application to Hard and Soft Tissues in Lower Extremity -- Chapter 10. 3D Ultrasound for Orthopedic Interventions -- Chapter 11. A novel ultrasound-based lower extremity motion tracking system -- Chapter 12. Computer Assisted Planning, Simulation and Navigation System for Periacetabular Osteotomy -- Chapter 13. Biomechanical Optimization-based Planning of Periacetabular Osteotomy -- Chapter 14. Biomechanical Guidance System for Peri-Acetabular Osteotomy -- Chapter 15. GravityAssistedNavigationSystemforTotal HipArthroplasty -- Chapter 16. 3D Visualization and Augmented Reality for Orthopaedics -- Chapter 17. Intelligent HMI in orthopaedic navigation -- Chapter 18. Patient-Specific Surgical Guidance System for Intelligent Orthopaedics -- Chapter 19. Intelligent control for human-robot cooperation in orthopaedics surgery -- Chapter 20. Multilevel Fuzzy Control Based on Force Information in Robot-assisted Decompressive Laminectomy -- Chapter 21. Potentional risk of intelligent technologies in clinical orthopaedics -- Chapter 22. Clinical Application of Navigation in the Surgical Treatment of a Pelvic Ring Injury and Acetabular Fracture -- Chapter 23. Patient specific surgical guide for total hip arthroplasty -- Chapter 24. Computer navigation in orthopaedic tumour surgery -- Chapter 25. Sensor Based Soft Tissue Balancing in Total Knee Arthroplasty -- Chapter 26. Implant Orientation Measurement after THA Using the EOS X-Ray Image Acquisition System -- Chapter 27. 3D Printing in Spine Surgery
    Abstract: This book introduces readers to the latest technological advances in the emerging field of intelligent orthopaedics. Artificial intelligence and smart instrumentation techniques are now revolutionizing every area of our lives, including medicine. The applications of these techniques in orthopaedic interventions offer a number of potential benefits, e.g. reduced incision size and scarring, minimized soft tissue damage, and decreased risk of misalignment. Consequently, these techniques have become indispensable for various orthopaedic interventions, which has led to the emerging field of intelligent orthopaedics. Addressing key technologies and applications, this book offers a valuable guide for all researchers and clinicians who need an update on both the principles and practice of intelligent orthopaedics, and for graduate students embarking on a career in this field
    Pages: VII, 359 p. 194 illus., 141 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9789811313967
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  • 15
    Keywords: Biomedical Engineering ; Environmental management ; Soil conservation ; Microbiology ; Engineering ; Biomedical Engineering/Biotechnology ; Environmental management ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Applied Microbiology ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Module 1_Soil pollution: causes and consequences -- Module 2_Ex situ soil remediation strategies -- Module 3_In situ soil remediation strategies -- Module 4_Chemical methods -- Module 5_Biochar and soil remediation -- Module 6_Soil remediation through microbes -- Module 7_Soil remediation through algae, plants and animals -- Module 8_Nanobioremediation -- Module 9_Case studies and future prospects
    Abstract: This book presents a comprehensive collection of various in situ and ex-situ soil remediation regimes that employ natural or genetically modified microbes, plants, and animals for the biodegradation of toxic compounds or hazardous waste into simpler non-toxic products. These techniques are demonstrated to be functionally effective in connection with physical, chemical, and biological strategies. Soil and water contamination through heavy metals, hydrocarbons and radioactive wastes is of global concern, as these factors have cumulative effects on the environment and human health through food-chain contamination. The book discusses the utilization of algae, plants, plant-associated bacteria, fungi (endophytic or rhizospheric) and certain lower animals for the sustainable bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. In addition, it explores a number of more recent techniques like biochar and biofilms for carbon sequestration, soil conditioning and remediation, and water remediation. It highlights a number of recent advances in nanobioremediation, an emerging technology based on biosynthetic nanoparticles. Lastly, it presents illustrative case studies and highlights the successful treatment of polluted soils by means of these strategies
    Pages: XVII, 240 p. 53 illus., 34 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9789811324208
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  • 16
    Keywords: Biomedical Engineering ; Microbiology ; Microbial genetics ; Microbial genomics ; Genetic Engineering ; Engineering ; Biomedical Engineering/Biotechnology ; Eukaryotic Microbiology ; Microbial Genetics and Genomics ; Genetic Engineering ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1. Rhamnolipd biosurfactants and their properties -- Chapter 2. Extraction, detection and characterization of rhamnolipid biosurfactants from microorganisms -- Chapter 3. Production of rhamnolipids -- Chapter 4. Advancement of genetic engineering in rhamnolipid production -- Chapter 5. Environmental applications of rhamnolipids -- Chapter 6. Industrial applications of rhamnolipid: an innovative green technology for industry -- Chapter 7. Application of rhamnolipids in medical sciences -- Chapter 8. Role of rhamnolipids in enhanced oil recovery and oil industry -- Chapter 9. Application of rhamnolipids in agriculture and food industry -- Chapter 10. Rhamnolipid assisted synthesis of stable nanoparticles: a green approach -- Chapter 11. Quorum sensing: Its role in rhamnolipid production -- Chapter 12. Future prospects and scenario of rhamnolipids
    Abstract: This book highlights the recent developments on rhamnolipid biosurfactant, its properties, role on the natural environment and various applications. Recently, it has shown promising application in Environment, Agriculture, food, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industries due to its environment-friendly and easily degradable nature. The book emphasizes on the various techniques that are utilized for the detection and isolation of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from microorganisms. It highlights the various aspects of the rhamnolipid biosurfactants including structural characteristics, production, and its application. The book presents the current knowledge and the latest advances in the function-based metagenomics strategies to facilitate the exploration of the novel biosurfactants
    Pages: XV, 141 p. 46 illus., 35 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9789811312892
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  • 17
    Keywords: Surfaces (Physics) ; Pharmaceutical technology ; Chemical engineering ; Engineering ; Nanochemistry ; Characterization and Evaluation of Materials ; Pharmaceutical Sciences/Technology ; Industrial Chemistry/Chemical Engineering ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Nanochemistry ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Author Information -- Introduction -- Guide to Pharmaceutical Product Quality -- Bio-Nano: Theranostic at Cellular Level -- Moving Liposome Technology from the Bench to the Oncological Patient: Towards Performance by Design -- Fundamentals of Dry Powder Inhaler Technology -- Blending and Characterization of Pharmaceutical Powders -- Guidance on Drug Substance Particle Size Controls -- Effects of Particle Size, Surface Nature and Crystal Type on Dissolution Rate -- Amorphous APIs: Improved Release, Preparation, Characterization -- Particle Properties: Impact on the Processing and Performance of Oral Extended-Release Hydrophilic Matrix Tablets -- The Role of Particulates in Film Coating of Pharmaceutical Tablets -- Particulates in Semi-solid Pharmaceutical Products -- The Side Effects of Drugs: Nanopathological Hazards and Risks -- Subject Index
    Abstract: This edited volume brings together the expertise of numerous specialists on the topic of particles – their physical, chemical, pharmacological and toxicological characteristics – when they are a component of pharmaceutical products and formulations. The book discusses in detail properties such as the composition, size, shape, surface properties and porosity of particles with respect to how they impact the formulations and products in which they are used and the effective delivery of pharmaceutical active ingredients. It considers all dosage forms of pharmaceuticals involving particles, from powders to tablets, creams to ointments, and solutions to dry-powder inhalers, also including the latest nanomedicine products. Further, it discusses examples of particle toxicity, as well as the important subject of pharmaceutical industry regulations, guidelines and legislation. The book is of interest to researchers and practitioners who work on testing and developing pharmaceutical dosage and delivery systems
    Pages: XII, 446 p. 110 illus., 46 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319941745
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  • 18
    Keywords: Engineering ; Biotechnology ; Proteins ; Regenerative Medicine ; Tissue Engineering ; Aerospace engineering ; Astronautics ; Engineering ; Aerospace Technology and Astronautics ; Biotechnology ; Crystallography and Scattering Methods ; Protein Science ; Regenerative Medicine/Tissue Engineering ; Springer eBooks
    Abstract: This book summarizes the early successes, drawbacks and accomplishments in cell biology and cell biotechnology achieved by the latest projects performed on the International Space Station ISS. It also depicts outcomes of experiments in tissue engineering, ℗ cancer research and drug design and reveals the chances that research in Space offers for medical application on Earth. This SpringerBriefs volume provides an overview on the latest international activities in Space℗ and gives an outlook on the℗ potential of biotechnological research in Space in future. This volume is written for℗ ℗ students and researchers in Biomedicine, Biotechnology and Pharmacology and may specifically be of interest to scientists with focus on protein sciences, crystallization, tissue engineering, drug design and cancer research
    Pages: XV, 109 p. 36 illus., 15 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319640549
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  • 19
    Keywords: Engineering ; Quantum computers ; Spintronics ; Biomedical Engineering ; Engineering ; Biomedical Engineering ; Biomedicine general ; Quantum Information Technology, Spintronics ; Springer eBooks
    Abstract: This book addresses electron spin-qubit based quantum computing and quantum information processing with a strong focus on the background and applications to EPR/ESR techniques and spectroscopy. It explores a broad spectrum of topics including quantum computing, information processing, quantum effects in electron-nuclear coupled molecular spin systems, adiabatic quantum computing, heat bath algorithmic cooling with spins, and gateway schemes of quantum control for spin networks to NMR quantum information. The organization of the book places emphasis on relevant molecular qubit spectroscopy. These revolutionary concepts have never before been included in a comprehensive volume that covers theory, physical basis, technological basis, applications, and new advances in this emerging field. This book is an ideal resource for students and researchers in the fields of EPR/ESR, NMR and quantum computing. This book also: • Explores methods of harnessing quantum effects in electron-nuclear coupled molecular spin systems • Expertly discusses applications of optimal control theory in quantum computing • Broadens readers’ understanding of NMR quantum information processing
    Pages: VII, 255 p. 105 illus., 62 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781493936588
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2014-12-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Giosan, Liviu -- Syvitski, James -- Constantinescu, Stefan -- Day, John -- England -- Nature. 2014 Dec 4;516(7529):31-3. doi: 10.1038/516031a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA. ; University of Colorado, Boulder, USA, and chair of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. ; University of Bucharest, Romania. ; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25471866" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Climate Change ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; Engineering ; Environmental Policy ; Floods ; Oceans and Seas ; *Rivers
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 21
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2014-09-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stern, Paul C -- England -- Nature. 2014 Sep 4;513(7516):33. doi: 10.1038/513033b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Research Council, Washington DC, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186891" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Behavior ; Conservation of Energy Resources/*economics/*methods ; Engineering ; *Environmental Policy/economics ; Humans ; *Interdisciplinary Studies
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 22
    Keywords: Medicine ; Cytology ; Engineering ; Surfaces (Physics) ; Biomedicine ; Biomedicine general ; Medicine/Public Health, general ; Cell Biology ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Characterization and Evaluation of Materials ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 1 Presence in, and release of, nanomaterials from consumer products -- 2 Nanoparticle aggregation -- 3 Influences of nanomaterials on the barrier function of epithelial cells -- 4 Engineered nanoparticles induced brush border disruption in a human model of the intestinal epithelium -- 5 Nanoparticles: Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity. -6 Atomic force microscopy study of the interaction of DNA and nanoparticles -- 7 Intracellular signal modulation by nanomaterials -- 8 Nanomaterials: Impacts on cells and cell organelles -- 9 Design, synthesis, and functionalization of nanoparticles for therapeutic drug delivery -- 10 Preparation of nanoscale pulmonary drug delivery formulations by spray drying -- 11 Nanomedicine: The Promise and Challenges in Cancer Chemotherapy -- 12 Transgenerational effects of NMs -- 13 Stem cells and nanomaterials -- Index
    Abstract: The rapidly developing field of nanomaterials has expanded in many commercial areas.℗ More recent studies have begun to provide a foundation for understanding how nanomaterials influence cells and how they also can serve as methodological tools for studies in medicine and cell biology, include research into stem cells.℗ Recent investigations have shown affects of nanomaterials on specific subcellular structures, such as the actin-based brush border network in cells with an increasing emphasis on the barrier function of epithelial tissues.℗ ℗ While other studies have shown involvement of nanoparticles in specific cytoplasmic signal transduction events such as the rise in intracellular free calcium, a signaling event known to regulate many changes in cell architecture and function.℗ ℗ ℗ In parallel, nanomaterials are increasingly used in medicine for drug delivery, treatment of cancer, and an increasing number of new applications.℗ ℗ This book investigates these areas and also includes new methods for assessment in cell biology and medicine
    Pages: XI, 278 p. 70 illus., 42 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9789401787390
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  • 23
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2013-08-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pauwels, Eleonore -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 29;500(7464):523-4. doi: 10.1038/500523a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington DC, USA. eleonore.pauwels@wilsoncenter.org〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23985856" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Communication ; Engineering ; *Metaphor ; Public Opinion ; Reproducibility of Results ; *Synthetic Biology ; *Terminology as Topic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-12-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Piccolo, Stefano -- England -- Nature. 2013 Dec 12;504(7479):223-5. doi: 10.1038/504223a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua Medical School, 35126 Padua, Italy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24336279" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Developmental Biology ; Education/*methods ; Engineering ; Genetic Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 25
    Keywords: Engineering ; Ethics ; Biomedical Engineering ; Engineering ; Biomedical Engineering ; Ethics ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Ethical practices and engineering -- Ethics & biomedical engineering practice & research: origins of principles & consent -- Ethical considerations in clinical engineering -- Ethics of biomaterials for implants -- Ethics and data mining in biomedical engineering -- Whistle blowing: an option or an obligation? -- Index
    Abstract: Over the last few decades, there are increasing public awareness of adverse events involving engineering failures that not only led to monetary losses but also more importantly, human injuries and deaths. Whilst it is vital for an engineering professional or student to acquire the necessary technical knowledge and skills in their respective field, they must also understand the ethical essences that are relevant to their profession. Engineering professionals like biomedical engineers, need to appreciate the fundamentals of best practices and recognise how any derivation from such practices can have undesirable impacts on human lives. ℗ Through this book, it is hoped that readers would draw the relevance between the study of ethics and biomedical engineering. The book would be a useful source and reference for college-level and university-level students. Moreover, the contents are written so as to also provide valuable insights even for existing biomedical engineers and those enrolled in continual engineering education program. The following aspects of biomedical engineering are covered in the book: ℗ ℗ʹ℗ ℗ ℗ Research and clinical studies involving medical devices. ℗ʹ℗ ℗ ℗ Working in a healthcare establishment. ℗ʹ℗ ℗ ℗ Developing and servicing medical instrumentations. ℗ʹ℗ ℗ ℗ Choice of biomaterials to develop implants. ℗ʹ℗ ℗ ℗ Performing statistical analyses and data mining
    Pages: : digital.
    ISBN: 9781461469131
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  • 26
    Unknown
    Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Biochemistry ; Bioinformatics ; Microscopy ; Engineering ; Life sciences ; Biochemistry, general ; Biophysics and Biological Physics ; Protein Science ; Biological Microscopy ; Bioinformatics ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 〈p〉Proteins -- DNA and RNA -- Carbohydrates -- Macromolecular complexes, Mechanoenzymes -- Membrane biophysics -- Electron transfer -- Ion Channels -- Receptors -- Transporters -- Biomaterials & Biosensors -- Diffraction methods -- NMR -- EPR -- Optical spectroscopy -- X-ray spectroscopy -- Single molecule methods -- Computational Biophysics -- Thermodynamics -- Kinetics -- Mass spectrometry -- Molecular shape & hydrodynamics -- Electron microscopy -- Live cell & in vivo imaging -- Cell biophysics.〈/p〉
    Abstract: 〈p〉The Encyclopedia of Biophysics is envisioned both as an easily accessible source of information and as an introductory guide to the scientific literature. It includes entries describing both Techniques and Systems.℗ 〈br〉In the Techniques entries, each of the wide range of methods which fall under the heading of Biophysics are explained in detail, together with the value and the limitations of the information each provides. Techniques covered range from diffraction (X-ray, electron and neutron) through a wide range of spectroscopic methods (X-ray, optical, EPR, NMR) to imaging (from electron microscopy to live cell imaging and MRI), as well as computational and simulation approaches.〈br〉In the Systems entries, biophysical approaches to specific biological systems or problems ́€“ from protein and nucleic acid structure to membranes, ion channels and receptors ́€“ are described. These sections, which place emphasis on the integration of the different techniques, therefore provide an inroad into Biophysics from a biological more than from a technique-oriented physical/chemical perspective.℗ 〈br〉Thus the Encyclopedia is intended to provide a resource both for biophysicists interested in methods beyond those used in their immediate sub-discipline and for those readers who are approaching biophysics from either a physical or biological background.℗ ℗ 〈/p〉〈p〉
    ISBN: 9783642167126
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  • 27
    Keywords: Engineering ; Agriculture ; Applied Ecology ; Renewable energy sources ; Farm economics ; Engineering ; Renewable and Green Energy ; Agriculture ; Applied Ecology ; Agricultural Economics ; Springer eBooks
    Abstract: A number of driving forces, including the soaring global crude oil prices and environmental concerns in both developed and developing nations has triggered a renewed interest in the recent years on the R&D of biofuel crops. In this regard, many countries across the globe are investing heavily in the bioenergy sector for R&D to increase their energy security and reduce their dependence on imported fossil fuels. Currently, most of the biofuel requirement is met by sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States, while biodiesel from rapeseed oil in Europe. Sweet sorghum has been identified as a unique biofuel feedstock in India since it is well adapted to Indian agro-climatic conditions and more importantly it does not jeopardize food security at the cost of fuel. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is considered as a SMART new generation energy crop as it can accumulate sugars in its stalks similar to sugarcane, but without food¬¬-fuel trade-offs and can be cultivated in almost all temperate and tropical climatic conditions and has many other advantages. The grain can be harvested from the panicles at maturity. There is no single publication detailing the agronomic and biochemical traits of tropical sweet sorghum cultivars and hybrid parents. Hence, an attempt is made in this publication- “Characterization of improved sweet sorghum cultivars” to detail the complete description of cultivars. This book serves as a ready reference on the detailed characterization of different improved sweet sorghum genotypes following the PPVFRA guidelines for the researchers, entrepreneurs, farmers and other stakeholders to identify the available sweet sorghum cultivars and understand their yield potential in tropics
    Pages: IX, 130 p. 48 illus., 45 illus. in color. : digital.
    ISBN: 9788132207832
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  • 28
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Agriculture ; Biochemistry ; Botany ; Engineering ; Soil conservation ; Life sciences ; Agriculture ; Plant Sciences ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Plant Biochemistry ; Engineering, general ; Control ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 1 Introduction -- 2 Heterogeneity in Fields: Basics of Analyses -- 3 Sensing by Electromagnetic Radiation -- 4 Precision in Guidance of Farm Machinery -- 5 Sensing of Natural Soil Properties -- 6 Sensing of Crop Properties -- 7 Site-Specific Soil Cultivation -- 8 Site-Specific Sowing -- 9 Site-Specific Fertilizing -- 10 Site-Specific Weed Control -- 11 Site-Specific Sensing for Fungicide Spraying -- 12 Site-Specific Recording of Yields -- 13 Fusions, Overlays and Management Zones -- 14 Summary and Perspectives -- Index
    Abstract: High yields and environmental control in crop farming call for precise adaptations to local growing conditions. Treating large fields in a uniform way by high capacity machinery cannot be regarded as a sustainable method for many situations. Because differences existing within single fields must be considered. The transition from former field work carried out manually or by small implements to present day high capacity machinery caused that the farmers lost the immediate and close contact with soils and crops.℗ However, modern sensing and controlling technology can make up for this deficit.℗ High tech methods that include proximal sensing and signals from satellites can provide for controls that allow adjusting farming operations to small fractions of one ha and sometimes even down to some m2, hence in a site-specific mode. This applies to operations for soil cultivation, sowing, fertilizing and plant protection. This book deals with concepts, applications and results, and has an interdisciplinary approach that pervades all chapters
    Pages: XI, 356 p. 181 illus., 87 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9789400767607
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  • 29
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2012-04-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Boesch, Donald -- England -- Nature. 2012 Apr 17;484(7394):289. doi: 10.1038/484289a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge. boesch@umces.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22517129" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Conservation of Natural Resources/trends ; Disasters/economics/prevention & control ; Ecology/trends ; Ecosystem ; Engineering ; Federal Government ; Gulf of Mexico ; Petroleum Pollution/adverse effects/economics/legislation & ; jurisprudence/*prevention & control ; *Risk Management/trends ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 30
    Keywords: Economics ; Computer science ; Physics ; Engineering ; Environmental economics ; Economics/Management Science ; Environmental economics ; Environmental Monitoring/Analysis ; Economic Theory ; Complexity ; Models and Principles ; Springer eBooks
    Edition: 2nd ed.
    ISBN: 9781461422099
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  • 31
    Keywords: Engineering ; Biology / Philosophy ; Philosophy ; Developmental Biology ; Evolution (Biology) ; Physics ; Engineering ; Complexity ; Cosmology ; Developmental Biology ; Evolutionary Biology ; Philosophy of Biology ; Philosophy of Religion ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital.
    ISBN: 9789400741560
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  • 32
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biotechnology ; Microbiology ; Cell Culture ; Engineering ; Renewable energy sources ; Chemistry ; Applied Microbiology ; Environmental Science and Engineering ; Biotechnology ; Cell Culture ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Renewable and Green Energy ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 〈p〉Dedication -- Introduction to The Science of Algal Fuels: Psychology, Geology, Biophotonics, Genomics and Nanotechnology -- Preface to The Science of Algal Fuels: Psychology, Geology, Biophotonics, Genomics and Nanotechnology -- Foreword: The Production of Algal Biofuels -- Acknowledgements -- PART 1:METHODS AND WAYS OF RESEARCH -- Quitting cold turkey: rapid oil independence for the USA -- Algal biorefinery: sustainable production of biofuels and aquaculture feed? -- Approaches and prospectives for algal fuel -- From isolation of potential microalgal strains to strain engineering for biofuel -- Integrated approach to algae production for biofuel utilizing robust algal species -- Biological constraints on the production of microalgal-based biofuels -- Adapting mass algaculture for a northern climate -- Nanotechnology for algal biofuels -- From algae to biofuel - engineering aspects -- Making fuel from algae: identifying fact amid fiction -- Algal oils: biosynthesis and uses -- Algal biofuel production through integrated biorefinery -- PART 2: PRODUCTION OF BIODIESELS AND HYDROGEN -- Dinoflagellates as feedstock for biodiesel production -- Biodiesel production from microalgae: methods for microalgal lipid assessment with emphasis on the use of flow cytometry -- Approaches to and perspectives on biodiesel and oil production using algae in Mexico -- Biodiesel production from microalgae: a mapping of articles and patents; Biotechnology of hydrogen production with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; PART 3: ALGAE FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION -- How to breed diatoms: examination of two species with contrasting reproductive biology -- Fuel from seaweeds: rationale and feasibility -- The contribution of diatoms to worldwide crude oil deposits -- Photobiology and lipid metabolism in algae -- Metabolic pathways in green algae with potential value for biofuels production -- PART 4: FROM WASTE WATER TO FUEL PRODUCTION -- Wastewater treatment pond algal production for biofuel -- Wastewater treatment integrated with algae production for biofuel -- Sub-and supercritical water based processes for microalgae to biofuels.〈/p〉
    Abstract: 〈p〉This volume covers and updates the ́€œhot́€ topic of biofuels, with numerous international meetings, conferences, congresses, and books on biofuels. Our 61 experts from several countries contributed 26 chapters to The Science of Algal Fuels. Each chapter has been composed as a review article and contains many references for further studies and has been peer reviewed. The target audience of this volume is workers in biofuels, graduate students in biochemistry and lecturers of phycology and biochemistry of the algal world. Algae, seaweeds and cyanobacteria, who are our stars in this book, live in marine and terrestrial habitats and require the Sun for energy, CO2 and aqueous surroundings. Since it is easy to culture algae in a large scale and they yield abundant biomass in a short period, there are farms that grow them in ponds for extracting their natural products. Micro and macro (seaweeds) can produce cheap and plentiful biofuel, biodiesel, or ethanol. The phycological yield to synthesize ethanol is 7.5 times higher than from a similar area of a sugar cane field. Biofuel (such as algal products) may soon be cheaper than the commercial pumping of underground and sea bottom fossil-oil, which causes more air pollution and depends upon political decisions from unstable countries. Industry seeks cheaper and more stable sources of fuel and algal fuel might be a good solution. Thus biofuel (biodiesel, oils, ethanol) might free us from unstable regimes with their ́€œdark gold́€ sources, and from up and down oil prices. Unfortunately we have not yet reached this level as yet in spite of numerous contestants in this developing research. The industry is at present not in full gear to produce a substantial yield of biofuel from algae. Algal fuel is still a long range of strategy that will involve more R&D.℗ Our hope is that this book will encourage the workers in this field to reach this ́€œpromised land́€ of algal biofuels in the not too distant future.〈/p〉
    ISBN: 9789400751101
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  • 33
    Keywords: Physics ; Biotechnology ; Data mining ; Engineering ; Physics ; Nanoscale Science and Technology ; Condensed Matter Physics ; Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery ; Biotechnology ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Springer eBooks
    ISBN: 9789400724884
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2011-10-15
    Description: A current limitation in nanoparticle superlattice engineering is that the identities of the particles being assembled often determine the structures that can be synthesized. Therefore, specific crystallographic symmetries or lattice parameters can only be achieved using specific nanoparticles as building blocks (and vice versa). We present six design rules that can be used to deliberately prepare nine distinct colloidal crystal structures, with control over lattice parameters on the 25- to 150-nanometer length scale. These design rules outline a strategy to independently adjust each of the relevant crystallographic parameters, including particle size (5 to 60 nanometers), periodicity, and interparticle distance. As such, this work represents an advance in synthesizing tailorable macroscale architectures comprising nanoscale materials in a predictable fashion.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Macfarlane, Robert J -- Lee, Byeongdu -- Jones, Matthew R -- Harris, Nadine -- Schatz, George C -- Mirkin, Chad A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Oct 14;334(6053):204-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1210493.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21998382" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Crystallization ; Crystallography ; DNA/*chemistry ; Engineering ; Metal Nanoparticles/*chemistry ; Microscopy, Electron, Transmission ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; Oligonucleotides/chemistry ; Particle Size ; Scattering, Small Angle ; Thermodynamics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2011-06-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Merali, Zeeya -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Jun 17;332(6036):1376-7. doi: 10.1126/science.332.6036.1376.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21680824" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biomedical Engineering ; China ; Engineering ; *Equipment Design ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; Housing ; Spacecraft ; *Stents
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2011-10-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Birch, Kristi -- Blackburn, Carol -- Brody, Linda -- Wallace, Patricia -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Oct 28;334(6055):467-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1196983.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Johns Hopkins University Center for Talented Youth, Baltimore, MD 21209, USA. kbirch@jhu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22034426" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Awards and Prizes ; Engineering ; *Internet ; Mathematics ; *Science ; Technology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 37
    Keywords: Medicine ; Toxicology ; Public Health ; Engineering ; Environmental Medicine ; Biomedicine ; Biomedicine general ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Public Health/Gesundheitswesen ; Environmental Health ; Pharmacology/Toxicology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9789048126323
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  • 38
    Keywords: Physics ; Biochemical engineering ; Microreactors ; Engineering ; Physics ; Fluid- and Aerodynamics ; Microengineering ; Engineering Thermodynamics, Heat and Mass Transfer ; Biochemical engineering ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9789048190294
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  • 39
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Convection-diffusion equation ; difference method ; AGE (alternating group explicit) method ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Some modified AGE methods for the convection-diffusion equation are developed in this paper. Firstly, there is a treatment on the convection term in the equation which is different from that in the AGE method by Evans and Abdullah (1985). Secondly, upwind-type schemes are used for the convection dominated diffusion problems. All the modified AGE methods in the paper are unconditionally stable. The numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the methods. The methods have the obvious property of parallelism. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Delaunay triangulation ; mesh colouring ; mesh coarsening ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A new algorithm is described for automatic coarsening of Delaunay triangulations. The method automatically identifies the nodes of the mesh which are candidates for deletion in each region to be coarsened. The mesh coarsening procedure is to regenerate a Delaunay triangulation for all the remaining nodes in the solution domain. The adapted mesh retains a high quality for two reasons: (i) because a set of nodes have been used to obtain the coarse mesh, which are equidistant apart in some sense defined by the original mesh; (ii) because the triangulation is Delaunay. A two-dimensional example demonstrates the quality of the mesh after coarsening. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: arc-length method ; user control ; accumulated arc-length control ; non-linear analysis ; predefined deformation states ; convergence ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The arc-length method has been widely used in non-linear analysis of structures. While it can handle complex load-deflection paths effectively, the analyst has no control over the load incrementation scheme to achieve convergence to specific locations along the load-deflection path. There are a number of situations in which such control is necessary, for example when convergence to predefined load levels, displacement levels or stress levels is required. This paper describes an improved arc-length method in which this deficiency is overcome. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 42
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: boundary integral ; spectral strip ; curvature geometries ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The non-element boundary spectral strip method is developed for solution of problems in curvature domains. The method, which uses a spectral Fourier approximation for expansion of the variables along the boundaries, shows an exponential convergence behaviour. A remarkable reduction in problem size and improved accuracy of results is achieved by the method as compared to the boundary element method. The method is illustrated by some physical problems from elastostatics. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: filling of thin section ; finite element method ; surface tension ; interface element ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: An interface element to model the pressure discontinuity due to surface tension when applied to the filling of a thin section cavity is presented. The equations used to form the element matrix for the interface element are the line integral form of the continuity and momentum equations. During the development of the finite element model, the pressure difference across the free surface due to surface tension is treated as an additional traction and is applied to all element sides which form the free surface. Simple numerical examples are then presented to illustrate the technique on the filling of a rectangular thin section cavity. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: finite elements ; pollutant ; saturated porous medium ; semi-implicit method ; velocity correction ; mass transfer ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A practical problem of pollutant migration has been studied for different concentration differences and mass diffusivities using the finite element method. The results indicate that the pollutant takes years to travel 10 m into the water-saturated soil when the mass diffusivity and concentration differences are less. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: transient dynamics ; interaction of the crack sides ; crack propagation ; time domain formulation ; boundary element method ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: For two-dimensional solids the multiregion concept and the time-domain approach in the boundary element method are employed to model cracks in transient dynamics. The propagation of cracks and the closing and opening of crack sides are simulated by disconnecting and connecting degrees of freedom of a stationary mesh, as was also demonstrated recently in statics by Beer. An iterative technique is developed to determine the changes of the extent of the area where there is connection, contact or no contact at the interface between dynamically loaded regions. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 46
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: 3D mesh generation ; adaptive refinement ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: An adaptive finite element (FE) method for the solution of three-dimensional elasto-static problems is described. The computational domain is represented by an assembly of tetrahedral elements and the mesh adaptation is achieved by a 3D bisection method using an error estimator procedure coupled with an automatic 3D mesh generator. The performance of the method is demonstrated using a number of examples. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 47
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: assumed natural strain ; plate bending ; triangular ; finite element ; six-node ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: In this paper, a six-node triangular C0 plate bending element is developed by the assumed natural strain method. In the element, all the sampled natural transverse shear strains are chosen such that the latter has a favourable constraint index and the strains are optimized with respect to a linear pure moment field. The element passes the patch tests, yields satisfactory accuracy and shows no sign of shear locking in all the problems considered. Copyright © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: finite elements ; explicit dynamics ; near incompressible deformation ; large strains ; tetrahedron ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This paper presents a simple linear tetrahedron element that can be used in explicit dynamics applications involving nearly incompressible materials or incompressible materials modelled using a penalty formulation. The element prevents volumetric locking by defining nodal volumes and evaluating average nodal pressures in terms of these volumes. Two well-known examples relating to the impact of elasto-plastic bars are used to demonstrate the ability of the element to model large isochoric strains without locking. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: hypersingular integral equation ; plane elasticity crack problem ; stress intensity factors ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The hypersingular integral equation approach is suggested to solve the plane elasticity crack problem with circular boundary. The complex variable function method is used in the formulation. In the equation the crack opening displacement function is used as the unknown function, and the traction on the crack face as the right-hand term. A numerical integration rule is used to evaluate the hypersingular integral. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the use of the approach. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: multibody systems ; non-linear analysis ; static equilibrium ; constrained optimization ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This paper presents four different approaches to the solution of the non-linear static-equilibrium problem in complex linkages, including rigid and elastic elements. The error function is based on the potential of the system, and includes rigid elements by means of non-linear constraints. To this end use is made of Lagrange multipliers, along with the primal-dual method, penalty functions and weighted stiffness, comparisons being made between them. A Newton-Raphson method is used in seeking function minima for equilibrium positions. This procedure is also directly applicable to the other linkage and multibody position problems. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 51
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: temporal acceleration ; viscoelastic ; recovery ; Taylor-Galerkin ; finite elements ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This paper presents a finite element study based on a technique associated with time extrapolation to accelerate the convergence rate to the steady state for viscoelastic flows. The approach adopted is a local extrapolation method attributed to Neville. Temporal extrapolation is embedded within a time-marching Taylor-Galerkin/pressure-correction scheme as applied to the solution of model channel flow, 4:1 plane contraction flow and flow past a circular cylinder. In particular, consideration is given to obtaining steady-state solutions for an Oldroyd-B model. When extrapolation is performed for stress and velocity or pressure, then stress and velocity overshoot, which consequently leads to divergence. In contrast, a stable numerical scheme emerges when only the stress is extrapolated. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: identification ; viscoelasticity ; correspondence principle ; boundary elements ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A parameter identification procedure for viscoelastic materials is presented, which is formulated based on the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle. The proposed method is developed by using Newton's iteration scheme, the method of least squares and the one-dimensional minimization method. The boundary element discretization and the numerical inversion of the Laplace transform are used for linear viscoelastic analysis. Two numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity of the method. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 53
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: hypersingular integral equation ; continuous elements ; stress analysis ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: In this paper, a method for the evaluation of boundary stresses directly from the BEM solution of elastostatic problems using the static boundary integral equation is presented. The technique is valid for corners and edges as well as smooth points on the boundary, and involves defining a new interpolation function for continuous elements which incorporate certain continuity conditions arising from the hypersingular nature of the integrals involved. An integration technique based on the singularity subtraction method using series expansions is adopted for the hypersingular intergrals. Results are shown to be more accurate than those obtained with conventional techniques. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 54
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: finite element ; plate bending ; triangular element ; displacement method ; polynomial function ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This paper investigates the importance and accuracy of a family of high-order triangular elements. After a brief review of characteristics of high-order triangular elements, six new incompatible 13-node triangular elements are presented. The accuracy of the proposed elements is illustrated by comparing their numerical results with the other investigators' solutions, and the best element is introduced. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: shell element ; large strain ; sheet metal stamping ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The paper presents a general method of large strain determination over the deformed surface of a sheet metal stamping. It is demonstrated that the conventional degenerated shell element with two normal rotation degrees of freedom is not suitable for large deformation, especially when large element rotation is present. This inaccuracy is primarily caused by the fact that the displacement field description used in the degenerated shell element is only a first-order approximation with respect to the two rotation degrees of freedom, and is therefore suitable only for small rotation angles. The new method presented in this paper replaces the two rotation DOFs with three new degrees of freedom to describe the rotation of the surface normal so that the element deformation can be accurately described with no limitation on the amount of deformation and rotation involved. The advantages of this new method are: (i) a linear and accurate expression of the displacement field in terms of nodal DOFs is obtained; (ii) the formulation is easily incorporated into any existing degenerated shell elements; (iii) the strain calculation is accurate for any amount of element rigid body rotation; (iv) if the method is used in surface grid analysis, the algorithm will not only provide correct surface strains, but also their variation through the thickness direction, i.e. the bending deformation. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: finite elements ; adaptive analysis ; error estimate ; rh-method ; r-method ; h-method ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics ,