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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-03-09
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-04-27
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Description: Polyamide thickness and roughness have been identified as critical properties that affect thin-film composite membrane performance for reverse osmosis. Conventional formation methodologies lack the ability to control these properties independently with high resolution or precision. An additive approach is presented that uses electrospraying to deposit monomers directly onto a substrate, where they react to form polyamide. The small droplet size coupled with low monomer concentrations result in polyamide films that are smoother and thinner than conventional polyamides, while the additive nature of the approach allows for control of thickness and roughness. Polyamide films are formed with a thickness that is controllable down to 4-nanometer increments and a roughness as low as 2 nanometers while still exhibiting good permselectivity relative to a commercial benchmarking membrane.
    Keywords: Engineering
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-08-17
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-09-14
    Description: Insects are among the most agile natural flyers. Hypotheses on their flight control cannot always be validated by experiments with animals or tethered robots. To this end, we developed a programmable and agile autonomous free-flying robot controlled through bio-inspired motion changes of its flapping wings. Despite being 55 times the size of a fruit fly, the robot can accurately mimic the rapid escape maneuvers of flies, including a correcting yaw rotation toward the escape heading. Because the robot’s yaw control was turned off, we showed that these yaw rotations result from passive, translation-induced aerodynamic coupling between the yaw torque and the roll and pitch torques produced throughout the maneuver. The robot enables new methods for studying animal flight, and its flight characteristics allow for real-world flight missions.
    Keywords: Engineering
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-09-14
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2018-09-14
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-09-07
    Description: Zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes are emerging as a promising energy-efficient separation technology. However, their reliable and scalable manufacturing remains a challenge. We demonstrate the fabrication of ZIF nanocomposite membranes by means of an all-vapor-phase processing method based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO in a porous support followed by ligand-vapor treatment. After ALD, the obtained nanocomposite exhibits low flux and is not selective, whereas after ligand-vapor (2-methylimidazole) treatment, it is partially transformed to ZIF and shows stable performance with high mixture separation factor for propylene over propane (an energy-intensive high-volume separation) and high propylene flux. Membrane synthesis through ligand-induced permselectivation of a nonselective and impermeable deposit is shown to be simple and highly reproducible and holds promise for scalability.
    Keywords: Engineering
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Keywords: Surfaces (Physics) ; Pharmaceutical technology ; Chemical engineering ; Engineering ; Nanochemistry ; Characterization and Evaluation of Materials ; Pharmaceutical Sciences/Technology ; Industrial Chemistry/Chemical Engineering ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Nanochemistry ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Author Information -- Introduction -- Guide to Pharmaceutical Product Quality -- Bio-Nano: Theranostic at Cellular Level -- Moving Liposome Technology from the Bench to the Oncological Patient: Towards Performance by Design -- Fundamentals of Dry Powder Inhaler Technology -- Blending and Characterization of Pharmaceutical Powders -- Guidance on Drug Substance Particle Size Controls -- Effects of Particle Size, Surface Nature and Crystal Type on Dissolution Rate -- Amorphous APIs: Improved Release, Preparation, Characterization -- Particle Properties: Impact on the Processing and Performance of Oral Extended-Release Hydrophilic Matrix Tablets -- The Role of Particulates in Film Coating of Pharmaceutical Tablets -- Particulates in Semi-solid Pharmaceutical Products -- The Side Effects of Drugs: Nanopathological Hazards and Risks -- Subject Index
    Abstract: This edited volume brings together the expertise of numerous specialists on the topic of particles – their physical, chemical, pharmacological and toxicological characteristics – when they are a component of pharmaceutical products and formulations. The book discusses in detail properties such as the composition, size, shape, surface properties and porosity of particles with respect to how they impact the formulations and products in which they are used and the effective delivery of pharmaceutical active ingredients. It considers all dosage forms of pharmaceuticals involving particles, from powders to tablets, creams to ointments, and solutions to dry-powder inhalers, also including the latest nanomedicine products. Further, it discusses examples of particle toxicity, as well as the important subject of pharmaceutical industry regulations, guidelines and legislation. The book is of interest to researchers and practitioners who work on testing and developing pharmaceutical dosage and delivery systems
    Pages: XII, 446 p. 110 illus., 46 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319941745
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  • 11
    Keywords: Biomedical Engineering ; Microbiology ; Microbial genetics ; Microbial genomics ; Genetic Engineering ; Engineering ; Biomedical Engineering/Biotechnology ; Eukaryotic Microbiology ; Microbial Genetics and Genomics ; Genetic Engineering ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1. Rhamnolipd biosurfactants and their properties -- Chapter 2. Extraction, detection and characterization of rhamnolipid biosurfactants from microorganisms -- Chapter 3. Production of rhamnolipids -- Chapter 4. Advancement of genetic engineering in rhamnolipid production -- Chapter 5. Environmental applications of rhamnolipids -- Chapter 6. Industrial applications of rhamnolipid: an innovative green technology for industry -- Chapter 7. Application of rhamnolipids in medical sciences -- Chapter 8. Role of rhamnolipids in enhanced oil recovery and oil industry -- Chapter 9. Application of rhamnolipids in agriculture and food industry -- Chapter 10. Rhamnolipid assisted synthesis of stable nanoparticles: a green approach -- Chapter 11. Quorum sensing: Its role in rhamnolipid production -- Chapter 12. Future prospects and scenario of rhamnolipids
    Abstract: This book highlights the recent developments on rhamnolipid biosurfactant, its properties, role on the natural environment and various applications. Recently, it has shown promising application in Environment, Agriculture, food, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industries due to its environment-friendly and easily degradable nature. The book emphasizes on the various techniques that are utilized for the detection and isolation of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from microorganisms. It highlights the various aspects of the rhamnolipid biosurfactants including structural characteristics, production, and its application. The book presents the current knowledge and the latest advances in the function-based metagenomics strategies to facilitate the exploration of the novel biosurfactants
    Pages: XV, 141 p. 46 illus., 35 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9789811312892
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  • 12
    Keywords: Biomedical Engineering ; Orthopedics ; Engineering ; Biomedical Engineering/Biotechnology ; Orthopedics ; Computational intelligence ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1. Computer Aided Orthopaedic Surgery: Stateof-the-Art and Future Perspectives -- Chapter 2. Computer Aided Orthopaedic Surgery: incremental shift or paradigm change? -- Chapter 3. CAMISS concept and its clinical application -- Chapter 4. Surgical Navigation in Orthopaedics: Workflow and System Review -- Chapter 5. Multi-Object Model-based Multi-Atlas Segmentation Constrained Grid Cut for Automatic Segmentation of Lumbar Vertebrae from CT Images -- Chapter 6. Deep Learning-based Automatic Segmentation of the Proximal Femur from MR Images -- Chapter 7. Muscle Segmentation for Orthopaedic Interventions -- Chapter 8. 3X-Knee: A Novel Technology for 3D Pre-operative Planning and Post-operative Evaluation of TKA based on 2DX-rays -- Chapter 9. Atlas-based 3D Intensity Volume Reconstruction from 2D Long Leg Standing X-rays: Application to Hard and Soft Tissues in Lower Extremity -- Chapter 10. 3D Ultrasound for Orthopedic Interventions -- Chapter 11. A novel ultrasound-based lower extremity motion tracking system -- Chapter 12. Computer Assisted Planning, Simulation and Navigation System for Periacetabular Osteotomy -- Chapter 13. Biomechanical Optimization-based Planning of Periacetabular Osteotomy -- Chapter 14. Biomechanical Guidance System for Peri-Acetabular Osteotomy -- Chapter 15. GravityAssistedNavigationSystemforTotal HipArthroplasty -- Chapter 16. 3D Visualization and Augmented Reality for Orthopaedics -- Chapter 17. Intelligent HMI in orthopaedic navigation -- Chapter 18. Patient-Specific Surgical Guidance System for Intelligent Orthopaedics -- Chapter 19. Intelligent control for human-robot cooperation in orthopaedics surgery -- Chapter 20. Multilevel Fuzzy Control Based on Force Information in Robot-assisted Decompressive Laminectomy -- Chapter 21. Potentional risk of intelligent technologies in clinical orthopaedics -- Chapter 22. Clinical Application of Navigation in the Surgical Treatment of a Pelvic Ring Injury and Acetabular Fracture -- Chapter 23. Patient specific surgical guide for total hip arthroplasty -- Chapter 24. Computer navigation in orthopaedic tumour surgery -- Chapter 25. Sensor Based Soft Tissue Balancing in Total Knee Arthroplasty -- Chapter 26. Implant Orientation Measurement after THA Using the EOS X-Ray Image Acquisition System -- Chapter 27. 3D Printing in Spine Surgery
    Abstract: This book introduces readers to the latest technological advances in the emerging field of intelligent orthopaedics. Artificial intelligence and smart instrumentation techniques are now revolutionizing every area of our lives, including medicine. The applications of these techniques in orthopaedic interventions offer a number of potential benefits, e.g. reduced incision size and scarring, minimized soft tissue damage, and decreased risk of misalignment. Consequently, these techniques have become indispensable for various orthopaedic interventions, which has led to the emerging field of intelligent orthopaedics. Addressing key technologies and applications, this book offers a valuable guide for all researchers and clinicians who need an update on both the principles and practice of intelligent orthopaedics, and for graduate students embarking on a career in this field
    Pages: VII, 359 p. 194 illus., 141 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9789811313967
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  • 13
    Keywords: Biomedical Engineering ; Environmental management ; Soil conservation ; Microbiology ; Engineering ; Biomedical Engineering/Biotechnology ; Environmental management ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Applied Microbiology ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Module 1_Soil pollution: causes and consequences -- Module 2_Ex situ soil remediation strategies -- Module 3_In situ soil remediation strategies -- Module 4_Chemical methods -- Module 5_Biochar and soil remediation -- Module 6_Soil remediation through microbes -- Module 7_Soil remediation through algae, plants and animals -- Module 8_Nanobioremediation -- Module 9_Case studies and future prospects
    Abstract: This book presents a comprehensive collection of various in situ and ex-situ soil remediation regimes that employ natural or genetically modified microbes, plants, and animals for the biodegradation of toxic compounds or hazardous waste into simpler non-toxic products. These techniques are demonstrated to be functionally effective in connection with physical, chemical, and biological strategies. Soil and water contamination through heavy metals, hydrocarbons and radioactive wastes is of global concern, as these factors have cumulative effects on the environment and human health through food-chain contamination. The book discusses the utilization of algae, plants, plant-associated bacteria, fungi (endophytic or rhizospheric) and certain lower animals for the sustainable bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. In addition, it explores a number of more recent techniques like biochar and biofilms for carbon sequestration, soil conditioning and remediation, and water remediation. It highlights a number of recent advances in nanobioremediation, an emerging technology based on biosynthetic nanoparticles. Lastly, it presents illustrative case studies and highlights the successful treatment of polluted soils by means of these strategies
    Pages: XVII, 240 p. 53 illus., 34 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9789811324208
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2017-05-12
    Description: Bacteria within communities can interact to organize their behavior. It has been unclear whether such interactions can extend beyond a single community to coordinate the behavior of distant populations. We discovered that two Bacillus subtilis biofilm communities undergoing metabolic oscillations can become coupled through electrical signaling and synchronize their growth dynamics. Coupling increases competition by also synchronizing demand for limited nutrients. As predicted by mathematical modeling, we confirm that biofilms resolve this conflict by switching from in-phase to antiphase oscillations. This results in time-sharing behavior, where each community takes turns consuming nutrients. Time-sharing enables biofilms to counterintuitively increase growth under reduced nutrient supply. Distant biofilms can thus coordinate their behavior to resolve nutrient competition through time-sharing, a strategy used in engineered systems to allocate limited resources.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2017-12-01
    Description: In their comment, Bui et al . argue that the approach we described in our report is vastly inferior in efficiency to alternative off-the-shelf technologies. Their conclusion is invalid, as they compare efficiencies in completely different operating conditions. Here, using heat transfer and thermodynamics principles, we show how Bui et al .’s conclusions about the efficiencies of off-the-shelf technologies are fundamentally flawed and inaccurate for the operating conditions described in our study.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-02-17
    Description: Engineering has an image problem. The phrase "engineering disaster" rolls off the tongue, while great technical achievements are more often heralded as "scientific miracles." Enter Dream Big. Sponsored by the American Society of Civil Engineers with support from Bechtel Corporation, the film sets out to reframe engineering as a force for good and a profession in service to people and the planet. Author: Donna Riley
    Keywords: Engineering
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-06-16
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-05-12
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-11-10
    Keywords: Engineering
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 20
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-11-24
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 21
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-12-01
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 22
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-06-23
    Keywords: Engineering
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 23
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-07-21
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 24
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-07-21
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 25
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-06-23
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2017-06-23
    Description: Exoskeletons and active prostheses promise to enhance human mobility, but few have succeeded. Optimizing device characteristics on the basis of measured human performance could lead to improved designs. We have developed a method for identifying the exoskeleton assistance that minimizes human energy cost during walking. Optimized torque patterns from an exoskeleton worn on one ankle reduced metabolic energy consumption by 24.2 ± 7.4% compared to no torque. The approach was effective with exoskeletons worn on one or both ankles, during a variety of walking conditions, during running, and when optimizing muscle activity. Finding a good generic assistance pattern, customizing it to individual needs, and helping users learn to take advantage of the device all contributed to improved economy. Optimization methods with these features can substantially improve performance.
    Keywords: Engineering
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 27
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-05-26
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2017-12-01
    Description: Kim et al . (Reports, 28 April 2017, p. 430) presented results for the solar-driven harvesting of water from air via metal-organic frameworks as a prodigious potential advance toward remedying global water shortages. Basic thermodynamics and a survey of multiple off-the-shelf technologies show that their approach is vastly inferior in efficiency (and thereby in feasibility) to available alternatives.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 29
    Keywords: Engineering ; Biotechnology ; Proteins ; Regenerative Medicine ; Tissue Engineering ; Aerospace engineering ; Astronautics ; Engineering ; Aerospace Technology and Astronautics ; Biotechnology ; Crystallography and Scattering Methods ; Protein Science ; Regenerative Medicine/Tissue Engineering ; Springer eBooks
    Abstract: This book summarizes the early successes, drawbacks and accomplishments in cell biology and cell biotechnology achieved by the latest projects performed on the International Space Station ISS. It also depicts outcomes of experiments in tissue engineering, ℗ cancer research and drug design and reveals the chances that research in Space offers for medical application on Earth. This SpringerBriefs volume provides an overview on the latest international activities in Space℗ and gives an outlook on the℗ potential of biotechnological research in Space in future. This volume is written for℗ ℗ students and researchers in Biomedicine, Biotechnology and Pharmacology and may specifically be of interest to scientists with focus on protein sciences, crystallization, tissue engineering, drug design and cancer research
    Pages: XV, 109 p. 36 illus., 15 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9783319640549
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  • 30
    Keywords: Engineering ; Quantum computers ; Spintronics ; Biomedical Engineering ; Engineering ; Biomedical Engineering ; Biomedicine general ; Quantum Information Technology, Spintronics ; Springer eBooks
    Abstract: This book addresses electron spin-qubit based quantum computing and quantum information processing with a strong focus on the background and applications to EPR/ESR techniques and spectroscopy. It explores a broad spectrum of topics including quantum computing, information processing, quantum effects in electron-nuclear coupled molecular spin systems, adiabatic quantum computing, heat bath algorithmic cooling with spins, and gateway schemes of quantum control for spin networks to NMR quantum information. The organization of the book places emphasis on relevant molecular qubit spectroscopy. These revolutionary concepts have never before been included in a comprehensive volume that covers theory, physical basis, technological basis, applications, and new advances in this emerging field. This book is an ideal resource for students and researchers in the fields of EPR/ESR, NMR and quantum computing. This book also: • Explores methods of harnessing quantum effects in electron-nuclear coupled molecular spin systems • Expertly discusses applications of optimal control theory in quantum computing • Broadens readers’ understanding of NMR quantum information processing
    Pages: VII, 255 p. 105 illus., 62 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781493936588
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  • 31
    Keywords: Medicine ; Cytology ; Engineering ; Surfaces (Physics) ; Biomedicine ; Biomedicine general ; Medicine/Public Health, general ; Cell Biology ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Characterization and Evaluation of Materials ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 1 Presence in, and release of, nanomaterials from consumer products -- 2 Nanoparticle aggregation -- 3 Influences of nanomaterials on the barrier function of epithelial cells -- 4 Engineered nanoparticles induced brush border disruption in a human model of the intestinal epithelium -- 5 Nanoparticles: Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity. -6 Atomic force microscopy study of the interaction of DNA and nanoparticles -- 7 Intracellular signal modulation by nanomaterials -- 8 Nanomaterials: Impacts on cells and cell organelles -- 9 Design, synthesis, and functionalization of nanoparticles for therapeutic drug delivery -- 10 Preparation of nanoscale pulmonary drug delivery formulations by spray drying -- 11 Nanomedicine: The Promise and Challenges in Cancer Chemotherapy -- 12 Transgenerational effects of NMs -- 13 Stem cells and nanomaterials -- Index
    Abstract: The rapidly developing field of nanomaterials has expanded in many commercial areas.℗ More recent studies have begun to provide a foundation for understanding how nanomaterials influence cells and how they also can serve as methodological tools for studies in medicine and cell biology, include research into stem cells.℗ Recent investigations have shown affects of nanomaterials on specific subcellular structures, such as the actin-based brush border network in cells with an increasing emphasis on the barrier function of epithelial tissues.℗ ℗ While other studies have shown involvement of nanoparticles in specific cytoplasmic signal transduction events such as the rise in intracellular free calcium, a signaling event known to regulate many changes in cell architecture and function.℗ ℗ ℗ In parallel, nanomaterials are increasingly used in medicine for drug delivery, treatment of cancer, and an increasing number of new applications.℗ ℗ This book investigates these areas and also includes new methods for assessment in cell biology and medicine
    Pages: XI, 278 p. 70 illus., 42 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9789401787390
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  • 32
    Keywords: Engineering ; Agriculture ; Applied Ecology ; Renewable energy sources ; Farm economics ; Engineering ; Renewable and Green Energy ; Agriculture ; Applied Ecology ; Agricultural Economics ; Springer eBooks
    Abstract: A number of driving forces, including the soaring global crude oil prices and environmental concerns in both developed and developing nations has triggered a renewed interest in the recent years on the R&D of biofuel crops. In this regard, many countries across the globe are investing heavily in the bioenergy sector for R&D to increase their energy security and reduce their dependence on imported fossil fuels. Currently, most of the biofuel requirement is met by sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States, while biodiesel from rapeseed oil in Europe. Sweet sorghum has been identified as a unique biofuel feedstock in India since it is well adapted to Indian agro-climatic conditions and more importantly it does not jeopardize food security at the cost of fuel. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is considered as a SMART new generation energy crop as it can accumulate sugars in its stalks similar to sugarcane, but without food¬¬-fuel trade-offs and can be cultivated in almost all temperate and tropical climatic conditions and has many other advantages. The grain can be harvested from the panicles at maturity. There is no single publication detailing the agronomic and biochemical traits of tropical sweet sorghum cultivars and hybrid parents. Hence, an attempt is made in this publication- “Characterization of improved sweet sorghum cultivars” to detail the complete description of cultivars. This book serves as a ready reference on the detailed characterization of different improved sweet sorghum genotypes following the PPVFRA guidelines for the researchers, entrepreneurs, farmers and other stakeholders to identify the available sweet sorghum cultivars and understand their yield potential in tropics
    Pages: IX, 130 p. 48 illus., 45 illus. in color. : digital.
    ISBN: 9788132207832
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  • 33
    Keywords: Engineering ; Ethics ; Biomedical Engineering ; Engineering ; Biomedical Engineering ; Ethics ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Preface -- Ethical practices and engineering -- Ethics & biomedical engineering practice & research: origins of principles & consent -- Ethical considerations in clinical engineering -- Ethics of biomaterials for implants -- Ethics and data mining in biomedical engineering -- Whistle blowing: an option or an obligation? -- Index
    Abstract: Over the last few decades, there are increasing public awareness of adverse events involving engineering failures that not only led to monetary losses but also more importantly, human injuries and deaths. Whilst it is vital for an engineering professional or student to acquire the necessary technical knowledge and skills in their respective field, they must also understand the ethical essences that are relevant to their profession. Engineering professionals like biomedical engineers, need to appreciate the fundamentals of best practices and recognise how any derivation from such practices can have undesirable impacts on human lives. ℗ Through this book, it is hoped that readers would draw the relevance between the study of ethics and biomedical engineering. The book would be a useful source and reference for college-level and university-level students. Moreover, the contents are written so as to also provide valuable insights even for existing biomedical engineers and those enrolled in continual engineering education program. The following aspects of biomedical engineering are covered in the book: ℗ ℗ʹ℗ ℗ ℗ Research and clinical studies involving medical devices. ℗ʹ℗ ℗ ℗ Working in a healthcare establishment. ℗ʹ℗ ℗ ℗ Developing and servicing medical instrumentations. ℗ʹ℗ ℗ ℗ Choice of biomaterials to develop implants. ℗ʹ℗ ℗ ℗ Performing statistical analyses and data mining
    Pages: : digital.
    ISBN: 9781461469131
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  • 34
    Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Biochemistry ; Bioinformatics ; Microscopy ; Engineering ; Life sciences ; Biochemistry, general ; Biophysics and Biological Physics ; Protein Science ; Biological Microscopy ; Bioinformatics ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 〈p〉Proteins -- DNA and RNA -- Carbohydrates -- Macromolecular complexes, Mechanoenzymes -- Membrane biophysics -- Electron transfer -- Ion Channels -- Receptors -- Transporters -- Biomaterials & Biosensors -- Diffraction methods -- NMR -- EPR -- Optical spectroscopy -- X-ray spectroscopy -- Single molecule methods -- Computational Biophysics -- Thermodynamics -- Kinetics -- Mass spectrometry -- Molecular shape & hydrodynamics -- Electron microscopy -- Live cell & in vivo imaging -- Cell biophysics.〈/p〉
    Abstract: 〈p〉The Encyclopedia of Biophysics is envisioned both as an easily accessible source of information and as an introductory guide to the scientific literature. It includes entries describing both Techniques and Systems.℗ 〈br〉In the Techniques entries, each of the wide range of methods which fall under the heading of Biophysics are explained in detail, together with the value and the limitations of the information each provides. Techniques covered range from diffraction (X-ray, electron and neutron) through a wide range of spectroscopic methods (X-ray, optical, EPR, NMR) to imaging (from electron microscopy to live cell imaging and MRI), as well as computational and simulation approaches.〈br〉In the Systems entries, biophysical approaches to specific biological systems or problems ́€“ from protein and nucleic acid structure to membranes, ion channels and receptors ́€“ are described. These sections, which place emphasis on the integration of the different techniques, therefore provide an inroad into Biophysics from a biological more than from a technique-oriented physical/chemical perspective.℗ 〈br〉Thus the Encyclopedia is intended to provide a resource both for biophysicists interested in methods beyond those used in their immediate sub-discipline and for those readers who are approaching biophysics from either a physical or biological background.℗ ℗ 〈/p〉〈p〉
    ISBN: 9783642167126
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  • 35
    Keywords: Life sciences ; Agriculture ; Biochemistry ; Botany ; Engineering ; Soil conservation ; Life sciences ; Agriculture ; Plant Sciences ; Soil Science & Conservation ; Plant Biochemistry ; Engineering, general ; Control ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 1 Introduction -- 2 Heterogeneity in Fields: Basics of Analyses -- 3 Sensing by Electromagnetic Radiation -- 4 Precision in Guidance of Farm Machinery -- 5 Sensing of Natural Soil Properties -- 6 Sensing of Crop Properties -- 7 Site-Specific Soil Cultivation -- 8 Site-Specific Sowing -- 9 Site-Specific Fertilizing -- 10 Site-Specific Weed Control -- 11 Site-Specific Sensing for Fungicide Spraying -- 12 Site-Specific Recording of Yields -- 13 Fusions, Overlays and Management Zones -- 14 Summary and Perspectives -- Index
    Abstract: High yields and environmental control in crop farming call for precise adaptations to local growing conditions. Treating large fields in a uniform way by high capacity machinery cannot be regarded as a sustainable method for many situations. Because differences existing within single fields must be considered. The transition from former field work carried out manually or by small implements to present day high capacity machinery caused that the farmers lost the immediate and close contact with soils and crops.℗ However, modern sensing and controlling technology can make up for this deficit.℗ High tech methods that include proximal sensing and signals from satellites can provide for controls that allow adjusting farming operations to small fractions of one ha and sometimes even down to some m2, hence in a site-specific mode. This applies to operations for soil cultivation, sowing, fertilizing and plant protection. This book deals with concepts, applications and results, and has an interdisciplinary approach that pervades all chapters
    Pages: XI, 356 p. 181 illus., 87 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9789400767607
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  • 36
    Keywords: Economics ; Computer science ; Physics ; Engineering ; Environmental economics ; Economics/Management Science ; Environmental economics ; Environmental Monitoring/Analysis ; Economic Theory ; Complexity ; Models and Principles ; Springer eBooks
    Edition: 2nd ed.
    ISBN: 9781461422099
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  • 37
    Keywords: Engineering ; Biology / Philosophy ; Philosophy ; Developmental Biology ; Evolution (Biology) ; Physics ; Engineering ; Complexity ; Cosmology ; Developmental Biology ; Evolutionary Biology ; Philosophy of Biology ; Philosophy of Religion ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital.
    ISBN: 9789400741560
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  • 38
    Keywords: Physics ; Biotechnology ; Data mining ; Engineering ; Physics ; Nanoscale Science and Technology ; Condensed Matter Physics ; Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery ; Biotechnology ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Springer eBooks
    ISBN: 9789400724884
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  • 39
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biotechnology ; Microbiology ; Cell Culture ; Engineering ; Renewable energy sources ; Chemistry ; Applied Microbiology ; Environmental Science and Engineering ; Biotechnology ; Cell Culture ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Renewable and Green Energy ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: 〈p〉Dedication -- Introduction to The Science of Algal Fuels: Psychology, Geology, Biophotonics, Genomics and Nanotechnology -- Preface to The Science of Algal Fuels: Psychology, Geology, Biophotonics, Genomics and Nanotechnology -- Foreword: The Production of Algal Biofuels -- Acknowledgements -- PART 1:METHODS AND WAYS OF RESEARCH -- Quitting cold turkey: rapid oil independence for the USA -- Algal biorefinery: sustainable production of biofuels and aquaculture feed? -- Approaches and prospectives for algal fuel -- From isolation of potential microalgal strains to strain engineering for biofuel -- Integrated approach to algae production for biofuel utilizing robust algal species -- Biological constraints on the production of microalgal-based biofuels -- Adapting mass algaculture for a northern climate -- Nanotechnology for algal biofuels -- From algae to biofuel - engineering aspects -- Making fuel from algae: identifying fact amid fiction -- Algal oils: biosynthesis and uses -- Algal biofuel production through integrated biorefinery -- PART 2: PRODUCTION OF BIODIESELS AND HYDROGEN -- Dinoflagellates as feedstock for biodiesel production -- Biodiesel production from microalgae: methods for microalgal lipid assessment with emphasis on the use of flow cytometry -- Approaches to and perspectives on biodiesel and oil production using algae in Mexico -- Biodiesel production from microalgae: a mapping of articles and patents; Biotechnology of hydrogen production with the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; PART 3: ALGAE FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION -- How to breed diatoms: examination of two species with contrasting reproductive biology -- Fuel from seaweeds: rationale and feasibility -- The contribution of diatoms to worldwide crude oil deposits -- Photobiology and lipid metabolism in algae -- Metabolic pathways in green algae with potential value for biofuels production -- PART 4: FROM WASTE WATER TO FUEL PRODUCTION -- Wastewater treatment pond algal production for biofuel -- Wastewater treatment integrated with algae production for biofuel -- Sub-and supercritical water based processes for microalgae to biofuels.〈/p〉
    Abstract: 〈p〉This volume covers and updates the ́€œhot́€ topic of biofuels, with numerous international meetings, conferences, congresses, and books on biofuels. Our 61 experts from several countries contributed 26 chapters to The Science of Algal Fuels. Each chapter has been composed as a review article and contains many references for further studies and has been peer reviewed. The target audience of this volume is workers in biofuels, graduate students in biochemistry and lecturers of phycology and biochemistry of the algal world. Algae, seaweeds and cyanobacteria, who are our stars in this book, live in marine and terrestrial habitats and require the Sun for energy, CO2 and aqueous surroundings. Since it is easy to culture algae in a large scale and they yield abundant biomass in a short period, there are farms that grow them in ponds for extracting their natural products. Micro and macro (seaweeds) can produce cheap and plentiful biofuel, biodiesel, or ethanol. The phycological yield to synthesize ethanol is 7.5 times higher than from a similar area of a sugar cane field. Biofuel (such as algal products) may soon be cheaper than the commercial pumping of underground and sea bottom fossil-oil, which causes more air pollution and depends upon political decisions from unstable countries. Industry seeks cheaper and more stable sources of fuel and algal fuel might be a good solution. Thus biofuel (biodiesel, oils, ethanol) might free us from unstable regimes with their ́€œdark gold́€ sources, and from up and down oil prices. Unfortunately we have not yet reached this level as yet in spite of numerous contestants in this developing research. The industry is at present not in full gear to produce a substantial yield of biofuel from algae. Algal fuel is still a long range of strategy that will involve more R&D.℗ Our hope is that this book will encourage the workers in this field to reach this ́€œpromised land́€ of algal biofuels in the not too distant future.〈/p〉
    ISBN: 9789400751101
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  • 40
    Keywords: Medicine ; Toxicology ; Public Health ; Engineering ; Environmental Medicine ; Biomedicine ; Biomedicine general ; Nanotechnology and Microengineering ; Public Health/Gesundheitswesen ; Environmental Health ; Pharmacology/Toxicology ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9789048126323
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  • 41
    Keywords: Physics ; Biochemical engineering ; Microreactors ; Engineering ; Physics ; Fluid- and Aerodynamics ; Microengineering ; Engineering Thermodynamics, Heat and Mass Transfer ; Biochemical engineering ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9789048190294
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  • 42
    Keywords: physics ; Condensed matter ; Engineering ; Materials ; Particles (Nuclear physics) ; Superconductivity ; Materials Science ; Physics and Applied Physics in
    Abstract: We study quantum signatures of the chaotic dynamics in typical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems, where regular and chaotic...
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: mesh equidistribution ; area preserving map ; singular BVP ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: In this paper, an adaptive mesh method is employed to solve a class of singular boundary value problems. The approach is based on an area-preserving map and some mesh shape control in two-dimensional space. Two benchmark problems, which both involve singularities in physical domains, are tested. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: finite element analysis ; diffusion problems ; minimum time step size ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The solution of the equation system of the finite element method for diffusion problems is presented in the format of a sequence. The characteristics of the numerical results can thus be known through an analysis of this ‘theoretical expression’ of the solution. The characteristics of the sequence are analysed to yield expressions for the minimum time step size. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: coupled models of dynamic electroelasticity ; generalized solutions ; metrics weaker than L2 ; spectrum of a priori estimates ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: In this paper we deal with a model of coupled non-stationary electroelasticity with displacements and potential given on the boundary of a body. We construct a numerical scheme for modelling electromechanical interactions in the body, and present a spectrum of a priori estimates for the solution of this scheme. Such estimates allow us to prove the convergence of the scheme to a generalized solution of the differential problem from W22(QT) with the second order of accuracy in a weaker than L2 metric. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: advection-diffusion ; two-dimensional ; streamtube ; DISCUS ; accuracy ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: The paper describes a substantial improvement to an existing modelling approach for two-dimensional solute transport. The flow field is represented by a series of streamtubes in which advection is simulated using a highly accurate semi-Lagrangian numerical scheme. Transverse mixing between the streamtubes is treated with a standard numerical method for diffusion. Numerical experiments demonstrate that accurate simulations of the longitudinal dispersion caused by the interaction of a simple transverse velocity profile and transverse diffusion can be obtained over a wide range of time-steps provided that the diffusion occurring during the time-step is properly accounted for. The model is ultimately limited by the relatively poor numerical treatment of transverse diffusion, but this could be remedied by employing an enhanced numerical method for this term. The paper concludes that this is an area in which future modelling efforts need to be directed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: computational quantifier elimination ; edge crack ; feasibility (consistency) conditions ; fracture mechanics ; numerical methods in engineering ; parametric inequality constraints ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: In this paper, an attempt is made to show the usefulness of computational quantifier elimination (CQE) techniques in computer algebra inside classical numerical methods in engineering for the derivation of feasibility (consistency) conditions in problems with weakly parametric linear inequality constraints (with the parameters appearing only in their right-hand sides). A simple, but non-trivial, straight edge-crack problem in fracture mechanics under linear inequality constraints both on the applied loading along the crack faces and on the value of the stress intensity factor at the crack tip (associated with the Green/weight function method, numerical approximations and classical numerical integration) is used for an elementary illustration of the proposed approach. In this application, the method used tries to imitate the theoretical principle of the linear programming methods. The manually obtained related result is expressed as a disjunction of conjunctions of inequalities (as is frequently the case in similar CQE problems), and concrete numerical results are also displayed. The related influence of various approximations and the application of the trapezoidal quadrature rule are also considered in some detail. Further possibilities could concern the application of the approach to other numerical methods in engineering (such as to the finite and the boundary element methods, to singular and hypersingular integral equation methods, etc.) combined with efficient algorithms for linear inequality constraints such as the old Fourier and the recent Weispfenning elimination methods. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: genetic algorithms ; evolutionary-genetic analogy ; heat transfer ; finite elements ; numerical analysis ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A new approach was developed for the analysis of problems of physics governed by laws of conservation. The methodology establishes an analogy between various aspects of evolution and genetics of life processes and inanimate physical systems. This analogy is then used to generate solutions to physical problems in a similar way to which organisms in nature solve problems imposed by environmental constraints. Finite difference and finite elements approximations are used in the numerical implementation of the method and a simple two-dimensional problem is solved to illustrate the method. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: frequency condensation method ; large matrix systems ; Guyan method ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A frequency condensation method is presented for solving the eigenvalue problem of a large matrix system. The eigenproblem is reduced to a smaller problem by condensing the stiffness and mass matrices. As distinct from the Guyan method, the frequency condensation method is based on approximation preserving eigenvalues in a preset frequency range and effective procedure of master and slave selection. A numerical example and comparison with subspace iteration and Lanczos methods demonstrate good accuracy and the high performance of this method. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Convection-diffusion equation ; difference method ; AGE (alternating group explicit) method ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Some modified AGE methods for the convection-diffusion equation are developed in this paper. Firstly, there is a treatment on the convection term in the equation which is different from that in the AGE method by Evans and Abdullah (1985). Secondly, upwind-type schemes are used for the convection dominated diffusion problems. All the modified AGE methods in the paper are unconditionally stable. The numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the methods. The methods have the obvious property of parallelism. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Gauss-Poisson equation ; exact discrete conservation ; discrete divergence ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: We consider numerical methods which exactly preserve the Gauss-Poisson equation when solving the charge conservation and Maxwell-Ampère's equations. Apart from the well-known leap-frog method, we present two situations where this property is verified, one with rectangular mesh and functions defined at the center of the cells, and one with a finite volume type of formulation on triangles. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: Delaunay triangulation ; mesh colouring ; mesh coarsening ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A new algorithm is described for automatic coarsening of Delaunay triangulations. The method automatically identifies the nodes of the mesh which are candidates for deletion in each region to be coarsened. The mesh coarsening procedure is to regenerate a Delaunay triangulation for all the remaining nodes in the solution domain. The adapted mesh retains a high quality for two reasons: (i) because a set of nodes have been used to obtain the coarse mesh, which are equidistant apart in some sense defined by the original mesh; (ii) because the triangulation is Delaunay. A two-dimensional example demonstrates the quality of the mesh after coarsening. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: fluid dynamics ; multiphase-flow ; lattice gases ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Nearly all CFD methods can be considered as discretization methods for partial differential equations, such as finite difference, finite volume, finite element, spectral or boundary integral element methods. Virtually unrecognized by the scientific mainstream in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) during the last decade, a completely different approach to flow simulation has been developed in computational physics.The basic idea of lattice-gas solvers (LGS) goes back to the cellular automation concept of John von Neumann. LGS use objects (‘cells’), being extremely simple compared to finite boxes or finite elements. The state of a cell is usually described by only a few bits therefore often two orders of magnitude more cells are used for a simulation with LGS than ‘elements’ in a finite element computation. LGS are explicit time-stepping procedures; no equation systems have to be solved. Thus every time-step is extremely cheap in terms of CPU power compared to standard procedures, yet again much shorter time-steps have to be used. LGS are inherently parallel and are suitable to coarse-grain as well as to fine-grain parallelization.The paper will discuss some advantages and disadvantages of lattice-gas solvers and present LG simulation results of two-phase flow with moving boundaries on a microscope scale for a two-dimensional test geometry of randomly distributed equally sized disks where the effect of surface tension on the steady-state saturation will be demonstrated. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: superconvergence ; corrected conjoint polynomial ; weight functions ; element patch ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A superconvergent element patch based stress extraction strategy is proposed for general FE postprocessing and/or error estimation procedures in adaptive finite element analysis. Generalized weight functions are proposed for discrete least-square functionals, and a corrected conjoint polynomial fitting procedure is presented to ensure accurate stress extraction from the element domain once the primary level stress parameters have been evaluated. A numerical example is presented to fix the parameters of the weight functions. Several plane stress examples are solved using QUAD4 elements, and results are compared to those of the node patch based extraction method using the conventional conjoint polynomial method. It is shown that the proposed technique yields more accurate results with enhanced local convergence. Although the method may be applied to higher-order elements too, only QUAD4 elements are chosen for the present examples since the present secondary refitting strategy assumes superconvergent points only to be at element centroids. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: acoustic ; electromagnetic ; integral equations ; scattering ; time domain ; radar cross-section ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Analysis of high frequency scattering using pulsed illumination generates surface fields which are small over most of the scatterer most of the time. A reformulation of the usual integral equation time domain approach which exploits this is presented. It is shown that cost scaling can be reduced, with costs reduced by an order of magnitude for the examples presented, with negligible accuracy loss. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: coupled vibrations ; Timoshenko beam ; boundary integral equation method ; symbolic computation ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: Symbolic computer algebra systems relieve one from the tedious task of different mathematical operations which are essential to obtain solutions. Due to their highly advanced features they have come to be used widely in computational mechanics. This paper describes an application of the modern computer algebra system Mathematica to the derivation of fundamental solutions necessary for the application of the boundary integral equation method. The problem treated is an asymmetric cross-section Timoshenko beam in free vibration. For this problem, the derivation of fundamental solutions involves lengthy mathematical operations which are very tedious if performed explicitly by hand. Therefore, using Mathematica we derive the fundamental solutions and generate the influence matrices from which the natural frequencies can be found. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: substructure ; frontal technique ; heat transfer ; moisture transfer ; displacement ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: This paper presents a substructuring-frontal combined algorithm for the analysis of fully coupled heat, moisture and displacement problems in unsaturated soil. The method adopted for solving the assembled matrix equations has a significant bearing on the computer storage requirement and execution time. Numerical examples are given to validate the proposed model. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods ; parallelism ; stiffness ; stability ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: In this paper we propose a parallel diagonal iteration process for solving a low-order implicit Runge-Kutta method of Lagrange type. The resulting scheme can be regarded as a parallel singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (PSDIRK) method and it is strongly A-stable when the classical linear test model is used. On a two-processor computer, this method requires the solution of two implicit relations (sequential time units) per step and per processor. We compare our method with some sequential and parallel methods from the literature for solving linear as well as non-linear stiff problems and semidiscretized convection-diffusion equations. The numerical experiments show the behaviour of our method with regard to the other methods. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 1069-8299
    Keywords: outgoing boundary condition ; Berkhoff ; discrete ; non-local ; surface waves ; scattering ; Engineering ; Numerical Methods and Modeling
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Notes: A discrete non-local (DNL) boundary condition is used to solve the water waves propagation problem over variable depth. This condition is obtained by means of full solution of the discrete Helmholtz operator in a structured network. We consider a simulation of wave propagation around a circular island located on either a paraboloidal shoal or constant depth bathymetry. Such examples confirm the important improvement in accuracy for the DNL method over standard conditions in the near field. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 60