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  • Escherichia coli  (103)
  • Regulation  (84)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Anacystis nidulans ; Escherichia coli ; Hybrid ribosomes ; Ribosomes ; Procaryotic
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Hybrid 70S ribosomes were produced by combining Anacystis nidulans and Escherichia coli 30S and 50S subunits. Both the A. nidulans 30S-E. coli 50S and E. coli 30S- A. nidulans 50S hybrids were functional in synthesizing protein when tested in a standard in vitro amino acid incorporating system. Both 70S hybrids were inhibited by streptomycin but the degree of inhibition was dependent upon the source of the 30S subunit. The ability to form functional 70S ribosomes from subunits of blue-green algae and bacteria is further evidence of the procaryotic nature of blue-greens and of the functional homology of the two protein synthesizing systems.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archives of microbiology 112 (1977), S. 283-285 
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Wine yeasts ; Sulfur metabolism ; Regulation ; Sulfate uptake
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Five different strains of wine yeasts were investigated with respect to active uptake of [35S] sulfate and its regulation by methionine. Considerable differences exist between “low” and “high” sulfite-producing strains in the initial velocity of sulfate uptake. Further differences were established in repression of sulfate permease by l-methionine, most evident in a total lack of repression in one of the “high” sulfite producers. These findings explain in part variable sulfite and sulfide formation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: cAMP ; Regulation ; Chlorophyll synthesis ; Chlorella fusca
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The intracellular concentration of cAMP in the green alga Chlorella fusca was in the range of 2 · 10-9 to 10-8 moles/g dry weight and was strongly dependent on the growth conditions. The cAMP level was high with high light intensity, low nitrate or glucose concentration. Intracellular cAMP increased only by factor of 2 when high amounts (up to 10-3 M) of cAMP were added to the medium. Most of the given cAMP was converted to 5′-AMP. Addition of cAMP had little effect on the chlorophyll content of the cells, only at 10-6 M some enhancement in photoautotrophic cultures was observed. On the other hand high amounts of cAMP in the medium increased the growth rate. DBcAMP* showed a positive effect on chlorophyll synthesis and growth rate at much lower concentrations compared to cAMP. Stimulation effects of exogenous cAMP on the synthesis of chlorophyll were also observed in mixotrophic cultures with a high glucose/nitrate ratio, conditions where chlorophyll synthesis is repressed. Similar to autotrophic conditions DBcAMP was more effective than cAMP. These data indicate that cAMP may act in a system controlling the chlorophyll content of the cells in response to nutrients or light.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Root nodule symbiosis ; Rhizobium meliloti ; Medicago sativa ; Nitrogenase activity ; Regulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Symbiotic nitrogen fixation of Rhizobium meliloti bacteroids in Medicago sativa root nodules was suppressed by several inorganic nitrogen sources. Amino acids like glutamine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid, which can serve as sole nitrogen sources for the unnodulated plant did not influence nitrogenase activity of effective nodules, even at high concentrations. Ammonia and nitrate suppressed symbiotic nitrogen fixation in vivo only at concentrations much higher than those needed for suppression of nitrogenase activity in free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. The kinetics of suppression were slow compared with that of free living nitrogen fixing bacteria. On the other hand, nitrite, which acts as a direct inhibitor of nitrogenase, suppressed very quickly and at low concentrations. Glutamic acid and glutamine enhanced the effect of ammonia dramatically, while the suppression by nitrate was enhanced only slightly.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Escherichia coli ; Continuous culture ; Fumarate reduction ; Maximal growth yield
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Escherichia coli was grown anaerobically on sodium fumarate and molecular hydrogen or sodium formate in continuous culture. The maximal growth yield and the maintenance coefficient were determined. In a mineral medium a Y fum max value of 6.6 g dry weight per mol fumarate was found. This value increased to 7.5 when casamino acids were present in the medium. From these data and the corresponding Y ATP max values it could be calculated that per mol of fumarate reduced, 0.4 mol of ATP became available for growth. In batch culture a Yfum value of 4.8 g dry weight per mol fumarate was determined.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Physarum polycephalum ; Amoebae ; Aminopeptidases ; Acid proteases ; Regulation ; Development ; Differential gene activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The cultivation of Physarum polycephalum amoebae in two media with different protein contents revealed a regulation of aminopeptidases and proteases depending on the albumin content of the medium: in growing amoebae and plasmodia the aminopeptidases have similar isoenzyme patterns and relative activities against nitroanilides. One alanine and four leucine aminopeptidase isoenzymes were found within the slightly acid pH range. During growth amoebae secrete—different from plasmodia—leucine aminopeptidase into the medium with low protein content. In an albumin-rich medium additional alanine aminopeptidase activity was found. Out of nine plasmodial proteases four were found in amoebae too. Only one band (pI 3.6) was present in the protein-poor medium. No protease activity could be detected in the proteinrich medium.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Periplasm ; Maltose-binding protein ; Maltose transport ; Cell division ; Pole caps ; Cell envelope ; Escherichia coli
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract After induction with maltose, 30–40% of the total protein in the osmotic shock fluid consist of maltose-binding protein while the induction ratio (maltose versus glycerol grown cells) for the amount of binding protein synthesized as well as for maltose transport is in the order of 10. Induction of maltose transport does not occur during all times of the cell cycle, but only shortly before cell division. Electronmicroscopic analysis of cells grown logarithmically on glycerol or maltose revealed in the latter the formation of large pole caps. These pole caps arise from an enlargement of the periplasmic space. Small cells contain one pole cap, large cells contain two. Pulse label studies with strain BUG-6, a mutant that is temperature sensitive for cell division reveal the following: Growth at the non-permissive temperature prevents maltose-binding protein synthesis and formation of new transport capacity. After shifting to the permissive temperature the cells regain both functions. Simultaneously, the newly formed cells exhibit pole caps. We conclude that the induction of maltose-binding protein is responsible for the formation of pole caps. In addition, beside the presence of inducer, cell cycle events occuring during division are necessary for the synthesis of maltose-binding protein.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Streptococcus cremoris ; Cell wall proteinase ; Calcium dependency ; Regulation ; Translational control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The persistent accumulation of proteinase (PIII) activity in the cell wall of Streptococcus cremoris strain AM1 during growth depends on the presence of Ca2+-ions in the medium. In the absence of calcium initial accumulation of activity in the cell wall is observed, followed by a decrease to a low final level. Under this condition no increase of proteolytic activity is found in the extracellular fluid. A possible function of calcium in the stabilization of the enzyme is discussed. Prolonged accumulation of catalytically active proteinase PIII in the cell wall occurs in the absence of messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis. This process involves de novo protein synthesis supported by preformed proteinase-specific messenger ribonucleic acid, which is possibly either intrinsically long-lived or is stabilized following its transcription. The level of the extracellular concentration of amino acids and/or peptides regulates the translation of newly synthesized proteinase-specific messenger ribonucleic acid and, possibly, the growth of the organism in milk.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Collagenase ; Alkaline protease ; Temperature control ; Oxygen control ; Regulation ; Vibrio alginolyticus ; Secretion exoproteins ; Cerulenin ; Quinacrine ; Microbial ecology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The production of an extracellular collagenase and an alkaline protease by Vibrio alginolyticus during stationary phase was inhibited by a temperature shift from 30 to 37°C and by a lack of oxygen. The stability of the exoproteases was unaffected by incubation at 37°C and aeration. The optimum growth temperature for the V. alginolyticus strain was 33.5°C Aeration enhanced the rate of growth of exponential phase cells. Temperature and oxygen did not affect the growth of stationary phase cells when the exoproteases were being produced. Macromolecular synthesis in stationary phase cells was not affected by temperature. There was no rapid release of the exoproteases after temperature shift down and chloramphenicol inhibited the production of the enzymes when added at time of temperature shift down from 37 to 30°C. The regulation of exoprotease production by temperature and oxygen was specific and has implications regarding the ecology of V. alginolyticus. Cerulenin, quinacrine and O-phenanthroline inhibited the production of the exoproteases.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Escherichia coli ; Temperature ; Morphology ; Cell shape ; Cell size
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Two substrains of Escherichia coli B/r were grown to steady-state in batch cultures at temperatures between 22 and 42° C in different growth media. The size and shape of the cells were measured from light and electron micrographs and with the Coulter channelizer. The results indicate that cells are shorter and somewhat thicker at the lower temperatures, especially in rich growth media; cell volume is then slightly smaller. A lower temperature was further found to increase the relative duration of the constriction period. The shapes of the cell size distributions are indistinguishable, indicating that the pattern of growth of the cells is the same at all temperatures. The adaptation of the cells to a temperature shift lasted several generations, indicating that the morphological effects of temperature are mediated by the cell's physiology.
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