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  • Fumonisin  (12)
  • 1990-1994  (12)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fumonisin ; swine ; encephalomyocarditis virus ; reproduction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fumonisin is a recently identified mycotoxin that has been shown to be the cause of pulmonary edema disease in swine and leukoencephalomalacia in horses. Mystery Swine Disease (MSD), is an economically devastating disease complex of unknown etiology that has been reported to have occurred in several swine producing states since 1988. To determine the relationship between MSD and fumonisin, a case-control study was carried out in Illinois in mid-1990. Feed samples collected from 12 case and 9 control farms were analyzed for fumonisin. Sera from swine on all farms was screened for titers against encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus and concentrations of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (an acute phase reactive protein). Fumonisin concentrations ⩾20 ppm were found on 1 control farm (1/9) and 8 case farms (8/12). Titers against EMC virus (⩾ 1∶16) were found on 5 control farms (5/9) and on 6 case farms (6/12). Farms with ⩾20 ppm fumonisin in the feed were at significantly increased risk (OR= 11.2, Fisher's exact test p=0.037) for MSD. Furthermore, the π 2 test for trend was significant (p= 0.017), meaning that as the level of fumonisin in the feed increased, the risk of MSD also increased. The presence of EMC virus titers in the sow herd was not a significant risk for MSD (OR =1.25, Fisher's exact test p=0.75). Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein concentrations obtained from 2-week old nursing pigs differed significantly (p=0.0005) between MSD case and control herds.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 117 (1992), S. 79-82 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fumonisin ; hydrothorax ; pulmonary edema
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Pulmonary edema and hydrothorax were observed in mature swine that died approximately 5 days after consuming corn screenings. These postmortem observations were reproduced in younger pigs that died within 1 week when fed the corn screenings under experimental conditions. Additionally, pulmonary edema and hydrothorax were induced in a pig that died after receiving 4 daily intravenous injections of fumonisin B1, a toxic metabolite produced by Fusarium moniliforme.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fumonisin ; AAL toxin ; host-specific ; Fusarium moniliforme ; Alternaria alternata f.sp. lycopersici
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The AAL toxins and the fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) are structurally related and produced respectively by Alternaria alternata f.sp. lycopersici and Fusarium moniliforme. AAL toxin is characterized as a hostspecific toxin, toxic to tomato, whereas fumonisin B1 causes equine leukoencephalomalacia. FB1 and FB2 were biologically active in susceptible tomato tissue (Earlypak-7) and animal tissue culture (rat hepatoma H4TG and dog kidney MDCK). Conversely, AAL toxin was also active in the rat and dog tissue culture cells. Both fungi produce toxin/s in culture that cause death in rats; these toxins are other than AAL and fumonisin. The peracetylated derivatives of AAL and FB1 are biologically inactive in both the tomato bioassay and the animal tissue culture systems. Acetylation of the amine renders AAL inactive. The hydrolysis product of AAL (pentolamine) is toxic to the susceptible tomato line whereas the pentolamine of fumonisin is not. AAL and FB1 can be analyzed by Continuous Flow Fast Atom Bombardment (CFFAB) and Ionspray Mass Spectrometry (ISM), both sensitive to the picomole range. The N-acetyl of the TFA hydrolysis product of AAL and FB1 is determined by comparing the fragment ions at m/z 86 and 140 for FB1 and 72 and 126 for AAL.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Chick embryo ; Embryopathology ; Fumonisin ; Fusarium proliferatum ; Moniliformin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred eight fertile eggs (Columbia × New Hampshire) were assigned to 10 groups of 10 eggs each (2 control groups had 14 eggs each). Five groups of eggs were inoculated on day 1 of incubation, while the other 5 groups were inoculated on day 10. The inoculum of the 4 treatment groups on both day 1 and 10 consisted of 1,10, or 100 µM purified fumonisin B1 (FB1) or a culture material extract (CME) ofFusarium proliferatum, having known amounts of FB1, FB2 and moniliformin (FB1 20 µM; FB2 4 µM and moniliformin 7 µM). Inoculum consisted of the respective toxin(s) dissolved in 100 µl double distilled, autoclaved water (diluent). Control eggs were inoculated with diluent only. Mortality was both dose- and time-responsive in all treatments. Eggs inoculated on day 1 with 1 µM FB1 had 50% mortality; 10 µM FB1 had 70% mortality; 100 µM FB1 had 100% mortality; and CME had 100% mortality. Eggs inoculated on day 10 with 1,10 or 100 µM FB1 or CME had 30, 60, 90 and 80% mortality, respectively. Normal chicks were hatched from all control eggs. The median death times (MDT50) were inversely dose-responsive in all treatments, ranging from 3.0 to 7.4 days in embryos exposed on day 1 and from 3.2 to 9.0 days in those exposed on day 10. Early embryonic changes in exposed embryos included hydrocephalus, enlarged beaks and elongated necks. Pathologic changes were noted in liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, musculoskeletal system, intestines, testes and brain toxin-exposed embryos.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Biosynthesis ; Fumonisin ; Fusarium moniliforme ; Mass spectroscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The biosynthesis of fumonisin B1 byFusarium moniliforme was studied in liquid culture. Stable isotope labeled alanine was added as a precursor to static and shaken cultures ofF. moniliforme. Incorporation of13C and2H labeled L-alanine into fumonisin B1 was measured by GC-MS. Under static culture conditions, 20.8 µg ml−1 of FB1 were produced with a 5.5% level of incorporation of intact, labeled alanine into fumonisin B1. Under shake culture conditions, much higher levels of fumonisin B1 were produced with levels reaching 159–240 µg ml−1 by 21 days after culture initiation. A lower level of alanine incorporation, from 1.1–1.4%, was observed under these conditions. Under shake conditions, incorporation of labeled alanine was reduced because of the rapid metabolism of these cultures combined with the high level of fumonisin B1 production resulted in rapid turnover of the added, labeled alanine and reduced percentage of incorporation. The evidence presented indicates that alanine is incorporated intact into fumonisin B1.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Developmental toxicity ; Fetal toxicity ; Fumonisin ; Fusarium moniliforme ; Hamster
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effects of fumonisin on development of Syrian hamster fetuses were studied using fumonisin B1 and B2 extracted fromFusarium moniliforme corn-culture and purified fumonisin B1. A significant increase in litters with fetal deaths occurred with the high doses of purified (18 mg FB1/kg) and culture-extracted (18 mg FB1 plus 4.5 mg FB2) fumonisin. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to fumonisin on days 8 and 9 of gestation is detrimental to fetal hamster survivability but does not induce clinical maternal intoxication at these doses. Equivalent doses of fumonisin B1, whether from culture-extract or pure solution produced similar results.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fumonisin ; Fusarium moniliforme ; swine ; pulmonary edema ; hepatotoxicity ; pancreatic injury ; histology ; ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a recently identified mycotoxin produced by Fusarium moniliforme in corn, has been shown to cause death in swine due to pulmonary edema, an apparently species specific effect, and to interfere with sphingolipid metabolism in vitro. Here we characterize the toxicity of fumonisins, using female cross-bred swine weighing 6 to 13 kg, and present a hypothesis regarding the mechanism of fumonisin-induced pulmonary edema in swine. FB1 was given daily intravenously (IV) to pig 1 for 9 days for a total of 72 mg (7.9 mg/kg) and to pig 2 for 4 days for a total of 67 mg (4.6 mg/kg). Pig 3 (control) was given saline IV for 9 days. Corn screenings naturally contaminated with FB1 (166 ppm) and FB2 (48 ppm) were fed to pigs 4, 5, and 6, and ground corn was fed to pigs 7 and 8 (controls). Pigs 4 and 7 were killed on day 5; pig 5 was found dead on day 6; and pigs 6 and 8 were killed on day 15. Pigs 4 and 5 had ingested 187 and 176 mg total fumonisins, respectively, while pig 6 had ingested 645 mg. Feed consumption had decreased in pigs fed corn screenings, with an additional sharp decrease prior to onset of clinical signs. Increases in serum liver enzymes, total bilirubin, and cholesterol were present, but electrocardiograms, heart rate, and body temperature were unaffected. Pigs dosed IV with FB1, developed mild intermittent respiratory abnormalities, while those fed screenings developed respiratory distress within 5 days. Mild interstitial pulmonary edema was observed in pig 1. Severe interstitial pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, and increased lung wet/dry weight ratio were observed in pigs 4 and 5. All pigs given fumonisin (either IV or orally) had hepatic changes characterized by hepatocyte disorganization and necrosis; pancreatic acinar cell degeneration was also observed. Ultrastructural changes in orally dosed swine included loss of sinusoidal hepatocyte microvilli; membranous material in hepatic sinusoids; and multilamellar bodies in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, pancreatic acinar cells and pulmonary macrophages. Pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) contained large amounts of membranous material. Thus, the target organs of fumonisin in the pig are the lung, liver, and pancreas. At lower doses, slowly progressive hepatic disease is the most prominent feature, while at higher doses, acute pulmonary edema is superimposed on hepatic injury and may cause death. We hypothesize that altered sphingolipid metabolism causes hepatocellular damage resulting in release of membranous material into the circulation. This material is phagocytosed by the PIMs thus triggering the release of mediators which ultimately results in pulmonary edema.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Aspergillus ; Diplodia ; Fumonisin ; Fusarium ; Mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A shipment of South African corn (1989) exported to Taiwan, was analyzed for various ear-rot fungi andFusarium mycotoxins. Two sets of samples, one from the points of origin in South Africa prior to shipment, and the other from the end-point distributors in Taiwan, were studied. Surface-sterilized kernels were plated onto two different agar media and the fungal colonies identified. High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to analyze mycotoxin levels. The predominant ear-rot fungi, in decreasing order of isolation frequency, wereFusarium subglutinans, F. moniliforme, Diplodia maydis andF. graminearum. Aspergillus flavus andA. parasiticus were not isolated from samples prior to export, but a small number ofA. flavus isolates were found after shipment. The predominant mycotoxins were fumonisins B1 (0–865 ng/g) and B2 (0–250 ng/g). Low levels of moniliformin (≤390 ng/g) were detected in some samples before shipment. Zearalenone (25 ng/g), and nivalenol (120 ng/g) were detected in two out of 32 samples taken in Taiwan. The samples contained no detectable levels of either aflatoxins (〉0.5 ng/g) or deoxynivalenol (〉100 ng/g) before or after shipment.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Amylases ; Fumonisin ; Maize ; Seed germination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fumonisin B1 toxin is produced by the fungusFusarium moniliforme Sheldon, which is systemic to maize (Zea mays L.) and maize seeds. The effects of zero to 100 parts per million fumonisin B1 on the germination process of maize seeds was determined. The presence of fumonisin had no effect on percent seed germination, but fumonisin inhibited radicle elongation by up to 75% after 48 hours of imbibition. An analysis of amylase secretion in the maize endosperm indicated that fumonisins inhibited amylase production in the germinating seed. Isoelectric focusing of endosperm extracts indicated that secretion of the low pI class of amylases was affected more that other amylase isozymes. The results suggested that the presence of high levels of fumonisin in maize seed may have deleterious effects on seedling emergence.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fumonisin ; Fusarium ; Lemna minor L. ; metabolites
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Phytotoxicity and inhibitory effects of the fusarial toxins fumonisin B1 (FB1) [m.p. 103–105 °C], fusaric acid [m.p. 106–107 °C], butenolide (4-acetamido-4-hydroxy-2-butenoic acid lactone) [116–117 °C], 9, 10-dihydroxyfusaric acid [m.p. 150–155 ° C], and moniliformin on chlorophyll synthesis in the aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor (duckweed) were examined. FB1 proved to be most active, reducing the growth of L. minor fronds and their ability to synthesize chlorophyll by 53% and 59%, respectively, at 0.7 μg/ml. The growth rate of L. minor was reduced 59% by 6.7 μg/ml fusaric acid, 62% by 66.7 μg/ml butenolide, and 22% by 66.7 μg/ml 9,10-dihydroxyfusaric acid. Moniliformin was the least phytotoxic to L. minor, with only a 16% suppression of growth rate and a 54% reduction in chlorophyll at 66.7 μg/ml.
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