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  • Fusarium  (34)
  • Aspergillus  (29)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Versicolorin A ; hemiacetal ; reductase ; Aspergillus ; versicolorin C ; dihydrosterigmatocystin ; aflatoxin G2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Versicolorin A hemiacetal was converted to versicolorin C in cell-free systems fromAspergillus parasiticus. The rate of reaction catalyzed by the 35–70% ammonium sulfate fraction was 0.43 nmol min−1 mg−1 with NADPH as cosubstrate and 0.17 nmol. min−1 mg−1 with NADH at 25°C at pH 7.4. The product from incubation of 17-hdyroxy-16,17-dihydrosterigmatocystin with the 35–70% ammonium sulfate fraction and NADPH was a polar compound which was converted to dihydrosterigmatocystin by 0.4 M HCl. The olar comound is proposed to be the 14,17-hydrated open-chain derivative of dihydrosterigmatocystin. Aflatoxin G2a was also reduced in this system to a polar product tentatively identified as the 13,16-hydrated open-chain derivative of AFG2. The reductase activity may be involved in the formation of reduced intermediates and aflatoxins in cultures ofA. parasiticus.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fusarium ; trichothecene ; cytotoxicity ; bioassay ; mycotoxin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-six trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium sporotrichioides (MC-72083) and Fusarium sambucinum were screened for relative cytotoxicity in cultured baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells. The relative cytotoxicity was measured as LC100. The most cytotoxic trichothecenes were T-2 toxin (5 ng/ml) and the recently isolated 4-propanoyl HT-2 (5 ng/ml) and 3′-hydroxy T-2 toxin (5 ng/ml). T-2 tetraol (1 × 104 ng/ml), 8-β-hydroxytrichothecene (1 × 104 ng/ml), sporotrichiol (2 × 104 ng/ml), 8-oxodiacetoxyscirpenol (6 × 104 ng/ml) and 8-acetyl T-2 tetraol (1 × 105 ng/ml) were the least toxic of the regular trichothecenes. None of the modified trichothecenes or the apotrichothecene were very cytotoxic: 8-β-hydroxysambucoin (2 × 103 ng/ml), FS-1 (5 × 103 ng/ml), 8-α-hydroxysambucoin (8 × 104 ng/ml) and trichotriol (1 × 105 ng/ml). The modified trichothecenes, FS-2 and FS-3, were not toxic even at 1 × 105 ng/ml. The baby hamster kidney cell bioassay proved to be a very sensitive and reproducible means of screening new trichothecene mycotoxins for relative cytotoxicity.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Bioassays ; Enniatin B ; Fusarium ; Trichothecenes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-nineFusarium isolates, representing three new taxa originated by Nirenberg fromF. sambucinum Fuckel sensu lato, namely:F. sambucinum Fuckel sensu stricto,F. venenotum Nirenb., andF. torulosum (Berk. & Curt.) Nirenb., were tested for in vitro production of toxic secondary metabolites on autoclaved corn kernels.F. sambucinum sensu stricto was able to produce type A trichothecenes and enniatin B (EB). In particular, amongst the 14 isolates tested, 5 produced only diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) (up to 700 µg/g); 1 produced only neosolaniol (NEOS) (250 µg/g); 2 produced T-2 toxin (T-2) + NEOS (up to 175 and 150 µg/g, respectively); 1 produced NEOS + DAS (300 and 100 µg/g, respectively); and 5 produced DAS + EB (up to 500 and 140 µg/g, respectively). All six isolates ofF. venenotum were able to produce only DAS (up to 100 µg/g).F. torulosum produced no trichothecenes, but four out of nine tested isolates were able to produce EB (up to 140 µg/g). Zearalenones and type B trichothecenes were not found. The toxicity of the culture extracts towardsArtemia salina L. was correlated in general with the occurrence of the above toxins, except for someF. torulosum strains. However, the lack of correlation between the amounts of toxins recovered and toxic activity observed in theGeotrichum candidum Link ex Pers. andA. salina assays suggested the presence of unknown toxic compounds.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 127 (1994), S. 167-173 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Bahrain ; Distribution ; Fusarium ; Soil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The prevalence and distribution of soil-inhabitingFusarium species in the soil of vegetable crops grown under custom-made plastic tunnels were studied at three geographical locations on the island of Bahrain. Six species ofFusarium representing a total of 1154 isolates were isolated on modified Komada medium. All species reported in this survey are recorded for the first time from the hot, arid desert of Bahrain.Fusarium solani andF. oxysporum were among the most frequently isolated fungi in all locations and crops.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Alternaria ; Aspergillus ; cytotoxicity ; Fusarium ; Penicillium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The predominant fungi present in samples of reject and retail red kidney beans were Aspergillus glaucus, Penicillium spp. and Alternaria spp. Together with A. ochraceus, A. flavus, Fusarium spp., and Trichoderma, these isolates from the reject beans were screened for numerous mycotoxins by TLC. The most consistently produced mycotoxins were penicillic acid (from A. ochraceus and Penicillium spp.) and Alternaria toxins (tenuazonic acid and alternariol). A. glaucus strains were tested for cytotoxicity in three tissue culture cell lines with positive results.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus ; Chitin ; Fusarium ; Mosquito ; mycopathogens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract During a short survey of soil and mosquito breeding sites in Lucknow, India for potential mycopathogen from a period of August–October 1996, 11 species of fungi in 5 genera were isolated using live mosquito larvae as host. Aspergillus flavus , A. fumigatus and Fusarium semitectum were the most frequently isolated species. Other fungi recorded were A. niger , A. ochraceus , A. terreus , A. versicolor , Geotrichum candidum , Penicillium verrucosum , Paecilomyces sp. and Fusarium sp. (Liseola/Elegans complex). Insect cell walls are known to contain chitin, so fungal isolates were tested for their chitinase activity on semi synthetic medium containing colloidal chitin. High chitinolytic activities were observed with A. flavus and A. ochraceus. Chitinase producers can be considered as potential pathogens. However, the higher incidence of F. semitectum could not be explained by inability to utilize chitin.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: aflatoxin ; antifungal ; Aspergillus ; Fusarium ; Penicillium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Soil is presumed to be a major source of inoculum for Aspergillus flavus which contaminates cottonseed and produces the potent carcinogen, aflatoxin. Little is known about the mycoflora of the low desert soils of cotton fields where aflatoxin is a chronic problem. In this study, soils from cotton fields in southwestern Arizona and southeastern California were assayed for filamentous fungi. Forty-two taxa, predominantly in the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, were isolated. To determine whether or not compounds produced by these fungi could be potential inhibitors of A. flavus, extracts of strains of each taxon were tested for their ability to inhibit growth of A. flavus. Twelve taxa produced compounds inhibitory to A. flavus, including several strains of Fusarium solani, Penicillium vinaceum and Aspergillus auricomus.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 60 (1977), S. 99-104 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Counterimmunoelectrophoresis ; serology ; Absidia ; Aspergillus ; Candida ; Rhizopus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sera from 35 apparently normal humans, 37 compromised human patients, 30 hedgehogs and 30 sheep, were examined for precipitating antibodies to four opportunistic fungi — Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Rhizopus arrhizus — using Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). Precipitins to A. fumigatus were almost exclusively confined to specimens obtained from the compromised human group (51% of those examined) while Candida precipitating antibodies were detected in the sera of both normal (26%) and compromised (49%) humans and in 10% of the hedgehog specimens. Serum precipitins against the two phycomycetes included in the investigations were rare. Because of the complexity of most fungal antigen extracts, it appears essential that sera be tested against a number of different antigen concentrations if CIE is to be used with confidence in fungal serology.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: New Zealand ; Fusarium ; mycotoxin ; deoxynivalenol ; acetyldeoxynivalenol ; fusarenon-X ; zearalenone ; wortmannin ; moniliformin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Sixty-two isolates of Fusarium were obtained from pasture grass and soil from various areas of New Zealand and identified as F. anthophilum [2], F. avenaceum [17], F. crookwellense [8], F. culmorum [4], F. graminearum [1], F. nivale [3], F. oxysporum [3], F. sambucinum [17], F. semitectum [1], F. tricinctum [1] and an unidentified Fusarium spp. [5]. These isolates were grown on autoclaved rice and tested for toxicity to rats in feeding tests. Eighty two percent of the isolates were toxic, of which twenty-four percent were severely toxic and caused hemorrhages of stomach and intestine, hematuria, and finally death. Cultures of the most toxic isolates contained 0.1 to 104 ppm of deoxynivalenol, 0.7 and 7 ppm of 15- and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol respectively, 0.2 to 4 ppm of fusarenon- X, 11 to 1021 ppm zearalenone, 40 to 272 ppm of the hemorrhagic factor (wortmannin), 2,100 to 7,200 ppm of moniliformin, 565 ppm of the cytotoxic factor (HM-8) and enniatin in substantial concentrations. F. sambucinum is reported as a moniliformin producer for the first time.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus ; immunogold staining ; biotin-avidin linked immunosorbent assay ; double immunodiffusion ; aspergillosis ; aspergilloma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An immunogold assay (IGA) was developed to detect IgG and IgE antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus. Sixteen sera from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), aspergilloma, and normal controls were studied. All sera were also evaluated for antibodies against A. fumigatus by biotin-avidin linked enzyme immunosorbent assay (BALISA) and by agar gel double diffusion method. A. fumigatus specific IgG and IgE antibodies could be detected by IGA in all the patients' sera but not in the sera of normal controls. Both IgG and IgE antibodies to A. fumigatus could be demonstrated in all the sera by BALISA and normal controls showed only low levels of these antibodies. There was a positive correlation between the degree of reactivity detected by IGA, the BALISA titer and the precipitins by agar gel diffusion. It can be concluded that IGA is a reliable, sensitive and simple method capable of detecting both IgG and IgE antibodies against A. fumigatus in patient serum.
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