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  • Fusarium  (34)
  • fungi  (29)
  • Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  (25)
  • Aflatoxin  (22)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 111 (1990), S. 55-59 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxins ; dried-fish ; fungi ; salt-preservation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The mycoflora of dried-salted fish from markets in Kandy, Sri Lanka was studied with emphasis on visibly spoiled dried fish. A total of 61 fungal isolates from 25 dried-fish were isolated and identified. The most prevalent fungus wasAspergillus niger. Species ofAspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. glaucus, A. restrictus, Aureobasidium spp.Basipetospora halophila (a genuinely halophilic fungus)Cladosporium herbarum, Gliomastix, spp.,Penicillium chalybeum andPenicillium expansum were present. The isolated fungi did not grow in synthetic media containing more than 30% sodium chloride.Aureobasidium spp. andGliomastix spp. did not grow on dried-fish under laboratory conditions. The protective exoskeleton appeared to prevent fungal growth on dried shrimp. TheA. flavus strains isolated were not aflatoxigenic.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Alterations in pathogenicity ; in vitro growth ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; reisolation ; subcultivation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thein vitro subcultivation of some microorganisms for long periods causes measurable loss of their pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from infected hosts. We compared the pathogenicity and thein vitro growth pattern of oneP. brasiliensis isolate (Pb 18) in its yeast phase, using the following samples: 1) The original pathogenic Pb 18 (OP). 2) Pb 18 attenuated by continuousin vitro subcultivation (AT). 3) Pb 18 (AT) reisolated from susceptible B 10.A mice (RS). 4) Pb 18 (AT) reisolated from resistant A/SN mice (RR). Pathogenicity was evaluated by anatomopathology and mortality of mice infected i.p. with 5×106 fungi. Median survival times of mice infected with OP ranged from 74 to 117 days during the first 51 months of subculturing; with more cycles of subculturing the median survival time increased, reaching 250 days at the 64th month. This indicated decreasing virulence of OP during this period of subculturing. Survival of mice infected with RS and RR was respectively 112 and 123 days, which is similar to the behavior of the OP variant. Thein vitro growth curve profile of RR showed significantly higher numbers of total and viable yeasts than the other studied variant. These results show that: 1) Pb 18 isolate loses its pathogenicity by continuous subcultivation. This phenomenon is reverted by reisolation from mice, independently from their susceptibility to the fungus; 2) thein vitro growth patterns of Pb 18 do not correlate with alterations in pathogenicity but are influenced by the host's environment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fusarium ; trichothecene ; cytotoxicity ; bioassay ; mycotoxin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-six trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium sporotrichioides (MC-72083) and Fusarium sambucinum were screened for relative cytotoxicity in cultured baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells. The relative cytotoxicity was measured as LC100. The most cytotoxic trichothecenes were T-2 toxin (5 ng/ml) and the recently isolated 4-propanoyl HT-2 (5 ng/ml) and 3′-hydroxy T-2 toxin (5 ng/ml). T-2 tetraol (1 × 104 ng/ml), 8-β-hydroxytrichothecene (1 × 104 ng/ml), sporotrichiol (2 × 104 ng/ml), 8-oxodiacetoxyscirpenol (6 × 104 ng/ml) and 8-acetyl T-2 tetraol (1 × 105 ng/ml) were the least toxic of the regular trichothecenes. None of the modified trichothecenes or the apotrichothecene were very cytotoxic: 8-β-hydroxysambucoin (2 × 103 ng/ml), FS-1 (5 × 103 ng/ml), 8-α-hydroxysambucoin (8 × 104 ng/ml) and trichotriol (1 × 105 ng/ml). The modified trichothecenes, FS-2 and FS-3, were not toxic even at 1 × 105 ng/ml. The baby hamster kidney cell bioassay proved to be a very sensitive and reproducible means of screening new trichothecene mycotoxins for relative cytotoxicity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; broad bean ; cultivars ; fungi ; hybrid ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred different cultivars and lines of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seed samples were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Link (CMI 102135) to determine varietal differences which may support or resist aflatoxin production. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the chloroform extracts of the different seed samples revealed that 11 cultivars/lines were highly resistant to seed invasion and aflatoxin production while 9 cultivars/lines showed partial resistance. The remaining 80 samples were susceptible to the establishment of A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. All the resistant cultivars/lines seed samples were inoculated also with three local isolates of fungi namely; Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb. ex Link) Hughes, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. The resistant seed samples were also resistant for colonization with these fungi and mycotoxin formation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Mycelial conidia ; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; scanning electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The conidia produced by the mycelial form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time. Several different conidial types were characterized. These included intercalary arthroconidia, several types of septate conidia that are formed from other conidia, pedunculate conidia, and terminal hyphal conidia. In addition, the ultrastructure of the supporting pedestal of the pedunculate conidium was found to be separated from the mother conidium by a septum in some instances, and at other times it was not.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 118 (1992), S. 103-107 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Soil ; fungi ; truffle ; Tirmania nivea ; T. pinoyi ; Terfezia boudieri ; T. claveryi ; Helianthemum lippi ; Saudi Arabia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Soil fungi of areas in the North-Eastern region of Saudi Arabia where truffles are native were surveyed. Forty-three species of fungi belonging to twenty genera were isolated. Most were recovered from soils underneath or around truffle ascocarps: thirty species from soil under the surface of Tirmania nivea ascocarps, twenty-four from Terfezia boudieri soil and twenty species each from Tirmania pinoyi and Terfezia claveryi soils. Rhizosphere soil of Helianthemum lippi, on the other hand, yielded twenty-four fungal species while only fourteen fungal species were found in soil without vegetation. The total counts of fungi/g soil were highest in soils from the under surface of truffles, followed by rhizosphere soil, with the lowest in soils without vegetation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Bioassays ; Enniatin B ; Fusarium ; Trichothecenes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-nineFusarium isolates, representing three new taxa originated by Nirenberg fromF. sambucinum Fuckel sensu lato, namely:F. sambucinum Fuckel sensu stricto,F. venenotum Nirenb., andF. torulosum (Berk. & Curt.) Nirenb., were tested for in vitro production of toxic secondary metabolites on autoclaved corn kernels.F. sambucinum sensu stricto was able to produce type A trichothecenes and enniatin B (EB). In particular, amongst the 14 isolates tested, 5 produced only diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) (up to 700 µg/g); 1 produced only neosolaniol (NEOS) (250 µg/g); 2 produced T-2 toxin (T-2) + NEOS (up to 175 and 150 µg/g, respectively); 1 produced NEOS + DAS (300 and 100 µg/g, respectively); and 5 produced DAS + EB (up to 500 and 140 µg/g, respectively). All six isolates ofF. venenotum were able to produce only DAS (up to 100 µg/g).F. torulosum produced no trichothecenes, but four out of nine tested isolates were able to produce EB (up to 140 µg/g). Zearalenones and type B trichothecenes were not found. The toxicity of the culture extracts towardsArtemia salina L. was correlated in general with the occurrence of the above toxins, except for someF. torulosum strains. However, the lack of correlation between the amounts of toxins recovered and toxic activity observed in theGeotrichum candidum Link ex Pers. andA. salina assays suggested the presence of unknown toxic compounds.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 127 (1994), S. 167-173 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Bahrain ; Distribution ; Fusarium ; Soil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The prevalence and distribution of soil-inhabitingFusarium species in the soil of vegetable crops grown under custom-made plastic tunnels were studied at three geographical locations on the island of Bahrain. Six species ofFusarium representing a total of 1154 isolates were isolated on modified Komada medium. All species reported in this survey are recorded for the first time from the hot, arid desert of Bahrain.Fusarium solani andF. oxysporum were among the most frequently isolated fungi in all locations and crops.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; Breast milk ; Ochratoxin A ; Sierra Leone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Breast milks from 113 mothers in two ‘Under-Five Clinics’ in the Southern Province of Sierra Leone, namely, Njala and Bo, were examined for their mycotoxin content. Only 10 were mycotoxin-free. Eighty-eight per cent of samples contained various aflatoxins and 35% contained ochratoxin A (OTA). Few samples (15%) had a single mycotoxin. Thirty-six (32%) had two mycotoxins and 50 (40%) had three or more. The occurrence of OTA in combination with various aflatoxins was recorded. It is concluded that infants in Sierra Leone are exposed to OTA and aflatoxins at levels which in some cases far exceed those permissible in animal feed in developed countries.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: dermatophyte ; drug resistance ; fungi ; griseofulvin resistance ; tioconazole resistance ; Trichophyton rubrum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The in vitro susceptibility of three clinicalTrichophyton rubrum isolates to griseofulvin and tioconazole, determined by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), was 2 and 0.5 to 1.0μg/ml, respectively. One mutant (gril) obtained after mutagenic treatment of one of these isolates was selected and showed simultaneous resistance to griseofulvin (MIC 〉 2000μg/ml) and tioconazole (MIC=1.0μg/ml). The clinical importance and the possibility of a multidrug resistance (MDR)-type mechanism being involved in this event is discussed.
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