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  • Fusarium moniliforme  (35)
  • Aspergillus fumigatus  (20)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fumonisins ; Fusarium moniliforme ; MRC 826 ; toxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fusarium moniliforme has been associated with several diseases including equine leukoencephalomalacia, human esophageal cancer and hepatotoxicity/hepatocarcinogenicity in laboratory animals. The potential health risks to animals and humans posed by F. moniliforme contaminated grains cannot be assessed until the toxins are identified and toxicologically evaluated. As part of a systematic approach to identifying the hepatotoxins produced by F. moniliforme, diets containing aqueous and chloroform/methanol (1∶1) extracts of F. moniliforme strain MRC 826 culture material (CM) and/or the extracted CM residues were fed to male Sprague-Dawley rats for four weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were increased after two and four weeks and microscopic liver lesions were found in those animals fed aqueous CM extract and the CM residue after chloroform/ methanol extraction. Fumonisins B1 and B2 were extracted from the CM by water, but not chloroform/ methanol, and were present in the toxic diets at concentrations of 93–139 and 82–147 ppm, respectively. Nontoxic diets contained ≤ 22 ppm fumonisin B1 and ≤65 ppm fumonisin B2.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus ; A. umbrosus ; electron microscopy ; ultrastructure ; farmer's lung
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The fine structure of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus umbrosus by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is described. The fine structure of the ascosporic and asexual stages of A. umbrosus is described for the first time. Dense, homogenous material and fibers were detected on the outer hyphal cell wall of the Aspergilli. Septal pores were found in the hypha of A. umbrosus. Two wall layers were detected in the cell wall of the conidia of the both Aspergilli. The ascospores of A. umbrosus contained thick cell wall and the surface of which was smoother than that of the conidia.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fusarium moniliforme ; MRC 826 ; fumonisins ; toxicity ; ammoniation ; detoxification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The fungus Fusarium moniliforme is ubiquitous on corn throughout the world and is a likely co-contaminant on corn infested with aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Ammoniation has been used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated commodities. To determine the effect of ammoniation on the toxic potential of Fusarium moniliforme, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either diets containing 10% sound corn, ammoniated corn, corn culture material of hepatotoxic F. moniliforme strain MRC 826 (CM), or ammoniated CM for four weeks. They were observed for signs of toxicity and hematological, serum chemical and histopathological evaluations were made. Groups of male Balb/c mice were fed diets fortified with 10% sound corn or CM for four weeks and evaluated by serum chemical and histopathological means to determine the suitability of mice as a model species for investigation of F. moniliforme-induced hepatotoxicity. Ammoniation was ineffective for detoxification of the CM. Hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity of CM and ammoniated CM were qualitatively similar, although renal tubular lesions appeared more advanced in rats fed ammoniated CM. Adrenal cortical cellular vacuolation was also found in CM and ammoniated CM-fed rats, while focal seminiferous tubular degeneration and aspermia were found only in the testes of ammoniated CM-fed rats. Fumonisin B1 concentrations of the CM and ammoniated CM diets averaged 99 and 75 ppm, respectively. CM containing 99 ppm fumonisin B1 also produced hepatotoxicity in mice similar to that found in CM-fed rats. Thus, mice may be useful for investigations of F. moniliforme-induced hepatotoxicity.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fumonisin B1 ; Gibberella fujikuori ; Fusarium moniliforme
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We examined 25 strains of Fusarium moniliforme from eight states known to be associated with equine leukoencephalomalacia, a disease caused by the mycotoxin fumonisin B1. We determined the mating population, mating type, and vegetative compatibility group to which each of these strains belonged. All 25 strains were in the ‘A’ mating population; 12 were A+ and 13 were A−. Seventeen of the 25 strains were female fertile; these strains also averaged higher levels of fumonisin B1 production than did the strains that were female sterile. Nitrate non-utilizing (nit) mutants were generated in all 25 strains and each strain was assigned to a unique vegetative compatibility group based on the inability of the derived nit mutants to form a prototrophic heterokaryon with complementary nit mutants derived from any of the other strains examined. From these data, we concluded that the production of fumonisin B1 is a general characteristic of strains from the ‘A’ mating population of Gibberella fujikuroi associated with equine leukoencephalomalacia, since all 25 of the isolates that we examined were genetically distinct individuals.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fumonisins ; Fusarium moniliforme
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A new fumonisin has been isolated from Fusarium moniliforme isolate MRC826 grown on corn. It was shown by NMR and mass spectrometry to be an isomer of fumonisin B2 that has free hydroxyl groups at C-3 and C-10 instead of the normal C-3 and C-5. This new fumonisin was detected in cultures of most isolates of F. moniliforme that were examined and was usually present at concentrations similar to those of fumonisin B2. Two isolates of F. moniliforme that produce significantly higher levels of this new isomer were identified.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Beauvericin ; Fusarium subglutinans ; Fusarium moniliforme ; Maize ; Moniliformin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Twenty-five samples of maize kernels collected at harvest time from geographically different corn fields in Peru, were examined for the occurrence of toxigenicFusarium species. The most frequently recovered species wereF. subglutinans (48%),F. moniliforme (46%), andF. equiseti (5%). OtherFusarium species isolated (up to 1%) includedF. graminearum, F. acuminatum, F. solani, F. oxysporum, andF. culmorum. Assays ofFusarium culture extracts usingArtemia salina larvae, showedF. subglutinans as one of the most toxigenic species, and its toxicity was mostly correlated to the capability to produce beauvericin (BEA). All eight tested isolates ofF. subglutinans grown on autoclaved corn kernels produced BEA (from 50 to 250 mg/Kg) as well as moniliformin (M) (from 70 to 270 mg/Kg). This is the first report on BEA and M production by maize isolates ofF. subglutinans from South America.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus ; Conidia ; Mycotoxins ; Sawmill ; Tremorgens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred and six strains ofA. fumigatus were isolated from 21 sawmills in Sweden, and 73 of these strains were examined for production of fumitremorgen B and verruculogen (tremorgenic mycotoxins) on YES-medium using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Twenty-three strains (32%) were tremorgen producers and 50 strains (68%) were non-producers. Tremorgenic mycotoxins were detected in conidia of sevenA. fumigatus strains. The amount of toxin varied between 0.6–8.0 µg/108 conidia (mean value 2.3 µg/108 conidia, equivalent with 0.18%). No production of the mycotoxin gliotoxin was detected in 6 strains ofA. fumigatus. No tremorgens were detected during mould growth on wood substrates, in spite of the use of different wood species (Scots pine,Pinus sylvestris; Norway spruce,Picea abies and birch,Betula spp.), dried versus non-dried wood, bark (pine), leached wood, and wood after various sterilization methods.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus ; Columba livia ; Humoral immunoresponse ; Pigeon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this study was to develop an immunological model of avian Aspergillosis by studying the humoral response of pigeons toAspergillus fumigatus antigens. Immunization was performed by administering weekly injections ofA. fumigatus extracts for 70 days (10 weeks). A new booster injection was given 270 days (9 months) following the last immunization. Results showed an earlyAspergillus-specific humoral immunoresponse which reached a maximum level at 42–63 days (6–9 weeks) post-immunization. Using the ELISA method, it could be observed thatA. fumigatus-specific IgG became elevated in the 2nd week and reached a maximum titre at 63rd day (9th week). In contrast,A. fumigatus-specific IgM levels appeared early showing maximum levels at the 2nd week, after which they declined despite the maintenance of antigenic stimulation. Termination of immunization resulted in the decrease of specific humoral immunoresponse with minimal levels of specific antibodies detectable 210 days (7 months) later. A booster injection given at 270 days (9 months) induced a very fastAspergillus-specific IgM and IgG immunoresponse, reaching levels of antibodies similar to those observed during the immunization period.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Analytical methods ; Aspergillus fumigatus ; Avian aspergillosis ; Gliotoxin ; Turkeys
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Turkey poults were given either of two different dosages of two different gliotoxin-producing strains ofAspergillus fumigatus. Infected lung tissue was examined postmortem for the presence of gliotoxin. Gliotoxin was found in lung tissue of ten poults infected with one strain and in seven of ten poults infected with the other strain. Concentrations of gliotoxin in the tissue exceeded 6 ppm in some of the infected tissues. The concentration of gliotoxin found in infected tissue did not appear to be correlated with the dosage of organism given. Considering the pathologic changes observed in turkey poults with aspergillosis and the production of gliotoxin during the pathogenic state in turkey poults, gliotoxin is considered likely to be involved in avian aspergillosis.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fumonisins ; Fusarium moniliforme ; maize ; mycoflora
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In a survey of the mycoflora and mycotoxins in foods and feeds, 66 samples of mixed poultry feeds and some component raw materials were investigated. Fungal counts ranged from 〈 102 to 1.3 × 106 CFU/g.Fusarium spp. counts ranged from 102 to 1.0 × 106 CFU/g. TheFusarium spp. strains isolated were screened for their potential to produce fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) in maize cultures. Samples and maize cultures were analysed for FB1 and FB2 using TLC and fluorescamine-derivative HPLC. No fumonisins were detected in the samples (〈6 ppm).Fusarium moniliforme was isolated in 59.1% of samples, and 97.4% of the strains produced FB1 and 79.4% of strains produced FB2 in maize cultures. Some isolates produced higher FB1 and FB2 levels than the reference strainF. moniliforme MRC 826.
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