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  • Candida albicans  (70)
  • Fusarium moniliforme  (35)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: lung ; macrophage ; neutrophil ; Candida albicans ; cyclophosphamide ; cortisone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cortisone (CA) or cyclophosphamide (Cy) treatment of mice was used to investigate the relative contributions of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) and inflammatory neutrophils (PMN) in the initial defense against intratracheal challenge (IT) with Candida albicans. Mice treated with either CA or Cy were susceptible to IT challenge with 10–100 x less C. albicans than were untreated mice. Untreated mice rapidly eliminated C. albicans from their lungs with the majority of the organisms being cleared within three hours of challenge. Mice treated with CA initially cleared some of the C. albicans but were unable to clear all the C. albicans as did the untreated mice. Mice treated with Cy were unable to clear C. albicans from their lungs. Candida albicans did not disseminate from the lungs of untreated mice, while in both of the treated groups, C. albicans disseminated to the liver, spleen, brain and kidneys, rapidly killing the treated hosts. Analysis of the changes in cells in lung lavage fluids collected at various times after C. albicans challenge, revealed that large numbers of PMN accumulated in the lungs of both untreated and CA-treated mice, whereas PMN were virtually undetectable in lavage fluids from Cy-treated mice. Resident PAM from untreated mice were able to kill approximately 70 % of 105 C. albicans in a 3 hr in vitro killing assay. By contrast, at similar effector: target ratios, resident PAM from Cy-treated mice killed only about 20% of the inoculum and resident PAM from CA-treated mice were unable to kill C. albicans. PMNs from both untreated and CA-treated mice killed approximately 70% of 105 C. albicans in vitro. The data indicates that both PAM and PMN were critical to the initial clearance of C. albicans from pulmonary tissue. The accumulation of PMN in the lungs appeared to be required for the complete clearance of C. albicans from the lungs yet was not sufficient to inhibit dissemination of C. albicans from the lungs in CA-treated mice. The presence of PAM with in vitro candidacidal abilities appeared to be required for both the clearance of C. albicans and inhibition of dissemination of C. albicans from the lungs. Compromise of either PAM or PMN function can lead to increased pulmonary susceptibility to C. albicans.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 108 (1989), S. 173-178 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; candidiasis ; clotrimazole ; fluconazole ; mycotic infection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen of human mucosal surfaces. Colonization of oral and vaginal mucosa by this yeast is antagonized by the resident normal bacterial population. However, antibacterial therapy can alter the normal flora to allow fungal cells to attach, grow and invade host tissues. We studied the antimicrobic activity of fluconazole against clinical isolates of oral and vaginal bacteria and Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo by scanning and transmission electron microscopy; we also compared the bactericidal activity of fluconazole with clotrimazole in vitro by microbiologie assay. Fluconazole lysed fungi but did not change the ultrastructure of bacteria. Clotrimazole, but not fluconazole, was bactericidal against lactobacillus and streptococcus, the principal species of the oral and vaginal cavities. We conclude that Candida albicans, but not oral and vaginal bacteria, is susceptible to fluconazole. These observations help explain the antimycotic specificity of fluconazole and its efficacy against candidiasis in humans.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; dimorphism ; yeast-mycelium transition ; calcium ; calmodulin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A yeast-mycelium (Y-M) transition of Candida albicans (3153A) was induced by 1.5 mM CaCl2 · 2H2O in defined liquid medium, pH 7, at 25 °C. Germ tube formation was detected after approximately 8 h and peaks of maximum germination occurred at approximately 20 h in all experimental treatments. Non-toxic concentrations of the calmodulin inhibitor R24571 almost completely suppressed germ tube formation whereas trifluoperazine (TFP) and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 were only about half as effective. Further Ca2+ addition failed to reverse the inhibitory effect of R24571 and induced only about 10% of the cells inhibited by TFP or A23187 to germinate.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fumonisins ; Fusarium moniliforme ; MRC 826 ; toxicity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Fusarium moniliforme has been associated with several diseases including equine leukoencephalomalacia, human esophageal cancer and hepatotoxicity/hepatocarcinogenicity in laboratory animals. The potential health risks to animals and humans posed by F. moniliforme contaminated grains cannot be assessed until the toxins are identified and toxicologically evaluated. As part of a systematic approach to identifying the hepatotoxins produced by F. moniliforme, diets containing aqueous and chloroform/methanol (1∶1) extracts of F. moniliforme strain MRC 826 culture material (CM) and/or the extracted CM residues were fed to male Sprague-Dawley rats for four weeks. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were increased after two and four weeks and microscopic liver lesions were found in those animals fed aqueous CM extract and the CM residue after chloroform/ methanol extraction. Fumonisins B1 and B2 were extracted from the CM by water, but not chloroform/ methanol, and were present in the toxic diets at concentrations of 93–139 and 82–147 ppm, respectively. Nontoxic diets contained ≤ 22 ppm fumonisin B1 and ≤65 ppm fumonisin B2.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; ammonium ; physiology ; medium ; growth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Candida albicans strain B 311-10 with and without starvation was cultivated in the minimal synthetic medium of Shepherd et al. [18], modified without biotin, aminoacids, low glucose concentration [20] and with decreasing amounts of (NH4)2SO4, to determine the optimal growth requirement for this strain. All the experiments were carried out under sterile conditions at 25 °C in a thermostat with initial O.D.s (675 nm) of 0.500 and 0.100. Cell growth was generally monitored everyday for six days with a spectrophotometer by determining the absorbance of the cultures at 675 nm. All the experiments were repeated three times and a statistical analysis of the data with a probability of 99% and 1% of error was performed to confirm the validity of the results. Best growth was obtained with starved cells at an initial O.D. of 0.100 and with a 0.1 g/L concentration of (NH4)2SO4. At this concentration, the growth of C. albicans B 311-10 was best between the first and the fourth day with the maximum at the third day. With (NH4)2SO4 concentrations of 0.05 and 0.5 g/L, cell growth was the same.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fusarium moniliforme ; MRC 826 ; fumonisins ; toxicity ; ammoniation ; detoxification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The fungus Fusarium moniliforme is ubiquitous on corn throughout the world and is a likely co-contaminant on corn infested with aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Ammoniation has been used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated commodities. To determine the effect of ammoniation on the toxic potential of Fusarium moniliforme, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either diets containing 10% sound corn, ammoniated corn, corn culture material of hepatotoxic F. moniliforme strain MRC 826 (CM), or ammoniated CM for four weeks. They were observed for signs of toxicity and hematological, serum chemical and histopathological evaluations were made. Groups of male Balb/c mice were fed diets fortified with 10% sound corn or CM for four weeks and evaluated by serum chemical and histopathological means to determine the suitability of mice as a model species for investigation of F. moniliforme-induced hepatotoxicity. Ammoniation was ineffective for detoxification of the CM. Hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity of CM and ammoniated CM were qualitatively similar, although renal tubular lesions appeared more advanced in rats fed ammoniated CM. Adrenal cortical cellular vacuolation was also found in CM and ammoniated CM-fed rats, while focal seminiferous tubular degeneration and aspermia were found only in the testes of ammoniated CM-fed rats. Fumonisin B1 concentrations of the CM and ammoniated CM diets averaged 99 and 75 ppm, respectively. CM containing 99 ppm fumonisin B1 also produced hepatotoxicity in mice similar to that found in CM-fed rats. Thus, mice may be useful for investigations of F. moniliforme-induced hepatotoxicity.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fumonisin B1 ; Gibberella fujikuori ; Fusarium moniliforme
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We examined 25 strains of Fusarium moniliforme from eight states known to be associated with equine leukoencephalomalacia, a disease caused by the mycotoxin fumonisin B1. We determined the mating population, mating type, and vegetative compatibility group to which each of these strains belonged. All 25 strains were in the ‘A’ mating population; 12 were A+ and 13 were A−. Seventeen of the 25 strains were female fertile; these strains also averaged higher levels of fumonisin B1 production than did the strains that were female sterile. Nitrate non-utilizing (nit) mutants were generated in all 25 strains and each strain was assigned to a unique vegetative compatibility group based on the inability of the derived nit mutants to form a prototrophic heterokaryon with complementary nit mutants derived from any of the other strains examined. From these data, we concluded that the production of fumonisin B1 is a general characteristic of strains from the ‘A’ mating population of Gibberella fujikuroi associated with equine leukoencephalomalacia, since all 25 of the isolates that we examined were genetically distinct individuals.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fumonisins ; Fusarium moniliforme
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A new fumonisin has been isolated from Fusarium moniliforme isolate MRC826 grown on corn. It was shown by NMR and mass spectrometry to be an isomer of fumonisin B2 that has free hydroxyl groups at C-3 and C-10 instead of the normal C-3 and C-5. This new fumonisin was detected in cultures of most isolates of F. moniliforme that were examined and was usually present at concentrations similar to those of fumonisin B2. Two isolates of F. moniliforme that produce significantly higher levels of this new isomer were identified.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; adenosine 3′5′-cyclic monophosphate ; cyclic AMP ; yeast-mycelium transition ; dimorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A yeast-mycelium (Y-M) transition in Candida albicans was induced by exogenous yeast extract, adenosine, adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP), adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP), adenosine 3′∶5′ cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and its analogue N6, O2′-dibutyryl adenosine 3′∶5′-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP) in defined liquid medium at 25°C. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) was found to delay germ tube formation in yeast cells, whereas the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors, theophylline and caffeine, induced a Y-M transition. Intracellular and extracellular cyclic AMP levels increased during the yeast-mycelium transition and maximum levels of intracellular cyclic AMP coincided with maximum germ tube formation. Of the many inducers and inhibitors of germ tube and mycelium formation in C. albicans tested, including incubation at 37°C or in the presence of 1.5mM CaCl2, the calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium (R24571) added together with CaCl2 induced the highest intra- and extracellular cyclic AMP levels. These results confirm the involvement of cyclic AMP in the yeast-mycelium transition of C. albicans.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Antifungal azoles ; Antifungal drug antagonism ; Candida albicans ; Imidazoles ; Miconazole ; Triazoles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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