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  • DKFZ Publication Database  (38)
  • GENE  (24)
  • KERATINOCYTES  (16)
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  • DKFZ Publication Database  (38)
Keywords
  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; DISTINCT ; DIFFERENTIATION ; MESSENGER-RNA ; murine ; KERATINOCYTES ; EPIDERMAL DIFFERENTIATION ; ARACHIDONIC-ACID ; calcium gradient ; ENHANCING FACTOR ; epidermal barrier ; GROUP-II ; GROUP-V ; GROUP-X ; hyperproliferation ; INVITRO CULTIVATION ; LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT ; neonatal mouse ; NEONATAL MOUSE KERATINOCYTES ; PERMEABILITY BARRIER HOMEOSTASIS ; epidermis
    Abstract: The action of secreted phospholipases A(2) in skin is thought to be essential for epidermal barrier homeostasis. The incomplete knowledge of presence and functions of the novel secreted phospholipase A(2) subtypes in skin prompted us to explore their expression in epidermis and primary keratinocytes from murine neonatal skin. We detected secreted phospholipases A(2) -IB, -IIA, -IIC, -IID, -IIE, -IIF, -V, -X, and -XII. To study secreted phospholipase A(2) expression during epidermal differentiation, primary keratinocytes from the basal, suprabasal, and upper differentiated layers of neonatal mouse epidermis were obtained by density gradient centrifugation. mRNA for secreted phospholipases A(2) -IB, -IIE, -IIF, -V, and -XII-1 are mainly expressed in the upper differentiated layers, whereas the most prominent enzymes in the basal and suprabasal layers are secreted phospholipases A(2) -IIA, -IID, and -X. The mRNA for secreted phospholipase A(2) -IIC was found in all fractions. Immunohistochemical analysis in mouse skin sections reflected the mRNA distribution patterns in the different epidermal cell fractions. After in vitro induction of keratinocyte differentiation by increasing the calcium concentration of the medium, secreted phospholipases A(2) -IB, -IIE, -IIF, -V, and -XII-1 were upregulated, whereas secreted phospholipases A(2) -IIA, -IIC, -IID, and -X were mainly expressed in proliferating keratinocytes. The specific secreted phospholipase A(2) expression profile in the skin suggests a distinct function for each enzyme in the epidermis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12839576
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  • 2
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; INHIBITION ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; LINES ; DNA ; CELL-CYCLE ; IDENTIFICATION ; REPAIR ; MELANOMA ; MALIGNANT-MELANOMA ; CISPLATIN ; drug resistance ; ABCC2 ; MRP2 ; ANTICANCER DRUGS ; ACQUIRED DRUG-RESISTANCE ; cMOAT ; ETOPOSIDE ; FOTEMUSTINE ; MeWo
    Abstract: Resistance to various anti-neoplastic agents is a common observation in clinical management of melanoma. The biologic mechanisms conferring these different drug-resistant phenotypes, including resistance against the commonly used anti-cancer drug cisplatin, are unclear. In order to elucidate the role of the membrane adenosine triphosphate binding cassette-transporter cMOAT (canalicular multispecific anion transporter) (MRP2/ABCC2) in cisplatin resistance of melanoma, the expression of this protein was analyzed in the platinum drug-resistant cell line MeWo CIS 1. Cisplatinresistant melanoma cells showed a distinct overexpression of cMOAT on mRNA and protein level. This observation was accompanied by a reduced formation of platinum-induced intrastrand cross-links in the nuclear DNA measured by an immunocytologic assay. This decrease in DNA platination was accompanied by an accelerated re-entry into the cell cycle after the typical cisplatin- induced G(2) arrest, and a resistance to undergo apoptosis. Kinetics of formation and elimination of platinum-DNA adducts suggest that the DNA repair capacity for Pt-d(GpG) adducts was not elevated in platinum drug-resistant melanoma cells. The decrease in platinum-DNA adduct formation in cisplatin- resistant melanoma cells was rather a reflection of the protecting activity of the transporter cMOAT. In conclusion, the functional inhibition of cMOAT might be a promising strategy in the reversal of resistance to platinum-based anti- cancer drugs in human melanoma
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 3
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; INHIBITOR ; proliferation ; CELL ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; human ; GENERATION ; SYSTEM ; DISTINCT ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; cell line ; LINES ; ACTIVATION ; RESPONSES ; REDUCTION ; KERATINOCYTES ; SKIN ; CELL-LINES ; ISOFORM ; SUBUNIT ; Western-blot ; MEMBRANE ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; CYTOCHROME-C ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; PROTEIN LEVELS ; western blot ; HaCaT ; MUCOSA ; HOST-DEFENSE ; DEFENSE ; human skin and oral epithelial cells,oxidoreductase,p67phox,spin trapping,superoxide radical ; NAD(P)H OXIDASE ; OXYGEN RADICALS ; P47(PHOX) ; SUPEROXIDE-PRODUCTION
    Abstract: In non-phagocytic cells, superoxide has been implicated in physiological and pathological cellular functions in the skin and mucosa, such as, host defense, mitogenic responses, and malignant conversion. Here, we identify a constitutively expressed heme-flavoprotein NADPH oxidase (Nox) system as a source of superoxide in human skin (HaCaT) and gingival mucosal (GM16) keratinocyte cell lines. Western blot analysis showed that both cell lines expressed the phagocyte oxidase (phox) cytosolic proteins Rac1, p40phox, and p67phox. With respect to the catalytic flavoheme protein subunit, HaCaT membranes, which expressed p22phox, showed an absorbance peak at 558 nm indicative of a b-type cytochrome. At mRNA levels, both GM16 and HaCaT cells expressed gp91phox homologs Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4, however, HaCaT cells expressed very low levels of Nox1 mRNA. At protein levels, Nox1 was readily detected in HaCaT but was nearly undetectable in GM16 cells. Consistently, Nox activity of HaCaT membranes was demonstrated by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping and cytochrome c reduction, and the activity was sensitive to the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. V-max values were 20-fold lower than those reported for phagocytic oxidase. In conclusion, keratinocytes expressed a Nox distinct from the phox isoform of phagocytes providing molecular evidence for a source of superoxide that may regulate cell proliferation and host defense in skin and oral mucosa
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 4
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; PATHWAY ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TUMORS ; COMPLEX ; COMPLEXES ; INDUCTION ; CONTRAST ; SKIN ; LOCALIZATION ; BENIGN ; keratin ; skin tumors ; epidermis ; FOLLICLE ; HAIR-FOLLICLES ; HUMAN TYPE-I ; MATRIX ; BETA-CATENIN EXPRESSION ; CORTEX ; HAIR FOLLICLE ; hair follicles,human,transcription factors,tumors ; HOXC13 ; INVOLUCRIN
    Abstract: Human hair follicles exhibit a complex pattern of sequential hair keratin expression in the hair matrix, cuticle, and cortex. In pilomatricomas, that is, benign skin tumors thought to arise from germinative matrix cells of the hair follicle and retaining morphological signs of cortical differentiation, this differential hair keratin pattern has been shown to be faithfully preserved in the lower and upper transitional cell compartments of the tumors. Here we show that also the co-expression of hair keratin hHa5 with its regulatory nuclear homeoprotein HOXC13 in matrix cells of the hair follicle is maintained in lower transitional cells of pilomatricomas. In contrast, the nuclear co-expression of LEF1 and beta-catenin, which in the hair follicle has been postulated to initiate cortex cell differentiation through the induction of hair keratin hHa1 expression (Merill et al, Genes Dev 15:1688-1705, 2001), is not preserved in upper transitional cells of pilomatricomas. Although these cells correctly express hHa1, they are completely devoid of LEF1 and nuclear LEF1/beta-catenin co-expression is shifted to a subpopulation of hair keratin-free basaloid cells of the tumors. These data imply that unlike the normal hair follicle, cortical differentiation in pilomatricomas is not under the control of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15140206
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  • 5
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; GENE ; GENES ; transcription ; LIGAND ; SKIN ; BIOLOGY ; fibroblasts ; TARGET ; IN-SITU ; MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; INDIVIDUALS ; TARGETS ; RECEPTORS ; DISSECTION ; SERUM ; mRNA ; hair ; USA ; THYROTROPIN RECEPTOR ; HPA axis ; CONNECTIVE-TISSUE ; CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE ; FUNCTIONAL-ROLE ; PIGMENTARY UNIT ; SMOOTH MUSCLE ACTIN ; TSH RECEPTOR
    Abstract: Pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) regulates thyroid hormone synthesis via receptors (TSH-R) expressed on thyroid epithelial cells. As the hair follicle (HF) is uniquely hormone-sensitive and, hypothyroidism with its associated, increased TSH serum levels clinically can lead to hair loss, we asked whether human HFs are a direct target for TSH. Here, we report that normal human scalp skin and microdissected human HFs express TSH-R mRNA. TSH-R- like immunoreactivity is limited to the mesenchymal skin compartments in situ. TSH may alter HF mesenchymal functions, as it upregulates alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in HF fibroblasts. TSH-R stimulation by its natural ligand in organ culture changes the expression of several genes of human scalp HFs (for example keratin K5), upregulates the transcription of classical TSH target genes and enhances cAMP production. Although the functional role of TSH in human HF biology awaits further dissection, these findings document that intracutaneous TSH-Rs are fully functional in situ and that HFs of female individuals are direct targets for nonclassical, extrathyroidal TSH bioregulation. This suggests that organ-cultured scalp HFs provide an instructive and physiologically relevant human model for exploring nonclassical functions of TSH, in and beyond the skin
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19052559
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  • 6
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; Germany ; PATHWAY ; COMMON ; COHORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; GENE ; GENES ; DIFFERENTIATION ; PATIENT ; FAMILY ; DISORDER ; MOUSE ; IDENTIFICATION ; MUTATION ; MUTATIONS ; PHENOTYPE ; CHROMOSOMAL LOCALIZATION ; molecular epidemiology ; HETEROGENEITY ; DISORDERS ; FAMILIES ; USA ; GENOMIC STRUCTURE ; GENETIC-HETEROGENEITY ; EPIDERMIS-TYPE LIPOXYGENASES ; 12R-LIPOXYGENASE ; 12(R)-LIPOXYGENASE ALOX12B ; ERYTHRODERMA
    Abstract: In recent years several new genes for autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) have been identified. However, little is known about the molecular epidemiology and pathophysiology of this genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of severe disorders of keratinization. ARCI is characterized by intense scaling of the whole integument often associated with erythema. We and others have shown that mutations in ALOX12B and ALOXE3, coding for the lipoxygenases 12R-LOX and eLOX-3 predominantly synthesized in the epidermis, can underlie this rare condition. Here we have surveyed a large group of 250 patients with ARCI for mutations in these two genes. We have identified 11 different previously unreported mutations in ALOX12B and ALOXE3 in 21 ARCI patients from 19 unrelated families and demonstrated that mutations in the two genes are the second most common cause for ARCI in this cohort of patients. Examination of the molecular data revealed allelic heterogeneity for ALOX12B and two mutational hotspots in ALOXE3. Functional analysis of all missense mutations and a splice site mutation demonstrated that complete loss of function of the enzymes underlies the phenotype. Our findings further establish the pivotal role of the 12-lipoxygenase pathway during epidermal differentiation. Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2009) 129, 1421-1428; doi:10.1038/jid.2008.409; published online 8 January 2009
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19131948
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  • 7
    Keywords: CELLS ; ACTIVATION ; KERATINOCYTES ; SKIN ; CYCLE ; MIGRATION ; E6 ; E-cadherin ; EPIDERMODYSPLASIA-VERRUCIFORMIS ; LIFE ; DNA LOADS
    Abstract: Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are contained in the alpha, beta, gamma, mu, and nu genera, differ in their oncogenic potential and their tropism for cutaneous or mucosal epidermis. Langerhans cells (LC), the only epidermal professional antigen-presenting cells, are readily detected in normal mucosal and cutaneous epithelium. The aim of this study is to determine whether LC loss, which has been reported for HPV16, occurs in other HPV genera and establish its significance in viral pathology. We found that, as for HPV16, LCs were reduced in lesions infected with high-risk mucosal (alpha 7 and alpha 9 species) and low-risk cutaneous (gamma and mu) types. Lesions infected with alpha 10 low-risk genital types had reduced LC but contained epidermal LC patches, coincident with dermis-localized regulatory T cells (T-regs). In contrast to other genera, LCs were common in the epidermis, and T-regs occupied the dermis of the potentially high-risk cutaneous beta-HPV type infected lesions. Therefore, LC loss in the infected lesions occurred irrespective of tropism or oncogenic potential of the HPV type. LC depletion in the HPV-infected epidermis may create an environment that is permissive for viral persistence and in HPV lesions in which LCs are found, the presence of typically immunosuppressive T-regs may compensate for their continued presence
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19759549
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  • 8
    Keywords: CELLS ; IN-VITRO ; proliferation ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; BLOOD ; Germany ; VITRO ; GENE ; INDUCTION ; SKIN ; BETA ; FLOW-CYTOMETRY ; LEUKEMIA-CELLS ; FOXP3 EXPRESSION ; CD25 EXPRESSION ; CD4(+)CD25(-) T-CELLS ; CUTANEOUS-LYMPHOMAS ; LEUKEMIA/LYMPHOMA CELLS ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD INVOLVEMENT
    Abstract: Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) has been suggested by in vitro experiments to represent a malignant CD4+ T-cell proliferation with a regulatory T-cell (Treg) phenotype (CD4+CD25+FOXP3+). We investigated percentages of FOXP3+ and CD25+ cells in the blood of 15 Sezary, 14 mycosis fungoides (MF), and 10 psoriasis (Pso) patients and 20 normal healthy donors (NHDs). We found similar numbers of FOXP3+ cells in MF (10.4% of blood CD4+ cells) and Pso (11.1%) patients and NHDs (9.8%). In 8 of 15 (53%) Sezary patients, significantly reduced percentages of FOXP3+ cells were seen in blood (2.9%) and skin (10.4%). Interestingly, 6 of 15 (40%) Sezary patients showed significantly increased percentages of FOXP3+ cells (39.7% (blood), 20.3% (skin)); however, these cells did not express CD25. In these latter patients, clone-specific TCR-Vbeta-chain antibodies were used to demonstrate that these FOXP3+CD25- cells were monoclonal CTCL tumor cells. FOXP3+CD25- CTCL tumor cells showed a highly demethylated status of the foxp3 gene locus similar to Treg cells, and they were functionally able to suppress IL-2 mRNA induction in TCR-stimulated conventional T cells. Thus, FOXP3+CD25- CTCL tumor cells with functional features of Treg cells define a subgroup of Sezary patients who might carry a different prognosis and might require differential treatment.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19626037
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  • 9
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; GENE ; ACQUISITION ; MUTATION ; CHROMOSOMAL LOCALIZATION ; ALOX12B ; GENOMIC STRUCTURE ; RECESSIVE CONGENITAL ICHTHYOSIS ; ADIPOCYTE DIFFERENTIATION ; 12R-LIPOXYGENASE
    Abstract: Loss-of-function mutations in the lipoxygenase (LOX) genes ALOX12B and ALOXE3 are the second most common cause of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. The encoded proteins, 12R-LOX and epidermal LOX-3 (eLOX-3), act in sequence to convert fatty acid substrates via R-hydroperoxides to specific epoxyalcohol derivatives and have been proposed to operate in the same metabolic pathway during epidermal barrier formation. Here, we show that eLOX-3 deficiency in mice results in early postnatal death, associated with similar but somewhat less severe barrier defects and morphological changes than reported earlier for the 12R-LOX-knockout mice. Skin lipid analysis demonstrated that the severity of barrier failure is related to the loss of covalently bound ceramides in both 12R-LOX- and eLOX-3-null mice, confirming a proposed functional linkage of the LOX pathway to ceramide processing and formation of the corneocyte lipid envelope. Furthermore, analysis of free oxygenated fatty acid metabolites revealed strongly reduced levels of hepoxilin metabolites in eLOX-3-deficient epidermis, indicating an additional function of eLOX-3 in mammalian skin as a hepoxilin synthase linked to the 12S-LOX pathway.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22832496
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  • 10
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; human ; CLONING ; GENE ; GENES ; HYBRIDIZATION ; DIFFERENTIATION ; DOMAIN ; IN-SITU ; PATTERNS ; gene expression ; cytoskeleton ; intermediate filaments ; keratin ; LAYER ; CELLS FLUGELZELLEN ; CUTICLE CELLS ; CYTOKERATINS ; GENE DOMAIN ; human hair follicle ; HUXLEY ; MAMMALIAN-TISSUES
    Abstract: In this study we report on the cloning of two novel human type II keratin cDNAs, K6irs3 and K6irs4, which were specifically expressed in the inner root sheath of the hair follicle. Together with the genes of two previously described type II inner root sheath keratins, K6irs1 and K6irs2, the K6irs3 and K6irs4 genes were subclustered in the type II keratin/hair keratin gene domain on chromosome 12q13. Evolutionary tree analysis using all known type II epithelial and hair keratins revealed that the K6irs1-4 formed a branch separate from the other epithelial and hair keratins. RNA in situ hybridization and indirect immunofluorescence studies of human hair follicles, which also included the K6irs2 keratin, demonstrated that both K6irs2 and K6irs3 were specifically expressed in the inner root sheath cuticle, but showed a different onset of expression in this compartment. Whereas the K6irs3 expression began in the lowermost bulb region, that of K6irs2 was delayed up to the height of the apex of the dermal papilla. In contrast, the K6irs4 keratin was specifically expressed in the Huxley layer. Moreover, K6irs4 was ideally suited to further investigate the occurrence of Flugelzellen, i.e., Huxley cells, characterized by horizontal cell extensions that pass through the Henle layer, abut upon the companion layer, and form desmosomal connections with the surrounding cells. Previously, we detected Flugelzellen only in the region along the differentiated Henle layer. Using the Huxley-cell-specific K6irs4 antiserum, we now demonstrate this cell type to be clearly apposed to the entire Henle layer. We provide evidence that Flugelzellen penetrate the Henle layer actively and may play a role in conferring plasticity and resilience to the otherwise rigid upper Henle layer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12648212
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