Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Supramolecular chemistry is a new area of research that has rapidly developed from pure synthetic chemistry, and its novelty has led to interdisciplinary cooperation between organic and inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, physical and theoretical chemistry, and physics. Whereas molecular chemistry essentially deals with the covalent bonding of atoms, Supramolecular chemistry is predominantly involved in the study of the weaker intermolecular interactions resulting in the association and self-organization of several components to form larger aggregates (supramolecules). The first crown ether discovered by the subsequent Nobel prizewinner Pedersen was more the fortuitous reaction product of an impurity, but nowadays, some twenty-five years later, chemists are able to tailor host molecules to special requirements. Host compounds having a cyclophane skeleton make an important contribution, since their aromatic structural units ensure the necessary rigidity of the molecular structures and thereby improve the preorganization of the coordination sites for the cooperative binding of the guests. During the course of the rapid development of Supramolecular chemistry such a large number of synthetic hosts has been developed and their interaction with guests studied in such depth that we must restrict ourselves here to a discussion of a particular group of host compounds, namely cavity-supporting macrobicyclic and macrooligocyclic phanesu, which bear a similar relation to open-chain and monocyclic hosts as the metal-complexing cryptands to the podands and crown ethers. The molecular architecture of these three-dimensionally bridged macrooligocycles is a challenge for synthetic chemistry. (Not only the size and shape of the intramolecular cavity, but also the provision of the latter with suitable coordination centers have to be included in the synthesis strategy.) The capacity for the envelopment of guests from all sides and the expedient endo functionalization often also produce a particularly strong binding of host and guest, outstanding selectivities with regards to molecular recognition, and special properties of the Supramolecular complexes.
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