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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Cage compounds ; Calixarenes ; Cavitands ; Carcerands ; Gold ; Interfaces ; Monolayers ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The synthesis of sulfide-functionalized (hemi)carceplexes suitable for self-assembly on gold is described. A noncentrosymmetrical carceplex 9 (guest DMF) was synthesized by the combination of calix[4]arene 4 and resorcin[4]arene 3, while a noncentrosymmetrical hemicarceplex 12 (guest NMP) was prepared by the combination of two different resorcin[4]arenes, 3 and 10. These adsorbates form ordered self-assembled monolayers on gold with their quasi C4v axis perpendicular to the surface. The two positions possible for the incarcerated guest lead to diastereotopic surfaces.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Radical reactions ; Substituent effects ; Nitrogen heterocycles ; Dihydropyridines ; Pyrrolines ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A set of allene-tethered benzoyloximes (5) has been treated with nBu3SnH. Depending on their substitution pattern, a wide range of compounds has been obtained. If the stannyl radical adds on the allene, the C-centred radical thus formed undergoes either a 5-exo ring closure to give the cyclopentene derivatives 7 or a 6-endo ring closure onto the N atom to give the dihydropyridines 8. If the stannyl radical adds on the benzoyl moiety, an iminyl radical is formed which leads to the 3H-pyrroles 9 and the alkylidene-pyrrolines 10. Steric effects as well as polar effects are the factors governing the reaction course.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under //http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2046/2000/99373_s.pdf or from the author.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Alkylations ; Deaminated AdoHcy ; Decarboxylated AdoHcy ; Mitsunobu reaction ; Nucleosides ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---5′-Acetylthio-5′-deoxy-2′,3′-O-isopropylideneadenosine (8) was directly prepared from commercially available 2′,3′-O-isopropylideneadenosine (7) and thioacetic acid under Mitsunobu conditions in almost quantitative yield. In situ cleavage of the acetylthio function of 8 followed by coupling with different alkyl bromides proceeded with high yields. Deprotection of the obtained 5′-thionucleosides yielded the S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine analogues decarboxylated AdoHcy (11), deaminated AdoHcy (14) and 5′-[3-(cyano)propylthio]-5′-deoxyadenosine (16) in good overall yields. Direct deprotection of the thionucleoside 8 delivered 5′-thio-5′-deoxyadenosine (18) in excellent yield. In addition, binding constants of these AdoHcy analogues and the DNA methyltransferase M·HhaI were determined in a fluorescence assay.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Crown compounds ; Environmental chemistry ; Cations ; Macrocycles ; Transition metals ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---First examples of new, modular, redox switchable ionophores for heavy and transition metal cations are presented. These systems are based on a crown ether or polyethylene glycol unit substituted by the 1,2,4-thiadiazole/iminoylthiourea redox system (2a-4a, 2b-4b). The syntheses via a Boulton-Katritzki rearrangement are described and their cation selectivities, studied by extraction experiments, proved to be determined by the systems' redox state. Additionally, simple 5-anilino-3-phenyl-1,2,4-thiadiazole (5a) and the corre-sponding iminoylthiourea (5b), which do not contain a potential cation binding polyether substituent were also tested to investigate the complexation property of the redox active building block itself.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Amino acids ; Peptides ; Protecting groups ; Protecting groups ; Aluminium ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The aluminium trichloride/toluene system is investigated as a novel, unusual and straightforward reagent for the removal of the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) protecting group in the solution peptide synthesis. This procedure avoids any undesired side reactions, such as the frequently observed inversion of the amino acid configuration.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Porphyrins ; Chiral auxiliaries ; Macrocycles ; Pyrethroids ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Esters, N,N-disubstituted amides, and a N-acylurea derived from the enantiopure industrial intermediate (1R)-cis-hemicaronaldehydic acid (or biocartol) are convenient synthons for the preparation of a series of chiroporphyrins by condensation with pyrrole. These chiral meso-tetracyclopropylporphyrins are obtained exclusively as the D2-symmetric α,β,α,β atropisomer, generally in low to moderate yields (2-20%), and in the urea case in excellent yield (60%). Hydrolysis of the urea substituents affords a chiroporphyrin with mono-N-substituted amide groups. 1H-NMR spectroscopy indicates that the ester, amide, and urea stereogenic groups sit on the porphyrin close to the metal binding site and restrict substrate or ligand access along a C2-symmetric groove. This structural feature of chiroporphyrins and of their metal complexes is of high potential interest in asymmetric catalysis and chiral recognition.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Aplykurodins ; Marine steroids ; C-C coupling ; Cyclic peroxides ; Lactonization ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---An approach to the synthesis of aplykurodins, ichthyotoxic marine lactones, is presented. The carbon framework was derived from vitamin D3 by conversion of the readily accessible allyl alcohol 13 to the protected Grundmann's hydroxy ketone 22 and subsequent introduction of the C2 side chain through a Pd0-promoted coupling. Highly stereoselective hetero Diels-Alder reaction with O21 produced the key intermediate peroxide 25. Functional group transformations, coupled with a series of chemo- and stereoselective reactions, finally resulted in the synthesis of the unnatural analogue 17,18-dihydro-3,9-di-epi-aplykurodinone B (6).
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The first enantioselective synthesis of enantiomerically pure (-)-wine lactone, (-)-1a, a fragrance constituent of various white wines, and its epimer (+)-1b, was carried out. The key steps are allylic substitution of (±)-2-cyclohexen-1-yl acetate (2) with dimethylmalonate using palladium complexes of phosphanyldihydrooxazol L1 or of the phosphanylcarboxylic acid L2 as catalyst, subsequent decarboxylation, iodolactonization and elimination, furnishing enantiomerically pure bicyclic lactone (+)-7 in 47% overall yield. The diastereoselective introduction of methyl groups by SN2′-type substitution with an organocopper compound and by enolate alkylation gave lactone (-)-1a in 43% overall yield from (+)-7.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Cyclodextrins ; NMR spectroscopy ; NOE ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The conformational features of alkylated, benzoylated, and benzylated cyclodextrins in solution were analysed by NOE and proton-selective relaxation methods and were compared to those of native compounds.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Astaxanthin ; Carotenoids ; Isotopic labeling ; Isotopic labeling ; Total synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The all-E isomer of (4,4′-13C2)astaxanthin (1a) has been prepared by total synthesis starting from commercially available 99% 13C enriched acetonitrile. The labelled astaxanthin was obtained in high purity and with high isotope incorporation. For this synthesis, the C15 + C10 + C15 strategy was used. The central C10-synthon, 2,7-dimethylocta-2,4,6-triene-1,8-dial (3), was coupled with 13C-enriched C15-phosphonium salt 2a. The new synthetic scheme for the preparation of the C15-phosphonium salt is discussed in this paper; the same scheme can be used to label all positions and combinations of positions of the C15-phosphonium salt.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Amphiphiles ; Ketone ; Glycosides ; Electron transfer ; Chiral resolution ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Electroreducible amphiphilic aromatic ketones derived from D-glucose and D-glucofuranurono-6,3-lactone (D-glucurone) have been synthesized by Schmidt condensation and reaction of the unprotected lactone with the appropriate substrates, respectively. The macroscale electrolyses of the glucose derivatives, performed in an aprotic solvent (DMF), yield the pinacols possessing two glycosidic side chains. Under the same conditions of electrolysis with the D-glucurone derivative, the glyosidic carbon-oxygen bond is cleaved. The use of a redox mediator (couple anthracene-•/anthracene) has demonstrated that a glucosidic bond can be reduced by a homogeneous electron transfer. In the presence of a proton donor the expected D-glucuronic pinacol is obtained. The radical-radical coupling involves the formation of two chiral centers. The diastereo- and the enantioselectivity of the reaction have been studied by 1H- and 2H-NMR spectroscopy, respectively.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Resorcin[4]arenes ; Cation interactions ; Interaction sites ; Configuration determination ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Resorcinarene octamethyl ethers, bearing carboalkyloxy groups in the side chains, have been shown to interact with FeIII in organic media. 1H-NMR studies, carried out using GaIII instead of FeIII, suggest that these systems have two active sites of interaction, the first located at the aromatic moiet and the other in the vicinity of the carbonyl groups. As a confirmation of this, resorcinarenes without carbonyl groups in the side chains have been found to exhibit only one active site. Notably, in the latter case the interaction results in configurational changes.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Asymmetric hydroxylations ; Allyl ethers ; Carbohydrates ; Molecular modeling ; Molecular dynamics ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The catalytic asymmetric dihydroxylation of several allyl 2-O-benzyl-α-D-xylosides with AD-mix β and PYR(DHQD)2 shows almost no diastereofacial selectivity if the 3- and 4-OH groups are unprotected or acetylated. Acetal, benzyl ethers and benzoyl esters enhance the diastereoselectivity, in the opposite sense to that predicted by the “AD mnemonic”, which is completely lost using AD-mix α. In an attempt to understand this behaviour, computational studies of the asymmetric dihydroxylation (AD) of olefins using Sharpless' and Corey's catalysts have been carried out using molecular dynamics. A three-step algorithm was developed taking advantage of the enzyme-like behaviour of catalyst-olefin systems and applied using an ESFF force field. To validate our approach, the first sampling step procedure was then refined and performed using a modified CVFF force field. This led to a U-shaped model in good agreement with that proposed by Corey for the AD of allyl 4-methoxybenzoates, which brings to the fore a role for the methoxy group. This model also accounts for the observed enantioselectivity of styrene dihydroxylation. When applied to the AD of allyl xylosides using AD-mix β, our model accounts well for the observed diastereoselectivity. Both synthetic and modelling results confirmed that aromatic groups on the olefin could be involved in π-π stacking interactions with the aromatic rings of the catalyst and should be important, if not a prerequisite, to achieve high enantio- and diastereoselectivity.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under //http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2046/2000/99372_s.pdf or from the author.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Hydrolysis ; Nucleophilicity ; α-Effect ; Metal ion complexes ; Oximes ; Biomimetic models ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A kinetic study of the reactivity in the cleavage of p-nitrophenyl acetate of a series of 2-pyridineoximes, 1-4, and their complexes with NiII, ZnII and CuII is reported. Complexation of the oximic ligands leads to a remarkable increase in the acidity of the oximic group, following the order CuII > NiII > ZnII. The oximates of free ligands and their metal complexes, being α-nucleophiles, are quite effective in promoting the cleavage of PNPA. However, the reactivity, as defined by the second-order rate constants, is not predictably related to the acidity of the oximic function. The corresponding Brønsted plot shows a linear behaviour up to a pKa value of ca. 8, above which the reactivity of the uncomplexed oximic functions levels off to a limiting value. In the case of the metal ion complexes, a large effect of the ligand structure on the reactivity was observed. As a consequence, complexes of appropriate ligands and metal ions show a reactivity that exceeds the apparent limiting one of the oximates. The origin of such effects and their possible implications in the development of new reactivators of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase are discussed.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Chirality ; Dendrimers ; Fullerenes ; Lipofullerenes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The facile synthesis of enantiomerically pure C3-symmetrical fullerene dendrimers all-R-fA-7, all-S-fC-8, all-R-fC-9, and all-S-fA-10, as well as lipofullerenes all-S-fA-11 and all-S-fC-12 involving an octahedral [3:3] addition pattern is described. The C3 symmetrical tris[bis(4-phenyl-2-oxazoline)methano]fullerenes 1, 2, 3, and 4 with known absolute configuration were used as precursors. The completion of the octahedral addition pattern was achieved by a threefold cyclopropanation with the dendritic 3,5-dihydroxybenzylic bromomalonate 5 and the lipophilic dioctadecyl bromomalonate 6. The absolute configurations of the precursor trisadducts were retained in the inherently chiral C3-symmetrical hexakisadducts 7-12. The structure and the isomeric purity of all hexakisadducts 7-12 were unambiguously proven by NMR spectroscopy and other techniques. Preliminary experiments with the dendritic hexakisadducts all-S-fC 8 and all-S-fA 10 revealed that these macromolecular ligands posess catalytic properties with respect to stereoselective cyclopropanations of styrene with ethyl diazoacetate.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Photochemistry ; Matrix isolation ; Density functional calculations ; Isomerizations ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Ultraviolet irradiation of matrix-isolated formamide (1) in solid argon with light of wavelength 248 nm leads to the formation of formimidic acid (2). Comparison of the experimental IR spectrum of the photoproduct with the calculated IR spectrum of 2 shows clearly that two rotamers 2a and 2b are formed.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under //http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2046/2000/99501_s.pdf or from the author.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Asymmetric synthesis ; Phosphazene base ; Pyridyl epoxide ; Furyl epoxide ; Pyridyl alcohol ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---trans-1-(2-Pyridyl)-, trans-1-(3-pyridyl)-, trans-1(2-furyl)-, and trans-1(3-furyl)-2-phenyl epoxides with enantiomeric purities ranging from 96.8 to 99.8% [in favor of the (+, EtOH)-isomer] are obtained in two steps from pure (R,R,R)-oxathiane which is recovered (85-90%) and reused. The chiral bidentate ligand 2-phenyl-(S)-1-(2-pyridyl)ethanol with 99.6% ee was obtained in three steps and 67% overall isolated yield.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Cyclodextrins ; Inclusion compounds ; Carcinine ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A new modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivative 1 that was functionalized in position 6 with Boc-Carcinine was synthesised and its crystal structure was determined. The structure reveals a “sleeping swan”-like shape, the covalently bonded Boc-Carcinine moiety forming a folded structure with the Boc group inserted within the hydrophobic cavity of the β-cyclodextrin. The conformation of the Carcinine moiety is determined by the inclusion of the Boc group and is further stabilised by three intramolecular hydrogen bonds, two between the amide N1-H group, the carbonyl C′1=O1 group and a primary hydroxylic group of the glucose unit 5, one between the carbonyl C′0=O0 group and the primary hydroxylic group of the glucose unit 2. The β-CD macrocycle differs only slightly from unmodified β-CDs, maintaining an approximate sevenfold symmetry. The solution structure of the new β-CD derivative was investigated by NMR spectroscopy and circular dichroism (c.d.) spectroscopy. In addition to a complete (1H and 13C) assignment of the pendant Boc-Carcinine group, the NMR study allowed the assignment of all the proton resonances associated with the β-CD macrocycle. Furthermore, NMR and c.d. results indicated that the self-inclusion of the Boc group within the β-CD cavity is retained in aqueous solution. In order to estimate the strength of this self-inclusion complex a series of competition experiments with the external guest 1-adamantanol was carried out using c.d. spectroscopy.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Atropisomerism ; Conformation analysis ; Liquid chromatography ; Chiral resolution ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A series of bis(oxo/thioxothiazolinyl) aromatic atropisomers with two chiral C(aryl)-N(heterocycle) axes was synthesized. The separation of antiparallel, parallel diastereomers was achieved by chromatography on silica. Conformational assignment for the bis-thione atropisomers 1a,b-4a,b and bis-one atropisomers 9a,b-12a,b was based on polarimetric results in analytical chiral chromatography on microcrystalline cellulose triacetate. The relationship conformation-1H NMR chemical shifts, found for the bis-thiones and bis-ones was successfully applied for the conformational assignment of thione-one atropisomers not assigned by chiral liquid chromatography.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Polycyclic anions ; Aromaticity ; Annulene anions ; Corannulene ; Fullerene anions ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -Stable π-conjugated anions are formed in the reaction of π-conjugated systems with alkali metals. Reactivity, aromatic properties and aggregation of the anions are described. Bowl-shaped and fullerene anions, as well as helicene and planar polycyclic anions, are discussed vis-à-vis their aromaticity and charge delocalization pattern.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Photochemistry ; Radicals ; EPR spectroscopy ; Quantum mechanical calculations ; Silicon compounds ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -Trisilane 7 has been synthesized as a potential photochemical precursor of tetra-tert-butylsilatetrahedrane (5) and/or tetra-tert-butylsilacyclobutadiene (6). Astonishingly, only one Si,Si bond is broken upon irradiation of 7 and the silacyclobutenyl radical 9 can be identified as the reaction product. The structure of radical 9, which in the absence of oxygen is persistent even at room temperature, has been elucidated by comparison of its experimental and calculated ESR spectra.
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 2000 (2000), S. 1113-1120 
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Peptidomimetics ; Reverse turn mimetics ; Glycomimetics ; Heterocycles ; Lactams ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -D-Glucurono-3,6-lactone and L-cysteine combine in a highly stereoselective manner to give the 7,5-bicyclic thiazolidinlactam 2. The α-hydroxy group of the D-glucurono-3,6-lactone was exchanged for an amino function (to give 13) and, after condensation with L-cysteine methyl ester, the polyol dipeptide 7 was obtained. Peptide couplings proceed without the need to protect the three secondary hydroxy groups of the seven-membered ring. The amino group of 7 was deprotected and selectively elongated to the pseudo-tripeptide 16. The depsipeptide 17 was obtained by condensation of Boc-Ala-OH with the polyol 2. Elongation at the carboxy terminus yielded 19 and 20. The bicyclic scaffold populates a well-defined solution conformation; the hydroxy groups mimic the side chains of hydrophilic amino acids and can be further functionalized.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Catenanes ; Cyclophanes ; Electrochemistry ; Electronic spectroscopy ; Template-directed synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -Catenanes composed of two, three, five, or seven interlocked macrocycles have been synthesized in yields ranging from 1 to 30%. Their template-directed syntheses rely on a series of cooperative noncovalent bonding interactions between π-electron rich 1,5-dioxynaphthalene ring systems and π-electron deficient bipyridinium units which are incorporated within the macrocyclic components. The interlocked structure associated with one of the [3]catenanes was demonstrated unequivocally by single crystal X-ray analysis which also revealed the formation of polar stacks stabilized by intermolecular [π···π] interactions. The number of interlocked components of each catenane was determined by liquid secondary ion, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight, and/or electrospray mass spectrometries. The absorption spectra, emission spectra, and electrochemical properties of the macrocyclic components and of the catenanes have been investigated. Two kinds of charge-transfer absorption bands (intramolecular in the cyclophanes containing electron-donor and electron-acceptor units, intercomponent in the catenanes) have been found. Such charge-transfer excited states are responsible for the quenching of the potentially fluorescence units of the cyclophanes, and of the crown ethers in the catenanes. Charge-transfer electronic interactions are also evidenced by the electrochemical behavior. Correlations among the redox potentials of the various compounds are reported and discussed.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Carbonylation ; Wittig reactions ; Rhodium ; Homogeneous catalysis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -The rhodium(I)-catalysed sequential silylformylation/Wittig olefination of terminal alkynes with hydrosilanes and carbon monoxide in the presence of stabilised P-ylides leads to substituted 2,4-dienoic esters in a one-pot procedure. The α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated esters are generated with high (2E,4Z) stereoselectivity in good to excellent yields. Conversions of the products in [2+1] cycloaddition reactions are presented.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Bicyclo[1.1.1]pentane ; Haloarenes, cross-coupling of ; Propellanes ; Palladium ; Catalysis ; Small-ring systems ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -Radical addition reactions of organyl iodides 7a-s onto [1.1.1]propellane (2) followed by halogen-lithium exchange and transmetallation with zinc chloride, as well as additions of Grignard reagents to 2, have furnished a variety of 3-substituted bicyclo[1.1.1]pentyl-1-magnesium (14) and -zinc (19) derivatives. The latter have been coupled with various alkenyl, aryl, and biaryl halides and triflates under NiCl2dppe, Pd(PPh3)4, or PdCl2(dppf) catalysis to give a number of 1,3-disubstituted bicyclo[1.1.1]pentyl derivatives 17, 20, and 23, several of which exhibit liquid crystalline properties, in moderate to very good yields. The coupling products 20ca, 23ab, 23ae, 23ff, and 23fg have been further transformed to yield bicyclo[1.1.1]pentyl derivatives 32, 24ab, 24ae, 27ff, and 27fg, respectively, bearing alkynyl, cyano, and/or alkenyl groups.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Boron ; Cyclotrimerizations ; Nitrogen heterocycles ; Macrocycles ; Subphthalocyanines ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The regioselective preparation of ortho-substituted subphthalocyanides was achieved employing 3-substituted phthalonitrile derivatives as starting materials. A mechanistic proposal has been outlined.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under //http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2046/2000/99525_s.pdf or from the author.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -The synthesis of 2,6-dialkoxy-9,10-bis(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)-9,10-dihydroanthracene derivatives 15 and 16 is described. Solution electrochemistry shows that 15 and 16 display three redox waves, representing the sequential formation of the dication, radical trication and tetracation species in an EqEqEq process. The X-ray crystal structures of neutral compounds 15 and 16 and the charge transfer complex (15)2+(TCNQ-•)2· 2MeCN are reported. The neutral molecules adopt a saddle-like conformation; the bis(1,3-dithiole)benzoquinone system is U-shaped through an ‘accumulating bend’ comprising the boat conformation of the central (quinonoid) ring and folding of both 1,3-dithiole rings. In the complex (15)2+(TCNQ-•)2· 2MeCN the anthracene system is planar and aromatic; the dithiolium cations form a dihedral angle of 78° with the anthracene plane. The TCNQ anion radicals form a stack of dimers with interplanar separations of 3.15 Å within a dimer and 3.50 Å between the dimers. The structure contains unusually short intermolecular S···N contacts [2.865(3) Å].
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  • 28
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Carbene complexes ; 1-Metallahexatrienes ; Cyclopentadienes ; Carbene complexes ; Tungsten ; Domino cyclization ; Pentalenes ; Spirocyclopentanes ; Spiro compounds ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -1,3-Dioxytetrahydropentalenes 9 have been generated by base-catalyzed addition of protic oxygen nucleophiles ROH 6a-g (RO = carboxy or phenyloxy) to the [2-(1-cyclopentenyl)ethynyl]carbene tungsten complex 3. Compounds 9 are highly reactive and afford (cyclobutenyl)carbene complexes 12a-g through spontaneous [2+2] cycloaddition to a second molecule of the (1-alkynyl)carbene complex 3. Thermolysis of compounds 12 was found to generate indeno[b]-spiro-tricyclo[5.3.0.0]decadienes 18 through π-cyclization of the 1-tungsta-1,3,5-hexatriene unit involving insertion of carbon monoxide into the W—C bond.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Fullerenes ; Anthracene ; Photooxidations ; Photochemistry ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Anthracene groups have been linked to [60]fullerene by the [3+2] cycloaddition of the corresponding nitrile oxides or by esterification with a [60]fullerenol. The anthryl groups of the fullerene derivatives 3, 7, and 10 react readily with singlet oxygen to form the 9,10-epidioxides 4, 8, and 12 under photooxidation. The anthryl moiety of the fullerenol ester 10 also reacts with the fullerene skeleton to form the stable intramolecular Diels-Alder adduct 11.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Circulenes ; Heterocycles ; Liquid crystals ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A general method for the synthesis of substituted tetraoxa[8]circulenes based on alkylation of 2,3-bis(bromomethyl)-1,4-dimethoxybenzene with acetylides is reported. Four of the compounds shows LC behavior, and the tetraoxa[8]circulenes are thus new candidates for discotic mesogens.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Photochemistry ; Furans ; Thiophenes ; Radicals ; Electron-poor olefins ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Photochemical reactions of some haloheterocycles bearing electron-withdrawing groups 1a-d with electron-poor olefins 2a-c gave the addition products 3a-f and 3h-m in good yields. Other products obtained were the corresponding olefins 4a-k and the alkanes 3g. These reactions involve homolytic cleavage of the carbon-halogen bond to give the corresponding radical. The nature of these radicals has been studied. Ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-31G* level are supportive of the formation of σ radicals. These radicals are electrophilic and interact with the HOMOs of the electron-poor olefins.
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Imidazoles ; Nucleophilic substitutions ; Fulvenes ; Pseudo-azulenes ; Heterocycles ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The electrophilic properties of the 4H-imidazoles 1 and their protonated derivatives 2 permit the introduction of nucleophilic building blocks, as illustrated by reactions of 1 with selected amines. Depending on the nature of the amine and the substituents R1 on the heterocycle 1, single (3) or double (4) transamination is observed. The 1H-NMR spectra of the products, as well as X-ray structure analyses of compounds 3f and 4c, confirm that the residues at the 4- and/or 5-positions of 1 are exchanged. The tautomerism between 3e-h and 3e′-h′ seems to be central to the chemistry of these mixed substituted derivatives. Using orthoesters and acetophenone dimethylacetal as cyclization partners, the imidazo[4,5-d]imidazoles 5 and the 4H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyrazines 6 are obtained, respectively. Reduction of 3e with Zn/HCl or H2S leads to the air-sensitive, strongly fluorescent leuco compounds 8. Quenching of 8 by addition of aromatic aldehydes results in a condensation reaction and, coupled with the subsequent redox disproportionation, this conversion constitutes an alternative route to imidazo[4,5-d]imidazoles of type 11. The unexpected reaction of 3e-h with Lawesson's reagent allows synthesis of the 6-azapentafulvenes 14. The relevant spectral data show 14 to be members of a new chromophoric system, in which an electron-rich five-membered ring is coupled with an electron-deficient ring.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Radicals ; Cyclizations ; Pyridinethione ; Tetrahydrofurans ; Asymmetric synthesis ; Thiazolethione ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The trisubstituted functionalized tetrahydrofurans 10, 11, 16, 18, and 19 were photochemically prepared from 2,3-syn- and 2,3-anti-configuredN-(3-benzoyloxy-5-hexen-2-oxy)thiazole-2(3H)-thione anti-6, pyridinethiones 7, anti-8, and BrCCl3. The formation of tetrahydrofurans was achieved by an efficient and highly regioselective alkoxyl radical cyclization (5-exo-trig). The 2,3-anti substituted intermediates 9 and 12 cyclize stereoselectively whereas a 2,3-syn-configured O-radical affords both possible diastereomeric addition products in equal amounts. The cyclized tetrahydrofuryl methyl radicals were trapped with the bromine atom donor BrCCl3 to afford the bromomethyl-substituted cyclic ethers 10, 11, 18, and 19 in excellent yields. The utility of this reaction was stressed by conversion of one of the newly prepared tetrahydrofurans in a two-step synthesis into (+)-allo-muscarine (+)-20.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under //http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2046/2000/99590_s.pdf or from the author.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Combinatorial chemistry ; Amides ; Gas chromatography ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A symmetric diketopiperazine scaffold 2 has been prepared in a very simple two-step procedure from L-aspartic acid dimethyl ester. This product (a tetracarboxylic acid equally protected at the two symmetric positions) has been employed as a template for the synthesis of mixed amide libraries in the solution phase using the SPSAF (simultaneous addition of functionalities) strategy. By judicious choice of the amines employed, it is possible to prepare parallel libraries containing hundreds of products using just a small number of different amines. We have also developed a simple method for monitoring the required conversion of the acid into amides based on an assay of the amount of iBuOH (determined by GC) formed during the coupling mediated by isobutyl chloroformate. We have observed that a conversion higher than 90% (iBuOH by GC) guarantees correct formation of the desired amides. This indirect method for assessing the conversion in a combinatorial reaction employing mixed reactants (SPSAF) can conveniently be used for the routine determination of libraries prepared in the solution phase. In a broader perspective, the present results contribute as a further step in the development of new and simple systems for monitoring the progress and evolution of combinatorial reactions
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  • 35
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Thioketones ; Thiocarbonyl ylides ; Cycloadditions ; Cycloreversions ; Sulfur heterocycles ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Reactions of diaryl thioketones with diazomethane at room temperature afford 4,4,5,5-tetraaryl-1,3-dithiolanes; the scope of this surprising 2:1 interaction has been studied for decades (Schönberg Reaction). The clue to the mechanism was our observation that the stoichiometry is 1:1 at -78 °C, and 2,5-dihydro-2,2-diaryl-1,3,4-thiadiazoles are formed as primary [2+3] cycloadducts. They lose N2 at -45 °C in first-order reactions generating diaryl thioketone S-methylides which can be intercepted by thioketones (→1,3-dithiolanes), multiple CC bonds, or acids HX. In the absence of trapping reagents, the elusive intermediates either dimerize furnishing 2,2,3,3-tetraaryl-1,4-dithianes or give rise to 2,2-diarylthiiranes by electrocyclization. Beyond thiobenzophenone and diazomethane, our main model reaction, the studies involve fluorene-9-thione, 4,4-dimethoxy- and 4,4-dichlorothiobenzophenone. The ring of 2,5-dihydro-2,2-diphenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (8) is opened by LDA at -78 °C and derivatives of anion 12 are obtained. - In summa: The Schönberg reaction consists of two 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions, linked by a 1,3-dipolar cycloreversion.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Thiocarbonyl ylides ; Cycloadditions ; Dithiolanes ; Sulfur heterocycles ; Thioketones ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---2,5-Dihydro-2,2-diphenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (4) eliminates N2 at -45 °C and generates thiobenzophenone S-methylide (5), which is intercepted by dipolarophiles. The 1,3-cycloadditions of 5 with thiones (aromatic and aliphatic thioketones, dithioesters, trithiocarbonate) furnish 1,3-dithiolanes 7, in which the substituents, even voluminous ones, appear in the proximal 4- and 5-positions. The reaction of 5 with adamantanethione furnishes 7h and 4,4,5,5-tetraphenyl-1,3-dithiolane (7a) in a ratio of 4:1; a methylene transfer is involved, and the mechanistic pathways are discussed. The cycloadduct 7f originating from 5 and diphenyl trithiocarbonate undergoes an isomerization which consists of ionization and ring-opening leading to a ketene dithioacetal structure.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Conjugation ; Boron ; Sensors ; Cyclic voltammetry ; Polymers ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---New electropolymerizable aromatic compounds (i.e. pyrrole, thiophene, aniline) bearing boronic acid and ester substituents have been synthesized and their electrochemical behavior has been investigated. Functionalized polythiophene and polypyrrole films could be anodically generated in acetonitrile, whereas the polyaniline derivative was electroformed in an acidic aqueous solution. The electrochemical responses of some of these materials were changed when fluoride ions were added to the electrolytic solutions. The strongest modifications, caused by binding of fluoride by the immobilized boron, were observed for the polypyrrole derivative in hydroorganic media.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Heterocycles ; Zinc ; Palladium ; Catalysts ; Sulfur ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Organozinc halides derived from Grignard reagents behave differently in their reaction with ethyl (±±)-(2RS,3SR)-tetrahydro-4-methylene-2-phenyl-3-(phenylsulfonyl)furan-3-carboxylate (3) according to the hybridisation of the carbon ligand. During the development of short multi-component reactions for the synthesis of diverse functionalized ethyl 2,5-dihydrofuran-3-carboxylates it was discovered that aryl and vinyl zinc halides undergo clean reaction with 3 in the presence of Pd(PPh3)4. In contrast, when alkyl zinc halides are reacted with 3 in the presence of Pd(PPh3)4, reductive desulfonation of 3 is observed. Remarkably, in the absence of a transition metal catalyst, the allylic substitution of 3 with alkyl zinc halides proceeds cleanly and in moderate to good yield.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Asymmetric synthesis ; Nitrogen heterocycles ; Heterocycles ; Pyrrolidines ; Piperidines ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Chiral, nonracemic 2-substituted pyrrolidines and piperidines were prepared in high ee and moderate to good chemical yields in three steps from (R)-phenylglycinol and γ- or δ-chloroketones. The key step of the synthesis was the stereoselective reductive ring-opening of chiral bicyclic 1,3-oxazolidines prepared by condensation of (R)-phenylglycinol and the corresponding ketones.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Self-assembly ; Vapor-pressure osmometry ; Resorcin[4]arenes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Resorcin[4]arene tetracarboxylic acids 5,6 (A) and resorcin[4]arene tetrapyridines 2,3 (P) self-assemble in chloroform solution to form stable heterotopic AP dimers. Data from NMR titration and dilution experiments, as well as from vapor-pressure osmometry (VPO), indicate that the AP dimer is formed with an association constant greater than 107 M-1. Solid-solution extraction experiments are indicative of the formation of a 2:1 trimer (A2P), while self-associated homotopic species (A2 and A3) can be detected by NMR and VPO. Analysis of the heterotopic noncovalent assembly process over a range of compositions shows that these other species are much less stable than the AP heterodimer, which is the exclusive species at an A/P concentration ratio of 1:1 (> 99.7% of the total at 10 mM).
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Sulfoxides ; β-Amino sulfones ; Mannich type reaction ; Lithium perchlorate ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The LiClO4-mediated one-pot reaction of aldehydes with (trimethylsilyl)dialkyl amines and the lithium salt of sulfoxides or sulfones, affords the corresponding β-(dialkylamino) sulfoxides and β-(dialkylamino) sulfones in high yields. The aminosulfoxidation reaction of aliphatic or aromatic aldehydes lacks diastereoselectivity, but the diastereomeric sulfoxides can be separated by HPLC or column chromatography for further use.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Bridged pyranose derivatives ; Ring enlargement ; Carbenes ; Glycosides ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Addition of dichlorocarbene to the glycal (±±)-2 followed by cyclopropyl-allyl rearrangement leads to the chloro-2H-pyran (±±)-4. Oxidation of (±±)-4 and reduction of the obtained hydroxypyranone (±±)-5 gave the methyl pyranoside (±±)-6. The relative configuration of (±±)-6 was established by X-ray structural analysis of the corresponding acetate (±±)-7. The synthesis of the optically active starting materials (+)-2 and (-)-2 is also reported.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: CMP-Neu5Ac analogues ; Enzyme inhibitors ; Substrate analogues ; Transition state analogues ; Transferases ; Carbohydrates ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Quinic acid was transformed into phosphitamides 16, 25, and 36, which could be readily linked to 5′-O-unprotected cytidine derivative 17. Ensuing oxidation of the obtained phosphite triesters with tBuO2H and hydrogenolytic de-O-benzylation furnished the corresponding phosphate diesters 18, 26, and 38. Base catalyzed removal of acetyl protecting groups, and methyl ester hydrolysis furnished CMP-Neu5Ac analogues 1d, 1e, and 2. Quinic acid was also transformed into 1,2-unsaturated diallyl α-hydroxymethyl-phosphate derivatives (R)- and (S)-46, which on reaction with cytidine phosphitamide 47 afforded the phosphite triesters. Subsequent oxidation with tBuO2H and then treatment with NEt3 gave phosphate diester derivatives (R)- and (S)-48. Deallylation, acetyl group removal, and methyl ester hydrolysis furnished (R)- and (S)-3, respectively. Treatment of (R)- and (S)-48 with DBU as a base led to acetic acid elimination, thus yielding, after de-O-allylation, acetyl group cleavage, and ester hydrolysis, diene derivative (E)-4. Donor substrate analogues 1d and 1e exhibited good α(2-6)-sialyltransferase inhibition (Ki: 2.0·10-4 and 2.0·10-5 M). However, transition state analogues (R)-, and particularly (S)-3 showed excellent inhibition properties (Ki: 1.6·10-6 and 2.7·10-7 M).
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  • 44
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Cyclitols ; Aminocyclitols ; Glycosidase inhibitors ; α-Mannosidase inhibitors ; Deoxygenation ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Three deoxy derivatives 2-4 of the α-mannosidase inhibitor mannostatin A (1) were synthesized, and their inhibition of Jack bean α-mannosidase was evaluated in order to elucidate the roles of each of the three hydroxyl groups of the inhibitor. The 1- and 2-deoxy derivatives 2 and 3 retained some inhibitory activity, although reduced by a factor of about 100 relative to the parent, whereas it was completely lost with the 3-deoxy derivative 4. Structure and activity relationships are discussed in the light of these findings.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Circular dichroism ; Conformation analysis ; s-Triazines ; Chiral auxiliaries ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---CD data of the optically pure 2-[(R)-1-(9-anthryl)ethylamino]-4-chloro-6-[(R)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamino]-1,3,5-triazine, 2[(R)-1-(9-anthryl)ethylamino]-4,6-bis[(R)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamino]-1,3,5-triazine, 2,4-bis[(R)-1-(9-anthryl)ethylamino]-6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine are presented. The analysis of the CD spectra by means of the nonempirical DeVoe approach has afforded the complete conformational characterisation of the three s-triazine derivatives, allowing us to establish how the conformation of these derivatives depends on the nature of the substituent 1-arylethylamino groups.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Cycloadditions ; Carbenes ; Nitrones ; Nitrilimines ; Pyrazolines ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The reaction of tert-butylalkynyl chromium Fischer carbene complex 1 with nitrones 2 affords β-enamino-ketoaldehydes 4 by the light-promoted rearrangement of the corresponding [3+2] cycloadduct carbene complexes 3. On the other hand, [3+2] cycloaddition of chiral nonracemic Fischer alkenyl carbene complexes 19 with nitrilimines 10 yields enantiomerically pure Δ2-pyrazolines with high regio- and diastereoselectivity.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Asymmetric synthesis ; Zinc ; Transition structures ; QM/MM computations ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Trimethylsilyl substitutions of the fenchyl alcohols [(1R,2R,4S)-exo-(2-Ar)-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ol, Ar = 2-methoxyphenyl (1) and Ar = 2-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenyl (2)] yield the chiral ligands 3 [Ar = 2-methoxy-3-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl] and 4 [Ar = 2-(dimethylaminomethyl)3-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl]. Increased reactivities and enantioselectivities in diethylzinc additions to benzaldehyde are obtained from 3 (63% ee R) and 4 (93% ee S), relative to 1 (26% ee S) and 2 (73% ee S). X-ray crystal structures of 3 and of its methylzinc complex 3-Zn reveal out-of-plane bending of the methoxy groups as major geometrical consequences of the trimethylsilyl substitutions. Analyses of QM/MM ONIOM μ-O transition-structure models for 1, 2, 3, and 4 show that trimethylsilyl-induced distortions of methoxy and of dimethylaminomethyl groups explain the observed increased enantioselectivities.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Ketones ; Reductions ; Micelles ; Cobalt ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Operationally simple and environmentally benign procedures have been developed to selectively reduce different α,β-unsaturated ketones, 4,4-dimethylcyclohex-2-ene-1-one (1), isophorone (2), benzylideneacetone (3), chalcone (4) by NaBH4 or by the system NaBH4 + CoCl2. Alternative reaction media to the extensively used MeOH have been explored, and new procedures take advantage of the acceleration and chemoselectivity induced by water or by aqueous micellar solutions. It was possible to selectively and quantitatively afford pure products of 1,2 and of 1,4 reduction as well as the totally reduced compounds (yield and selectivity > 90%) by simple changes in the experimental conditions.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Palladium ; exo-π-Allylpalladium complexes ; Allylic alkylation ; Spiro compounds ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The palladium(0)-catalyzed alkylation of 2,3-bis(acetoxymethyl)bicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene 1 with malonate-type enolates as nucleophiles is investigated. A monoalkylated product is formed first, and undergoes (depending on the nucleophile used) a second intramolecular reaction leading to spirocyclopropane-annulated bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene derivatives 5. The formation of endo spirobicyclic cyclopropanes adducts as major isomer is rationalized by assuming formation of an intermediate exo-(π-allyl)palladium complex.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: C-Glycosides ; Conformation analysis ; Molecular dynamics ; Selectins ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The conformational behavior of the C-glycosyl analogue of sialyl-α-(2→3)-galactose, synthesized as a glycosidase inhibitor, has been studied using a combination of NMR spectroscopy (J and NOE data) and molecular dynamics calculations. The obtained results show that the population distribution of conformers with respect to the orientation about the pseudo-glycosidic linkages is mainly controlled by steric interactions. This is in contrast to findings made for O-glycosides. In these natural compounds, the conformational behavior about the glycosidic linkage Φ is mainly governed by the exo-anomeric effect.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Asymmetric synthesis ; Palladium-catalysed couplings ; Palladacycles ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Chiral C2-symmetric N-benzylazetidines have been conveniently prepared from optically pure anti-1,3-diols without loss of enantiomeric purity. N-Debenzylation led to the corresponding N-unsubstituted azetidines, which were then subjected to palladium-catalysed coupling reactions with aryl bromides to afford chiral N-arylazetidines. (R,R)-N-Benzyl-2,4-dimethylazetidine has been employed in the synthesis of a new cyclopalladated complex, which can be used, for instance, as a chiral recognition agent for phosphorus ligands.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Wittig reactions ; Homoconjugated trienes ; Alkenes ; Fatty acids ; Pheromones ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---We describe a novel one-pot double-Wittig approach towards unsymmetrically substituted skipped trienes using the symmetrical (Z)-hex-3-ene-1,6-bis(triphenylphosphonium iodide) (2) as key reagent. Double alkenylation of the corresponding bis(ylide) 3 with sequentially added aldehydes gives (Z)-1,4,7-homoconjugated trienes in good yields. Dissymmetrization of the bis(ylide) 3 is feasible, since it displays enhanced reactivity compared to the monoylide resulting from the first olefination. Symmetrical products from statistical coupling of the bis(ylide) 3 can be drastically suppressed by slow release of the first aldehyde component through in situ thermal decomposition of an intermediate aluminate complex, generated by reduction of a methyl ester with DIBAL-H. The novel strategy is successfully applied to the one-pot synthesis of functionalized and isotopically labelled polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as to the synthesis of the geometrid moth pheromone (3Z,6Z,9Z)-nonadeca-1,3,6,9-tetraene (6a). The dissymmetrization strategy was also found to be suitable for the synthesis of homoconjugated dienes from 1,3-propylbis(triphenylphosphonium bromide).
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  • 53
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: C-C coupling ; Homosteroids ; Palladium ; Steroids ; Total synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The D-homosteroid 1 was synthesized by two successive Heck reactions starting from enantiopure 3 and the bromoarene 2 containing a (Z)-bromovinyl group. The first intermolecular Pd-catalyzed reaction leads to 6 in a highly regio- and diastereoselective way which forms 1 with an unusual cis-junction of the rings B and C by a second intramolecular Heck reaction.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Cyclizations ; Spiro compounds ; Nucleosides ; Isomerizations ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Syntheses of the spiro nucleosides 2′-deoxyhydantocidin 3a and its 1′-epimer 3b are described. The newly developed route involves a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons condensation of the phosphonate 16 with the erythrose derivative 15 affording a mixture of six isomers which was fully assigned by NMR spectroscopy. The mixture was directly converted into the final compounds in an efficient base-catalyzed cyclization reaction. A base-catalyzed interconversion between the two isomers was observed.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Polyamines ; Polyamine analogues ; Polyamine conjugates ; Protecting groups ; Protecting groups ; Solid-phase synthesis ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The structure and the biological significance of naturally occurring and synthetic polyamine analogues and conjugates are presented and the available methodologies for their synthesis are described. These methodologies involve either the selective functionalization of the amino functions, using suitable protecting groups or acylating agents, or fragment synthesis protocols. The latter employ suitable amino components and simple reactions, like Michael addition to α,β-unsaturated nitriles, alkylation of amines and sulfonamides, reductive alkylation and acylation followed by reduction of the thus-obtained amides, as key-reactions, or azides as key-intermediates, for the assembly of the polyamine skeleton. Syntheses performed in solution as well as in the solid phase are discussed.
    Additional Material: 21 Ill.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Alkenes ; Iodine ; Selenium ; Sulfur ; Isothiocyanates ; Thiocyanates ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A simple and efficient thiocyano- or isothiocyano-phenylselenenylation of alkenes has been developed. The reactions occur when alkenes are treated with [bis(acetoxy)iodo]benzene, trimethylsilyl isothiocyanate or potassium thiocyanate and diphenyl diselenide. Mono- and disubstituted alkenes led to the formation of 1,2-phenylseleno-thiocyanates, whereas both more-substituted alkenes and styrenes gave exclusively 1,2-phenylseleno-isothiocyanates. The overall transformation represents the addition of PhSeSCN to the olefinic double bonds, in situ generated by the above reagents combination.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Metabolism ; Biosynthesis ; Glycosides ; Carbohydrates ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The ability of Streptomyces griseoviridis (strain Tü 3634) to glycosylate various carboxylic acids with L-rhamnose was investigated by feeding mainly heteroaromatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to growing cultures. The special application of the precursor-directed biosynthesis (PDB) gave rise to a wide variety of acyl α-L-rhamnopyranosides as novel metabolites. The experiments resulted in furanyl, pyrrolyl, thienyl, indolyl, and pyridyl derivatives (1-8), the analogues 9-24 were generated by feeding fluoro-, hydroxy- or aminobenzoic acids or cinnamic acids. All results are discussed with respect to the substrate specificity of the corresponding enzyme system.Supporting information for this article is available on the WWW under //http://www.wiley-vch.de/contents/jc_2046/2000/99567_s.pdf or from the author.
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Diphenylpentafulvene ; Diarylnitrilimines ; Regioselectivity ; Quinolines ; Pyrazole ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -New quinoline and pyrazole derivatives are obtained after the acid-promoted intramolecular rearrangement of regioisomeric pyrazolines resulting from the cycloaddition of 6,6-diphenylpentafulvene with diarylnitrilimines.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Flavonoids ; Catechin ; Isotopic labeling ; Carbon 13 ; Total synthesis ; French paradox ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -Racemic 4-[13C]catechin 14 has been synthesized in ten steps starting from potassium [13C]cyanide. The intermediate chalcone 9 was formed by acylation of the benzylated phloroglucinol 7 with the caffeic acid synthon 6, using the trifluoroacetic mixed anhydride. The flavonoid skeleton was then obtained by previously described reactions such as the reduction of chalcone 9 and dihydroxylation of flavene 11. Such [13C]-labelled polyphenols should prove to be useful tools for human biological investigations.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Carbocycles ; Carbohydrates ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -Fucopyranoside analogs with methylene groups instead of endo- or exo-anomeric oxygens, carba- and C-fucopyranosides, respectively, were synthesized. For the synthesis of 5a-carba-L-fucose (1) two approaches were studied, which shared a common cyclitol building block (8), obtained from a SmI2-promoted carbocyclization of a D-mannitol derivative. The first route made use of a Stork radical cyclization onto a conduritol derivative 13 as the key step, which failed to give the silyl ether ring. The second route furnished the target 1, and involved regioselective elimination of a cyclic sulfate 9, and stereoselective hydrogenation of a double bond, controlled by substitution on the substrate. For the synthesis of 1-C-fucopyranosides (37, 38, and 42) a new method based on the use of fucosyl phenyl sulfoxides (35 and 41) was employed. An anomeric carbanion is generated through phenylsulfinyl-lithium exchange, which reacted with electrophiles with retention of configuration at the anomeric center. The required fucosyl sulfoxides were prepared from L-fucose by highly stereoselective thioglycosylation reactions.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 1434-193X
    Keywords: Ketones ; Pheromones ; Pheromones ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: -The (3S,7S) and (3S,7S,15S) stereoisomers of 3,7-dimethyl-2-heptacosanone (1) and 3,7,15-trimethyl-2-heptacosanone (2), the ketones identified from the locust Schistocerca gregaria, were synthesized by employing (2R,6S)-7-acetoxy-2,6-dimethyl-1-heptanol (4) as the starting material.
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