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  • Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics  (2,025)
  • Physical Chemistry  (1,410)
  • Genetics  (1,108)
  • 1990-1994  (3,838)
  • 1970-1974  (705)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of pediatrics 153 (1994), S. 372-377 
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Epilepsy ; Absences ; Genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Clinical and EEG family data of 140 cases with early childhood epilepsy with absences are presented. The aim of the study was to evaluate, whether the occurrence of generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS) as a presenting symptom might correlate with family data, i.e. whether there are indications of heterogeneity. One hundred and forty cases were selected from the epilepsy family data base of the Neuropaediatric Department. The selection parameter was epilepsy with absences manifesting between the 1 st and 5th year of age. The incidence of seizures was evaluated in siblings, parents and parents' siblings. EEG records were available from 103 parents and 106 siblings. The analysis supports the assumption of heterogeneity within early childhood absence epilepsy. Parents and their sibs of cases manifesting with GTCS had seizures twice as often than parents and their sibs in the non-GTCS group. In the affected relatives of the GTCS group early onset GTCS prevailed, whereas in the relatives of the non-GTCS group absences were found more frequently. The EEG of relatives showed elevated incidences of spikes and waves and photosensitivity in both groups, indicating common genetic factors. In parents of the non-GTCS group, however, EEG pathology was significantly more frequent than in parents of the GTCS group. Comparing EEG pathology in parents with seizure risk in siblings, evidence for maternal preponderance in transmission of the seizure liability was found. Mothers' EEG seems to be the best predictor of the seizure risk in probands' siblings. Early childhood epilepsy with absences can be regarded as an intermediate type, showing overlap with early onset GTCS and myoclonic astatic epilepsy on the one side and with childhood absence epilepsy on the other.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Maize ; Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) ; Qualitative and quantitative inheritance ; Plant breeding ; Genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and one morphological marker were used to investigate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for morphological and physiological traits evaluated on 150 F2∶3 maize (Zea mays L.) lines derived from the cross of elite U.S. Corn Belt inbreds Mo17 and H99. F2∶3 lines were grown in a replicated experiment and evaluated for plant and ear heights and flowering traits. QTL were identified for each trait, and genetic effects were determined. Estimated gene action for the flowering traits was predominantly overdominance. Both parents contributed toward increased values for anthesis and silk emergence. QTL for increased plant and ear heights were usually contributed by the taller parent, Mo17. Estimated gene action for these traits was mainly partial to overdominance. QTL for plant height were located in the vicinity of loci defined by alleles with qualitative effects on plant height.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Breeding ; Helminthosporium turcicum ; RFLP ; QTLs ; Disease-resistance ; Genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract RFLPs were used to investigate components of host-plant response to Exserohilum turcicum in 150 unselected F2∶3 lines of a B52/Mo17 maize population. Following inoculation with spore suspensions of the pathogen (race 0), components of disease development were measured and then quantitative trait mapping was performed to identify the location and effects of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) determining host-plant response. Components of interest were the average number of lesions per leaf, the average percent leaf tissue diseased (severity) and the average size of lesions (cm2). Based on a LOD threshold of 2.31 (P〈0.05), the number of lesions appears to be associated with QTLs on chromosomes 1S, 3L, 5S. Severity was associated with analogous regions and, in addition, QTLs on chromosomes 7L and 8L. Most QTLs, for either of these two components, involve additive gene action and partial dominance or overdominance. In contrast, lesion size was associated with QTLs on chromosomes 7L and 5L; recessive gene action may be involved at 7L.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Potato breeding ; Potato leaf roll virus ; Virus resistance ; Major gene resistance ; Genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The concentration of potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), as measured by a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in the foliage of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) of cv ‘Maris Piper’ with secondary infection was 2900 ng/g leaf, whereas in clones G7445(1) and G7032(5) it was 180 ng/g leaf and 120 ng/g leaf, respectively. To examine the genetic control of resistance to PLRV multiplication, reciprocal crosses were made between the susceptible cultivar ‘Maris Piper’ and the two resistant clones, and the three parents were selfed. Seedling progenies of these families were grown to generate tubers of individual genotypes (clones). Clonally propagated plants were graft-inoculated, and their daughter tubers were collected and used to grow plants with secondary infection in which PLRV concentration was estimated. The expression of resistance to PLRV multiplication had a bimodal distribution in progenies from crosses between ‘Maris Piper’ and either resistant clone, and also in progeny from selfing the resistant parents, with genotypes segregating into high and low virus titre groups. Only the progeny obtained from selfing ‘Maris Piper’ did not segregate, all genotypes being susceptible to PLRV multiplication. The pattern of segregation obtained from these progenies fits more closely with the genetical hypothesis that resistance to PLRV multiplication is controlled by two unlinked dominant complementary genes, both of which are required for resistance, than with the simpler hypothesis that resistance is conferred by a single dominant gene, as published previously.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Genetics ; Rice ; Phosphorousefficiency ; Diallel analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The inheritance of phosphorous (P) — deficiency tolerance in rice was investigated by a sevenparent diallel. The parent materials involved were four P-efficient (IR20, IR54, IR28, and Mahsuri), one moderately P-efficient (TN1), and two P-inefficient (IR31406333-1 and IR34686-179-1-2-1), genotypes. Relative tilering ability (RTA) under P-deficient and P-supplemented soil conditions was the parameter used in determining the tolerance level of the different genotypes. Diallel graph analysis revealed that tolerant parents have an excess of recessive genes, while moderate and susceptible parents possess more dominant genes. Genetic-component analysis suggested that both additive and dominance gene effects are involved in the inheritance of P-deficiency tolerance in rice. The trait exhibited over doiminance as confirmed by the graphical analysis. Narrow-sense heritability of the trait was moderate (0.50) and environmental effects were low. Both the general combining ability (GCA) and the specific combining ability (SCA) were significant, but GCA was more prevalent than SCA. Tolerant parents exhibited a high GCA whereas susceptibles have a very poor GCA, suggesting that tolerant parents were mostly enriched in additive genes and susceptible parents in non-additive genes. Crosses involving two high general combiners showed low SCA effects whereas crosses between poor general combiners manifested highly-significant SCA values.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 89 (1994), S. 959-963 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Sugarcane ; Polyploidy ; Genetics ; Evolution ; Breeding ; DNA markers ; Arbitrarily primed PCR ; RAPD markers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Recent work has revealed random chromosome pairing and assortment in Saccharum spontaneum L., the most widely distributed, and morphologically and cytologically variable of the species of Saccharum. This conclusion was based on the analysis of a segregating population from across between S. spontaneum ‘SES 208’ and a spontaneously-doubled haploid of itself, derived from anther culture. To determine whether polysomic inheritance is common in Saccharum and whether it is observed in a typical biparental cross, we studied chromosome pairing and assortment in 44 progeny of a cross between euploid, meiotically regular, 2n=80 forms of Saccharum officinarum ‘LA Purple’ and Saccharum robustum ‘ Mol 5829’. Papuan 2n=80 forms of S. robustum have been suggested as the immediate progenitor species for cultivated sugarcane (S. officinarum). A total of 738 loci in LA Purple and 720 loci in Mol 5829 were amplified and typed in the progeny by arbitrarily primed PCR using 45 primers. Fifty and 33 single-dose polymorphisms were identified in the S. officinarum and S. robustum genomes, respectively (χ 2 at 98%). Linkage analysis of single-dose polymorphisms in both genomes revealed linkages in repulsion and coupling phases. In the S. officinarum genome, a map hypothesis gave 7 linkage groups with 17 linked and 33 unlinked markers. Four of 13 pairwise linkages were in repulsion phase and 9 were in coupling phase. In the S. robustum genome, a map hypothesis gave 5 linkage groups, defined by 12 markers, with 21 markers unlinked, and 2 of 9 pairwise linkages were in repulsion phase. Therefore, complete polysomic inheritance was not observed in either species, suggesting that chromosomal behavior is different from that observed by linkage analysis of over 500 markers in the S. spontaneum map. Implications of this finding for evolution and breeding are discussed.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Sexual plant reproduction 7 (1994), S. 290-296 
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Secale cereale ; Polyembryony ; Chromosome mosaics ; Rye ; Genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have obtained one plant regenerated from rye tissue culture which showed a high percentage of polyembryonic seeds in its progeny. The mutation inducing the development of extra embryos is also influencing erroneous cell division, mitosis and meiosis. The genetic analysis indicated that the aptitude for polyembryonic seed formation is a heritable trait controlled by a dominant gene. However, for expression of the phenotype the female parent should have a specific cytoplasm.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Genetics ; Disease resistance ; Monocots
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract An F2 oat population was produced by crossing the diploid (n=7) species Avena strigosa (CI 3815) with A. wiestii (CI 1994), resistant and susceptible, respectively, to 40 isolates of Puccinia coronata, the causal agent of crown rust. Eighty-eight F2 individuals were used to construct an RFLP linkage map representing the A genome of cultivated hexaploid oat. Two hundred and eight RFLP loci have been placed into 10 linkage groups. This map covers 2416 cM, with an average of 12 cM between RFLP loci. Eighty-eight F3 lines, derived from F2 individuals used to construct the map, were screened for resistance to 9 isolates of P. coronata. One locus, Pca, was found to confer a dominant resistance phenotype to isolates 203, 258, 263, 264B, 290, 298, 325A, and 345. Pca also conferred resistance to isolate 276; however, an unlinked second gene may also be involved.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ; Neuropathology ; Posterior column involvement ; Genetics ; Superoxide dismutase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Several missense mutations within exons 1, 2, 4 and 5 of the gene for Cu/Zn-binding superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been discovered to be involved in the development of chromosome 21q-linked familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). We describe here an autopsied patient with FALS, in whom we have recently identified a novel missense mutation in exon 1 of the SOD1 gene. The neuropathological findings were compatible with those described previously in patients with FALS with posterior column involvement. This suggests that mutations of the SOD1 gene may be responsible for this form of FALS.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words     Primitive neuroepithelial tumor ; Desmoplastic small cell tumor ; Brain tumor of infancy ; Immunocytochemistry ; Genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract      We describe a case of a desmoplastic brain tumor which was initially resected from the right fronto-temporal region in a 2 year-old boy. This nodular, calcified tumor was vascularized by the internal carotid artery and the middle meningeal artery branches. Grossly, it contained several mucoid cysts. Light microscopy showed cords or nests of small cuboidal cells surrounded by a loose connective tissue and desmoplasic areas containing fibers and spindle cells. The cuboidal cells expressed epithelial, neuronal and neuroendocrine markers. Some foci of spindle cells showed glial differentiation. The tumor recurred 16 months later and displayed some characteristics of the small cell neuroepithelial component, mitoses being conspicuous. Electron microscopy revealed undifferentiated clear cells, some containing neurosecretory granules. Karyotyping demonstrated the following formula: 〈 15 〉 46, t(8;11) (q13; q11). The chromosome 11 breakpoint was different from that described in Ewing's sarcoma. This isolated translocation has not been previously reported to our knowledge. These unusual features lead us to report this case and to discuss its pathogenesis.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Genetics ; haplotype ; HLA-A ; HLA-DQ ; HLA-DR ; tumour necrosis factor ; diabetes mellitus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In Finland the haplotype A2, Cw1, B56, DR4, DQ8 is the third most common haplotype in insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients and has the highest haplotype-specific absolute risk for IDDM. Cw1, B56, DR4, DQ8 haplotypes containing HLA-A alleles other than A2 are infrequent in the population and are not associated with IDDM. Comparison of the A2 and non-A2 haplotypes at the DNA level showed that they were identical at HLA-B,-DR, and -DQ loci. Evidence that class I alleles confer susceptibility to IDDM was obtained from the two HLA-C, -B, -DR and -DQ haplotypes most frequently found in IDDM patients in Finland. A24, A3 and A2 on the Cw3, B62, DR4, DQ8 haplotype, and A28, A2 and A1 on the Cw7, B8, DR3, DQ2 were all found to be associated with IDDM. In Finland these seven haplotypes, including A2, Cw1, B56, DR4, DQ8, account for 33% of diabetic haplotypes and 10.3% of non-diabetic haplotypes (p〈0.00001). The contribution of the class I region to IDDM susceptibility was also apparent in those IDDM patients lacking the disease-predisposing class II alleles. Significantly more non-DR3/non-DR4 IDDM patients (47 of 55) possessed two of the IDDM-associated HLA-A alleles compared to non-DR3/non-DR4 control subjects (40 of 58; p=0.038). Moreover, IDDM patients confirmed by oligotyping as unable to form a ‘diabetes-susceptibility’ DQ heterodimer, tended to possess two diabetes-associated HLA-A alleles (12 of 13) compared to control subjects (12 of 20; p=0.056).
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Genetics ; ecology ; DNA-transfer ; conjugation ; transformation ; transduction ; transposons ; dormant cells ; epilithon ; microbial colonisation ; symbiosis ; virus resistance ; biosafety ; release of genes ; insults to humanity ; evolution ; biodiversity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Genetic ecology is the extension of our modern knowledge in molecular genetics to studies of viability, gene expression and gene movements in natural environments like soils, aquifers and digestive tracts. In such milieux, the horizontal transfer of plasmid-borne genes between phylogenetically distant species has already been found to be much more frequent than had been expected from laboratory experience. For the study of exchanges involving chromosomally-located genes, more has to be learned about the behaviour of transposons in such environments. The results expected from studies in genetic ecology are relevant for considerations of evolution, biodiversity and biosafety. The role of this new field of research in restoring popular confidence in science and in its biotechnological applications is stressed.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1423-0127
    Keywords: Hypertension ; Eicosanoid ; Rat ; Genetics ; Kidney
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The present paper reviews the evidence for a possible involvement of renal eicosanoids in the pathophysiology of high blood pressure in genetically hypertensive rats of the Lyon strain. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments suggest that an increased ability to synthesize the vasoconstrictor prostaglandin H2 and/or thromboxane A2 in renal vessels (1) acts as an autocrine amplifier of pressor agents and (2) may contribute to resetting the pressure natriuresis curve which is a prerequisite for the development and maintenance of hypertension.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Genetics ; diabetes mellitus ; mitochondria ; maternal ; deafness
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) has a strong genetic component and maternal factors have recently been implicated in disease inheritance. The mitochondrial myopathies are a group of diseases which often show maternal inheritance as a result of mtDNA defects; some patients have impaired glucose tolerance. Occasional families with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness associated with a deletion or point mutation of mtDNA have been reported. To assess the importance of mitochondrial gene defects in NIDDM, 150 unrelated diabetic subjects from Wales, UK and 68 unrelated patients with diabetes and at least one affected sibling from England, UK were studied. Southern blot analysis did not show any large mtDNA deletions or duplications. One patient had a mutation in the mitochondrial tRNAleu(UUR) gene at bp 3243. This mutation is commonly associated with the syndrome of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke like episodes (MELAS). Study of this patient and his siblings showed a distinct form of late-onset diabetes associated with nerve deafness but no clinical features of the MELAS syndrome. No diabetic subject was shown to have the mtDNA mutation at position 8344 (tRNAlys) which has previously been described in the syndrome of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and red-ragged fibres (MERRF). The role of other mitochondrial gene defects in diabetes and the pathophysiological basis of glucose intolerance in patients with the MELAS mutation requires further elucidation.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ; Neuropathology ; Posterior column involvement ; Genetics ; Superoxide dismutase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Several missense mutations within exons 1, 2, 4 and 5 of the gene for Cu/Zn-binding superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been discovered to be involved in the development of chromosome 21q-linked familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). We describe here an autopsied patient with FALS, in whom we have recently identified a novel missense mutation in exon 1 of the SOD1 gene. The neuropathological findings were compatible with those described previously in patients with FALS with posterior column involvement. This suggests that mutations of the SOD1 gene may be responsible for this form of FALS.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Parity ; Genetics ; Diathesis-stress model
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract As part of a follow-up and family study of post-partum psychoses, this episode of illness being the first leading to psychiatric hospitalisation, patients with puerperal episodes (PE) and nonpuerperal episodes (NPE) of illness in the long-term course (n=79) were compared to patients with PE only (n=40). Few differences were found. Relatives of patients with PE only had a lower morbidity risk for functional psychoses than relatives of patients with PE and NPE. A favourable course of illness in the presence of a low genetic predisposition may be expected, according to the diathesis-stress model of functional psychoses.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Gene regulation ; Ribozyme ; npt-gene ; Transgenic tobacco ; Genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A chimeric gene encoding a ribozyme under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter was introduced into transgenic tobacco plants. In vivo activity of this ribozyme, which was designed to cleave npt mRNA, was previously demonstrated by transient expression assays in plant protoplasts. The ribozyme gene was transferred into transgenic tobacco plants expressing an rbcS-npt chimeric gene as an indicator. Five double transformants out of sixteen exhibited a reduction in the amount of active NPT enzyme. To measure the amount of ribozyme produced, in the absence of its target, the ribozyme and target genes were separated by genetic segregation. The steady-state concentrations of ribozyme and target RNA were shown to be similar in the resulting single transformants. Direct evidence for a correlation between reduced npt gene expression and ribozyme expression was provided by crossing a plant containing only the ribozyme gene with a transgenic plant expressing the npt gene under control of the 35S promoter, i.e. the same promoter used to direct ribozyme expression. The expression of npt was reduced in all progeny containing both transgenes. Both steady-state levels of npt mRNA and amounts of active NPT enzyme are decreased. In addition, our data indicate that, at least in stable transformants, a large excess of ribozyme over target is not a prerequisite for achieving a significant reduction in target gene expression.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Semi-empirical (AM1) calculations on the 12 isomeric products and the corresponding transition states of ketene-1-azabutadiene [4 + 2] and [2 + 2] cycloaddition reactions as a model system for the reaction of ketenes with 4-iminobenzylfuran-2,3-diones are presented. A [4 + 2] type of reaction of the ketene C=C double bond leading to a six-membered lactam compound is found to be highly favoured both thermodynamically and kinetically. [2 + 2] Cycloadducts generally have significantly higher activation energies. Reactions involving the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond proceed in most cases via attack of the nitrogen lone pair leading to a zwitterionic intermediate. Depending on the respective cycloadduct, both two-step and concerted, albeit asynchronous, processes were obtained. Based on the structures of the various transition states, some predictions with respect to substituent effects are made. Similarities to and differences from the analogous reaction of ketenimines with oxa-1,3-dienes are discussed.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Reaction of aryliminodimagnesium [ArN(MgBr)2, IDMg] with nitrobenzene (Ar1NO2) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) gives unsymmetrical (unsym) azoxybenzene, which is deoxygenated to give unsym-azobenzene. The reaction is utilized for the independent preparation of ONN and NNO isomers of unsym-azoxy compounds. The effects of the relative value of the difference between oxidation and reduction potentials of para-substituted reactants, special effects of ortho-substituents of the substrate and also effects of structure and concentration of mono- and bis-IDMg reagents were studied previously, and ‘cooperation of their aggregate excess needed for product formation’ was proposed. This unfamiliar concept for reactions of magnesium reagents was studied further. Supporting evidence was obtained from the retarding effect of trimethylene chains of nitro [3.3] metacyclophanes and the derived azoxy [3.3] metacyclophanes and also from the effect of the length of bis-IDMg's central α,ω-polymethylenedioxy chain appropriate for azoxy deoxygenation. By comparison with deoxygenation by X3P reagents (X = EtO, Me2N), the general needs of cooperation of excess magnesium reagents were confirmed and its role in their reactions is discussed.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The magnitude ρx(ρnuc) is shown to decrease with increase in the extent of bond making estimated by the kinetic isotope effect for the reactions of Y-benzoyl chlorides with anilines, XC6H4NH2, in acetonitrile at 25·0°C.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The role of orbital control in product selectivity during electrophilic aromatic alkylation catalysed by zeolites was studied both theoretically and experimentally. In order to discuss this, the alkylation of toluene and m-xylene by methanol was carried out on a series of large-pore zeolites (HY). The changes in the para to ortho ratio observed on changing the framework Si/Al ratio of the zeolites were related to ab initio molecular orbital calculations of the LUMO energy of structurally alike model clusters but containing different tetrahedral cations around the active site. The observed correlation is discussed in terms of the HSAB principle by taking into account the influence of the catalyst composition on the reactivity of the electrophilic reagent.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: N-Substituted carbonimidodithioic acid dimethyl esters, when reacted with an active methylene compound such as nitromethane, undergo carbon-carbon bond formation followed by carbon-sulphur bond cleavage in the presence of zeolite catalysts to give 1-substituted amino-1-methylthio-2-nitroethenes. This carbon-sulphur bond cleavage is facilitated by the presence of rare earth cations in the zeolite-Y framework. The shape selectivity of the zeolite also plays an important role in this cleavage reaction. Force field calculations adopted for the molecules involved in the reaction indicate the geometry and conformational flexibility of these molecules. The computer-simulated model for the zeolite-Y is correlated with the conformation and shape of the reactant and product molecules to explain the variation in yields obtained in the conversion of substituted dimethyl esters.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The effects of the concentrations of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CsCl, Na2CO3 and BaCl2 on the rates of reactions of hydroxide ion with ionized N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHP-) at 30°C and in H2O-MeCN solvents containing 10, 50, 60, 66, 70, 76 and 80% (v/v) MeCN reveal the formation of ion-pair complexes between cations of the salts, which probably exist in solvent-separated loose ion-pair forms (Mn+⃛Xk-) and NHP-. An increase in MeCN content from 2 to 76% (v/v) causes an increase in the association constants (K) by factors of 40, 21 and 9 for LiCl, NaCl and KCl, respectively, while the respective increase in the rate constants (k′s1) for the collapse of the ion-pair complexes to product is ca two-fold. The values of k′s1 remain almost unchanged whereas the values of K increase 7·5-fold with an increase in MeCN content from 2 to 70% (v/v) for CsCl. Ion-pair complex formation was not detected in the presence of Me4NCl at 70% (v/v) MeCN. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constants are highly sensitive to the valence state of cations and almost insensitive to the valence state of the anions of the salts.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The rates and products of solvolyses of 4-methylene-2ax- and -2eq-adamantyl p-toluenesulphonates (tosylates) (4a-OTs and 4e-OTs, respectively) were studied. Compound 4a-OTs solvolysed more slowly than 2-adamantyl tosylate (1) in methanol and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) by factors of 2·3 and 2·5, respectively, at 25°C. However, by taking the inductive decelerating effect of a β-methylene substituent into account, the rates were revealed to be enhanced by α-participation by a factor of 50. The products of solvolyses of 4a-OTs in methanol, 80% acetone and TFE at 100°C were 2ax- and 2eq-alkoxy(or hydroxy)-4-methyleneadamantanes (4a-OR and 4e-OR, respectively), exo-4-alkoxy(or hydroxy)-5-methyleneprotoadamantane (exo-5-OR) and 5-[alkoxy(or hydroxy)methyl]-4-protoadamantene (6-OR) with adamantyl to protoadamantyl product ratio of 39:61 (in methanol), 56:44 (in 80% acetone) and 71:29 (in TFE). Despite the nearly symmetric nature of the intermediate cation, the 4a-OR: 4e-OR product ratio was essentially constant with 83:17 (in methanol), 85:15 (in 80% acetone) and 82:18 (in TFE). The formation of considerable amounts of 4e-OR was interpreted as showing the intermediacy of a pair of rapidly equilibrating classical ions. The rates of 4e-OTs were 2300-4300 times faster than those expected from inductive electron-withdrawing effect of a β-methylene substituent. The major product (84·5% in methanolysis and 98·7% in trifluoroethanolysis) was 4e-OR accompanied by small amounts of 2-alkoxy-2,4-methanoadamantane (9-OR) and 2-(alkoxymethyl)-2,4-didehydroadamantane (10-OR), no formation of 4a-OR having been observed. These results suggested that 4e-OTs solvolyses via a π-bridged intermediate cation.
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  • 25
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Molecular mechanics (MM3) calculations were carried out on the title compounds. Comparison between the MM3 results and those of semi-empirical and ab initio calculations and experiment indicates that the MM3 results are at least as good as results of much more expensive calculations. The MM3 calculations predict that unlike corannulene and cyclopentacorannulene, the transition state of the bowl-to-bowl inversion of the related C30H10 is non-planar, and the activation barrier is too high for this motion to occur.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Reactions of benzo-, naphtho- and anthraquinone derivatives (unsubstituted and substituted) with aryliminodimagnesium [ArN(MgBr)2] and aryloxymagnesium of a weak electron-donating ability were studied. In addition to the reduction products (quinhydrones and hydroquinones), nuclear substitution and condensation products were formed. The efficiency of single electron transfer (SET) from ArN(MgBr)2, evaluated by the relative values of the difference between the oxidation and reduction potentials of the reactants (ΔE = Eox - Ered), varies with the electron-accepting power of quinones. ΔE governs the modes of semiquinone appearance (ESR signals) and the relative amounts of the heat of reactions, reflecting the types and yields of the products. It is concluded that condensation products of both components are produced in the reactions of quinones with the lower SET efficiency by the presence of a fused benzene ring or MeO substituent. The structure-reactivity relationship proposed previously for reactions of various magnesium reagents is extended in the reactions with a variety of quinones even in cases of higher SET efficiency.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The low temperature 1H NMR spectra of 2,2-bis(3,5-dibromomesityl)ethenol in CS2-CD2Cl2 (3:7) display new signals which indicate the presence of four enol species whose OH is hydrogen bonded. Oligomerization to intermolecularly hydrogen-bonded enol dimers or tetramers is suggested.
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  • 29
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Measurements of absorption and emission spectra, fluorescence quantum yields (Φf) and lifetimes (τf) of ω-(1-pyrenyl)alkyl para-substituted benzoates PnX (X = H, Cl, CF3, CN, NO2, with n = 1-4) were carried out in solvents of various polarity. Intramolecular interaction in the ground state is not observed in any of these compounds. PnCN (n = 2-4) shows an intramolecular exciplex emission in solvents of low to high polarity. The broad, structureless emission at longer wavelength observed in ethyl acetate solution of P1CN is ascribed to an ‘exciplex-type’ emission which does not require actual overlapping of the two chromophores. P2CF3 also shows an exciplex emission in solvents of medium to high polarity. The solvent dependence of both Φf and τf increases as the electron-withdrawing ability of the para-sustituents increases. The relationship between fluorescence quenching by electron transfer and para-substituent of PnX is discussed by means of the free energy for electron transfer, ΔGET, obtained from the oxidation and reduction potentials of pyrene and methyl para-substituted benzoates in acetonitrile, respectively. PnH, with positive ΔGET, does not show a solvent dependence of Φf, except for P1H, in which ca 40% of the fluorescence is quenched in acetonitrile. PnCl, with slightly negative ΔGET, shows more efficient quenching, but does not show exciplex emission. PnCN, PnCF3 and PnNO2 have ΔGET values between -0·36 and -0·65 eV, and their fluorescence is fairly efficiently quenched. The fluorescence of PnCN is concluded to be strongly quenched by intersystem crossing from the singlet exciplex to the locally excited pyrene, and by electron transfer from the pyrene part to the benzoate part. That the formation of a singlet exciplex is necessary for intersystem crossing in bichromophoric compounds containing pyrene is thus clearly illustrated.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The evidence for the mechanisms proposed for aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions by primary and secondary amines in aprotic solvents of low relative permittivity is reviewed.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: A rigorous procedure was developed for measuring the relative rates of addition of bromine atoms to eleven substituted α-methylstyrenes (1-Y, with Y = CF3, NO2, F, CN, Cl, Br, CO2Me, Me, COMe, OMe and SMe). The reaction was run in tetrahydrofuran in the presence of HBr, O2 and dibutyl peroxyoxalate at 30°C. All products were derived from the YC6H4CMeCH2Br adduct radicals, which were immediately intercepted by O2. Correlation analysis of all the data confirmed the proposition that in the absence of measurable steric effects, the relative rates for radical additions can be correlated only by a dual-parameter equation and not by a single-parameter equation. Among various combinations of σ* and σx, the (σJJ* + σmb) combination yields the best correlation.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Protonation of tetrafluoro-2,11-dithia [3·3]paracyclophane and tetrafluoro-2,11-dithia [3·3]metaparacyclophane in high-acidity super acid media, namely FSO3H.SbF5 (1:1) ‘magic acid’-SO2CIF, gave their corresponding acidic disulfonium ions. Additional ring protonation to give a disulfonium-monoarenium trication was not observed. With the non-fluorinated 2,11-dithia [3·3] cyclophanes, the disulfonium ions can be ring protonated in equilibrium to give a dynamic disulfonium-monoarenium trication. Tetrafluoro [2·2]-metaparacyclophane is monoprotonated at the meta ring and gives a complex mixture of conformational isomers. Multinuclear magnetic resonance data on the cyclophane precursors and their derived cations are compared and analysed. The energies, conformations and charge distributions of the isometric fluorinated and non-fluorinated [2·2] - and dithia [3·3] cyclophanes were calculated by the AM1 and PM3 methods, respectively. In all but one case the cyclophane arenium ions predicted by theory to be energetically most favoured are those observed in solution under stable ion conditions. In agreement with experiment, the instabilities of S,S,C-cyclophane trications are also theoretically predicted.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Ionization constants for 214 dye molecules were calculated from molecular structures using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry). These models used fundamental chemical structure theory to predict chemical reactivities for a wide range of organic molecules from molecular structure. The energy differences between the protonated state and the unprotonated state for a molecule of interest are factored into mechanistic components including the electrostatic and resonance contributions and any additional contributions to these energy differences. The RMS deviation was found to be less than 0·62 pKa units, which is similar to the experimental error.
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  • 35
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    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 169-169 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Solvent effects on the absorption spectra of N-(p-nitrophenyl)dimethylenediamine (Ia), N-(p-nitrophenyl)trimethylenediamine (Ib), N-(p-nitrophenyl)tetramethylenediamine (Ic). N-methyl-N-(p-nitrophenyl)tetramethylenediamine (II), N-butyl-p-nitroaniline (III) and N-(o-nitrophenyl)trimethylenediamine (IV) were studied at different temperatures. Whereas II, III and IV do not show any variation in their spectra characteristics with changes in temperature, I shows a hypsochromic shift with a hypochromic effect when the temperature is increased. The Kamlet and Taft solvatochromic comparison method was applied. A strong effect of the β parameter on I and III was interpreted as being due to the hydrogen bond donor ability of the H atom in the aromatic amino groups. In I, the β influence increases with increase in temperature. These facts are explained by proposing the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds between amine groups in all compounds I, besides the intermolecular interactions between compounds I and the solvent. On the other hand, the values of vo, s and b for Ib are smaller than the corresponding values for Ia and Ic. Since in Ib a six-membered ring may be formed, a more stable bond is expected. Comparative 1H NMR of the aniline hydrogen for I and IV (in non-hydrogen bond acceptor solvents) shows a particular downfield chemical shift for I which suggests hydrogen bond formation. Since this effect is independent of concentration, the hydrogen bond is assumed to be intramolecular, in agreement with solvatochromic and thermochromic studies. These conclusions were corroborated by IR spectroscopy in the solid state and in chloroform solutions.
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  • 37
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The secondary α-deuterium isotpe effect on the equiliburium constant (KD/KH) for the hydration of p-nitrobenzaldehyde is 1·39 ± 0·05. The Kinetic secondary α-deuterium isotope effect (KD/KH) for the addition of water to p-nitrobenzaldehyde is 1·18 ± 0·07. This result demonstrates that there is extensive carbon-oxygen bond formation in the transition state for addition of water to the carbonyl group of p-nitrobezaldehyde.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The rate of the reaction of 2-chloroquinoxaline with piperidine in dimethyl sulphoxide was measured over a wide range of amine concentrations and at several temperatures. It was found that the order with respect to the nucleophile is close to 1 between 300 and 320 K, but is definitely less at lower and higher temperature. It is suggested that below 300 K an unreactive charge-transfer complex is formed between the reactants which dissociates at higher temperatures, whereas at temperatures higher than 320 K an unproductive σ complex is formed, the concentration of which increases with increase in temperature.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The enthalpic contribution to the anomeric effect in r-2-carboethoxy-trans-4,trans-6- and r-2-carboethoxy-cis-4,cis-6-dimethyl-1,3-dithianes was determined by reaction-solution calorimetry. The enthalpy of solution of both isomers in pure p-dioxane and the enthalpy of solution and isomerization in the same solvent and in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid were experimentally measured. From these results the corresponding enthalpies of isomerization in solution were calculated, and were found to be ΔHax→eq = -0·16 ± 0·04 kcal mol-1 (-0·67 ± 0·18 kJ mol-1) and ΔSax→eq = -2·68 ± 0·1 cal K-1 mol-1 (-11·2 ± 0·4 J K-1 mol-1). The slightly negative ΔH term nevertheless reflects a substantial anomeric effect owing to the countervailing steric effects in the axial isomer. The significant entropy loss in the equatorial isomer was explained in terms of intramolecular electrostatic effects. The results are in agreement with those obtained from NMR studies of the conformational behaviour of 2-carboethoxy-5-methyl-5-aza-1,3-dithiacyclohexane.
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  • 41
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    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 591-609 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The MM3 molecular mechanics program calculates a fair representation of hydrogen bonding interactions, but to improve the MM3 hydrogen bond potential, a directional term has been added to the hydrogen bonding function. The resulting total function was reoptimized. Comparisons of the hydrogen bonding potential functions from ab initio, the original MM3, the current MM3(92) force field and the reoptimized MM3 force field MM3(94) for a variety of C,N,O systems are described.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The title sulphenamides were pyrolysed in a stirred-flow reactor at temperatures of 310-410°C, pressures of 8-15 Torr and residence times of 0·4-2 s using toluene as the carrier gas. N-(tert-Butylthio)allylamine formed 73 ± 4% isobutene, 23 ± 3% propene and N-allylthiohydroxylamine. The first-order rate coefficients for the formation of isobutene and propene, respectively, followed the Arrhenius equations kC4(s-1) = 1012·52 ± 0·36 exp(-163 ± 5 kJ mol-1 RT) and kC3(s-1) = 1010·99 ± 0·29 exp(-151 ± 4 kJ mol-1 RT) N-(tert-Butylthio)diethylamine gave 97 ± 1% isobutene, 1·9 ± 0·4% isobutane and N,N-diethylthiohydroxylamine. The first-order rate coefficients for isobutene elimination followed the Arrhenius equation k(s-1) = 1013·45 ± 0·24 exp(-164 ± 3 kJ mol-1 RT). The formation of the products is interpreted in terms of an elimination reaction with a unimolecular, four-centered, cyclic transition state. The reactivity of these sulphenamides was found to be much higher than that of previously studied alkyl or aryl tert-butyl sulphides and disulphides.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The aromatic odd-alternant phenalenyl anion and a number of its derivatives were prepared in order to study the perturbation of this conjugated anion by methyl and methoxy groups. The conjugated anions were studied by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectrometry, alkylation experiments and semi-empirical calculations. It was found that a substituent at a charged carbon atom perturbs the entire conjugated system, whereas substituents at inactive (uncharged) carbon atoms have a large effect on the positions ortho to the substituent.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The spontaneous hydrolysis of p-nitrobenzyl cellulose xanthate (CelXNB) with a degree of substitution (DS) in the range 2-9 was studied in 10% aqueous ethanol at pH 10, and was followed spectrophotometrically by the appearance of p-nitro-α-toluenethiol, in a continuous-flow system where the reactor was shaken. CelXNB was characterized by solid-state 13C NMR spectra. The reaction occurs through two parallel processes due to two xanthate ester groups with different reactivities. The fast hydrolysis was ascribed to the reaction of the C-2 + C-3 isomers, whereas the slow hydrolysis was due to the C-6 isomer. The percentage of the latter is much higher than C-2 + C-3. The solvent isotope effect of the fast hydrolysis (k′H2O/)k′H2D 11 was 2·22 ± 0·16 and the proton inventory indicated that there is only one proton transfer involved in the transition state, where a second water (or a neighbouring OH group) acts as a general base. The entropy of activation of the fast hydrolysis was only 3·3 ± 0·8 e.u., suggesting that the water molecules involved are highly oriented with respect to the coordinates required to reach the transition state. It is proposed that they form part of the three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded ice-like structure that involves the cellulose matrix.
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  • 45
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    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 316-322 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Rates of hydrolysis of the vinyl ether functional groups of (Z)- and (E)-β-methoxyacrylic acid and (Z)-and (E)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid and their methyl esters were measured in aqueous perchloric acid solution. Additional rate measurements were also made for one substrate, (Z)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid, in buffer solutions down to pH 7, and a rate profile was constructed. The results show that the β-carboxy and β-carbomethoxy substituents produce strong rate retardations, ranging from 2000- to 25 000-fold, for both Z- and E-isomers in both the acrylic and methacrylic acid series. The rate profile for (Z)-β-methoxymethacrylic acid indicates that ionization of this substrate to the carboxylate ion form rises the rate of hydrolysis by a factor of 240. It is argued that this difference in reactivity of ionized and non-ionized forms of the substrate is due to conjugative and inductive effects of the substituents, rather than β-lactone formation as suggested in an earlier observation of the same phenomenon in a different system.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The stereochemistry and kinetics of the methoxide ion substitution reactions (Z)- and (E)-methylbenzohydroximoyl cyanidc [PhC(CN)=NOCH3] were investigated. The reaction of the (Z)-hydroximoyl cyanide with sodium methoxide in DMSO-methanol (9:1) solution at 44·8°C gives a mixture of methyl (Z)-O-methylbenzohydroximate [PhC(OCH3)=NOCH3] and the O-methyloxime of α-ketophenylacetamide PhC(CONH2)=NOCH3. The (E)-hydroximoyl cyanide undergoes methoxide ion-catalyzed isomerization to the E-isomer faster than it undergoes nucleophilic substitution. These observations were interpreted in terms of an addition-elimination mechanism in which the rate-limiting step is elimination of the nucleofuge (AN + DN#).
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  • 47
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    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 394-394 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The reaction of nitrosobenzene with aniline, to give azobenzene, in basic conditions was studied. It was shown that the reaction exhibits general base catalysis by different buffers giving a Brønsted coefficient β = 0·318. As in previous studies, a two-step process with a first step of attack of aniline on nitrosobenzene to give an addition intermediate and a second step of dehydration of this intermediate is proposed to interpret the mechanism of the reaction. The analysis of the Brønsted relationship and of the intermediate of the reaction led to the suggestion that hydoxide ion catalyses the reaction by a mechanism of general base catalysis in the dehydration step.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Imidazole (Imz)-catalysed hydrolysis of benzoate esters proceeds via the intermediate formation of N-benzoylimidazoles. This paper considers the second step of this reaction, viz., Imz-catalysed hydrolysis of N-(4-X-benzoyl)imidazoles, X = CH3, H, Cl, CN and NO2, and N-(disubstituted benzoyl)imidazoles, 2-chloro-4-nitro, 2, 4-dinitro and 3,5-dinitro, in water-acetonitrile mixtures (10% or 14%, v/v, in organic solvent). On the basis of catalytic rate constants and the kinetic solvent isotope effect, it is shown that catalysis by Imz is of the general-base type. Unexpectedly, the hydrolysis of N-(2,4-dinitrobenzoyl)imidazole was found to be slower than that of N-(4-nitrobenzoyl)imidazole. It is shown that this reactivity order is due to a combination of a steric effect and stabilization of the reactant state due to a donor-acceptor interaction between the Imz moiety and the 2,4-dinitrophenyl ring.
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  • 50
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    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The rates of the solvolysis of 3-R-4-homoadamantyl methanesulphonates (mesylates) (3) were determined in 80% aqueous ethanol. The relative first-order rate constants at 25 °C were 1·0 (R = H), 2·29 (R = Ph), 3·26 (R = p-anisyl), 73·6 (R = Me) and 209 (R = Et). The methanolysis of 3 gave rearranged methyl ethers and rearranged olefins as major products together with small amounts (0·9-3·4%) of unrearranged products. The order of the accelerating effect suggests that the transition states involve significant σ-participation, despite the fact that 3 (R = H) solvolyses via a classical ion intermediate. The logarithms of the solvolysis rate constants of 3 showed linear correlations with those of 1-R-2-adamantyl tosylates (1) and 1-R-exo-2-norbornyl tosylates (2), indicating that the linear free-energy relationship between the β-substituent effects on the solvolysis rate is not a definite measure to distinguish between classical and non-classical intermediates.
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  • 52
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    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 518-524 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The kinetics of the nucleophilic cleavage of phthalimide (PTH) in buffer solutions of ammonia and pyrrolidine were determined. The reaction rates for ammonolysis of PTH revealed a buffer-catalysed second-order term in the rate law, but the reaction rates for pyrrolidinolysis of PTH showed buffer-catalysed second- and third-order terms in the rate law. Both ammonia and pyrrolidine revealed nucleophilic reactivity towards ionized PTH (S-) only within the pH range of the present study. This is attributed to the occurrence of intramolecular general base-acid catalysis. General base catalysis is detected in the reactions of pyrrolidine with both non-ionized PTH (SH) and S-. The general base-catalysed third-order rate constant for pyrrolidinolysis of SH is nearly 28 times larger than that of S-.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The bisporphyria N,N′-bis[4″-(meso-triphenylporphyrinyl)benzyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 and its mono- and dizinc derivatives were synthesized in 66%, 46% and 53% yields, respectively, from 5-(4′-bromomethylphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin or its zinc derivative and 4,13-diaza-18-crown-6. The zinc-containing bisporphyrins form dimers in solution at low temperature or at high concentration. The unsymmetrical bisporphyrin; monozinc N,N′-bis[4″-(meso-triphenylporphyrinyl)benzyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 shows singlet-singlet energy transfer from the zinc porphyrin moiety to the free base moiety in both the monomeric and the dimeric form. The energy transfer rates were determined using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and were found to be 1·26 × 109 and 2·29 × 109 s-1 for the monomeric and dimeric form, respectively. The difference in energy transfer rates between the two forms can be rationalized by the difference in overlap between the donor fluorescence spectrum and acceptor absorption spectrum, donor-acceptor distance and donor-acceptor orientation.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: In constrast with recent molecular orbital calculations on the decarboxylation of O-protonated 2-oxetanone, this experimental work indicates that no decarboxylation of this cation occurs in sulphuric acid solution up to 150°C, but instead a clean isomerization to protonated acrylic acid takes place. Parallel theoretical work shows that the gas-phase model is too crude to account successfully for the experimental facts obtained in acidic media. However, the latter are well reproduced when the effect of the solvent is taken into account. The present findings do not necessarily invalidate the reaction mechanism currently accepted to explain the rate enhancement and change of stereochemistry accompanying the decarboxylation of 3,4-disubstituted 2-oxetanones under acid catalysis.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The 15N chemical shifts of various m- and p-substituted anilides and related derivatives, ZNHC6H4Y [Z = C6H5CO, CH3CO, CF3CO, CH3SO2, (C6H5O)2PO and H], were correlated with σ- constants. With all series of anilides investigated, the plotted points for the m- and p-substituted derivatives tend to be separated from each other and to lie on two different regression lines. Reinvestigation from this point of view revealed that similar separations occur generally with substituted aniline derivatives. The anomalous polar substituent effect was ascribed to the very large contribution of a resonance effect. In addition, the local π-polarization effect causes a negative slope for the m-substituted series in the case of carboxylic anilides.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Cubane diester crown ethers were tested as ion-selective electrodes in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membranes. The four ionophores studied proved to be good K+ neutral carriers, showing Nernstian and near-Nernstian responses to this ion, in the range 10-4-10-1 M. The fixed interferences method was used to determine relative selectivity coefficients for all the electrodes. The highest selectivity for potassium relative to sodium, lithium, calcium and magnesium ions using potassium tetrakis(p-chlorophenyl)borate (KTpClPB) as a resistance modifier and NPOE as a plasticizer was obtained with the 1,4-cubyl diester-25-crown-7 ether ionophore. The effects of KTpCIPB on membrane selectivity were assessed; its removal was found to increase the selectivity of the four ionophores for potassium relative to cesium, sodium, calcium and magnesium ions with minimal effects on lithium and ammonium ions. The compounds tested exhibited a fast Nernstian response to changes in K+ concentration which was stable to within 〈100 μV h-1.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 57
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Calculations were carried out to study the validity of σ-scales for hydrogen abstraction from substituted toluenes by tert-butyl, tert-butoxyl and tert-butylperoxyl radicals. Rate constants were compiled and evaluated from the literature for meta- and/or para-substituted toluenes. The substituents were characterized by factored ionic sigmas (σI, σR, σR+), ionic scales (σ, σ+) and various radical sigmas (σσ). The dependence of log k values on these substituent descriptors was investigated using ‘stepwise linear regression’ and ‘all possible regression’ methods. The following predictive equations can be recommended: for tert-butyl radicals, at 321 K: \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$\begin{array}{*{20}c} {\log \,k_1 \, = \,1.024\, + \,0.776\,\sigma _1 \, + \,0.653\,\sigma _{\mathop C\limits^. }} \quad {(R\, = \,0.8137)} \end{array}$$\end{document} for tert-butoxyl radicals, at 313 K: \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$\begin{array}{*{20}c} {\log k_2 = 5.529 - 0.623\sigma ^ +} \quad {(R = 0.9376)} \end{array}$$\end{document} and for tert-butylperoxyl radicals, at 303 K: \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$\begin{array}{*{20}c} {\log k_3 = - 1.410 - 0.810\sigma + 0.337\sigma _{\mathop C\limits^. } } \quad {(R = 0.9628)}\end{array}$$\end{document} The results suggest that there is no unversal radical scale for hydrogen abstraction reactions, that the rate is primarily influenced by polar factors (inductive, resonance) and that only two radical scales (σĊ and σα·) are appropriate, showing a small, yet significant, role of radical stabilization.
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Nucleophilic substitution reactions of benzoic anhydrides, in which one of the rings is substituted, with anilines were investigated in methanol. The product-formation step coincides with the rate-limiting step so that the two rate constants, kXZ and kXZ, for the competitive reaction pathways can be dissected. The two cross-interaction constants, ρXY and ρXY, especially an unusually large magnitude of the latter, indicate that the reaction proceeds by a frontside SN2 attack on either one of the caronyl carbon with a strong interaction between the nucleophile (X) and the leaving group (Z). The mechanism is also supposed by the trends in the activation parameters.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 60
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry 7 (1994), S. 323-323 
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 61
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Nucleophilic substitution reactions of 1-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl arenesulphonates with anilines and benzylamines in acetonitrile and methanol at 65·0°C were studied. The cross-interaction constants, ρXZ, between substituents in the nucleophile (X) and leaving group (Z) are relatively small (0·10 for XC6H4NH2 in MeCN) but similar to those for other SN2 processes at a secondary carbon atom. This provides further evidence for an approximately constant, loose SN2 transition state at a secondary carbon regardless of the size of the Cα substituent. The transition-state variations with substituents X and Z are in accord with that expected from the positive ρXZ value observed: a stronger nucleophile and/or nucleofuge leads to an earlier transition state, i.e. a lower degree of bond making and breaking.
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  • 63
    ISSN: 0894-3230
    Keywords: Organic Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Substrate and positional selectivity in the nitration reactions of benzene and its derivatives (halobenzenes, toluene and o-xylene) by nitric acid and acyl nitrates supported on zeolites H-Y and H-ZSM-11 were studied. The reaction mechanism and effects governing selectivity of the process are discussed.
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