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  • Genetics  (222)
  • 1990-1994  (222)
  • 1985-1989
  • 1970-1974
  • 1992  (222)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of pediatrics 151 (1992), S. 837-841 
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Frontonasal dysplasia ; Craniosynostosis ; Genetics ; X chromosome ; Psychomotor development
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We report on nine patients with craniofrontonasal dysplasia (CFND). Seven classical cases had facial features suggestive of frontonasal dysplasia and coronal craniosynostosis. Extracranial abnormalities such as brittle nails with prominent longitudinal grooves or syndactyly of fingers and toes were observed in individual patients. In two families the father of classical cases showed a milder pattern of abnormalities, consistent with the diagnosis. We present a 2- to 13-year follow-up on our patients. Hypotonia and laxity of joints are common and may necessitate supportive measures. Mild developmental delay was noted in three out of six classical cases studied in detail. Unlike almost all other X-linked disorders, clinical expression in CFND is generally much more severe in females than in males. In contrast to previous reports of this condition, one of our severely affected cases is a male.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-5233
    Keywords: Erythrocyte ; Genetics ; Renal function ; Sodium transport systems
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Studies of kidney cross-transplantation in the Milan hypertensive strain of rats (MHS) and in its control strain (MNS) have demonstrated that the kidney has a causal role in the development of hypertension in this animal model. The same result was obtained in two other strains of rats with genetic hypertension. Patients receiving a kidney from a donor with hypertensive parents require more antihypertensive therapy than recipients of a kidney from a donor with a normotensive family. When MHS rats and a subset of patients with primary hypertension were compared with their appropriate controls, similar changes in kidney function and Na−K−Cl cotransport were observed. Offspring of hypertensive parents exhibit altered kidney function compared with their controls. Na−K−Cl co-transport in MHS rats is genetically determined and genetically associated with hypertension. In MHS rats the increase in Na−K−Cl co-transport seems to be linked to a cytoskeletal protein, adducin. In conclusion, a consistent sequence of events from a protein abnormality to cell and renal dysfunction may be proposed as being responsible for hypertension.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-5233
    Keywords: Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; Genetics ; Polymorphisms ; GLUT 4 ; GLUT 1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Glucose transporter genes have been proposed as candidate genes for type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. We chose to study the adult skeletal muscle glucose transporter gene (GLUT 4) andGLUT 1 in consideration of previous conflicting results obtained by different authors. We studied 68 patients with type 2 diabetes, and 66 non-diabetic controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Women and men were considered separately, according to BMI (≤24.0 and 〉24.0 for women; ≤25.0 and 〉25.0 for men). Allele and genotype frequencies were not significantly different in controls and in type 2 diabetic patients. ForGLUT 1 allele 1 and genotype x1x1 were more frequent, although not significantly (P=0.064 at χ2,P=0.025 at Fisher exact test) in overweight/obese diabetic women than in overweight/obese non-diabetic women. These data do not support the hypothesis that these genes play a major role in genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus, but suggest a possible association, at least in women, of allele 1 ofGLUT 1 with obese type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Wheat ; Salinity ; Genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Accessions of Triticum tauschii (Coss.) Schmal. (D genome donor to hexaploid wheat) vary in salt tolerance and in the rate that Na+ accumulates in leaves. The aim of this study was to determine whether these differences in salt tolerance and leaf Na+ concentration would be expressed in hexaploid wheat. Synthetic hexaploids were produced from five T. tauschii accessions varying in salt tolerance and two salt-sensitive T. turgidum cultivars. The degree of salt tolerance of the hexaploids was evaluated as the grain yield per plant in 150 mol m-3 NaCl relative to grain yield in 1 mol m-3 NaCl (control). Sodium concentration in leaf 5 was measured after the leaf was fully expanded. The salt tolerance of the genotypes correlated negatively with the concentration of Na+ in leaf 5. The salt tolerance of the synthetic hexaploids was greater than the tetraploid parents primarily due to the maintenance of kernel weight under saline conditions. Synthetic hexaploids varied in salt tolerance with the source of their D genome which demonstrates that genes for salt tolerance from the diploid are expressed at the hexaploid level.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Genetics ; Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) ; diabetes mellitus ; insulin receptor ; glucose transporters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have recently examined the exons encoding the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain and GLUT 4 in 30 subjects with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus using a molecular scanning approach. The variant sequences Val-Met985 and Lys-Glu1068 of the insulin receptor and Val-Ile383 of GLUT 4 were each separately found in three different diabetic subjects. In a study of a Welsh population, the GLUT 4383 variant was found in three of 160 diabetic and none of the 80 control subjects. In this study, the same group of Welsh Type 2 diabetic and control subjects was analysed using allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridisation, single nucleotide primer extension and allele-specific restriction digestion to ascertain the frequency of the two insulin receptor mutations. The Val-Met985 mutation was found in none of the 160 Welsh Caucasian Type 2 diabetic subjects and two of 80 control subjects. The Lys-Glu1068 mutation removes a Sty 1 site and digestion of amplified exon 18 with Sty 1 confirmed the presence of this mutation in the heterozygous state in the original subject. None of the Welsh diabetic or control subjects had the Glu1068 mutation. The discovery of a very common silent polymorphism at codon 130 of GLUT 4 allowed examination of the association of this locus with Type 2 diabetes using allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridisation in a subset of the Welsh subjects. The genotypic frequencies (homozygous wild-type and heterzygous polymorphic (poly) sequences) were not significantly different between diabetic and control subjects (Type 2 diabetic subjects: wild-type/wild-type 40%, wild-type/poly 46%, poly/poly 14%; Control subjects: wild-type/wild-type 37%0, wild-type/poly 45 %, poly/poly 18 %;p 〉 0.05). In conclusion, in a British Caucasian population the examined insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain mutations are uncommon. Also the GLUT 4 locus does not appear to be strongly associated with Type 2 diabetes.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Atherosclerosis ; Cladistics ; Genetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We seek to understand the relative contribution of allelic variations of a particular gene to the determination of an individual's risk of atherosclerosis or hypertension. Work in progress is focusing on the identification and characterization of mutations in candidate genes that are known to be involved in determining the phenotypic expression of intermediate biochemical and physiological traits that are in the pathway of causation between genetic variation and variation in risk of disease. The statistical strategy described in this paper is designed to aid geneticists and molecular biologists in their search to find the DNA sequences responsible for the genetic component of variation in these traits. With this information we will have a more complete understanding of the nature of the organization of the genetic variation responsible for quantitative variation in risk of disease. It will then be possible to fully evaluate the utility of measured genetic information in predicting the risk of common diseases having a complex multifactorial etiology, such as atherosclerosis and hypertension.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 25-38 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Yeasts ; flocculation ; FLO genes ; dsRNA ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; brewers' yeast ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Yeast floccultion results from surface expression of specific proteins (lectins). Two flocculation phenotypes were suggested by physiological and biochemical tests, whereas genetic data suggested a larger number of mechanisms of flocculation. After reviewing the biochemistry, physiology and genetics of flocculation, a new hypothesis combining the data available from these different sources, is proposed.Flocculation results when lectins present on flocculent cell bind sugar residues of neighbouring cell walls. These sugar receptors are intrinsic to the mannan comprizing cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two lectin phenotypes were revealed by sugar inhibition studies. The gluco- and mannospecific NewFlo phenotype is not, as yet, found in genetically defined strains. Mannospecific flocculation (Flo 1 phenotype) is found in strains containing the genes FLO1, FLO5 and FLO8. This phenotype is also found following mutation of the TUP1 or CYC8 loci, in previously non-flocculent strains. It is therefore proposed that the structure gene for mannospecific flocculation is common or possibly unbiquitous in non-flocculent strains and in consequence, FLO1, FLO5 and FLO8 are probably regulatory genes, exerting positive control over the structure gene.Flocculation expression requires lectin secretion to the cell surface. Many of the observed ‘suppressions’ of flocculation may be due to mutations of the secretory process, involved in transporting structural proteins to the cell wall.The possible involvement of killer L double-stranded RNA with flocculation is suggested, given the lectin properties of viral coat proteins nad an association between L double-stranded RNA and the Flo 1 phenotype.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; platelet derived endothelial cell growth factor ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor cDNA has been cloned, sequenced and expressed using the Saccharomyces cerevesiae PRBI promoter. Soluble recombinant platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor constituted 0·5-1·0% of total soluble protein. Yeast soluble protein extracts containing recombinant platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor stimulate the growth of calf palmonary artery endothelial cells in vitro.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Yeast ; chromosome III ; CIT2 ; SUF2 ; tRNA Asn ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The complete nucleotide sequence of the D10H fragment (10850 bp) was determined. The D10H fragment is located on the right arm of chromosome III near the centromere and contains the SUF2 gene. Six open reading frames (ORFs) larger than 300 bp were found. One of them is the CIT2 gene encoding the cytoplasmic citrate synthase. The others are new putative genes and show no significant similarly with any known gene. In addition two tRNA genes (Asn and Pro) and a solo delta element were identified. Two ORFs were disrupted; no peculier phenotype was observed.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 117-120 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Thioredoxin ; TRX1 ; TRX2 ; genetic map location ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The two genes encoding thioredoxims in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, TRX1 and TRX2, map to chromosome XII and VII, respectively. From the DNA sequence of the intragenic region TRX1 is 500 bp downstream of PDC1. Tetrad analysis places TRX21·1 cM from ADE3, while a physical map of this region positions TRX2 4·5 kb downstreams of ADE3. The mapping of TRX1 adjacent to PDC1 clarifies previous results (Muller, E. G. D. J. Biol. Chem. 266, 9194-9202, 1991) that suggested a third thioredoxims gene.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 155-155 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Chromosome I ; sequence ; transcriptional regulators ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The DNA sequence of an 8·6 kb region of the left arm of chromosome I has been determined. This region, between the LTEL and CYS1 loci, is approximately 40 kb from centromere. There are six potential open-reading frames (ORFs), Provisionally nemed YAL001-006 within this fragment of chromosome I. Four of these ORFs can be aligned with Previously indentified FUN transcripts: FUN28 with YAL006, FUN29 with YAL004, FUN30 with YAL001 and FUN31 with YAL002. The YAL001 ORF shows significant homology to the SNF2 transcriptional regulator. A region of the DNA contains an extensive repeat of the bases C-A-T positioned in the 5′ terminus of the YAL004 promoter region.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Yeast ; protein export ; heat shock ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A new secreted yeast glycoprotein with an Mr of about 400 kDa (gp400) has been found. The glycoprotein is an O-mannosylated oligomer, whose synthesis and export into culture medium are stimulated by heat shock. Intracellular transport of gp400 is carried out by membrane vesicles distinct form the known constitutive scretory vesicles. Immunological analysis revealed gp400 only in Saccharomyces species.
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 223-225 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; chromosome VI ; tRNA gene ; SUP11 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992) 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Chromosome XI ; mitochondrial protein ; triglyceride lipase ; CTD kinase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The nucleotide sequence of 6472 base pairs of an 8·2 kb segment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XI has been determined. The sequence contains a cluster of four long open reading frame (ORF) designated YKL2, YKL3, YKL4 and TGL1 in the same orientation, flanked at the 5′-end by a divergent incomplete ORF (YKL1). Transcription and Southern analyssis of the four complete ORFs showed that all are expressed and are present in single copy on the haploid genome. The average codon adaption index of the coding regions is approximately 0·2, suggesting that these genes are lowly expressed. The upstream regions of all four genes as well as the YKL1 ORF contain putative promoter elements previously found to be characteristic of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins. Significant sequence similarities were found between the YKL3 protein and Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S2 as well as between the TGL1 protein and triglyceride lipases from rat salivary gland and human gastric tissue. The 3′-end of the 6472 bp nucleotide sequence overlaps with the upstream region of the previously identified CTK1 gene, encoding the largest subunit of CTD kinase (Lee, J. M. and Greenleaf, A. L., 1991, Gene Expression 2, 149-167), thereby increasing the number of genes on the 8·2 kb fragment to at least five. The transcripts of these genes represent approximately 83% of the DNA fragment, making it one of the most highly transcribed regions of the yeast chromosome analysed to date.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; cell-cycle genes ; DNA synthesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes previously unknown to be required for DNA synthesis have ben identified by screening a collection of temperature-sensitive mutants. The effects of mutations in DNA43 and DNA52 on the rate of S phase DNA synthesis were detected by monitoring DNA synthesis in synchronous populations that were obtained by isopycnic density centrifugation. dna43-1 and dna52-1 cells undergo cell-cycle arrest at the restrictive temperature (37°C), exhibiting a large-budded terminal phenotype; the nuclei of arrested cells are located at the neck of the bud have failed to undergo DNA replication. These phenotypes suggest that DNA43 and DNA52 are required for entry into or completion of S phase. DNA43 and DNA52 were cloned by their abilities to suppress the temperature-sensitive lethal phenotypes of dna43-1and dna52-1 cells, respectively. DNA sequence analysis suggested that DNA43 and DNA52 encode proteins of 59.6 and 80.6 kDa, respectively. Both DNA43 and DNA52 are essential for viability and genetic mapping experiments indicate that they represent previously unidentified genes: DNA43 is located on chromosome IX, 32 cM distal from his5 and DNA52 is located on chromosome IV, 0.9 cM from cdc34.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 315-323 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; cell cycle ; bud emergence ; chromosome VII ; recombination frequency ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: MSB2 was identified previously as a multicopy suppressor of a temerature-sensitive mutation in CDC24, a gene required for polarity establishment and bud formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The inferred MSB2 product contains 1306 amino acids, 42% of which are Ser or Thr. Its Ser+Thr-richnes and hydrophobicity profile suggest that Msb2p may be an integral membrane protein containing a long, periplasmic, N-terminal domain and a short, cytoplasmic, C-terminal domain. Cells that lack MSB2 display no obvious mutant phenotypes. MSB2 is located between the centromere and KSS1 on the right arm of chromosome VII. Although physical mapping suggests that MSB2 and LEU1 (on the left arm of chromosome VII) are approximately 40 kb apart, the genetic map distance observed between leul and msb2 :: URA3 marker was only 2.3 cM.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992) 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Candida albicans ; translation factors ; EF-3 ; protein synthesis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The structural gene encoding translation elongation factor 3 (EF-3) has been cloned from a Candida albicans genomic library by hybrization to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae probe containing the Saccharomyces gene, YEF3 (Sandbaken et al., 1990b). The sequences were shown to be functionally homologous to the Saccharamyces gene by three criteria: (1) a Saccharomyces strain transformed with a high copy plasmid containing CaEF3 sequences overprodues the EF-3 peptide two-fold; (2) extracts from this strain exhibit a two-fold increase in the Ef-3 catalysed, ribosome-dependent ATPase activity (Kamath and Chakraburtty, 1988); and (3) the Candida gene complements a Saccharomyces null mutant. The coding region, identified by DNA sequencing, indicates that CaEF3 encodes a 1050 amino acid polypeptide having a potential molecular weight of 116 865 Da. This protein shows 77% overall identity to the Saccharomyces YEF3 gene, with a significantly greater identity (94%) concentrated in the region of the protein thought to contain the catalytic domain of EF-3 (Sandaken et al., 1990a). The upstream non-coding region contains T-rich regions typical of many yeast genes and several potential RAPI/GRFI elements shown to regulate expression of a number of translational genes (Mager, 1988). The data confirm a high degree of conservation for EF-3 among the two organisms.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: DNA repair genes ; transcriptional activation ; sequence homology ; zinc fingers ; potential helicases ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The RAD54 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in the recombinational repair of DNA damage. The predicted amino acid sequence of the RAD54 protein shows significant homologies with the yeast SNF2 protein, which is required for the transcriptioal activation of a number of diversely regulated genes. These proteins are 31% identical in a 492-amino acid region that includes presumed nucleotide and Mg2+ binding sites. We noted previously that the SNF2 protein also shares homology with a partial open reading frame (ORF) that was reported with the sequence of an adjacent gene. This ORF also shares homology with the RAD54 protein. To test whether this ORF is involved in transcriptional activation or DNA repair, yeast strains deleted for part of it have been isolated. These strains do not show a Snf-like phenotyp, but they are UV sensitive. This gene has been identified as RAD 16, a gene involved in the excision repair of DNA damage. Analysis of the rad16 deletion mutations indicates that RAD16 encodes a nonessential function and is not absolutely required for excision repair. Outside the region of homology to RAD54 and SNF2, the predicted RAD16 protein contains a novel cysteine-rich motif that may bind zinc and that has been found recently in eleven other proteins, including the yeast RAD18 protein. The homologies between RAD16, RAD54 and SNF2 are also shared by several additional, recently isolated yeast and Drosophila genes.
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  • 22
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992) 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 23
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 423-488 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: benzoic acid: Yeasts ; Crabtree effect ; respiration ; fermentation ; mitochondria ; metabolic flux ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Addition of benzoate to the medium reservoir of glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066 growing at a dilution rate (D) of 0.10 h-1 resulted in a decrease in the biomass yield, and an increase in the specific oxygen uptake rate (qO2) from 2.5 to as high as 19.5 mmol g-1h-1. Above a critical concentration, the presence of benzoate led to alcoholic fermentation and a reduction in (qO2) to 13 mmol g-1h-1. The stimulatory effect of benzoate on respiration was dependent on the dilution rate: at high dilution rates respiration was not enhanced by benzoate. Cells could only gradually adapt to growth in the presence of benzoate: a pulse of benzoate given directly to the culture resulted in wash-out.As the presence of benzoate in cultures growing at low dilution rates resulted in large changes in the catabolic glucose flux, it was of interest of study the effect of benzoate on the residual glucose concentration in the fermenter as well as on the level of some selected enzymes. At D=0.10 h-1, the residual glucose concentration increased proportionally with increasing benzoate concentration. This suggests that modulation of the glucose flux mainly occurs via a change in the entracellular glucose concentration rather than by synthesis of an additional amount of carriers. Also various intracellular enzyme levels were not positively correlated with the rate of respiration. A notable exception was citrate synthase: its level increased with increasing respiration rate.Growth ofS. cerevisiae in ethanol-limited cultures in the presence of benzoate also led to very high qO2 levels of 19-21 mmol g-1h-1. During growth on glucose as well as on ethanol, the presence of benzoate coincided with an increase in the mitochondrial volume up to one quarter of the total cellular volume.Also with the Crabtree-negative yeasts Candida utilis, Kluyveromyces marxianus andHansenula polymorpha, growth in the presence of benzoate resulted in an increase in qO2 and, at high concentrations of benzoate, in aerobic fermentation. In contrast to S.Cerevisiae, the highest qO2 of these yeasts when growing at D = 0.10 h-1 in the presence of benzoate was equal to, or lower than the qO2 attainable at μmax without benzoate. Enzyme activities that were repressed by glucose in S. cerevisiae also declined in K.Marxianus when the glucose flux was increased by the presence of benzoate.The maximal aerobic fermentation rate at D = 0.10 h-1 of the Crabtree-negative yeasts at high benzoate concentrations was considerably lower than for S. cerevisiae. This is probably due to the fact that under aerobic conditions these yeasts are unable to raise the low basal pyruvate decarboxylase level: cultivation without benzoate under oxygen-limited conditions resulted in rates of alcoholic fermentation and levels of pyruvate decarboxylase comparable to those of S. cerevisiae.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: yeast ; chromosome III ; gene disruption ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We report here the DNA sequence of a 9·5 kb segment of chromosome III. The sequence was determined by subcloning the segment into subfragments generated by appropriate restriction enzymes followed by oligonucleotide-directed sequencing. The segment contains at least five open reading frames, YCL311, YCL312, YCL313, YCL314, YCL315. YCL311 and YCL315 extend in the adjacent fragments, A4H and A6C respectively. YCL312 encodes glucokinase, and YCL313 the protein disulfide isomerase. Disruption of YCL311, 314 and 315 by insertion of a URA3 cassette does not lead to a detectable phenotype, whereas disruption of YCL313 provokes cell lethality.
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  • 26
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992) 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Karyotyping ; Saccharomyces ; biological species ; genetic homology ; cloned genes ; chromosome polymorphism ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Chromosomal DNAs of many monosporic strains of the biological species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. paradoxus and S. bayanus were analysed using contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophgoresis. SSouthern blot hybridization with eight cloned S. cerevisiae genes (ADC1, CUP1, GAL4, LEU2, rDNA, SUC2, TRP1 and URA3) assigned to different chromosomes was used to study homology and chromosomal location of the genes three sibiling species. A comparative study of Ty1, Ty2 and telomere-associated Y' sequences having multiple chromosomal location was also done.Chromosome length polymorphism was found in cultured strains of S. cerevisiae. Wild S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus strains yielded chromosome banding patterns very similar to each other, The karyotype pattern of S. bayanus was readily distinguishable from that of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. Southern blot analysis revealed a low degree of homology between the S. cerevisiae genes studied and the corresponding S. paradoxus and S. bayanus genes. The number of chromosomes appears to be 16 in all three species.
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  • 28
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 635-645 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Yeast ; floculation ; receptors ; mnn mutants ; coflocuulation ; concanavalin A ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Yeast flocculation involves the binding of surface lectins on flocculent yeasts, to carbohydrate receptors present as constituents of yeast cell walls. Receptors were investigated by coflocculation of flocculent strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, both Flo 1 and NewFlo phenotypes, to known mnn mutants which vary in the wall mannan structure. Strong coflocculation was found with mnn1, mnn4, mnn9 and control strains, while very little coflocculation was found with mnn2 and mnn5 strains. In constrast, aggregation of these muatants by concanavalin A, a lectin with similar sugar inhibition to NewFlo phenotype flocculation, showed strong aggregation of mnn1, mnn4, and mnn5 strains and poor aggregation of mnn2 and mnn9 strains.The mmn mutant data suggested that flocculation receptorss were the outer-chain mannan side-branches, two or three mannose residues in length, confirming an earlier theory based on sugar inhibition data. The similarities and differences between flocculation and concanavalin A aggregation are discussed.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: DNA sequencing ; chromosome XI ; centromere CEN11 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A 24·7 kb segment of the cosmid clone pUKG047 containing a Sau3AI-partial fragment from the centromere region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome XI was sequenced and analysed. A mexed strategy of directed methods including exonuclease III nested deletion, restriction fragment subcloning and oligonucleotide-directed sequences was carried out. Exclusive use waas made of the Applied Biosystems Taq DyeDeoxy™ Terminator Cycle technology and a laser-based ABI373A sequencing system for reactions, gel electrophoresis and automated reading. A total of 12 open reading frames (ORFs) was found. Nine new ORFs (YK102 to YK110) were identified, three of which (YK102, YK107, YK108)showed homologies to proteins of known function from other organisms. In addition, sequence analysis reveled three recently functionally characterized genes (MET14, VPS/SPO15, PAP1), which could be joined to the earlier published CEN11 region.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Fission yeast ; Schizosaccharomyces pombe ; vacuolar ATPase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The genes coding subunits A (vma1) and B (vma2) of the vacuolar H+-ATPase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe were cloned by hybridization to cDNAs of the homologous genes in Neurospora crasa. Both genes are interrupted by introns, two in vma1 and four in vma2. Positions of introns do not appear to be conserved when compared to those of N. crassa. The subunit A gene encodes a single product of 619 amino acids and is not interrupted by the coding sequence for a second product as found for Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Kane, P.K., Yamashiro, C.T., Wolczyk, D.F., Neff, N., Goebl, M., and Stevens, T.H. (1990). Science 250, 651-657).
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 32
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992) 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: mitochondria ; immunogold labelling ; HSP70 ; in vitro import ; respiration ; Q pool ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A technique is described for the isolation and purification of intact, respiratory-competent mitochondria from Sachizo-saccharomyces pombe. The purified mitochondria are capabel of oxidizing NADH and succinate as resporatory substrates. indicating the presence of succinate dehydorgenase and an NADH dehydrogenase located on the outer suface of the inner membrane. Mitochondria display good respiratory control with an ADP/O ratio of 〈2. Respiratory activity is linearly dependent upon the redox poise of the quinone pool, suggesting the presence of an unbranched repiratory pathway to molecular oxygen. Immunogold labelling using antisera raised against mitochodria proteins (SSPI, SSCI, and PHSPI) from three different species, namely S. pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiane and the plant Pisum sativum respectively, has been used to investigate the presence and ultrastructure of the mitochondria isolated by this procedure. The immunocytochemistry was carried out using cells containing wild-type levels of SSPI protein and cells over-expressing the protein. These results also demonstrate the capacity of mitochondria to import increased levels of protein in vivo. In vitro import experiments using COXIV-DHFR indicate that purified S. pombe mitochondria can efficiently import this precursor, and that protein translocation is dependent upon an oxidizable substrate and a membrane potential.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Transformation ; oligonucleotides ; site-directed mutagenesis ; co-transformation ; cytochrome c ; RAD genes ; CYC1 mutants ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Factors influencing the direct transformation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with synthetic oligonucleotides were investigated by selecting for cyc1 transformants that contained at least partially fuctional iso-1-cytochrome c. Aproximately 3 × 104 transformanrs, constituting 0·1% of the cells, were obtained by using 1 mg of oligonucleotide in the reaction mixture. Carrier, such as heterogenous oligonucleotides, enhanced transformation frequencies. Transformation frequencies were dramatically reduced if the oligonucleotides had a large number of mismatches or had terminally located mismatches. Transformation with oligonucleotides, but not with linearized double-strand plasmid, was efficient in a rad52- strain, ssuggesting that the pathway for transformation with oligonucleotides is different from that with linearized double-strand plasmid. We describe a procedure of co-transformation with two oligonucleotides, one correcting the cyc1 defect of the target allele in the host strain, and the other producing a desired amono acid alteration elsewhere in the iso-1-cytochrome c molecule; approximately 20% of the transformants obtained by co-transformation contained these desired second alterations.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Kluyveromyces marxianus ; Kluyveromyces lactis ; ribosomal protein ; ABF1 regulation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The abundant multifuctional protein ABF1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae binds to the upstream region of several genes, including some ribosomal protein genes like the one encoding protein S33. Deletion of th ABF1-binding sequence lowers the transcription of these genes three- to more than ten-fold.We have isolated the S33 genes of two related yeast species. Kluyveromyces lactis and Kluveromyces marxianus. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of these S33 genes with their counterpart form S. Cerevisiae shows a strong sequence similarity covering the whole of the coding regions. In contrast, little or no sequence similarly is found in the 5′-flanking regions of the three genes. Also the trailer regions differ considerably in both length and sequence from one species to another.An ABF1-binding site is present in the upstream region of the S33 gene of K. marxianus. Retardation analyses showed that this sequences is able to bind a protein present in Kluyveromyces cells with a molecular mass somewhat lower than that of S. cerevisiae ABF1. Functional analyses, using a β-glucuronidase reporter system, showed that the ABF1-binding site is indeed involved in transcription activation of the K. marxianus S33 gene in Kluyveromyces DNA and Northern blots did not show a signal.These results indicate that S. cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces contain functionally related but structurally dissimilar ABF1-type proteins.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Yeast ; Hansenula polymorpha ; microbodies ; biogenesis ; PER genes ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In the course of our studies on the molecular mechanisms involved in peroxisome biogenesis, we have isolated several mutants of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha impaired in the import of peroximal matrix proteins. These mutants are characterized by the presence of small intact peroxisomes, while the bulk of the peroxisomal matrix protein is not imported and resides in the cytosol (Pim- phenotype). Genetic analysis of back-crossed mutants revealed five different complementation groups, which were designated PERI-PER5. Mapping studies to determine the linkage relationships indicated that the observed Pim- phenotypes were determined by single recessive nuclear mutations.The different mutants had comparable phenotypes: (i) they were impaired to utilize methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy but grew well on various other compounds, including nitrogen sources, the metabolism of which is known to be mediated by peroxisome-borne enzymes in wild-type cells; (ii) all peroxisomal enzymes tested were induced, assembled and activated as in wild-type cells although their activities varied between the different representative mutants; (iii) all peroxisomal proteins, whether constitutive or inducible, were found both in the cytosol and in the small peroxisomes. These results suggest that a general, major import mechanism is affected in all mutants.
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  • 37
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 1015-1024 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; mating ; conjugation ; sterols ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Sterol auxotrophic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were grown and allowed to conjugate on media supplemented with various sterols.The mating efficiency of the auxotrophs is perturbed by the relacement of the normal yeast sterol, ergsterol, with other sterols. After 4 h of mating, cells grown on ergosterol a 30-fold higher productive mating efficiency than those cells grown in stigmasterol. Aberrant budding by the conjugants was enhanced following incubation on stigmasterol and other non-ergosterol sterols. Using light and electron microscopy, we demonstrated that there is a reduced ability for stigmasterol-grown cells to undergo cytoplasmic fusion during conjugation. Many of the mated pairs remained adherent but Prezygotic even after 12 h of incubation. The addition of ergosterol to cells previously grown on stigmasterol rescued the organisms, allowing for zygote formation and normal budding.
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  • 38
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 1033-1041 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: polyamines ; yeast architecture ; cell wall ; polysaccharides ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 179-5, an ornithine decarboxylase mutant (spe-1), showed several ultrastructural abnormalities when cultivated in the absence of polyamines. Besides the appearance of microvacuole-like spaces in the cytoplasm and of deformed nuclei, the most important alterations seemed to be located in the cell wall, which was thicker and of heterogeneous texture, and in the cell membrane, of irregular contour. These modifications could not be evoked by general stress conditions elicited by lack of nutrients. The relative levels of cell wall polysaccharides were altered in polyamine-deprived organisms, giving an envelope with increased mannan and decreased glucan content; this cell wall was incompletely attacked by the lytic enzyme zymolyase. Polyamine depletion led also to some abnormalities in the budding pattern. The above observations suggest the involvement of polyamines in the correct structure and organization of the yeast cell.
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  • 39
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 1065-1075 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Candida tropicalis ; auxotrophic mutants ; DNA transformation ; replicative and integrative plasmid ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The alkane-assimilating yeast Candida tropicalis was used as a host for DNA transformations. A stable ade2 mutant (Ha900) obtained by UV-mutagenesis was used as a recipient for different vectors carrying selectable markers. A first vector, pMK 16, that was developed for the transformation of C. albicans and caries an ADE2 gene marker and a Canadida autonomously replicating sequence (CARS) element promoting autonomous replication, was compatible for transforming Ha900. Two transformant types were observed: (i) pink transformants which easily lose pMK 16 under non-selective growth conditions; (ii) white transformants, in which the same plasmid exhibited a higher mitotic stability. In both cases pMK 16 could be rescued from these cells in Escherichia coli. A second vector, pADE2, containing the isolated C. tropicalis ADE2, gene was used to transform Ha900. This vector integrated in the yeast genome at homologous sites of the ade2 locus. Different integration types were observed at one or both ade2 alleles in single or in tandem repeats.
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  • 40
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 1101-1103 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; centromere V ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The WBP1 locus, encoding an essential component of the N-oligosaccharyl transferase, was mapped both genetically and physically. The gene is located on chromosome V between CENV and gcn4. The distance from CENV sequences is 2 kb.
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  • 41
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. i 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 42
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. S33 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 43
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. S223 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 44
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. S311 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 45
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. S395 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 46
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. S549 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 47
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. S665 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 48
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 21-40 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 49
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 81-100 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 50
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 141-160 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 51
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 201-218 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 52
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    Yeast 8 (1992) 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 53
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 39-45 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Flow cytometry ; autolytic mutants ; protoplasts ; yeast ; viability assay ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Simple methods, based on the technique of flow cytometry, have been developed for the phenotypic characterization of yeast autolytic mutants and for the analysis of the formation and regeneration of the yeast protoplasts. The expression of lytic mutations determined uptake of the fluorescent dye propidium iodide, which could be carefully monitored by flow cytometry. Mixed populations of lysed and viable cells were precisely quantified and sorted, and the technique was also applied to demonstrate protection from lysis of mutant cells with cell wall defects, in the presence of osmotic stabilizers. Protoplast formation and regeneration was monitored by analysing relative cell size; this was facilitated by the preparation of homogeneous protoplast preparations. The technique of flow cytometry proved superior to other conventional methods for these types of study.
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  • 54
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    Yeast 8 (1992) 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 55
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 79-82 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Site-directed mutagenesis ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; PCR ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We have developed a simple procedure for the localized mutagenesis of yeast genes. In this technique the region of interest is first amplified under mutagenic chain reaction (PCR) conditions. Cotransformation of the PCR product with a gapped plasmid containing homology to both ends the PCR procuct allows in vivo recombination to repair the gap with the mutagenized DNA. This procedure is efficient, allows trageting of specific regions for mutagenesis, and requires no subcloning steps in Escherichia coli.
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  • 56
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 107-115 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Yeast ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; glycolysis ; hexokinase ; phosphofructokinase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The enzymatic steps involved in the inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxygalactose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been investigated. Yeast, incubated with 2-deoxygalactose, accumulates up to 8 mM-2-deoxygalactose, 30 mM-2-deoxygalactose-1-phosphate and 0·25 mM-UDP-2-deoxygalactose and UDP-2-dexyglucose. An inverse correlation between 2-deoxygalactose-1-phosphate content and rate of glycolysis has been observed. The intracellular concentration of glycolytic intermediates and related metabolites point to the hexokinase and phosphofructokinase steps as the targets for the inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxygalactose and rule out all other mechanisms that have been proposed to explain this inhibition.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Small heat-shock protein ; Hsp26 overexpression ; yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) ; heat-shock proteins ; Hsp26-containing high molecular weight aggregate ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Hsp26 is one the major small heat-shock proteins (Hsp) of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae. yet its cellular role remains to be discovered. To examine the cellular consequences of overexpression of Hsp26, the gene encoding this protein (HSP26) was overexpressed from a multicopy plasmid using either its own promoter or by coupling it to the effecient constitutive PGK promoter. The PGK promoter provided the opportunity to overexpress Hsp26 under nonstress conditions and such high level synthesis, prior to a lethal heat shock (50°C), gave a small but reproducible elevation in thermotolerance. In transformed strains overexpressing Hsp26 under either stressed or non-stress conditions, the Hsp26 polypeptide was recovered almost exclusively as a high molecular weight aggregate. This high molecular weight aggregate (or heat-shock granule, HSG) was purified by differential centrifugation and sucrose gradient density centrifugation and shown, by electron microscopic analysis, to be of a uniform size (15-25 nm diameter). Analysis of the purified HSG demonstrated that it had a molecular weight of 550 kDa, yet contained no other integral polypeptides or other macromolecules.
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  • 58
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    Yeast 8 (1992) 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: CIF1 gene ; catabolite inactivation ; chromosome II ; S. cerevisiae ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The cif1 mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisia (Navon et al., Biochemistry 18, 4487-4499, 1979) causes inability to grow on glucose and absence of catabolite inactivation. We have cloned the CIF1 gene by complementation of funcion and licated it in a 2·75 kb SphI-BstEII fragment situated at ca. 18 kb centomere distal of LYS2 and ca. 80 kb centromere proximal of TYRI on chromosome II. Southern analysis demostrated that CIF1 is present in a single copy in the yeast genome. Northern analysis revealed that the corresponding mRNA of 1·8 kb is more abundant in cells grown on galactose than in those grown on glucose. A protein of ca. 54 kDa was predicted from the open reading frame in the sequenced fragment. In strains carrying the cif1 mutation the intracellular concentration of ATP decreased immediately after addition of glucose while the intracellular concentration of cAMP did not increse. cAMP concentration increases in response to galactose or 2,4-dinitrophenol. Disruption of BCY1 or overexpression of CDC25 in a cif1/, background did not restore growth on glucose, suggesting that the absence of cAMP signal is not primary cause of lack of growth on glucose. Complementation tests showed that cif1 is not allelic to fdp1 although the two genes seem to be functionally related.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Chromosome III ; sequencing ; yeast ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We have determined the nucleotide sequence of a segment from chromosome III fo Saccharomyces cerevisiae extending over 7·9 kb between the PGK1 and CRY1 loci.The fragment contains seven open reading frames, YCR241, YCR242, YCR243, YCR244, YCR245, YCR246 and YCR247, of more than 70 codons. The study of the effects of a global disruption of YCR242, YCR243, YCR244, YCR245 and YCR247 shows that they are not essential for growth division.
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  • 61
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 239-239 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Candida maltosa ; automonous replicating sequence ; nucleotide sequence ; transformation ; RS15 protein ; intron ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A Candida maltosa chromosomal DNA fragment which confers high frequency transformation of C. maltosa and autonomous replication of recombinant plasmids was cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the cloned DNA revealed a sequence homologous for C. maltosa autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) elements. Vector pRJ1 for C. maltosa was constructed, which contained a 1.3 kb ARS sequence, pICEM-19H and the ADE1 gene of C. maltosa. Southern blot analysis suggested that the copy number of pRJ1 in C. maltosa was approximately 20 per genome. The sequence analysis also revealed an open reading frame, encoding a polypeptide with high homology (70%) to the RS15 protein of Brugia pagangi. This open reading frame has an intron with canonical sites for correct splicing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
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  • 63
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 241-241 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 64
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    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 261-272 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces crevisiae ; killer yeast ; protein secretion ; heterologous gene expression ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The α and β components of the secreted K1 killer toxin of Saccharaomyces cerevisiae are derived from residues 45-147 and 234-316, respectively, of the 316 residue prepotoxin (ppTox). The β N-terminus is produced by Kex2 cleavage after Lys Arg233, when β1a(the mature sequence of β-lactamase)is fused at this site and the fusion is expressed form the PGK promoter in pDT17, a multicopy plasmid, unexpectedly modest levels of βla secretion resulted. Over-expression of Kex2 failed to increase βla secretion while a kex2-null mutation reduced secretion by 98%. βla secretion in a Kex+ strain was not enhanced by inactivation of the a toxin component or by deletion of most of its central hydrophobic segments. However SP-βla, produced by deletion of ppTox residues 35-176, expressed 10-fold higher βla activity and the precursor was not secreted with similar efficiency in a kex - 2 null strain. Fusions of βla to ppTox at Ala34 or Ala46 also led to efficient secretion in both KEX2 and kex - 2-null strains. Since these βla fusions differ only in segments well downstream of the signal peptide and all had similar transcript levels, the efficiency of βla secretion is apparently determined by the efficiency with efficiency with which these fusions are translocated to the Golgi compartment where Kex2 is active. Efficiency is high for the shorter fusions but is 10% or less for the longer fusions; even this fraction is apparently diverted to the vacuole if not cleaved by Kex2. SP-βla was athe most efficient construct tested; secreted βla reacahed 4% of total cell protein, modestly exceeding levels produced by fusion to the MFα1-encoded preproα-factor, suggesting potential for the production of foreign proteins in yeast.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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